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Sample records for gang members implications

  1. A Phenomenological Study with Youth Gang Members: Results and Implications for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Honda, Marianne R.

    1997-01-01

    Using a phenomenological model, examines eight male adolescents' perceptions of their gang membership. Interviews revealed such themes as self-esteem, a sense of belonging, and protection. Outlines implications for school counselors when working with gang members individually, in groups, with families, or during school interventions. (RJM)

  2. Mothers of Gang Members Give Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Gwendolyn; McEvoy, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Three mothers whose children were connected to Dallas (Texas) gangs told their stories at the Fourth Joint National Conference on Gangs, Schools, and Community. It is said that gang members come from dysfunctional families, usually from homes where fathers are not present or involved in children's upbringing. In spite of a great deal of research…

  3. Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

  4. Pre-Teen Gang Members: The Father Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracki, Marie A.; Dolson, Bonnie M.; Maurice, Kenneth

    Gang membership and violence are pervasive across the United States. Today children, adolescents and young adults of all social classes and environments are susceptible to gang involvement. Gang members are getting younger and gang leaders are getting older. The composition and structure of the family is examined for the common element between…

  5. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  6. Psychopathy Among Mexican American Gang Members: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Codina, Edward

    2010-01-01

    High-risk Mexican American males were assessed for levels of psychopathy. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Screening Version was compared in a random sample of gang members with a matched community sample of violent non-gang members and samples of forensic and psychiatric patients and undergraduate students. Analysis involved t-test, chi-square, and Cronbach’s alpha statistics. More than half of the gang sample were categorized as low, 44% as moderate, and only 4% as high on psychopathy. The gang members had higher scores on the total, affective, and behavioral scores than the non–gang members. High scores on adolescent antisocial behavior, poor behavioral controls, and lack of remorse were found in both samples. Gang members scored twice as high as non-gang members on lack of empathy. Both samples were lower on psychopathy than the forensics and higher than psychiatric patients and undergraduates. The results provide grounds for early intervention efforts for this high-risk population. PMID:21516257

  7. Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among former patients. These efforts should be continued and complemented by funding support from the Salvadoran government for DAT centers that obtain certification. In addition, tailored/alternative treatment modalities are needed for gang members in treatment for heavy drinking. PMID:23734635

  8. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

  9. Middle-Class Educational Values among Latino Gang Members in East Los Angeles County High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Audrey James

    1989-01-01

    Concern about potential disruption by Latino gang members in East Los Angeles (California) high schools results in over-emphasis on classroom control and neglect of these students' academic and social development. This study recommends steps to encourage the integration and participation in schooling of gang members through individualized…

  10. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  11. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  12. The Drugs-Violence Nexus Among Mexican-American Gang Members†

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history/intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant’s last fight. Gang member participant’s ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member’s risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxicatiion levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450

  13. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  14. Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2004-01-01

    Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

  15. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  16. The Origins of Navajo Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Levy, Jerrold E.

    1999-01-01

    Extended interviews with 50 Navajo men, aged 21 to 45, provided information on peer relationships and gang formation among male Navajo youth in the 1960s through the 1980s. Results suggest that gangs are an extreme example of traditional hell-raising among young Navajo men and that most gang members "age out" of their gangs. Suggestions for gang…

  17. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. PMID:25516384

  18. Surf and turf wars online--growing implications of Internet gang violence.

    PubMed

    King, Jonathan E; Walpole, Carolyn E; Lamon, Kristi

    2007-12-01

    To examine use of the Internet by gangs and its affect on youth, i-SAFE Inc. collected information from more than 100,000 students and 137 gang associates from an urban population. Although individuals who associate with a gang have distinguishable discrepancies in the amount of time spent online, they have similar online behavior as compared with those who are not involved with gangs. Additional research is necessary to develop a substantive link between gangs online and the school and community culture. PMID:18047950

  19. The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

  20. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  1. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

  2. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed. PMID:23525778

  3. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood. PMID:24883000

  4. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004

  5. Gangs and Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felgar, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…

  6. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

  7. On Alert! Gang Prevention. School In-Service Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document provides guidelines for gang awareness and prevention in the California school system. It is based on the belief that inservice training programs help school staff recognize early signs of gang activity, a necessary step to intervention. Following the introduction, chapter 1 offers descriptive information on gangs and their members

  8. Working Together To Erase Gangs in Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Alternatives for Youth at Risk, Inc., Sarasota, FL.

    A common misconception about gangs is that they resemble past images of motorcycle riders. Society is now faced with what are called "hybrid" gangs whose members are usually 14 to 16 years of age, who dress conservatively, who display subtle gang identifiers, and who are motivated by a combination of profit and poor family life. This booklet…

  9. Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

  10. Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

  11. Ganges Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

    Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  12. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

  13. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

  14. Ganges Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide

    Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Teenagers, Clothes, and Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    1991-01-01

    A California English teacher explores the school safety issue for both innercity and suburban high schools students. Wearing certain sports team jackets can place kids in danger; girls degrade themselves by keeping gang members' drugs and guns in their lockers. Schools can help reclaim the "Great Disconnected" by developing community-based…

  16. Gangs in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book comprised of theories and findings from researchers concerning youth gangs in the United States, is organized into the following five parts: (1) Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Gang and the Community; (2) Defining and Measuring Gang Violence; (3) Diffusion, Diversity, and Drugs; (4) Assessing the Changing Knowledge…

  17. Gangs and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Richard; Erickson, Edsel

    This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the…

  18. The Developmental Dynamics of Joining a Gang in Adolescence: Patterns and Predictors of Gang Membership

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Amanda B.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David; Howell, James C.; Kosterman, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant. PMID:24882999

  19. Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larence, Eileen R.

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

  20. Moving beyond the gang–drug–violence connection

    PubMed Central

    Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members’ lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members’ lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members’ lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future. PMID:24049247

  1. Lithium isotope fractionation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain and implications for groundwater impact on seawater isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagard, Marie-Laure; West, A. Joshua; Newman, Karla; Basu, Asish R.

    2015-12-01

    Lithium isotopes are a promising proxy for reconstructing past weathering processes, but unraveling the seawater record requires a comprehensive understanding of the magnitude and isotopic composition of Li fluxes to the oceans, and of how these change over time. Little information is available on the role of floodplain sediments and groundwater systems in setting the Li isotope signature of the dissolved flux delivered from the continents to the oceans. Here we investigate the Li dissolved fluxes of river waters and groundwaters in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain. The data suggest that a maximum of 3.1 ×108 and 1.5 ×108 moles Li/yr are carried to the Bay of Bengal by Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers and groundwaters, respectively. The riverine flux has a significantly heavier Li isotope composition (average ?7Li: 26‰) than the groundwater flux (average ?7Li: 16‰) and increases downstream across the floodplain. ?7Li in both river waters and shallow groundwater can be explained by Li scavenging by Quaternary floodplain sediments following a Rayleigh fractionation process, with preferential removal of 6Li. On the other hand, deep groundwaters (>40 m) contributing to submarine groundwater discharge to the Bay of Bengal are enriched in 6Li at depth, likely due to the dissolution of floodplain sediments releasing Li with a light isotope composition. Similarly low ?7Li has been reported in other large sedimentary aquifers. The deep groundwater values are close to the average isotope composition of the global Li inputs to the ocean (?15‰), so groundwater submarine discharge has only a minor influence on the assessment of the modern Li isotope budget of the ocean. Our analysis further suggests that groundwater discharge of Li has probably played at most a small and secondary role in past changes in the isotope composition of the total continental flux of Li to the ocean.

  2. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  3. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

  4. Street Gangs and the Schools: A Blueprint for Intervention. Fastback 321.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kevin W.

    Schools cannot approach the problem of street gangs with the same strategies as law enforcement agencies, but rather must create a nurturing environment for all students, where success in school and life becomes the only attractive option for gang members. Street gangs represent the racial, cultural, and economic diversity of American society.…

  5. Does your hospital have a procedure for recognizing and responding to gang behavior?

    PubMed

    Bowers, Larry G

    2008-01-01

    Faced with a continuous increase in violent activity by gang members in and near his hospital, the author sought information from other hospitals on their procedural gang policies, but found there were none. Working with a proactive gang unit of his city's police department, he has developed a generic policy that other hospitals with similar problems can adapt. PMID:18800664

  6. Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594921

  7. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use. Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  8. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  9. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  10. Cults as Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Considers cults as gangs, but also distinguishes cults from gangs by the cult's reference to and insistence on allegiance to single higher authority, usually spirit figure or spiritual leader. Examines Satanism, identifies Satanic holidays and symbols, and describes characteristics of cult-influenced youth. Includes list of organizations and books…

  11. Estimating the Effect of Gang Membership on Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency: A Counterfactual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J.C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Miller, J. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated non-gang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching (PSM) was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001

  12. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. PMID:25880890

  13. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  14. MODELING FASHION , Gang Wang

    E-print Network

    Tan, Chew Lim

    MODELING FASHION Qi Chen , Gang Wang , Chew Lim Tan Department of Computer Science, National}@comp.nus.edu.sg, wanggang@ntu.edu.sg ABSTRACT We propose a method to try to model fashionable dress- es in this paper. We clustering approach. A fashionable dress is expected to con- tain certain visual patterns which make

  15. Youth Gangs and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  16. California Prison Gang Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Eric

    A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs, in…

  17. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  18. Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

  19. Ganges River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  1. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  2. Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  3. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  4. Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl’s relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment. PMID:21218177

  5. Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

  6. Peace in the Streets: Breaking the Cycle of Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo

    This book describes the experiences of an inexperienced young teacher who, with the support of parents and teenagers in a Los Angeles (California) neighborhood, created a one-room schoolhouse and began to teach 30 gang members, ranging in age from 13 to nearly 20. He had no teaching credentials or college degree and the school had a tiny budget,…

  7. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  9. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  10. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Be?anová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (

  13. Ganges Chasma Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 01 April 2002) This image shows a spectacular landslide along a portion of the southern wall of Ganges Chasma within Valles Marineris. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff is layered, with spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. Below the steep scarp is a smoother, steep slope of material with small, narrow tongues of debris that have eroded off of the escarpment since the landslide occurred (a talus slope). The actual landslide deposit, visible in the upper half of this image, shows striations that form by differences in the side-by-side motion during high velocity emplacement. This immense landslide traveled some 70 km at speeds that probably exceeded 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour) before coming to rest, forming abrupt, terminal fronts (upper right corner of image). Even at these high speeds, this massive landslide was moving for nearly an hour before it came to rest.

  14. Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…

  15. Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

    A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

  16. Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

  17. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  18. Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

  19. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  20. Albert Einstein, 1905: Ein 3-Gange Menu

    E-print Network

    Buse, Karsten

    . Albert Einstein, 1905: Ein 3-G¨ange Men¨u In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Museum Bonn 6. M: Michael Kortmann, Markus Bernhardt #12;. Albert Einstein, 1905: Ein 3-G¨ange Physik draan #12;Speiseplan Einstein 1905: Biografisches ***** Brownsche Molekularbewegung

  1. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  2. Seasonal variability of geochemical signatures of streamflow: potential implications for end-member characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, Francois; Hissler, Christophe; Klaus, Julian; Martinez Carreras, Núria; Pfister, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, the vast majority of investigations on water source and flowpaths have been focusing on small catchments with homogenous landuse and geology. While these studies have brought new knowledge on how these individual hydrological systems behave, we still face uncertainties inherent to basic assumptions related to end-member stability and degree of mixing. We rely on hydroclimatological and hydrogeochemical datasets collected in three small experimental catchments with contrasting lithology in the Attert river basin (Luxembourg, Europe): the Weierbach (schists), the Huewelerbach (sandstone) and the Wollefsbach (marls). Investigations based on oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope signatures in streamwater show the dominant influence of geology on catchment storage and mixing potential (Pfister et al., in preparation). Catchments dominated by permeable substrate exhibit stable isotopic signatures through the entire range of the flow duration curve, consistent with large storage volumes and mixing potential. On impermeable substrate, storage volumes are smaller and reduced mixing potential exists; isotopic signatures of streamflow are much more variable. Here, our objective is to determine whether (i) geochemical signatures along the individual flow duration curves of catchments exhibit similar patterns to those of stable isotopes and (ii) what potential implications those patterns have on mixing assumptions and end-member stability/identification. Our findings show two distinct patterns along the flow duration curves for cations, silica, EC and Abs254: during low flow conditions (i.e. restricted to groundwater contributions), concentrations of these parameters tend to increase as discharge values decrease, whereas during high flows, concentrations are more or less stable. For anions, no distinct patterns could be determined. Nitrates exhibit a special behaviour, in that their concentrations gradually increase with rising discharge values along the entire flow duration curve. Our observations document a significant variability of all investigated geochemical parameters during low flow conditions - a flow condition were only one well-mixed component is supposed to be hydrologically active. These findings give new insights to the use of streamwater sampled during low flow conditions for characterizing groundwater as a potential end-member.

  3. Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Implications of Leader-Member Exchange Theory and Research for Human Resource Development Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Janet Z.; Otte, Fred L.

    1999-01-01

    Leader/member exchange theory is proposed as an alternate approach to the study of organizational leadership. Recent research supports the theory but additional development work is needed. The theory seeks to explain how leader/member relationships develop and the behavioral components of leadership relations. Contains 74 references. (Author/JOW)

  5. Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey

    MedlinePLUS

    ... agencies, a major ity reported that their gang intelligence is computerized (84 percent), distinguishes between categories of ... local law enforcement agencies; however, fewer contributed gang intelligence to a national, state wide, or regional database ...

  6. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelson, D.G.,; Jette, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Spatial and seasonal variation of surface water pCO2 in the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers in Bangladesh: implications for its impact on the local and global carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaka, T.; Ushie, H.; Araoka, D.; Souya, O.; Inamura, A.; Suzuki, A.; Hossain, H. M. Z.; Kawahata, H.

    2014-12-01

    Abundant carbon is released from river water directly to the atmosphere as CO2. To understand the role of rivers in the global carbon cycle, the roles of chemical weathering and CO2 release from major rivers must be studied. We investigated three major Himalayan rivers in Bangladesh: the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers. Although pCO2 is known to be low in the upper reaches of these rivers owing to active chemical weathering, we observed pCO2 values higher than the atmospheric pCO2 along their lower reaches, where deep soils have developed and where high air temperatures promote active soil respiration. By a simple mixing calculation, we found that seasonal variations of the river water carbonate system are controlled by subsurface water flows. In the rainy season, most of the lowlands are inundated and the contribution of subsurface flow to the river system increases. As a result, the CO2 flux to the atmosphere becomes higher. In future work, more detailed spatial and seasonal investigations are required to clarify the role of rivers in the global carbon cycle and how that role will change under global warming.

  8. The Asteroid Gang From Space School Musical

    E-print Network

    The Asteroid Gang From Space School Musical For complete video series, go to http ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We're the asteroids! Yeah! Smash, bash, clash, crash Slam, wham, bam, ram Asteroids! We're the asteroids! We're the asteroids! We're the asteroids! We rock. We rock. Made of iron and rock And we're born

  9. Mineralogical Stratigraphy of Ganges Chasma, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; Clark, M. Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Mars’ Valles Marineris canyon system reveals a several-kilometer deep stratigraphies sequence that extends thousands of kilometers; this sequence thus represents a unique opportunity to explore millions of years of volcanic and aqueous activity in this region of Mars. Of particular interest to the study of both volcanic and aqueous processes is Ganges Chasma, which lies on the northeastern boundary of the Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars. The canyon likely opened during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian, modifying previously emplaced Noachian-aged volcanic plains. During formation, volcanic activity from the nearby Tharsis shield complex emplaced olivine-rich dikes throughout the region. After formation, sulfate-bearing Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) were emplaced in Ganges and many other chasmata throughout the Valles Marineris system. Today, Ganges reveals a complex stratigraphy, including wide-spread olivine-rich sands, hydrated minerals on the plateaus surrounding the canyon, and a central sulfate-rich ILD. Here, we present updated stratigraphies of Ganges Chasma, using new data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), and synthesizing it with previous data sets. Olivine sands are traced back to source outcrops on the canyon floor, and new outcrops of hydrated minerals on the surrounding plateau are identified and mapped. Recently reported spectroscopic signatures of ankerite and smectite in the chasm are assessed, and new olivine-rich outcrops identified and mapped. Understanding the stratigraphy of Ganges Chasma will help us compare stratigraphies among the chasmata of the Valles Marineris, further building our understanding of the geologic history of this large region of Mars.

  10. Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene-based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with 13C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our 13C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry–in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The 13C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

  11. Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-04-01

    Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene -based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with (13) C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our (13) C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry-in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The (13) C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

  12. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  13. Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as ?30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher ?30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).

  14. Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyk, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

  15. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  16. Learning from Gangs: The Mexican American Experience. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, James Diego

    Gangs have become a fixture in the Mexican American populations of southern California and other regions, spreading from low-income neighborhoods in the Southwest to working class and lower-middle class suburban areas. The development and institutionalization of gangs have involved many factors, including racial discrimination and economic…

  17. EXTENDED-RANGE PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF GANGES AND

    E-print Network

    Webster, Peter J.

    societies in the Yellow, Yangtze, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus river basins, each occurs in the fertile flood plains of major rivers, the loss in agricultural inputs (seed, fertilizerEXTENDED-RANGE PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF GANGES AND BRAHMAPUTRA FLOODS IN BANGLADESH M any

  18. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, U. A.; Mutuwatte, L.; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, S.; Jain, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Ganges River Basin may have a major pending water crisis. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River Basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, have long been known as the "Ganges Water Machine". One approach for providing such SSS is through additional pumping prior to the onset of the monsoon season. An important necessary condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. This paper highlights that an unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 119 Bm3 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society - women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.

  19. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  20. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  1. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  2. Integrating seepage heterogeneity with the use of ganged seepage meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  3. The Trauma Response Team: a Community Intervention for Gang Violence.

    PubMed

    Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    While violent crime has decreased in many cities in the USA, gang-related violence remains a serious problem in impoverished inner city neighborhoods. In Syracuse, New York, gang-related murders and gun shots have topped other New York state cities. Residents of the high-murder neighborhoods suffer trauma similar to those living in civil conflict zones. The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty. Since its inception, gang-related homicides and gun shots have decreased in the most severely affected census tracts. PMID:26282564

  4. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  5. Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo

    2001-01-01

    Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  7. The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian…

  8. Hidden behind the gunfire: young women's experiences of gang-related violence.

    PubMed

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-06-01

    This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women. PMID:22926187

  9. A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang That Sold College Degrees, Hijacked an

    E-print Network

    Gollin, George

    A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang That Sold College Degrees, Hijacked an Embassy, and Bought, be a bystander. --Yehuda Bauer © 2012 George Gollin #12;2 George Gollin A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang

  10. Diagenesis and fracture development in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin; implications for reservoir quality in the middle member

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Price, Leigh C.; LeFever, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    The middle member of the Bakken Formation is an attractive petroleum exploration target in the deeper part of the Williston Basin because it is favorably positioned with respect to source and seal units. Progressive rates of burial and minor uplift and erosion of this member led to a stable thermal regime and, consequently, minor variations in diagenesis across much of the basin. The simple diagenetic history recorded in sandstones and siltstones in the middle member can, in part, be attributed to the closed, low-permeability nature of the Bakken petroleum system during most of its burial history. Most diagenesis ceased in the middle member when oil entered the sandstones and siltstones in the Late Cretaceous. Most oil in the Bakken Formation resides in open, horizontal fractures in the middle member. Core analysis reveals that sandstones and siltstones associated with thick mature shales typically have a greater density of fractures than sandstones and siltstones associated with thin mature shales. Fractures were caused by superlithostatic pressures that formed in response to increased fluid volumes in the source rocks during hydrocarbon generation

  11. Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E

    2005-10-01

    A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced. PMID:16302380

  12. Streets and Schools: How Educators Can Help Chicano Marginalized Gang Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, James Diego

    1999-01-01

    Gangs socialize Chicano youths, who then exhibit behaviors that interfere with learning. Educators are not well informed about gang culture to intervene. Three Los Angeles programs provide examples of ways schools can stop exacerbating the problem and successfully reach youth in gangs. (SK)

  13. Origin and distribution of calcite concretions in Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Wyoming: Reservoir-quality implication for shallow-marine

    E-print Network

    Gani, M. Royhan

    Origin and distribution of calcite concretions in Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Wyoming: Reservoir in revised form 29 December 2013 Available online Keywords: Calcite concretion Diagenesis Wyoming Reservoir quality Shallow-marine Turonian a b s t r a c t Calcite concretions reduce reservoir quality

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF IS401, A NEW MEMBER OF THE IS3 FAMILY IMPLICATED IN PLASMID REARRANGEMENTS IN PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of IS401, an insertion sequence implicated in rearrangements of a 170-kb cryptic plasmid from Pseudomonas cepacia. ur analysis focused on a 4066-bp plasmid fragment containing adjacent copies of IS401 and of IS408, an element reported pr...

  15. Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

  16. Positive selection, molecular recombination structure and phylogenetic reconstruction of members of the family Tombusviridae: Implication in virus taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Boulila, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31? algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher’s Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed. PMID:22215970

  17. Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

  18. The silicon isotopic composition of the Ganges and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    The silicon isotopic composition (?Si30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 ?M. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between ?Si30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low ?Si30 (e.g., 40 ?M, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high ?Si30 component (e.g., 240 ?M, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 ?M while ?Si30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of ?Si30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher ?Si30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.

  19. Get Past Denial, Then Tackle Your Gang Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Rick

    1996-01-01

    A Tucson principal learned that denial and traditional administrative strategies cannot mitigate evolving gang activity. He recommends that school leaders use respect; provide relevant programs; establish a zero-tolerance policy for weapons, drugs, and violence; create parent patrols; keep video records; regulate attire; welcome police; support…

  20. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2014-01-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  1. Trisomy X in a female member of a family with X linked severe combined immunodeficiency: implications for carrier diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lester, T; de Alwis, M; Clark, P A; Jones, A M; Katz, F; Levinsky, R J; Kinnon, C

    1994-01-01

    We describe a family affected by X linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDX1) in which genetic prediction of carrier status was made using X chromosome inactivation studies together with limited genetic linkage analysis. Linkage studies in this family showed a confusing pattern of inheritance for the X chromosome. A female with a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation in her T cells appeared to have inherited an X chromosome with four recombinations within 10 cM. The odds of this happening in a single meiotic event make this an unlikely explanation. Data obtained from studying the X chromosomes of her two unaffected sons showed that this could be explained simply on the basis of her having inherited three alleles each of the relevant polymorphic DNA loci. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to confirm that this person had inherited three complete X chromosomes. Thus, although the results from X chromosome inactivation analysis indicated that this subject was not a carrier of the affected chromosome, FISH and genetic linkage analysis showed clearly that the affected chromosome had been inherited. The implications of this finding for diagnosis of carrier status in this family and for other families with X linked inherited immunodeficiencies is discussed. Images PMID:7815443

  2. Structure, function and evolution of glutathione transferases: implications for classification of non-mammalian members of an ancient enzyme superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, D; Meade, G; Foley, V M; Dowd, C A

    2001-01-01

    The glutathione transferases (GSTs; also known as glutathione S-transferases) are major phase II detoxification enzymes found mainly in the cytosol. In addition to their role in catalysing the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to glutathione (GSH), these enzymes also carry out a range of other functions. They have peroxidase and isomerase activities, they can inhibit the Jun N-terminal kinase (thus protecting cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death), and they are able to bind non-catalytically a wide range of endogenous and exogenous ligands. Cytosolic GSTs of mammals have been particularly well characterized, and were originally classified into Alpha, Mu, Pi and Theta classes on the basis of a combination of criteria such as substrate/inhibitor specificity, primary and tertiary structure similarities and immunological identity. Non-mammalian GSTs have been much less well characterized, but have provided a disproportionately large number of three-dimensional structures, thus extending our structure-function knowledge of the superfamily as a whole. Moreover, several novel classes identified in non-mammalian species have been subsequently identified in mammals, sometimes carrying out functions not previously associated with GSTs. These studies have revealed that the GSTs comprise a widespread and highly versatile superfamily which show similarities to non-GST stress-related proteins. Independent classification systems have arisen for groups of organisms such as plants and insects. This review surveys the classification of GSTs in non-mammalian sources, such as bacteria, fungi, plants, insects and helminths, and attempts to relate them to the more mainstream classification system for mammalian enzymes. The implications of this classification with regard to the evolution of GSTs are discussed. PMID:11695986

  3. Temperature and precipitation projections over Bangladesh and the upstream Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna systems.

    PubMed

    Caesar, J; Janes, T; Lindsay, A; Bhaskaran, B

    2015-06-01

    South Asia is a region of complex atmospheric dynamics and therefore changes resulting from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, combined with existing vulnerability to extreme weather events such as flooding, could put the region at particular risk from climate change. However, current climate projections for the region show a range of uncertainty, particularly in terms of changes in the variability and extremes of precipitation. Focusing on Bangladesh and the region encompassing parts of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins, we aim to explore and quantify climate model uncertainty in climate change projections for the 21(st) century. We use results from a 17-member perturbed physics ensemble of projections from a global climate model which have been used to drive a higher resolution (25 km) regional climate model over the south Asia region from 1971 to 2099. The range of temperature and precipitation responses across the ensemble are assessed including representation of the annual cycle, trends, and changes in precipitation extremes. The 17 ensemble members consistently simulate increasing annual mean temperatures by 2100 compared with present day, ranging between 2.6 °C and 4.8 °C. Additionally, all ensemble members indicate increasing annual precipitation by 2100 of between around 8% and 28%, though with interdecadal variability which results in one ensemble member showing a slight decrease in precipitation in the mid-century period. The frequency of light precipitation events is projected to decrease in the future, but with an increase in the frequency of heavy events. Three members of the climate model ensemble, representing a range of projected climate outcomes, have been selected for use in further impacts modelling for the region. PMID:25898009

  4. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  5. Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2007-01-01

    Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

  6. Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age = 14.62, SD = 1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership. PMID:25288165

  7. Understanding Violence in Contemporary and Earlier Gangs: An Exploratory Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judy P.; Taylor, Jerome

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the theory of reasoned action to demonstrate how it can be applied to understanding gang violence, and illustrates its potential applicability to a pilot sample of 30 contemporary and 18 earlier gangs living in a large metropolitan community. Results indicate this theory has been helpful in explaining higher levels of violence in…

  8. Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

  9. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  10. Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo

    Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation…

  11. A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiprany, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

  12. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

  13. The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health. PMID:22273341

  14. Supporting Gang Violence Prevention Efforts: A Public Health Approach for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Dawn D.; Logan, J.E.; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of gang violence on a youth’s risk for death or injury is tremendous. Prevention of complex societal problems, such as gang violence, requires a substantial effort and commitment from many sectors and disciplines. Nurses are uniquely positioned to help lead such efforts. Understanding the public health perspective to gang violence may be an important tool for nurses attempting to prevent this problem. The public health approach has four key components: defining and monitoring the problem; identifying risk, protective, and promoting factors; developing and evaluating interventions; and dissemination. This article outlines these components, current research on gang violence, and concludes by summarizing critical challenges for nurses to consider as they contribute to public health initiatives to prevent gang violence.

  15. Reviving the "Ganges Water Machine": where and how much?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuwatta, L.; Amarasinghe, U. A.; Sood, A.; Lagudu, S.

    2015-09-01

    Surface runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River Basin contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the parts (sub-basins) of the Ganges that have the potential for augmenting subsurface storage (SSS), increase the availability of water for agriculture and other uses, and mitigate the floods in the downstream areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate sub-basin-wise water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basin-wise un-met water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analyses revealed that five sub-basins produced more than 10 billion cubic meters (B m3) of annual surface runoff consistently during the simulation period. In these sub-basins, less than 50 % of the annual surface runoff is sufficient to irrigate all irrigable land in both the Rabi (November to March) and summer (April to May) seasons. Further, for most of the sub-basins, there is sufficient water to meet the un-met water demand, provided that it is possible to capture the surface runoff during the wet season. It is estimated that the average flow to Bihar State from the upstream of the Ganges, a downstream basin location, is 277 ± 121 B m3, which is more than double the rainfall in the state alone. Strong relationships between outflows from the upstream sub-basins and the inflows to Bihar State suggested that flood inundation in the state could be reduced by capturing a portion of the upstream flows during the peak runoff periods.

  16. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...check before going aboard a vessel. With regard to these exempt...an alien to be employed on a vessel under subparagraphs (i...and current), first, and middle name, date of birth, social...operation or maintenance of the vessel transporting DoD cargoes,...

  17. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  18. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. PMID:22998539

  19. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  20. Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: a public health approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gang violence accounted for 20% of homicides in large cities from 2002 to 2006. Preventing gang affiliation (ie, youth who either desire or have gang membership) might reduce subsequent gang activity. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors for gang affiliation; however, little information is available on protective factors. Aim To identify risk and protective factors to provide more direction for gang violence prevention strategies. Methods The author analysed cross-sectional survey data from 4131 youths in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12. Data were collected in 2004 from students in a high-risk, urban public school district. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between gang affiliation and alcohol and drug use, delinquency, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, peer victimisation, parental monitoring and positive reinforcement, adult, family and peer support, coping skills, and school connectedness. Analyses were controlled for sex, race/ethnicity and age. Results An estimated 7% of youths were gang affiliated. Adjusting for all factors, gang affiliation was positively associated with engaging in any delinquent behaviours (prevalence OR: 2.07; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.64), frequent alcohol use (OR: 2.62; 95% CI 1.85 to 3.72) and frequent drug use (OR: 1.95; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.29). Gang affiliation was negatively associated with moderate levels of parental monitoring (OR: 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and coping skills (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71). Conclusions The findings suggest the potential benefit of increasing parental monitoring and coping skills and reducing delinquency, alcohol use and drug use to prevent gang affiliation. PMID:22240265

  1. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

  2. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  3. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  4. Precious and base metal geochemistry and mineralogy of the Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for a multistage emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. W.; Holwell, D. A.; McDonald, I.

    2014-08-01

    The Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member within the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex is a mineralized, layered package of mafic cumulates developed to the south of the town of Mokopane, at a similar stratigraphic position to the Platreef. The concentration of platinum-group elements (PGE) in base metal sulfides (BMS) has been determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. These data, coupled with whole-rock PGE concentrations and a detailed account of the platinum-group mineralogy (PGM), provide an insight into the distribution of PGE and chalcophile elements within the GNPA member, during both primary magmatic and secondary hydrothermal alteration processes. Within the most unaltered sulfides (containing pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite only), the majority of IPGE, Rh, and some Pd occur in solid solution within pyrrhotite and pentlandite, with an associated Pt-As and Pd-Bi-Te dominated PGM assemblage. These observations in conjunction with the presence of good correlations between all bulk PGE and base metals throughout the GNPA member indicate the presence and subsequent fractionation of a single PGE-rich sulfide liquid, which has not been significantly altered. In places, the primary sulfides have been replaced to varying degrees by a low-temperature assemblage of pyrite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. These sulfides are associated with a PGM assemblage characterized by the presence of Pd antimonides and Pd arsenides, which are indicative of hydrothermal assemblages. The presence of appreciable quantities of IPGE, Pd and Rh within pyrite, and, to a lesser, extent millerite suggests these phases directly inherited PGE contents from the pyrrhotite and pentlandite that they replaced. The replacement of both the sulfides and PGM occurred in situ, thus preserving the originally strong spatial association between PGM and BMS, but altering the mineralogy. Precious metal geochemistry indicates that fluid redistribution of PGE is minimal with only Pd, Au, and Cu being partially remobilized and decoupled from BMS. This is also indicated by the lower concentrations of Pd evident in both pyrite and millerite compared with the pentlandite being replaced. The observations that the GNPA member was mineralized prior to intrusion of the Main Zone and that there was no local footwall control over the development of sulfide mineralization are inconsistent with genetic models involving the in situ development of a sulfide liquid through either depletion of an overlying magma column or in situ contamination of crustal S. We therefore believe that our observations are more compatible with a multistage emplacement model, where preformed PGE-rich sulfides were emplaced into the GNPA member. Such a model explains the development and distribution of a single sulfide liquid throughout the entire 400-800 m thick succession. It is therefore envisaged that the GNPA member formed in a similar manner to its nearest analogue the Platreef. Notable differences however in PGE tenors indicate that the ore-forming process may have differed slightly within the staging chambers that supplied the Platreef and GNPA member.

  5. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides. PMID:19247837

  6. Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

    This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

  7. Young Mother (in the) Hood: Gang Girls’ Negotiation of New Identities

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; Joe-Laidler, Karen; McKenzie, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and gang girls—both stigmatized identities. For many of the young women, motherhood entails a retreat from the street and a renewed emphasis on time spent in the home. While many receive (financial and childcare) support from their families, this also often means a diminution of the autonomy they experienced while more heavily involved in the gang. Issues of respect and respectability remain important for the young women, but the dimensions on which these are based change. PMID:21116461

  8. Complex Floor Deposits Within Western Ganges Chasma, Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    On October 26, 1997, MOC took this image of Mars 10 minutes after its closest approach to the planet (1:46 AM PST). The view shows the floor of western Ganges Chasma (7.8oS 51.8oW), covering an area 2.6 km (1.6 miles) wide by 45.4 km (28.2 miles) long at a resolution of 5 by 7.4 meters (16.4 by 24.3 feet) per picture element. The local time on Mars when the picture was taken was 4:35 PM.

    The center image (available at higher resolution as PIA01028) shows the northern portion of the area inscribed in the left image. The right image (PIA01029) shows the southern portion.

    Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution. PMID:25433377

  10. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella, and E. coli, we anticipate subsequent sample analyses may reveal, E. coli or pathogenic (i.e. Salmonella) contamination due to livestock and anthropogenic wastes in the area. With farmers using shallow depth aquifers to irrigate crops, there is a very real threat of foodborne illness and the risk to public health is great.

  11. Layered Deposits on the floor of Ganges Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 March 2002) The Science The Story These layered deposits are located on the floor of a large canyon called Ganges Chasma which is a part of the Valles Marineris. Dramatic layering can be seen throughout the deposit. Different styles of erosion are manifest in these different layers and at different locations within the layered material. For example, the southern portion of these deposits have a pronounced fluting, whereas in other areas the same layers are more intact. Relatively dark dunes and sand sheets can be observed surrounding the relatively brighter layered material in the upper right and lower portions of the image. Darker material also appears to mantle select areas of the layered deposits. The formation of the dunes is influenced by topography; this influence is best illustrated in the upper left of the image where a small hillock has interfered with the local wind flow. Impact craters of all sizes are noticeably absent in this image, indicating a relatively young age for this surface. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top. The Story If this wonderfully textured landform were on Earth, it would have to be designated as a 'national park,' much like the popular canyon parklands of the American Southwest. Look for the oblong plateau at the center right of this image, and see how the terrain descends from it on all sides. The southerly canyon wall (bottom third of the image) displays a visually beautiful canyon slope, with descending erosional flutes that cut pathways through the differently hued rock and mineral layers. While the northern side of the plateau might not look as dramatic, don't miss the dark-colored sand dunes that lie at the base of the canyon. Why did they form in just that place? To find out, look for the small hillock in the top left of the image that has interfered with the wind's flow, causing the ripply dunes to form. With so many interesting and physically stunning features, this spot will no doubt attract eager Mars tourists some day far in the future.

  12. Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-01-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

  13. Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

  14. The Butterfly Lovers' Violin Concerto by Zhanhao He and Gang Chen

    E-print Network

    Chien, Shan-Ken

    2014-05-31

    Abstract The topic of this DMA document is the Butterfly Lovers' Violin Concerto. This violin concerto was written by two Chinese composers, Gang Chen and Zhahao He in 1959. It is an orchestral adaptation of an ancient legend, the Butterfly Lovers...

  15. Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Zhen-Gang Wang,

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Tao Jiang, Zhen-Gang Wang, California ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a contagious human pathogen causing liver diseases-termini. INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pararetrovirus responsible for up to 80% of all cases

  16. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  17. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

  18. Quantum Order: a Quantum Entanglement of Many Particles Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-print Network

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Quantum Order: a Quantum Entanglement of Many Particles Xiao-Gang Wen Department of Physics view quantum order as a description of the pattern of the quantum entanglement in a many-body ground be viewed as the fluctuations of quantum entangle- ment. In contract, the classical order in a crystal just

  19. Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-print Network

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen Department magnetic/electric dipoles in 2D and 3D lattices. We show that our models contain an artificial light show that the "speed of light" and the "fine structure constant" of the artificial light can be tuned

  20. Fast Learning for Statistical Face Detection Zhi-Gang Fan and Bao-Liang Lu

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    is its long training time. Through statistical learning theory, our discriminative feature selectionFast Learning for Statistical Face Detection Zhi-Gang Fan and Bao-Liang Lu Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030, China zgfan

  1. Behavior Modification in the Treatment and Prevention of Inter-Barrio Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan

    A nomothetic assessment of the drive-by shooting in inter-barrio gang violence was conducted. Available data on drive-by shootings were organized using the model of behavioral assessment suggested by Kanfer and Saslow (1969). The model included seven areas of analysis: initial assessment, clarification of the problem, motivation, development,…

  2. DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important? Andrew James Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang

    E-print Network

    Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important? Andrew James Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang 91125 ABSTRACT We study the packaging of DNA into a bacteriophage capsid using computer simulation ejection of the polymer chain in the absence of external forces. INTRODUCTION The ability of bacteriophage

  3. Chicano Gangs: One Response to Mexican Urban Adaptation in the Los Angeles Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, James Diego

    1983-01-01

    Urban adaptation among Mexican Americans resulting in the rise of youth street gangs is assessed in this article within a framework that examines the adaptation's ecological, economic, cultural, and psychological aspects. It is argued that difficulties in changing to Anglo-American patterns have been exacerbated by living and working conditions…

  4. The Networks of Syllables and Characters in Chinese* Gang Peng1,2

    E-print Network

    Wong, Patrick

    networks have been applied to linguistic problems. The networks of words in human languages can be linked webs, networks in linguistics, the World Wide Web and Internet, etc. are considerably different from and Poisson-like degree *Address correspondence to: Gang Peng, Department of Linguistics (Humanities

  5. Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z

    E-print Network

    Popov, Branko N.

    Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z Department and Newman4 made a first attempt to model the parasitic reactions in lithium-ion batteries by incorporating a solvent oxidation into a lithium-ion battery model. Spotnitz5 developed polynomial expressions

  6. Paradoxical Outcomes in an Educational Drama about Gang Rape: Ethical Responsibilities of Practitioners and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, "Backyard Games", about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed…

  7. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  8. Chemical and sediment mass transfer in the Yamuna River — A tributary of the Ganges system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, P. K.; Subramanian, V.; Sitasawad, R.

    1988-12-01

    Maximum mass transfer, in the Yamuna River takes place during the monsoon season. The sediment load constitutes 58-86% of the total load carried by the river depending upon the sites. Tributaries are chemically more active than the mainstream. The total load of the river seems to be controlled by lithology. At Allahabad, the Yamuna carries 42 × 10 6t dissolved chemical load and 64 × 10 6t sediment load to the Ganges river. The TSM/TDS ratio shows that upstream physical weathering is more dominant than chemical weathering. The negative relation between basin area and total erosion rate and the positive relation between the chemical and sediment erosion in the Yamuna basin is in agreement with the global trend. The average chemical erosion rate (165 t km -2yr -1) of the Yamuna is much higher than that of the Ganges and the Indian average. The total erosion rate (973 t km -2yr -1) is 1.7 times greater than that of the Ganges. Upstream the Yamuna removes 1.04 mm yr -1 of the basin surface; the removal rate decreases downstream to 0.19 mm yr -1 at Allahabad, the point of confluence with the Ganges.

  9. Using WIMS for Mathematical Education Xiao Gang and Andr e Galligo(*)

    E-print Network

    Using WIMS for Mathematical Education Xiao Gang and Andr#19;e Galligo(*) June 23 2001 Laboratoire.Xiao@math.unice.fr, galligo@math.unice.fr, galligo@scl.csd.uwo.ca Abstract We descibe some of the features of the system WIMS, an interactive math- ematics server accessible at http//wims.unice.fr. We also illustrate via an example the use

  10. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  11. Suspended sediment transport in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System, Bangladesh 

    E-print Network

    Rice, Stephanie Kimberly

    2009-05-15

    that the Ganges carries 262 million tons/year and the Brahmaputra carries 387 million tons/year. These calculations are lower than published values because of either interannual variability and/or sampling artifacts and assumptions in the homogeneity of flow...

  12. Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

  13. Solution Structure and Phylogenetics of Prod1, a Member of the Three-Finger Protein Superfamily Implicated in Salamander Limb Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Garcia, Acely; Harris, Richard; Esposito, Diego; Gates, Phillip B.; Driscoll, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Following the amputation of a limb, newts and salamanders have the capability to regenerate the lost tissues via a complex process that takes place at the site of injury. Initially these cells undergo dedifferentiation to a state competent to regenerate the missing limb structures. Crucially, dedifferentiated cells have memory of their level of origin along the proximodistal (PD) axis of the limb, a property known as positional identity. Notophthalmus viridescens Prod1 is a cell-surface molecule of the three-finger protein (TFP) superfamily involved in the specification of newt limb PD identity. The TFP superfamily is a highly diverse group of metazoan proteins that includes snake venom toxins, mammalian transmembrane receptors and miscellaneous signaling molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of identifying potential orthologs of Prod1, we have solved its 3D structure and compared it to other known TFPs using phylogenetic techniques. The analysis shows that TFP 3D structures group in different categories according to function. Prod1 clusters with other cell surface protein TFP domains including the complement regulator CD59 and the C-terminal domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. To infer orthology, a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of representative TFP family members was built and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. Prod1 has been proposed to be the salamander CD59 but our analysis fails to support this association. Prod1 is not a good match for any of the TFP families present in mammals and this result was further supported by the identification of the putative orthologs of both CD59 and N. viridescens Prod1 in sequence data for the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Conclusions/Significance The available data suggest that Prod1, and thereby its role in encoding PD identity, is restricted to salamanders. The lack of comparable limb-regenerative capability in other adult vertebrates could be correlated with the absence of the Prod1 gene. PMID:19771161

  14. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, V. ); Van Grieken, R.; Van't Dack, L. )

    1987-01-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analyzed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitable revised.

  15. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of ganges and Brahmaputra rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, V.; van Grieken, R.; van't Dack, L.

    1987-06-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analysed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitably revised.

  16. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  17. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in some organs of the Ganges perch, Lates calcarifer, from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jabber, S A; Khan, Y S; Rahman, M S

    2001-12-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p' DDT, DDD, DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Lindane, Heptachlor and BHC) were analysed in the dry and wet seasons in four organs (muscle, liver, gut and egg samples) of Ganges Perch, Lates calcarifer, collected during October-November-December, 1996 and May-June-July, 1997 from the Ganges-Brahmaputtra-Meghna estuary. The residues were analysed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Among the four organs analysed, the residues were found in the order egg > gut > muscle > liver. The pesticide residues were found in the order sigmaDDT > Heptachlor > Dieldrin > Aldrin. Higher levels of residues were found during the dry season due to high lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation was observed between the pesticide residues (sigmaDDT and sigmaOCs) and lipid contents of fish, and the correlation was found to be linear. The concentrations of pesticide residues in muscle, liver and gut were below the FAO/WHO (1993) recommended permissible limit except in eggs. PMID:11827115

  18. Seasonal variation of glacial melt proportion in the headwaters of the Ganges River: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra; Hemingway, Jordon; Sengupta, Deep; Sinha, Rajiv; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Chakraborty, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    The effect of global warming on Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) glaciers is of global concern as they are the source of many large rivers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. Questions and concerns have been raised about the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, and how this will impact downstream water supplies, hydropower generation, irrigation, and food security issues. Of all the HKH glaciers, the Gangotri glacier located in the Uttarkashi district of the Garhwal Himalaya, India has received special attention as it is receding at an alarming rate of 30 m/year. The Gangotri glacier feeds the Ganges River, which drains nearly 1 million square kilometers of land surface in India and Bangladesh, and provides water security to half a billion people. Based on remote sensing data it has been estimated that the overall area of Gangotri glacier has shrunk by 6% between 1952 and 2006, and that the glacial terminus has receded by more than 850 m over the past 25 years. However, ground observation data aimed at studying the changing influence of the Gangotri glacier on the discharge of the Ganges River are still limited. Here we report preliminary observations of physical (temperature and conductivity) and chemical (major ion and trace element concentrations, pH, and dissolved oxygen) parameters of water samples near glaciated Ganges headwaters for the pre-monsoon (May), monsoon (August), and post monsoon (November) periods corresponding to 2014. We have characterized the seasonal ?18O and ?2H variability of the Ganges headwaters. The pre-monsoonal ?18O varied between -15.1o and -9.3o whereas the monsoonal ?18O varied between -14.9o and -5.7o. The pre-monsoon ?2H varied between -105.4o and -61.5o, whereas the monsoonal ?2H varied between -103.8o and -47.2o. Our isotope-mixing model predicts significant seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) variability of glacial melt contributions to the total discharge. Water chemistry data also shows large variations in chemical characteristics that are possibly related to variability in flow volume and different source area contributions.

  19. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p?=?0.02; OR 0.29, p?=?0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p?gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities. PMID:25649980

  20. Gang Exposure and Pregnancy Incidence among Female Adolescents in San Francisco: Evidence for the Need to Integrate Reproductive Health with Violence Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, AM; Moore, JG; Doherty, IA; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, NS

    2014-01-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14–19 recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco we examined the relationship between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over two years of follow-up. Using discrete-time survival analysis we investigated whether individual and partner gang membership were associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors and pregnancy intentions mediated the relationship between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Seventy-seven percent of participants were Latinas, with one in five born outside the U.S. One-quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants’ gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (HR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.32). Perceived male partner’s pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner’s gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

  1. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such as the mangrove forests, with serious implications for people's livelihoods in the area. The socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality, altering nutrient fluxes being transported into the delta region. PMID:25736595

  2. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    PubMed

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems. PMID:11285895

  3. Headward growth of chasmata by volatile outbursts, collapse, and drainage: Evidence from ganges chaos, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Kargel, J.; Crown, D.A.; Bleamaster, L. F., III; Tanaka, K.L.; Baker, V.; Miyamoto, H.; Dohm, J.M.; Sasaki, S.; Komatsu, G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature and significance of collapse processes in Capri, Eos, and Ganges Chasmata remain poorly understood. Using Ganges Chasma as a type locality, these chasmata are interpreted to be the result of clustering and assimilation of multiple chaotic terrains, which primarily formed by localized depressurization-induced or thermally-triggered dissociation of buried gas clathrate hydrates and explosive eruption of gas-saturated ground water. Such crustal destabilization could have been triggered by (1) deep fracture propagation from the Martian surface, (2) magmatic intrusions and associated heating and inflation-induced terrain fracturing, and/or (3) climatic thaw and thinning/weakening of the permafrost over the clathrate and gas-rich groundwater zones. Volume increases associated with release of gases contributed to the xpulsion of groundwater and fluidized sediments at the surface, thereby carving the higher outflow channels peripheral to the chasmata and the lower outflow channel floors of the chasmata and outflow channels. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Impact of Radio Irregularity on Wireless Sensor Networks Gang Zhou, Tian He, Sudha Krishnamurthy, John A. Stankovic

    E-print Network

    Stankovic, John A.

    Impact of Radio Irregularity on Wireless Sensor Networks Gang Zhou, Tian He, Sudha Krishnamurthy of radio irregularity on the communication performance in wireless sensor networks. Radio irregularity with incremental changes in direction. With empirical data obtained from the MICA2 platform, we establish a radio

  5. Size-Dependent Endocytosis of Nanoparticles By Sulin Zhang,* Ju Li, George Lykotrafitis, Gang Bao, and Subra Suresh

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Subra

    Size-Dependent Endocytosis of Nanoparticles By Sulin Zhang,* Ju Li, George Lykotrafitis, Gang Bao-mediated endocytosis of ligand- coated NPs. We identify an optimal NP radius at which the cellular uptake reaches NP radius for endocytosis is on the order of 25­30 nm, which is in good agreement with prior

  6. VTL Zone-Aware Path Cloaking Algorithm Bin Zan Peng Hao* Marco Gruteser XueGang Ban*

    E-print Network

    Gruteser, Marco

    VTL Zone-Aware Path Cloaking Algorithm Bin Zan Peng Hao* Marco Gruteser XueGang Ban* WINLAB conditions but do not achieve both. In this paper, we propose a virtual trip line zone-aware path cloaking the intersections of interest and the path cloaking algorithm uses entropy-estimates to decide whether the data can

  7. Joint NUTC Sandhouse Gang & Chicago Transportation Research Forum (TRF) Meeting "Metra and CREATE Making a Difference in Chicago"

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Joint NUTC Sandhouse Gang & Chicago Transportation Research Forum (TRF) Meeting "Metra and CREATE ­ Making a Difference in Chicago" Thursday ­ Jan. 22, 2015 12:00 noon Brown Bag Luncheon at Metra Manager Metra and CREATE (Chicago Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program) move forward

  8. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*

    E-print Network

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

  9. Can Data Center Become Water Self-Sufficient? Kishwar Ahmed, Mohammad A. Islam, Shaolei Ren, Gang Quan

    E-print Network

    Ren, Shaolei

    cooling systems and has a significantly lower water footprint compared to systems with cooling tow- ers-sufficiency for conventional data centers that have huge water footprints due to water-consuming cooling towers, the low waterCan Data Center Become Water Self-Sufficient? Kishwar Ahmed, Mohammad A. Islam, Shaolei Ren, Gang

  10. Image-based Plant Modeling Long Quan Ping Tan Gang Zeng Lu Yuan Jingdong Wang Sing Bing Kang

    E-print Network

    Tan, Ping

    Image-based Plant Modeling Long Quan Ping Tan Gang Zeng Lu Yuan Jingdong Wang Sing Bing Kang-based modeling of poinsettia plant. (a) An input image out of 35 images, (b) recovered model rendered at the same leaf textures. Abstract In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic technique for modeling plants

  11. Use of Ridge Points in Partial Fingerprint Gang Fang, Sargur N. Srihari, Harish Srinivasan and Prasad Phatak

    E-print Network

    1 Use of Ridge Points in Partial Fingerprint Matching Gang Fang, Sargur N. Srihari, Harish Srinivasan and Prasad Phatak Abstract Automatic fingerprint identification systems utilize algorithms which extract minutiae information from the input fingerprint­ which are ridge endings and ridge bifurcations

  12. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  13. Ranking Websites, a Probabilistic View Ying Bao, Gang Feng, Tie-Yan Liu, Zhi-Ming Ma, and Ying Wang

    E-print Network

    Ma, Zhi-Ming

    Ranking Websites, a Probabilistic View Ying Bao, Gang Feng, Tie-Yan Liu, Zhi-Ming Ma, and Ying Wang Abstract In this paper we suggest evaluating the importance of a website with the mean fre- quency of visiting the website for the Markov chain on the Internet Graph describing random surfing. We show

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO DISTANCE MEASURES IN COLOR IMAGE DATABASES Gang Qian, Shamik Sural and Sakti Pramanik

    E-print Network

    Pramanik, Sakti

    A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO DISTANCE MEASURES IN COLOR IMAGE DATABASES Gang Qian, Shamik Sural distance measure has been used in comparing feature vectors of images, while cosine angle distance measure is used in document retrieval. In this paper, we theoretically analyze these two distance measures based

  15. Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

  16. Climatic variation and runoff from partially-glacierised Himalayan tributary basins of the Ganges.

    PubMed

    Collins, David N; Davenport, Joshua L; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Climate records for locations across the southern slope of the Himalaya between 77°E and 91°E were selected together with discharge measurements from gauging stations on rivers draining partially-glacierised basins tributary to the Ganges, with a view to assessing impacts of climatic fluctuations on year-to-year variations of runoff during a sustained period of glacier decline. The aims were to describe temporal patterns of variation of glaciologically- and hydrologically-relevant climatic variables and of river flows from basins with differing percentages of ice-cover. Monthly precipitation and air temperature records, starting in the mid-nineteenth century at high elevation sites and minimising data gaps, were selected from stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network and CRUTEM3. Discharge data availability was limited to post 1960 for stations in Nepal and at Khab in the adjacent Sutlej basin. Strengths of climate-runoff relationships were assessed by correlation between overlapping portions of annual data records. Summer monsoon precipitation dominates runoff across the central Himalaya. Flow in tributaries of the Ganges in Nepal fluctuated from year to year but the general background level of flow was usually maintained from the 1960s to 2000s. Flow in the Sutlej, however, declined by 32% between the 1970s and 1990s, reflecting substantially reduced summer precipitation. Over the north-west Ganges-upper Sutlej area, monsoon precipitation declined by 30-40% from the 1960s to 2000s. Mean May-September air temperatures along the southern slope of the central Himalayas dipped from the 1960s, after a long period of slow warming or sustained temperatures, before rising rapidly from the mid-1970s so that in the 2000s summer air temperatures reached those achieved in earlier warmer periods. There are few measurements of runoff from highly-glacierised Himalayan headwater basins; runoff from one of which, Langtang Khola, was less than that of the monsoon-dominated Narayani river, in which basin Langtang is nested. PMID:24296050

  17. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  18. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by common team dynamic

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Neil F; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces -- from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths, through to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age-groups and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities, and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a homophilic version of the model, nor does conventional time-aggregated network analysis help unravel the dynamics.

  19. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the upstrean Hing-she station raise vivestok Sing-She stations are that ammonia on a upward trend, BOD5 no significant change in trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, river pollution index (RPI) a slight downward trend. Dong-gang River Basin , but the progress of sewer construction in slow. To reduce pollation in this river effort shoul be made regulatory reform on livestock waste control and acceleration of sewer construction. Keywords: quantile regression analysis, BOD5, RPI

  20. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-12-08

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  1. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  2. Interior Layered Deposits on Mars: Insights from elevation, image- and spectral data of Ganges Mensa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowe, M.; Roach, L. H.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Mustard, J. L.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) are exposed at various locations on Mars. They differ from their surroundings by their higher albedo, morphology, and fine layering. Their origin (sedimentary or volcanic) is well discussed [e.g. 1-3] but Fe-oxides and hydrated minerals such as sulfates [4-6] have been detected on ILD surfaces suggesting an aquatic environment. Here we present some features of Ganges Mensa. We looked at HRSC elevation data [7], THEMIS brightness-temperature and CRISM data to understand differences in morphology and composition. Ganges Mensa observations This ILD shows sub-horizontal layering and mesa morphology (flat top and steep slopes). Its stairstepped morphology is shown on Fig. 3 and does not appear in ILDs occurring in the eastern chaotic terrains (Iani, Aureum, Aram, and Arsinoes Chaos) but in other ILDs in Valles Marineris (e.g. Hebes). Ganges Mensa features fresh-eroded light-toned layers appearing competent, forming steep scarps and having high surface temperatures as well as thermal inertia. The dark material corresponds to accumulations of wind-transported matter that covers flatter slopes and shows lower brightness-temperatures. Analyses of CRISM and image data (HRSC, MOC, HiRISE) indicate that there are differences in texture and mineralogical composition as well. CRISM observations show that the lower sequence of the ILD (consisting of many layers) has a strong kieserite signature as observed by [8]. Exposed windblown dark material on its surface has no olivine, pyroxene, or ferric oxide spectral features. This unit comprises an approximate thickness of ~1.6 km out of 3.5 km for the whole ILD and is very rough and coarse looking. There, the surface temperatures (Fig. 2) as well as thermal inertia values are much higher which is in agreement with [8]. A transition zone characterized by a discrete layer at an elevation of about -1.9 km marks the beginning of the upper unit (Fig. 1-3). In the upper unit, weak polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) features are observed in the light-toned material while the dark dunes on top and in grooves show clinopyroxene (HCP). The mineralogy might correlate with the steepness of the slopes observed by [8,10] for kieserite being exposed in steeper parts and polyhydrated sulfates in less steep parts. As the ILD is composed of alternating steep and less steep parts, less steep parts may possibly exhibit polyhydrated sulfates that are covered by windblown material. We observe a higher thermal inertia in the lower, fresh eroded kieserite unit (400-600 SI) than in the upper unit that shows polyhydrated sulfate features (300- 500 SI) which is not coincident to observations in West Candor Chasma ILD [11] but may be due to weak PHS signal or hydration state of PHS. The same is observed comparing kieserite exposed on steep exposures and PHS [12] in Capri Chasma. ILDs observed in other regions ILDs have various morphologies. They often appear as mounds or hills. Massive cap rock at their top and layering in lower parts is also very common. Material enclosing chaotic structures, terrace-like appearances, and knobs are visible. Varying surfaces (knobby, rough, fractured, grooved, cap rock) are widespread as well as talus exhibited on steep slopes. Yardangs and flutes on their surface as well as dunes located in surface fractures indicate that the material is highly affected by wind erosion and therefore weakly consolidated. The contact between ILD and chaotic terrain often is covered by dusty and/or fine-grained material, but few MOC-images [9] show the stratigraphic position of ILDs superposing chaotic terrain, and indicating a younger age. Layering is observed at different elevations at MOCscale reaching from -4.6 km up to -1 km, but mostly between -4.5 km up to -3 km and is absent in upper parts that are mostly cap rock. The vertical thickness of layered material is high in Ganges Mensa and low in other regions of Ganges or the chaotic terrains, e.g. Arsinoes. We discriminate between less than 16 layers and less than 7 layers we counted at MOC-scale. Apparently, t

  3. Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

  4. Decades of Change on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta; Rivers, Coastlines, Agriculture and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is formed by the convergence of two great rivers, superlative in both size and geologic activity. The GBD is home to > 150 million people with a mean population density of more than 1000 people/km2. The fertile soils, abundant water and favorable climate also make the delta one of the most agriculturally diverse and productive areas on Earth. We seek to better understand the coupled natural and anthropogenic dynamics of the delta through a number of cross-disciplinary field studies of the contributing geophysical, biophysical and anthropogenic processes. To provide a synoptic multitemporal perspective for these studies, we use a variety of remotely sensed observations collected over the delta since 1988. In this overview we provide a synthesis of recent results from studies of 4 interrelated processes; river channel migration, coastal erosion and deposition, co-evolution of agriculture and aquaculture, and economic development. In each study we use multi-sensor spatiotemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery spanning more than 2 decades to observe and quantify a variety of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites provide 16 day temporal and 250m spatial resolution of the entire delta from 2000 to present. This image time series captures not only agricultural phenology over the entire delta but also the development of aquaculture on the lower delta and interannual fluvial dynamics on both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI allow us to represent land cover as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrate, vegetation and dark surfaces (water and shadow) throughout the delta since 1988. Despite its irregular temporal sampling, Landsat's 30 m pixels better resolve both natural and anthropogenic land cover units and its longer time series extends retrospective analyses back to 1988. More recent sensors like Ikonos, Quickbird, GeoEye and WorldView provide vicarious validation with meter-scale imagery. Annual composites of night-light brightness from the OLS and VIIRS sensors provide a complementary measure of urban growth and economic development back to 1992. The coevolution of these systems are depicted in a series of multitemporal animations spanning the past 2+ decades.

  5. Subduction and accretion across the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: is it seismogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M.; Armbruster, J. G.; Kogan, M.; Small, C.; Ho, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    Huge earthquakes generally contribute a major portion of the strain at subduction zones, but are rare, and may thus be overlooked in hazard analysis. The India-Sunda boundary is increasingly oblique to convergence from northern Sumatra to the eastern Himalayan Syntaxis and had not experienced a well-documented great subduction earthquake prior to the Mw9.3 1,300km rupture of 26 Dec 2004. The 500km long Arakan segment north of the 2004 rupture may have ruptured in 1762, when a regional earthquake caused changes in coastal elevation and ejection of sand and water from anticlinal ridges. Further north, we found some evidence for a 1548 event which may have ruptured the 300km long Tripura segment from Chittagong to the Shillong Plateau. In this segment, the subduction zone encounters the huge clastic wedge of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, which is prograding onto oceanic or transitional crust. This wedge is being accreted into a wide active foldbelt that extends beyond its topographic expression into the subsurface of the delta as far as the main estuary (Megna). This 50 km-wide blind area of foldbelt shows pedological evidence (the Tippera Surface) of Holocene uplift and is higher than the active part of the delta to the west by 3-4m, an amount that may be expected in a one or more large subduction ruptures. Interseismic tectonic deformation is evident in both drainage changes and GPS data. An eastward shift of the major channel of the Ganges into the Bay of Bengal from the Hooghly (at Calcutta) to the present Meghna Estuary since the 1600s may reflect subsidence and tilting of the delta. Preliminary results from a 6-station continuous GPS network in Bangladesh show rapid regional subsidence, that may reflect a combination of compaction and lithospheric flexure in response to tectonic and sediment load, and north-south shortening, consistent with the Shillong Plateau moving south relative to India. E-W motions are inconsistent with aseismic accretion along the Tripura segment and the network's resolution in this direction is expected to improve soon. In light of the 1762 and 2004 examples, the lack of a well-known historical precedent, high pore-fluid pressure and oblique convergence at the Tripura segment do not rule out large subduction earthquakes across the delta, which need to be included in Hazard estimates. Their effects are difficult to predict given the unusual conditions of a >20 km foredeep and rapid sedimentation, but they are likely to be catastrophic for the 200M people living in this area.

  6. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here are consistent with a Pleistocene age for the structure. Subsidence of its foreland has created the seasonal inland sea in Sylhet and influences avulsions of the Brahmaputra. The 1897 M8.0 earthquake caused maximum intensities on the western part of the Shillong massif, suggesting a rupture of the western Dauki fault, leaving the eastern portion as a possible gap.

  7. Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, L. W.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C. A.; Ahmed, K. R.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Small, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, with 170 million people and a vast, low-lying coastal plain, is perceived to be at great risk of increased flooding and submergence from sea-level rise. However, human alteration of the landscape can create similar risks to sea-level rise. Here, we report that islands in southwest Bangladesh, enclosed by embankments in the 1960s, have lost 1.0-1.5 m of elevation, whereas the neighbouring Sundarban mangrove forest has remained comparatively stable. We attribute this elevation loss to interruption of sedimentation inside the embankments, combined with accelerated compaction, removal of forest biomass, and a regionally increased tidal range. One major consequence of this elevation loss occurred in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands failed during Cyclone Aila, leaving large areas of land tidally inundated for up to two years until embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape received tens of centimetres of tidally deposited sediment, equivalent to decades’ worth of normal sedimentation. Although many areas still lie well below mean high water and remain at risk of severe flooding, we conclude that elevation recovery may be possible through controlled embankment breaches.

  8. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise. PMID:25251271

  9. The gang of four gene regulates growth and patterning of the developing Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Beam, Carolyn K; Moberg, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    We report here the identification of a novel complementation group in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster named gang of four (gfr). Mutations in gfr disrupt patterns of cell differentiation in the eye and increase eye size through a proliferative mechanism that can be enhanced by a block in apoptosis. gfr mutant cells show several features of deregulated Ras/MAP kinase activity, including reduced expression of the Capicua growth suppressing transcription factor and synthetically lethality with alleles of the Jun N-terminal kinase phosphatase puckered. gfr alleles also upreguate Notch activity in the eye. Thus, gfr alleles appear to elicit growth and patterning phenotypes via effects on multiple signaling pathways. Moreover, the gfr alleles behave as gain-of-function lesions and overexpress the gene, bruno-3 (bru-3), which is located at the genomic region to which gfr lesions map. Genetic reduction of bru-3 suppresses phenotypes caused by gfr alleles, and like gfr alleles, overexpression of bru-3 depresses levels of Cic protein, indicating that overexpression of bru-3 is central to gfr mutant phenotypes. PMID:20473027

  10. Green and blue water accounting in the Ganges and Nile basins: Implications for food and agricultural policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulser, Timothy B.; Ringler, Claudia; Zhu, Tingju; Msangi, Siwa; Bryan, Elizabeth; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryMost food globally is produced from soil moisture that comes exclusively from precipitation, or "green" water. Moreover, most of the water reaching plants in irrigated systems also stems from precipitation. Despite this, irrigation or "blue" water has typically been the focus for policy analysis in the past, given the possibility for human manipulation of these resources. This paper analyzes alternative water futures using a combined green and blue water accounting framework embedded within the water simulation components of IFPRI's International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Recently developed future scenarios for the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) and other work are assessed with this adjusted green/blue water accounting framework. Accounting explicitly for green water resources broadens the scope of options for decision-makers trying to improve agricultural production in the face of rising food and energy prices and a degrading water and land resource base in the face of increasing demands. Results highlight the importance of green/blue water accounting presenting a wider range of agricultural science and technology policy options for increasing global crop productivity across a span of potential futures.

  11. TEOS reaction rates on SiO{sub 2} at 1000K: Zero-order dependence on hydroxyl coverage and implications for reactions with three-membered siloxane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, M.E.; Moffat, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    We have determined key kinetic parameters for the reaction of TEOS (tetraethylorthosilicate) on SiO{sub 2}. This was accomplished under conditions (20 to 500 mTorr at 1000 K) that pertain directly to TEOS-based CVD (chemical vapor deposition) processes. TEOS reactions were carried out using deuterated silanols (SiOD) on the initial SiO{sub 2} surface. This allowed FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) measurements to distinguish the consumption of SiOD by TEOS from the concurrent formation of SiOH which results from TEOS decomposition at 1000 K. While SiOD consumption did exhibit a first-order dependence on SiOD coverage, SiOH formation exhibited a zero-order dependence on the total coverage of hydroxyl groups. This suggests that reactions with hydroxyl groups alone can not account for all of the TEOS decomposition reactions at 1000 K. Since the low coverage of two-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 2}) rings was consumed during the initial TEOS exposure, siloxane (Si-O-Si) bridges in three-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 3}) rings may be the additional species responsible for the constant rate of TEOS decomposition. However, it is not conclusive that this type of site-specific mechanism controls the chemistry. The data may also be explained with a site-independent mechanism in which intramolecular decomposition of TEOS on the surface provides a common rate-determining step for subsequent consumption of hydroxyls and siloxane bridges on SiO{sub 2}. Regardless of the specific mechanism, our results predict that deposition rates will be insensitive to the relative coverages of siloxane bridges and hydroxyls on SiO{sub 2}. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the coverages of these species on SiO{sub 2} is not essential for modeling thermal TEOS decomposition rates.

  12. Mistakes Board Members Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

  13. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin. PMID:12833986

  14. Streamflow model of the six-country transboundary Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K.; Lehmann, A.; Dennedy-Frank, P. J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Extremely large-scale river basin modelling remains a challenge for water resources planning in the developing world. Such planning is particularly difficult in the developing world because of the lack of data on both natural (climatological, hydrological) processes and complex anthropological influences. We simulate three enormous river basins located in south Asia. The Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna (GBM) River Basins cover an area of 1.75 million km2 associated with 6 different countries, including the Bengal delta, which is the most densely populated delta in the world with ~600 million people. We target this developing region to better understand the hydrological system and improve water management planning in these transboundary watersheds. This effort uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate streamflow in the GBM River Basins and assess the use of global climatological datasets for such large scale river modeling. We evaluate the utility of three global rainfall datasets to reproduce measured river discharge: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) from NASA, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, and the World Metrological Organization (WMO) reanalysis. We use global datasets for spatial information as well: 90m DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, 300m GlobCover land use maps, and 1000 km FAO soil map. We find that SWAT discharge estimates match the observed streamflow well (NSE=0.40-0.66, R2=0.60-0.70) when using meteorological estimates from the NCEP reanalysis. However, SWAT estimates diverge from observed discharge when using meteorological estimates from TRMM and the WMO reanalysis.

  15. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  16. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the river. Pilgrimage areas without adequate waste treatment are possible "hot spots" for AR transmission, and waste treatment must be improved to reduce broader AR dissemination via exposed returning visitors. PMID:24521347

  17. Increased Waterborne blaNDM-1 Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Seasonal Human Pilgrimages to the Upper Ganges River

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg–1)) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1)), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor’s wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the river. Pilgrimage areas without adequate waste treatment are possible “hot spots” for AR transmission, and waste treatment must be improved to reduce broader AR dissemination via exposed returning visitors. PMID:24521347

  18. BPC3 Consortium Members

    Cancer.gov

    To achieve the goals of the consortium, a Steering Committee coordinates the efforts within and across the participating cohorts and scientific disciplines. The Steering Committee includes the four principal investigators for the cooperative agreements that fund participation of the cohorts in the BCP3 Study, the principal investigators of the cohorts themselves (which are funded independent of this study), and NCI Program staff as Ex Officio members.

  19. Assessment of pollution of river Ganges by tannery effluents using genotoxicity biomarkers in murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Ravindra; Dabas, Anurag; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Pavan

    2015-07-01

    River pollution due to rapid industrialization and anthropogenic activities adversely affects the aquatic organisms, especially fish. Here, we assessed the genotoxicity, mutagenicity and bioaccumulative aspects of tannery effluents in freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, an inhabitant of river Ganges. Test specimens were collected from three different polluted sites of the river within and nearby Kanpur area during different seasons and blood samples of these specimens were processed for comet assay and micronucleus test as genotoxicity biomarkers. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher micronuclei induction, nuclear abnormalities and % tail DNA was observed in the specimens collected from the polluted sites. Bioaccumulation studies in the muscle (1.202 ?g/g) and gill tissues (< 0.300 ?g/g) of the specimens revealed the concentration of chromium (core component of tanning industry) above the maximum permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings of the present analysis indicated contamination of river Ganges with tannery effluents which induce genotoxicity in fish with seasonal variation. PMID:26245034

  20. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  1. Don't Judge a Man by the Color of his Rag: The Reality and Resistance of Gangsta Rap Among Los Angeles Gang Members 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mamie C.

    2014-08-08

    . Although most nights ended with exhaustion, sleeping on the couch at the Inglewood apartment, most days were filled with excursions in my white Toyota Yaris with one missing hubcap, bumping only one album in the CD changer: Kendrick Lamar’s good kid, m...

  2. Agricultural Land Cover Dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    We seek to understand spatiotemporal (ST) patterns of agricultural land cover dynamics on the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI imagery collected since 1988 allows for synoptic scale ST analyses of vegetation phenology. We use multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). This study analyses 61 cloud-free Landsat acquisitions across two geographic scenes to identify ST patterns of winter cropping and interconversion between agricultural fields and ponds used for aquaculture. We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series post-2000 and high spatial resolution imagery to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. We use temporal moment spaces (derived from temporal mean, standard deviation, and skewness) and temporal feature spaces (derived from spatial Principal Components) to characterize the full range of phenological patterns observed at 30 m scales throughout the lower delta. For each year with sufficient cloud-free coverage, we distinguish between areas with a high likelihood of use for aquaculture versus areas with a high likelihood of use for agriculture based on a combination of reflectance and phenology. From changes in these patterns we infer changes in land use on seasonal to interannual timescales. Many of the phenological patterns we observe occur on the scale of individual polders, suggesting decision making at community scales. While there appears to be considerable loss of agricultural land to aquaculture in many areas of the lower delta, we also observe intensification of dry season cropping in other areas. MODIS reveals frequent instances of both gradual and abrupt decreases in seasonal peak EVI as well as many localized instances of abrupt cessation of agriculture. In terms of area and magnitude, the single largest disturbance we observe immediately follows Cyclone Aila in 2009. We observe a band of phenological disruption on the polders along almost 400 km of the periphery of the Sundarbans.

  3. Subsidence and human influences in mega deltas: The case of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Nicholls, R J

    2015-09-15

    Relative sea/land level changes are fundamental to people living in deltas. Net subsidence is complex and attributed to tectonics, compaction, sedimentation and anthropogenic causes. It can have severe impacts and needs to be quantified and where possible (for subsidence due to anthropogenic causes) avoided. For the highly populated Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, a large range of net subsidence rates are described in the literature, yet the reasons behind this wide range of values are poorly understood. This paper documents and analyses rates of subsidence (for publications until 2014) and relates these findings to human influences (development). 205 point measurements of net subsidence were found, reported in 24 studies. Reported measurements were often repetitive in multiple journals, with some lacking detail as to precise location, cause and method, questioning reliability of the rate of subsidence. Rates differed by locality, methodology and period of measurement. Ten different measurement methods were recorded, with radio-carbon dating being the most common. Temporal and spatially, rates varied between -1.1mm/yr (i.e. uplift) and 43.8mm/yr. The overall mean reported rate was 5.6mm/yr, and the overall median 2.9 mm/yr, with 7.3mm/yr representing one standard deviation. These rates were reduced if inaccurate or vague records were omitted. The highest rates were recorded in the Sylhet Plateau, Dhaka and Kolkata. Highest rates were recorded in the last 1000 years, where the mean increased to 8.8mm/yr and a standard deviation of 7.5mm/yr. This could be partly due to shorter-term measurement records, or anthropogenic influence as multiple high rates are often found in urban settings. Continued development may cause rates to locally increase (e.g. due to groundwater abstraction and/or drainage). Improved monitoring is required over a wider area, to determine long-term trends, particularly as short-term records are highly variable. Focus in regions where wide spread development is occurring or is expected would be advantageous. PMID:25974280

  4. Satellite Imagery Evaluation of Soil Moisture Variability in the Ganges Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Davidson, S. K.; Nichols, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) variability across the Ganges Basin in India from the Tista River on the east to the Ghanghra River on the west was assessed using Landsat TM Band 6 imagery dating from 1999-2003. The region contains many large fans (megafans) that have different degrees of incision. The Band 6 thermal channel of Landsat is sensitive to soil temperature variability resulting from differences in moisture content and as such is a proxy for soil moisture variability in this environment. In order to take advantage of this relationship we analyzed the imagery in two steps. First, a Maximum Likelihood Classifier (ML) was used to segment the fans into seven classes. On the Tista fan, thermal characteristics suggest that soils from the proximal and distal portions of the fan are in different thermal/moisture classes indicating a change in the thermal signal from the apex to the toe of the fan. In an attempt to quantify these differences we performed a second level of analysis focusing on the range of thermal values across the fans. This range calculation separates the dry and wet soils on the basis of variability in their moisture content throughout the year. Soils that have a high range (high variability) probably dry up significantly after the monsoon, while those that exhibit a low range indicate either constant wet or dry conditions and/or vegetation that does not vary seasonally. Ground based assessments of soil characteristics on the Tista and Kosi fans supports this image analysis and leads to the following conclusions, 1) Tista megafan, a fan known to be incised and older than the other fans of this basin, shows a distinct change in soil moisture from apex to its toe. This variation is reflected in the increasing presence of wetlands (shallow water table) and the fining of grain size down-the-megafan; 2. Similar temporal variation in SM values is not apparent in Kosi and Gandak megafans where SM shows uniformly low variation from apex to toe. We ascribe this to the younger age and aggrading nature of the megafans; 4. Ghangra megafan, occurring about 400 km west of the Tista megafan, in contrast to other megafans shows a high variability of SM uniformly throughout it. This probably reflects presence of drier soils all through the megafan in response to drier climate to the western part of the alluvial plain.

  5. Coastal Dynamics of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we quantify erosional and depositional processes in the coastal zone (including tidal flats and river channels) of the lower Ganges Brahmaputra delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated, Landsat TM, ETM+ & OLI collected since 1988 allows for spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of both natural and anthropogenic processes in the coastal zone on seasonal to interannual time scales. We quantify changes in the coastal zone using 106 cloud-free acquisitions in the area of the 3 Landsat scenes spanning the lower delta. Changes are quantified using multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series and high spatial resolution (2-4 m) imagery post-2000 to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. Because water levels on the lower delta change by several meters on time scales of hours (tides), months (discharge) and years (relative sea level rise), we use a network of 11 tide gauges to distinguish the effects of these changes in the coastal zone imaged by Landsat. Cross spectral analysis of this network of tide gauge records quantifies the dominant periods and relative magnitudes as well as phase of water level variations across these time scales. Tide gauge records are used to identify Landsat scenes acquired at similar water levels as well as the effects of water level on variations in tidal flats. Water level and water leaving radiance are used to map spatiotemporal variations in suspended sediment. Tri-temporal change maps of SVD fractions show progressive changes of coastlines throughout the study period. We find significant change in tidal flats in acquisitions from different tidal heights, alluding to the importance of tidal phase in coastal analyses. Erosion of forested coastlines is distributed along channels of all sizes, while deposition occurs primarily in more localized regions. Expansion of mangrove forest is observed in several larger areas of deposition. These results suggest that the balance between erosion and deposition is more complex than often assumed in studies of sea level rise on the GBD.

  6. Modeling of GPS velocities across the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta - Burma Arc oblique subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Feng, L.; Gale, J.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Burma Arc is the northward continuation of the Sumatra-Anadaman subduction zone that gave rise to the 2004 M9.3 earthquake and tsunami. Near its northern end, it is colliding with the thick sediments of the Bengal Basin. The sediments of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta are folded and faulted, creating a subaerial 250-km wide accretionary prism. The deformation front is blind and reaches ½ way across the delta. Whether subduction is still occurring at this highly oblique plate boundary has been hotly debated. To investigate this, we combined our 25 continuous GPS receivers in Bangladesh with the campaign network in Myanmar, processing them together with GAMIT/GLOBK. We combined this data with 28 mostly campaign GPS sites in India (Gahalaut et al., 2012) by processing using the same IGS sites and performing a Helmert transformation to place all the data in same reference frame within ITRF2008. Published Indian plate poles yield a systematic residual for Bangladeshi sites believed to be on stable India. We estimated a new pole by combining 13 Indian stations (Mahesh et al., 2013) with 2 of our stations. Due to the rapid growth of the accretionary prism and the overthrusting by the Shillong Plateau, the Burma Arc changes shape from the backstop to the front folds. To project the GPS velocities into a profile, we have experimented with several projections that vary across the foldbelt, using the arc of the earthquakes and the topography as a guide. Strike-slip is mostly absorbed by the Sagaing and CMF faults, and some additional shear is distributed over the region. The best fitting suite of models for the shortening component yield 13-15 mm/y of shortening across the arc on a shallow-dipping megathrust. Additional shortening of ~4 mm/y is absorbed in the vicinity of the Kabaw Fault, where coverage is sparse. The dip of the megathrust and the depth of its downdip end trade off with one another in the different projections. The low range of dips of 6-10° is consistent with local intraplate seismicity. The downdip end of the locked zone of the megathrust is just east of Bangladesh-India border around ~92.5°E and is a very stable feature in all the models. The broad locked zone of ~250km suggests that the segment between Shillong and the coast, which has no historical record of a large earthquake, is capable of a M8.2-M8.8 earthquake.

  7. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of River Channel Migration on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    We use multitemporal multiscale satellite remote sensing to complement field observations and subsurface measurements to better understand the relationship between recent and historic fluvial dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta. To provide regional context for the interannual changes in river channel geometry we conduct spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery for 2000-2013 using a new method of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. We use EVI because it distinguishes water from wet and dry sediment on the basis of the spectral slope at VNIR wavelengths. Water has a negative slope while dry sediment has a small positive slope and vegetation has a large positive slope. To characterize the ST patterns associated with river channel migration we use iterative EOF analysis (iEOF). In iEOF we first conduct a single year EOF analysis for each year in the time series to identify the primary spatial principal component (PC1) for each year and separate this from the spatial structure of the subannual temporal patterns associated with vegetation phenology. We then construct a decadal time series of PC 1 for each single year and conduct a second EOF analysis of the time series of 13 individual year PCs. The standard EOFs of the full (312 images x 16 day) time series only resolve a decadal trend (EOF 8), but the iEOF clearly distinguishs the progressive decadal trend (EOF 2) from the cyclic component (EOF 3) of decadal changes in sediment reflectance. The temporal feature space constructed from PC 2 and PC 3 (corresponding to temporal EOFs 2 and 3) distinguishes pixels with progressive decadal increases and decreases in reflectance from pixels with cyclic changes. Evolution of the annual structure is animated at www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM1UYvdnYXk Despite significant differences in the 2 rivers'morphologies, and the considerable magnitude of flooding every year, we observe year-to-year continuity in the progressive downstream migration of the larger meanders on both rivers. We also observe a pronounced change in the morphology and evolution of the channels in the Brahmaputra braid plain upstream and downstream of the hinge zone with more rapid changes in channel geometry upstream and a more stable configuration of two anastamosing primary channels downstream.

  8. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and ?30Si, ?13C and ?18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem ?30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and ?30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, ?30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher ?30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the ?30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account for the loss of DSi from solution.

  9. On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Horst, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

  10. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  11. Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

  12. Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    -Gang Zhu Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 111, 07B720 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.3679463 View online: http transfer during film growth Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211603 (2012) Ultrathin Si/C graded layer to improve tribological properties of Co magnetic films Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191601 (2012) Temperature and pressure

  13. An Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Motif Discovery Gang Li, Tak-Ming Chan, Kwong-Sak Leung and Kin-Hong Lee

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianwei

    discovery is to identify the motif binding sites in the cis-regulatory regions of DNA sequencesAn Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Motif Discovery Gang Li, Tak-Ming Chan, Kwong-Sak Leung of Distribution Algorithm for Motif Discovery (EDAMD). We use Bayesian analysis to derive the fitness function

  14. Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

  15. Melt containment member

    DOEpatents

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  16. Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-02-01

    The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basin and may ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on the basin-scale hydrology by using well-calibrated hydrologic modeling has seldom been conducted in the GBM basin due to the lack of observed data for calibration and validation. In this study, a macroscale hydrologic model H08 has been applied over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution DEM (digital elevation model) data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via the analysis of model parameter sensitivity and validated based on long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impacts of climate change (considering a high-emissions path) on runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture are assessed by using five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) GCMs (global circulation models) through three time-slice experiments; the present-day (1979-2003), the near-future (2015-2039), and the far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results show that, by the end of 21st century, (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~4.3 °C; (b) the changes of mean precipitation (runoff) are projected to be +16.3% (+16.2%), +19.8% (+33.1%), and +29.6% (+39.7%) in the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Meghna, respectively; and (c) evapotranspiration is projected to increase for the entire GBM (Brahmaputra: +16.4%, Ganges: +13.6%, Meghna: +12.9%) due to increased net radiation as well as warmer temperature. Future changes of hydrologic variables are larger in the dry season (November-April) than in the wet season (May-October). Amongst the three basins, the Meghna shows the highest increase in runoff, indicating higher possibility of flood occurrence. The uncertainty due to the specification of key model parameters in model predictions is found to be low for estimated runoff, evapotranspiration and net radiation. However, the uncertainty in estimated soil moisture is rather large with the coefficient of variation ranging from 14.4 to 31% among the three basins.

  17. MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM SOLANI SPECIES COMPLEX CAUSING INFECTIONS IN BOTH HUMANS AND PLANTS ARE THOSE MOST COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are increasingly implicated as the causative agents of human mycoses, particularly in the expanding immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patient populations. Best known as ubiquitous plant pathogens and saprotrophs, members of FSSC comprise ov...

  18. Evolution of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 'Gang of Four' Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This series of eight NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'snapshots' shows the evolution of the P-Q complex, also called the 'gang of four' region, of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9.

    The eight individual frames chronicle changes in the comet during the 12 months before colliding with Jupiter. The sequence shows that the relative separations of the various cometary fragments, thought to range in size from about 500 meters to almost 4 km (2.5 miles) across, changed dramatically over this period. The apparent separation of Q1 and Q2 was only about 1100 kilometers (680 miles) on 1 July 1993 and increased to 28,000 kilometers (17,400 miles) by 20 July 1994.

    The P-Q complex demonstrates that further fragmentation occurred after the breakup of the parent body in July 1992. Fragments Q1 and Q2 were probably together at some point in a single body. However, it is not clear how P1 and P2, and the P and Q objects are related.

    Between 24 January and 30 March 1994, the P2 nucleus broke-up into two separate fragments, one of which disappeared by late June. (It might be present in the mid-May image.) The P1 nucleus had a 'streaked' appearance on 24 January 1994 and then became a barely discernible 'puff' through mid-May. It was not detected in subsequent observations.

    Throughout the period, most nuclei were within a 4000 kilometer-wide (2500 miles) spherical cloud of dust, called a coma. However, shortly before impact, the coma around each nucleus became highly elongated along the comet's travel path due to 'stretching' by Jupiter's rapidly increasing gravity.

    This stretching is dramatic in the image of the Q-complex taken on 20 July 1994, just 10 hours before collision. Despite the coma's changes, HST images show that the core of each nucleus always remained concentrated. This shows that the nuclei were probably not catastrophically fragmenting, at least not up to 10 hours before impact.

    The first HST image was taken on 1 July 1993 with the Planetary Camera before the December 1993 HST servicing mission. All other images were taken with the WFPC-2. (The image taken on 17 May 1994 was taken in 'wide-field' mode and has a lower resolution than the other WFPC-2 images). The images were taken in visible light. The different shades of red are a false-color representation of the different intensities of light reflecting off the comet's dust. Each frame covers a region 90,000 by 30,000 kilometers (56,000 by 18,600 miles).

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  19. In the Balance: Natural v. Embanked Landscapes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace Auerbach, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C.; Ahmed, K.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Nooner, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural river deltas are defined by a balance of net aggradational processes that construct the delta platform, and marine processes that redistribute sediments and facilitate platform evolution. The future of deltas worldwide will be determined by this balance of sedimentation, subsidence and sea-level rise, in addition to human-caused perturbations. Among the world's delta systems the Ganges-Brahmaputra is perceived to be at great risk to degradation and submergence under multiple climate and sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. In particular, the lower delta plain in southwest Bangladesh is isolated from fluvial processes, yet still receives up to 1 cm of sediment accretion annually as sediments discharged at the river mouth are reworked by tides and deposited onto the lower delta plain. In the Sundarbans, a 10,000 km2 block of pristine mangrove forest in the region, this tidally supported sedimentation has been effective in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with SLR that is augmented by local subsidence and shallow compaction. Adjacent to the Sundarbans, however, human modification has significantly impacted the landscape through embankment construction that occurred in the 1960s to increase arable land for rice production and famine relief. As a consequence, the embankments have locally inhibited sediment delivery to the landscape, decoupling these interacting systems. In the ensuing five decades the land has continued to subside and compact, and in the absence of sediment accretion has experienced a net elevation loss of more than 1 m since embankment construction. The acute effects of this elevation offset were felt in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands breached during Cyclone Aila. We are studying Polder 32, a 60 km2 island that was land tidally inundated for two years until its embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape rebounded with tens of centimeters of tidally deposited sediment, accounting for decades-worth of normal sedimentation, but only partly restoring the elevation lost over the previous five decades. This work implements field measurements and a conceptual model of the lower delta plain to establish a budget for observed elevation differences among local, relative water levels and the natural and human-altered landscapes. We demonstrate that embanked regions of the lower delta are more vulnerable than pristine areas to changes in sea level caused by impeded sediment delivery as a result of decoupling the tidal channel-landscape system. The elevation disparity that has developed in the past 50 years is equivalent to ~2 cm/yr of RSL rise. This rate is more than twice the upper end of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections for future sea-level rise, making these poldered landscapes a very useful, albeit troubling, analog for studying the impact of increased SLR in coming decades.

  20. Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra river flow. Second goal is to project the behavior of future river discharge forced by the increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Three more rivers, the Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers are considered. It is meaningful to people living within the watershed, which would experience flooding or drought in the next 100-years. The original precipitation output from the third phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP3) project has large inter-model variability, which limits the ability to quantify the regional precipitation or runoff trends. With a basic statistical Quantile-to-Quantile (Q-Q) technique, a mapping index was built to link each modeled precipitation averaged over river catchment and observational discharge measured close to the mouth. Using the climatological annual cycle to choose the "good" models, the observational river discharges are well reproduced from the 20th century run (20C3M) model results. Furthermore, with the same indices, the future 21st century river discharge of the Yangtze, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Blue Nile are simulated under different SRES scenarios. The Murray-Darling River basin does not have the similar seasonal cycle of discharge with modeled precipitations. So we choose to build the link between satellite imaged and modeled precipitations and use it to simulate the future precipitation. The Yangtze, Ganges, Brahmaputra River mean wet season discharges are projected to increase up to 15-25% at the end of the 21st century under the most abundant GHGs scenarios (SRESA1B and SRESA2). The risks of flooding also reach to a high level throughout the time. Inter-model deviations increase dramatically under all scenarios except for the fixed-2000 level concentration (COMMIT). With large uncertainty, the Blue Nile River discharge and Murray-Darling River basin annual precipitation do not suggest a sign of change on multi-model mean.

  1. Administrative Support for Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the need of administrative support for board members. An effective board services office can help a lot in attracting and retaining community leaders. Board members need administrative support to help them manage events, records, communications, scheduling, correspondence and constituent service. In small to…

  2. Children's prosocial behavioural intentions towards outgroup members.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Van de Vyver, Julie; Pelletier, Joseph; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-09-01

    When will children decide to help outgroup peers? We examined how intergroup competition, social perspective taking (SPT), and empathy influence children's (5-10 years, N = 287) prosocial intentions towards outgroup members. Study 1 showed that, in a minimal group situation, prosociality was lower in an intergroup competitive than in a non-competitive or interpersonal context. Study 2 revealed that, in a real groups situation involving intergroup competition, prosociality was associated with higher empathy and lower competitive motivation. In a subsequent non-competitive context, there were age differences in the impact of SPT and competitive motivation. With age, relationships strengthened between SPT and prosociality (positively) and between competitiveness and prosociality (negatively). Among older children, there was a carry-over effect whereby feelings of intergroup competitiveness aroused by the intergroup competitive context suppressed outgroup prosociality in the following non-competitive context. Theoretical and practical implications for improving children's intergroup relationships are discussed. PMID:25773274

  3. Understanding the roles of NHS trust board members.

    PubMed

    Deffenbaugh, J

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of NHS trust boards on a business format was a recent innovation resulting from the NHS reforms. In order to realize benefits for patients, it is essential that boards operate effectively. Explores within the framework of corporate governance, the practical implications of board member roles. Drawing on experience of strategy formulation at board level, analyses and clarifies the roles, and presents recommendations to increase board effectiveness. PMID:10162758

  4. Changes in the Discharge of Major Rivers in the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Yangtze Rivers During the Next 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Our goal is to estimate the behavior of future river discharge in the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Yangtze Rivers, forced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Such determinations are critical in order to determine risk from flooding or droughts in the context of rapidly increasing populations. We concentrate on the hydrological discharge in three major river basins: the Yangtze, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra as these rivers are critical for survival of a large proportion of humankind, where there are extensive historical records of discharge and proven relationships with sea surface temperature variations in the present era. We aim to project the river discharge during the next 100 years under the full range of IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios. We use the suite of IPCC-AR4 CMIP3 climate models to determine future discharge. However, the projected precipitation from models have very large regional model-to-model variability, which limits the ability to quantify the regional precipitation trends. To overcome this problem, we use a basic statistical quantile-to-quantile technique to build a mapping index linking each modeled 20th century river basin precipitation and associated observed 20th century discharge. Model adequacy is stratified by their ability to simulate the observed annual cycle and a set of models chosen for each river basin. Using the "good" models so chosen, the future discharge of the Yangtze, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra over the next 100 years are for different emission scenarios. The Yangtze, Ganges, Brahmaputra mean wet season river discharges are projected to increase up to 15-25% at the end of 21st century under high greenhouse gases concentration scenarios (SRESA1B and SRESA2). Besides greater river discharge, flooding risk determined by year-to-year variability also increases substantially. Scenarios with fixed greenhouse gas concentration suggest little discharge change on mean value, year-to-year variation, and model-to-model deviation. It is estimated that the Yangtze, Brahmaputra and Ganges river basins might have population doubling times of between 45 and 90 years. Based on these numbers, the amount of fresh water available in these river basins for agriculture, human consumption and industrial use in the present era are compared with that will be available in the future. Despite the anticipated increase in river discharge, the amount of fresh water available per capita is expected to decrease by 50-75%, suggesting the approach of a societal-climate tipping point.

  5. Influence of hydrologic and anthropogenic factors on the abundance variability of enteropathogens in the Ganges estuary, a cholera endemic region.

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Prasenjit; Einsporn, Marc H; Mookerjee, Subham; Palit, Anup; Neogi, Sucharit B; Nair, Gopinath B; Lara, Rubén J

    2014-02-15

    This study deals with the influence of water physico-chemical properties, tides, rainfall and fecal pollution on the abundance of enteropathogens in a main distributary of the Ganges, in the endemic cholera belt of West Bengal. Between January and June 2011, water and sediments were sampled from two sites of the Hooghly River by Kolkata and Diamond Harbour. Counts of cultivable Vibrio (CVC, from~10(2) to~10(5)CFU/L) and total bacteria (TBC, from~10(5) to~10(9)CFU/L) increased with water temperature (17°C to 37°C). A combination of variations in tidal height, salinity and turbidity had a distinct influence on CVC, TBC and coliform counts. At Diamond Harbour, a salinity increase from 0.6 to 7.9 was accompanied by a 1000-fold amplification of initial CVC~10(2)CFU/L, whereas higher prevalence of coliforms in Kolkata was related to greater disposal of untreated sewage into the river. Turbidity-dependent variation of CVC was noteworthy, particularly at Diamond Harbour, where CVC in intertidal surface sediments showed an analogous trend as in surface waters, suggesting bentho-pelagic coupling of Vibrio dynamics. Besides the influence of salinity variation with tidal cycles, sediment re-suspension from tidal flats can play a role on Vibrio abundance in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24291141

  6. To See or Not to See: Investigating Detectability of Ganges River Dolphins Using a Combined Visual-Acoustic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Nadia I.; Gibbons, James M.; Turvey, Samuel T.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D.; Jones, Julia P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring. PMID:24805782

  7. Object-based Dune Analysis: Automated dune mapping and pattern characterization for Ganges Chasma and Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, David A.; Sarmento, Pedro T. K.; Barata, Maria T.; Fenton, Lori K.; Michaels, Timothy I.

    2015-12-01

    A method that enables the automated mapping and characterization of dune fields on Mars is described. Using CTX image mosaics, the introduced Object-based Dune Analysis (OBDA) technique produces an objective and reproducible mapping of dune morphologies over extensive areas. The data set thus obtained integrates a large variety of data, allowing a simple cross-analysis of dune patterns, spectral and morphometric information, and mesoscale wind models. Two dune fields, located in Gale crater and Ganges Chasma, were used to test and validate the methodology. The segmentation of dune-related morphologies is highly efficient, reaching overall accuracies of 95%. In addition, we show that the automated segmentation of slipface traces is also possible with expected accuracies of 85-90%. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the final outputs with photointerpretations is performed, and the precision of the directional characterization of the dune patterns is evaluated. We demonstrate a good agreement between the OBDA outputs and the photointerpreted dune morphologies, with local trend deviations below 45° for 80-95% of the mapped areas. Because the developed algorithm is tuned for the recognition of linear features from the imagery, the slipfaces of small barchans can be preferentially overlooked owing to their small extent at the spatial resolution of the CTX mosaics. Dune types composed of longer linear morphologies are much better represented, including correct mapping of secondary structures. Having proved the effectiveness and accuracy of the mapping procedure, we discuss its future applications for the improvement of dune catalogs on Mars.

  8. The Development of Research Networks among Early-Career Faculty Members in the Science, Engineering and Health Disciplines

    E-print Network

    Bankart, Charles Allen Swanson

    2011-12-31

    that attract our imagination. The findings of this study also have significant implications for practice. Faculty members were found to have had diverse collaborative experiences throughout their undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral, and faculty careers...

  9. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits...stead of such member. In the event a member and his or her alternate...handler) as the member. In the event of the death, removal,...

  10. Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany). PMID:18855319

  11. The Sound Disguiser Project Members

    E-print Network

    The Sound Disguiser Project Members Nadir Muhammad Khan, sx08nk0 Linus Tufvesson, dt06lt6 Nicklas Nidhög, dt06nn8 Description The main idea is to sample sound and output a distorted sound samples a microphone that will take analogue sound as input and an A/D converter will convert it to digital samples

  12. Member Takes Action Against Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertholf, Deedrick

    1999-01-01

    An ASBO member and chair of New York's School Emergency Response to Violent Events (SERVE) explains how this program tackles violence and teen suicide. SERVE teaches the basic principles of hostage situations, uses a confidential reporting system, and advocates safety audits and risk-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  13. UNIVERSITY CARD STAFF MEMBER APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    UNIVERSITY CARD STAFF MEMBER APPLICATION I, (Dr/Mr/Mrs/Ms) University ID Photocopying After Hours Access Library Borrowing Request for University Card after hours electronic access to the following a University card for the following reason: Please note Library access is restricted to continuous and fixed

  14. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15...-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor organization, includes any...

  15. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Member property. 190.09 Section 190.09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09 Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be...

  16. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09 Section 190.09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09 Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  20. Method of laminating structural members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A laminate is obtained by providing a lightweight core material, such as a honeycombed plastic or metal, within the cavity defined by an annular mold cavity frame. Face sheets, which are to be bonded to the core material, are provided on opposite sides of the frame and extend over the frame, thus sealing the core material in the cavity. An adhesive is provided between the core material and the face sheets and the combined thickness of the core material and adhesive is a close fit within the opposed face sheets. A gas tight seal, such as an O-ring gasket, is provided between the frame and the face sheet members to form a gas tight cavity between the face sheet members and the frame. External heat and pressure are used to bond the face sheets to the core material. Gas pressure is introduced into the sealed cavity to minimize out-gasing of the adhesive.

  1. Community Members as Recruiters of Human Subjects: Ethical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered in detail the ethical issues surrounding research in which investigators ask community members to engage in research subject recruitment within their own communities. Peer-driven recruitment (PDR) and its variants are useful for accessing and including certain populations in research, but also have the potential to undermine the ethical and scientific integrity of community-based research. This paper examines the ethical implications of utilizing community members as recruiters of human subjects in the context of PDR, as well as the authors' experience with a variant of PDR in a research project in South Africa. The importance of situating PDR in a comprehensive community engagement process that is responsive to the constraints of science and local needs and interests is emphasized. The paper will have relevance to bioethicists, health researchers, and research regulators concerned about the appropriate use of peer-driven recruitment strategies in health research. PMID:20229402

  2. Justice, leader-member exchange, and job performance: are their relationships mediated by organizational culture?

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Shultz, Tamar; Fisher, Tom

    2008-10-01

    The hypothesis that organizational justice is linked to leader-member exchange, which in turn affects job performance, was examined. It was predicted that two dimensions of organizational culture, employee supportiveness and attention to detail, would affect both leader-member exchange and organizational justice. Results from a sample of 75 employees of a public service organization found solid support for the predicted model. Contrary to expectations, however, the two aspects of organizational culture were found to play a mediating role: they were affected by organizational justice and in turn affected leader-member exchange. The theoretical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:19102476

  3. Modeling Floodplain Dynamics: Can the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta keep pace with 21st Century Sea Level Rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, K. G.; Overeem, I.

    2013-12-01

    The low-lying Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) Delta in Bangladesh is densely populated (~1200 people/km2) and could be flooded within the next century by rapid sea level rise and increased monsoonal rains. The G-B Rivers currently transport 1*109 tons of sediment from their basins in the Himalaya Mountains to the delta each year, with ~90% of the annual sediment load delivered during the Asian summer monsoon. Sediment distribution across the delta's surface by floods and coastal storms has kept pace with the rate of relative sea level rise along the Bengal coast, enabling the delta to maintain a positive elevation. However, ensemble Community Climate System Model experiments predict 11% higher monsoonal rainfall for the next century, potentially leading to extreme flooding events in the delta. Stratigraphic reconstructions show that sedimentation in the upper G-B floodplain was more than doubled under the Early Holocene enhanced monsoonal regime, suggesting that the delta may withstand an increase in monsoon intensity, flooding, and tropical cyclones that are currently predicted. Whether the G-B floodplains and coastal areas will ultimately drown under predicted sea level rise and monsoon intensification depends on a balance of aggradation, eustatic sea level rise and subsidence. To improve predictions of climatic forcing on aggradation rates in the lower G-B floodplain and coastal plain, direct sedimentation measurements collected in 2008 and 2012 in the lower delta are paired with a series of model components coupled within the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) Modeling Tool (CMT). We use three separate numerical models to simulate river basin sediment flux, floodplain sedimentation, and tidal-plain aggradation. The model inputs are based on available 20Th century climate and river gauge data, and outputs are compared to modern sedimentation rates within the G-B tidal delta and highly cultivated central coastal plain. The models are then used to test the response of the G-B sediment dispersal system under various climate scenarios and anthropogenic influences, including: increased precipitation and coastal water levels; changes in glacial coverage in the Himalayas; and greater sediment storage within man-made reservoirs. This quantitative modeling approach will help assess the process-response mechanisms of the G-B sediment dispersal system, better constraining the impact of flooding dynamics on basin sediment production and aggradation within the highly populated delta plain.

  4. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions between physical drivers, environmental pressures and the human responses to stresses and the resultant impacts on ecosystems. We argue that since the availability of land exerts a fundamental control on the nature and quality of ecosystem services (e.g., agriculture, flood regulation, etc. versus fisheries), an understanding of delta morphodynamic processes is central to the ecosystem services framework. We present an overview of the historical (~last two centuries) morphodynamic evolution of the GBM delta and demonstrate the effects that these changes have had on trade-offs in the nature of ecosystem services that are accessed by the inhabitants of the GBM delta system.

  5. Pedagogical Implications on Medical Students' Linguistic Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Yanling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extended teaching implication is performed based on the study of medical students' linguistic needs in Tawian (Hwang, Lin, 2010). The aims of previous study were to provide a description of the linguistic needs and perceptions of medical students and faculty members in Taiwan. However, this paper put more thoughts on the…

  6. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  7. Chapter VIII: New Members and Deceased Members at the General Assemby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The following lists give the names of the 1008 new Individual Members admitted at the XVIIIth General Assembly, ordered by National Member. New National Members are indicated by an asterisk (Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea).

  8. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  9. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  10. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  11. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  12. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  13. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section...OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.14 Member business. (a) At least 50...delivered to, a CMA for marketing must be produced by...

  14. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  15. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  16. 7 CFR 983.42 - Initial members and nomination of successor members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... member shall, upon termination of that relationship, become disqualified to serve further as a member...

  17. WT Grant Tracker Committee Member User Guide

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    1 WT Grant Tracker Committee Member User Guide Overview All committee members will now access their committee papers through the WT Grant Tracker portal. This guide provides basic information for committee members. If you have any queries, please contact the WT Grant Tracker Helpdesk: gtsupport

  18. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Member property. 190.09 Section 190.09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED... made by such member and any capital stock, or membership of such member in the clearing...

  19. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  20. Use of U-series nuclides to constrain sediments transfer-times in the alluvial plains: example of the Ganges and Bramaputra river system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Blaes, Estelle; Stille, Peter; France-Lanord, Christian; Dosseto, Antony

    2010-05-01

    U-series nuclides have the potential to bring important information on the transfer time of sediments in the alluvial plains. This is a consequence of the dual property of these nuclides 1) to be fractionated during physical denudation and chemical weathering processes and 2) to have radioactive decay periods of the same order of magnitude as the time-scales of these processes (e.g. Chabaux et al., 2003b, 2008). We have illustrated such a potential with the analysis of U-series disequilibria in sediments collected in the Ganges and Bramaputra river basin. The approach relies on the analysis of U-series in river sediments collected along the streams. Indeed, as illustrated in Granet et al. (2007), in large alluvial plains where sediments are only transferred and not affected by additional inputs of new weathering products from fresh rocks, the intensity of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in river sediments will only depend on two parameters: (a) the duration of the transfer including the time spent in soils and in the river, and (b) the nature and the intensity of U-Th fractionations occurring in sediments during their transfer into alluvial plains. Recovering time information from the variation of U-Th disequilibria in such sediments requires therefore the use of realistic models accounting for the U-Th fractionation of sediments during their transfers into the plain. From the data, it is proposed for the Ganges and Bramaputra river sediments, that the main U-Th fractionation process is connected with the sediment weathering during their transit and storage in the plain. In this case the U-Th variation in sediments along the two main rivers lead to quite long sediment transfer time in the alluvial plains, of 100-150 ky for Bramaputra plain and of 400 or 500 ky for the Ganges river. Chabaux F., Riotte J., Dequincey O. (2003) U-Th-Ra fractionation during weathering and river transport, Rev Mineral. Geochem. 52, 533-576. Chabaux, F., Bourdon, B., Riotte, J., 2008. U-series Geochemistry in weathering profiles, river waters and lakes. In : S. Krishnaswami and J.K. Cochran (Eds.), U/Th Series Radionuclides in Aquatic Systems, Elsevier, Radioactivity in the Environment, 13, 49-104 M. Granet, F. Chabaux, C. France-Lanord, P. Stille, E. Pelt (2007). Time-scales of sedimentary transfer and weathering processes from U-series nuclides: Clues from the Himalayan rivers, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261, 389-406.

  1. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) < Pedon 2 < Pedon 1, reflected e. g. in increasing Fed/Fet ratios, decreasing molar ratios of (Ca+K+Na)/Al, and decreasing pH. However, it needs to be considered that lapilli are more readily weatherable than gneiss fragments. The profile morphology of the paleosol, characterized by reddish-brown color (7.5YR), strong angular blocky structure and well-expressed illuvial clay coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar environment for the time of the deposition of the pyroclastics (18.9 ka BP) in the toe slope profile. The character of the steppe was probably more open at this time, but the presence of at least few scattered trees over the steppe is evidenced by a charred tree trunk that was found in the profile. During Holocene, vegetation consisted mainly of deciduous forest, until anthropogenic influence increased from around 1850 AD on. Reference: Steblich, M., Mingram, J., Han, J., Liu, Y. (2009): Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 56-70.

  2. Melting Himalayan glaciers contaminated by legacy atmospheric depositions are important sources of PCBs and high-molecular-weight PAHs for the Ganges floodplain during dry periods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Nizzetto, Luca; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Melymuk, Lisa; Sá?ka, Ond?ej; P?ibylová, Petra; Audy, Ond?ej; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2015-11-01

    Melting glaciers are natural redistributors of legacy airborne pollutants, affecting exposure of pristine proglacial environments. Our data shows that melting Himalayan glaciers can be major contributors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for surface water in the Gangetic Plain during the dry season. Glacial emissions can exceed in some cases inputs from diffuse sources within the catchment. We analyzed air, deposition and river water in several sections along the Ganges River and its major headwaters. The predominant glacial origin of these contaminants in the Himalayan reach was demonstrated using air-water fugacity ratios and mass balance analysis. The proportion of meltwater emissions compared to pollutant discharge at downstream sections in the central part of the Gangetic Plain was between 2 and 200%. By remobilizing legacy pollutants from melting glaciers, climate change can enhance exposure levels over large and already heavily impacted regions of Northern India. PMID:26312740

  3. FBI DRUGFIRE program: the development and deployment of an automated firearms identification system to support serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Robert W.

    1994-03-01

    The FBI DRUGFIRE Program entails the continuing phased development and deployment of a scalable automated firearms identification system. The first phase of this system, a networked, database-driven firearms evidence imaging system, has been operational for approximately one year and has demonstrated its effectiveness in facilitating the sharing and linking of firearms evidence collected in serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations. However, there is a pressing need for development of enhancements which will more fully automate the system so that it is capable of processing very large volumes of firearms evidence. These enhancements would provide automated image analysis and pattern matching functionalities. Existing `spin off' technologies need to be integrated into the present DRUGFIRE system to automate the 3-D mensuration, registration, feature extraction, and matching of the microtopographical surface features imprinted on the primers of fired casings during firing.

  4. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. PMID:24417554

  5. 7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations General § 1210.502 Importer members. Pursuant to §...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations General § 1210.502 Importer members. Pursuant to §...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations General § 1210.502 Importer members. Pursuant to §...

  8. Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2015-08-01

    We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.

  9. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate members. (a) The...

  19. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Member property. 190.09 Section 190.09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09... deposit or similar payment or deposit made by such member and any capital stock, or membership of...

  20. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 190.09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09..., however, That any guaranty deposit or similar payment or deposit made by such member and any capital stock... capital stock, or membership of such member in the clearing organization shall also be included in...

  1. Suspicion of Confederacy by Group Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, J. David

    1979-01-01

    Studies deception in social psychological research by using group members rather than audience as data-generating subjects. Use of confederates, if chosen with care, does not appear to increase suspicion from group members. The more conspiciously deviant a confederate, the more he is suspected. (Author/BEF)

  2. Managing Non-Productive University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John; Muir, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Examines how chairpersons of physical education departments in North American universities identify and manage their marginal faculty members, in the context of an exploratory model suggested by O'Reilly and Wietz (1980). Up to 15% of faculty members are perceived as being nonproductive or marginal, but very few are ever dismissed. Proposes some…

  3. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  4. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  5. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  6. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of the Council, may invite the heads of other...

  7. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of the Council, may invite the heads of other...

  8. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  9. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  10. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  11. 75 FR 72872 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the... appointment of Performance Review Board (PRB) members. This notice updates the VA Performance Review Board of... Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20420, (202) 461-7078. VA Performance...

  12. 78 FR 69093 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Performance Review Board Members AGENCY... Health and Human Services (HHS) is publishing the names of the Performance Review Board Members who are reviewing performance for Fiscal Year 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sharon O'Brien, Deputy...

  13. 77 FR 71873 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: Corporate Senior Executive Management Office, Department of Veterans... publish a notice in the Federal Register of the appointment of ] Performance Review Board (PRB) members. This notice announces the appointment of persons to serve on the Performance Review Board of...

  14. 78 FR 69097 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Performance Review Board Members Title 5, U.S.C. Section 4314(c)(4) of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, Public Law 95-454, requires that the appointment of Performance Review Board Members be published in the Federal Register. The following persons may be named to serve on the...

  15. School Law Primer for New Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullaly, Paula A.

    School board members from 50 states have in common the United States Constitution and the legal principles announced by the federal courts in response to that Constitution. New board members are usually concerned with the rights of teachers, parents, and students. Starting with student rights, student conduct that involves freedom of expression…

  16. Member information: Please verify or provide Member information below. Daytime phone

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dongwon

    First name Last name Doctor's phone numberDoctor's last name 1st initial Patient's relationship numberDoctor's last name 1st initial Patient's relationship to memberBirth date (MM/DD/YYYY) Sex SelfMember information: Please verify or provide Member information below. Daytime phone: 1 Patient/doctor

  17. Yes, I want to join the Arts Alliance! Member First Name: Member Last Name

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Megan

    Yes, I want to join the Arts Alliance! Member First Name: Member Last Name: Primary e-mail: Phone: If you would like to include your spouse/partner in this membership, please provide the individual's name and email address: First Name: Last Name: Additional Member e-mail: Please tell us how you would like your

  18. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  19. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  20. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  1. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  2. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  3. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  4. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  5. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  6. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  7. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  8. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the...for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  9. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed. PMID:26291406

  10. Status and Developments of eLearning in the EU10 Member States: The Cases of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Mutka, Kirsti; Gaspar, Pal; Kismihok, Gabor; Suurna, Margit; Vehovar, Vasja

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises research carried out between 2006 and 2008 by IPTS (Institution for Prospective Technological Studies) in collaboration with a consortium of experts from 10 member states, led by ICEGEC. The project gathered information on eLearning developments to assess drivers and barriers and to suggest implications for policy and…

  11. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-03-22

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

  12. Your Portrait: Board Members Support Voc Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Despite some regional differences, school board members strongly approve of vocational education and take issue with critics who doubt the value of these programs for high school students. (Author/IRT)

  13. Possible new members of Datura asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaev, A.; Plavalova, E.

    2015-10-01

    The problem of origin and age of asteroid families is studied very intensively. The youngest families are the most interesting due to the possibility to reconstruct their collisional history. Here we report about three possible new members of Datura family.

  14. Conducting a multi family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2014-06-01

    Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. PMID:24410452

  15. 7 CFR 924.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits...other duties as assigned. In the event of the death, removal, resignation...selected and has qualified. In the event both a member of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  18. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  19. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  20. 7 CFR 1219.37 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.37 Alternate members. An alternate...

  1. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

  2. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

  3. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

  4. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

  5. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 985.25 Alternate members....

  6. Life Sciences Advisory Board Members 2015 2016

    E-print Network

    Shlizerman, Eli

    Education Working Group on Global Issues as part of the Council on Foreign Relations Former chair, Executive Group of the Worldwide Universities Network Past UW Botanic Gardens Committee Board Member Past Northwest Horticultural

  7. 7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.33 Alternate members....

  8. Seasonal, Episodic and Periodic Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Recorded By DEEP Piezometric Monitoring in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna DELTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, W. G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Ahmed, K. M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.; Zahid, A.

    2014-12-01

    Piezometric monitoring in vertical profile at sites across the southern and coastal floodplains of the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna (GBM) delta confirms gravitational flow in sediments of the Bengal Aquifer System (BAS) to a depth of at least 320 m (the maximum depth of measurement). Individual and paired records of groundwater head indicate seasonal recovery and recession of water storage, periodic and episodic ground surface loading, and earth tide responses. Lunar periodicity in groundwater head fluctuation coincident with tide height at one coastal site is consistent with tidal surface loading/unloading. Diurnal tidal fluctuations in the same record change amplitude and shift phase with depth, also indicative of surface loading/unloading. Transience in the surface loading signals with depth is governed by the vertically integrated hydraulic properties of the thick BAS sedimentary sequence. Inland, earth tide responses of smaller amplitude and lacking phase shift with depth are ubiquitous in the background signal. Most records include clearly resolvable episodic deflections in the order of 0.1 m water head and up to 0.5 m water head, near simultaneous with depth, corresponding to individual episodes of rainfall. The episodic head deflections provide a record of change in terrestrial water storage (?TWS) comprising undifferentiated surface water flooding, soil moisture and shallow groundwater recharge - a direct land-based equivalent of satellite estimates of ?TWS. Enigmatic short-term recession from individual deflection peaks may be related to elastic deformation and ground surface lowering under terrestrial water storage loading.

  9. Hydrologic Visualization of Glacier-Driven Watersheds to Enhance Education Exchange Between Students from the US and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta on Freshwater Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    It has been argued and demonstrated in the past that STEM outreach in the field of hydrology is effective only when it is contextualized using an actual problem that students can visualize in 'their backyard.' The Puyallup watershed, which is in the "backyard" of University of Washington (UW) and the Ganges Brahmaputra (GB) Delta (which UW Department of Civil Engineering has institutional access through an MOU with Institute of Water Modeling-IWM, Bangladesh and International Center for Integrated Mountain Development-ICIMOD, Nepal) provide an ideal opportunity to build a unique education program for US and South Asian students on global freshwater sustainability. Using a rich set of geospatial data layers, dynamic hydrologic datasets and a user-driven visualization platform called Hydro-VIZ, we present a plan on how exchange students can witness the differences in human-nature coupling of each region and share notes on the future of freshwater supply for densely-populated deltas. We discuss the development of a set of place-based learning curricular material built around two contrasting regions and the HydroVIZ platform with functionality to explore the human coupling of water sustainability.

  10. Methods for scaling a large member base

    E-print Network

    Nathan Boeger

    2006-02-20

    The technical challenges of scaling websites with large and growing member bases, like social networking sites, are numerous. One of these challenges is how to evenly distribute the growing member base across all available resources. This paper will explore various methods that address this issue. The techniques used in this paper can be generalized and applied to various other problems that need to distribute data evenly amongst a finite amount of resources.

  11. Brake for counter rotating bladed members

    SciTech Connect

    Cedoz, R.W.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a propulsion system including a gas turbine engine having an output shaft and a gear drive having a planetary gear set with a first element connected to the engine output shaft and a second element connected to a first bladed member and a third element connected to a second bladed member whereby the first and second bladed members are rotated in opposite directions by the output shaft. A brake is described comprising, a first transfer shaft supported on a stationary housing for rotation about an axis of the latter, a second transfer shaft supported on the stationary housing for rotation about the axis, gear means between one of the counter rotating bladed members and the first transfer shaft and gear means between the other of the counter rotating bladed members and the second transfer shaft. The brake also includes a selectively operable brake actuator on the housing movable between an extended position and a retracted position, and friction means between the brake actuator and each of first and second transfer shafts operative in the extended position of the brake actuator to simultaneously frictionally retard rotation of each of the first and the second transfer shafts whereby each of the counter rotating bladed members is simultaneously braked.

  12. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:24003583

  13. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940...Programs § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director...employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 true Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940...Programs § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director...employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940...Programs § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director...employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940...Programs § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director...employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940...Programs § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director...employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  18. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119 ...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Qualified Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A...

  19. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119 ...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Qualified Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A...

  20. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance Through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin

    2012-07-16

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join ...

  1. Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

  2. The contextualized self: how team-member exchange leads to coworker identification and helping OCB.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Steven M; Van Dyne, Linn; Kamdar, Dishan

    2015-03-01

    This article develops the argument that team-member exchange (TMX) relationships operate at both between- and within-group levels of analysis to influence an employee's sense of identification with coworkers in the group and their helping organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) directed at coworkers. Specifically, we propose that relatively higher quality TMX relationships of an employee as compared with other members of the group influence an employee's sense of positive uniqueness, whereas higher average level of TMX quality in the group creates a greater sense of belonging. Multilevel modeling analysis of field data from 236 bank managers and their subordinates supports the hypotheses and demonstrates 3 key findings. First, team members identify more with their coworkers when they have high relative TMX quality compared with other group members and are also embedded in groups with higher average TMX. Second, identification with coworkers is positively related to helping OCB directed toward team members. Finally, identification with coworkers mediates the interactive effect of relative TMX quality and group average TMX quality on helping. When TMX group relations allow individuals to feel a valued part of the group, but still unique, they engage in higher levels of helping. Overall moderated mediation analysis demonstrates that the mediated relationship linking relative TMX quality with helping OCB via identification with coworkers is stronger when group average TMX is high, but not present when group average TMX is low. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and recommend future research on multilevel conceptualizations of TMX. PMID:25111250

  3. Managed Lane Choices by Carpools Comprised of Family Members Compared to Non-family Members 

    E-print Network

    Pannu, Mandeep S.

    2011-02-22

    Carpools can be comprised of family members (fampools), non-family members (non-fampools) or a combination of both. Overall, carpool mode share has decreased during the 1980's and 1990's, even as the policies were in place to encourage carpooling...

  4. Curved Glide-Reflection Symmetry Detection Seungkyu Lee, Member, IEEE, and Yanxi Liu, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Curved Glide-Reflection Symmetry Detection Seungkyu Lee, Member, IEEE, and Yanxi Liu, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--We generalize the concept of bilateral reflection symmetry to curved glide-reflection symmetry in 2D euclidean space, such that classic reflection symmetry becomes one of its six special cases

  5. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  6. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  7. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  8. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  9. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  10. 7 CFR 932.130 - Public member and alternate public member eligibility requirements and nomination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.130 Public... member (husband, wife, son or daughter) of a producer or handler of olives and shall have no direct... processing of olives; nor shall they be either an officer, director, or employee, or family member of...

  11. 7 CFR 932.130 - Public member and alternate public member eligibility requirements and nomination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.130 Public... member (husband, wife, son or daughter) of a producer or handler of olives and shall have no direct... processing of olives; nor shall they be either an officer, director, or employee, or family member of...

  12. 7 CFR 932.130 - Public member and alternate public member eligibility requirements and nomination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.130 Public... member (husband, wife, son or daughter) of a producer or handler of olives and shall have no direct... processing of olives; nor shall they be either an officer, director, or employee, or family member of...

  13. 7 CFR 932.130 - Public member and alternate public member eligibility requirements and nomination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.130 Public... member (husband, wife, son or daughter) of a producer or handler of olives and shall have no direct... processing of olives; nor shall they be either an officer, director, or employee, or family member of...

  14. 7 CFR 932.130 - Public member and alternate public member eligibility requirements and nomination procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.130 Public... member (husband, wife, son or daughter) of a producer or handler of olives and shall have no direct... processing of olives; nor shall they be either an officer, director, or employee, or family member of...

  15. The patch transform Taeg Sang Cho, Student Member, IEEE, Shai Avidan, Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    Freeman, William T.

    The patch transform Taeg Sang Cho, Student Member, IEEE, Shai Avidan, Member, IEEE, and William T. Freeman, Fellow, IEEE Abstract The patch transform represents an image as bag of overlapping patches sampled on a regular grid. This representation allows users to manipulate images in the patch domain

  16. Bootstrapping Ontologies for Web Services Aviv Segev, Member, IEEE, and Quan Z. Sheng, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Sheng, Michael

    for ontology construction, involves automatic identification of concepts relevant to a domain and relationsBootstrapping Ontologies for Web Services Aviv Segev, Member, IEEE, and Quan Z. Sheng, Member, IEEE Abstract--Ontologies have become the de-facto modeling tool of choice, employed in many applications

  17. Metastable Walking Machines Katie Byl, Member, IEEE and Russ Tedrake, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Tedrake, Russ

    for analysis can limit their utility. Experimental analyses of real machines based on these simple models1 Metastable Walking Machines Katie Byl, Member, IEEE and Russ Tedrake, Member, IEEE Abstract, these "disturbances" cannot always be canceled out with high-gain feedback. Minimally-actuated walking machines

  18. Light-Efficient Photography Samuel W. Hasinoff, Member, IEEE, and Kiriakos N. Kutulakos, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Light-Efficient Photography Samuel W. Hasinoff, Member, IEEE, and Kiriakos N. Kutulakos, Member to off-the-shelf cameras and typical photography conditions, and advocate the use of dense, wide-aperture photo sequences as a light-efficient alternative to single-shot, narrow-aperture photography. Index

  19. Multiscale Density Estimation R. M. Willett, Student Member, IEEE, and R. D. Nowak, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert

    1 Multiscale Density Estimation R. M. Willett, Student Member, IEEE, and R. D. Nowak, Member, IEEE additional advantages: estimates are guaranteed to be positive, Corresponding author: R. Willett, TX 77251-1892 USA (e-mail: willett@ece.rice.edu, phone: 713 348 3230, fax: 713 348 6196). R. Willett

  20. Edge Detection with Embedded Confidence Peter Meer, Senior Member, IEEE, and Bogdan Georgescu, Student Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Edge Detection with Embedded Confidence Peter Meer, Senior Member, IEEE, and Bogdan Georgescu, Student Member, IEEE AbstractÐComputing the weighted average of the pixel values in a window is a basic three-step edge detection procedure: gradient estimation, nonmaxima suppression, hysteresis thresholding

  1. Sedimentary profile from oxbow lake as an archive for past productivity and vegetation changes: a case study from Ganges basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Sambit; Sanyal, Prasanta; Ambili, Anoop

    2015-04-01

    Isotope (?13CSOM) and biomarker (lipid n-alkane) investigations has been carried out on three sedimentary profiles (ca. 1.8 m depth) collected from Mohanpur, West Bengal, India with the aim of reconstructing paleovegetational and paleoproductivity changes. Satellite images reveal that the investigated sediments has been deposited in an oxbow lake setting of the river Ganges. The correlation of the three sedimentary profiles has been achieved using lithological and isotopic (?13CSOM) marker layers. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the profile ranges from 0.9% to 0.1%. The isotopic analysis (?13CSOM) shows values mostly fluctuating between -19.2o to -22o with a rapid excursions (~5) showing enriched ?13CSOMvalue (-14.2) observed at ca. 1.5 m depth. The biomarker studies of the profile reveals dominant preferences in short carbon chain (C14, C16, C18, C20) with a little preferences for higher chain (C29, C31, C33). Interestingly, n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth shows very high concentration in short chain n-alkanes. Since the lower chain n-alkane represents aquatic vegetation/productivity and higher chain indicates the terrestrial contribution, the data from the investigated sedimentary profile shows contribution mostly from aquatic vegetation with a little contribution from terrestrial plants. This inference has been further corroborated by ?13CSOMvalues (-19.2o to -22) of the sedimentary profile typical of mixed aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Additionally, the enriched ?13CSOMvalue (-14.2) coupled with very high concentration of short chain n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth reveals intense lake eutrophication. The development of rigorous chronology and high resolution data set of additional analytical parameters (e.g., C/N, ?15N) will provide crucial paleoclimate data set from this unexplored setting of Indian summer monsoon domain.

  2. Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

  3. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Uddin, A.; Saunders, J. A.; Lee, M.-K.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 µg/L to 191 µg/L with a mean concentration of 33 µg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO3 type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO4. The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 µg/L. Deeper aquifer (> 100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 µg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  4. Interannual variability of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric (UTLS) region over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin based on COSMIC GNSS RO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandu; Awange, J.; Forootan, E.

    2015-09-01

    Poor reliability of radiosonde observational networks across South Asia imposes serious challenges in understanding climate variability and thermodynamic structure of the upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric (UTLS) region. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission launched in April 2006 have overcome many observational limitations that are inherent in conventional atmospheric sounding instruments. This study investigated the interannual variability of the UTLS region over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin based on COSMIC radio occultation (RO) data from August 2006 to December 2013. Detailed comparisons were also made with various different radiosonde types and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products. The results indicated that Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) radiosondes performed poorly despite upgrading to newer techniques. ShangE (of China) sonde showed the best agreement with COSMIC RO data with a mean temperature difference of -0.06 °C and a standard deviation of 1.44 °C while the older version (ShangM) indicated a cold bias of 0.61 °C in the UTLS region. The inter-annual variability of temperature in the UTLS region based on COSMIC RO data indicated a clear pattern of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) while the stratospheric temperature anomalies reflected all three major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events since 2007. The mean tropopause temperature varied from -70 to -80 °C, with an average height of about 15.5 to 16.3 km from winter to summer, indicating a pronounced annual cycle. The annual amplitudes of tropopause were found to be in the order of 0-6 °C and 0-1.5 km from tropical south to subtropical north. The anomalies of tropopause temperature and height exhibited the patterns of ENSO and IOD exceptionally well with a correlation of 0.65 and -0.52, respectively. The temperature data from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research Application (MERRA) agreed very well with COSMIC RO data.

  5. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

  6. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  7. Intimate partner violence among female service members and veterans: information and resources available through military and non-military websites.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Joshi, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of women's roles in the military, the number of female service members and veterans has increased. Considerable knowledge about intimate partner violence (IPV) in civilian couples exists but little is known about IPV among female service members and veterans. Prevalence rates of IPV range from 17% to 39% for female service members, and 21.9% to 74% for veterans. Most service members and veterans indicated using the Internet at least occasionally and expressed willingness to seek information about services via the Internet. Informed by data, we conducted a systematic review of military (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and non-military (Veterans Affairs and Google) websites to explore the availability and presentation of information and resources related to IPV. The websites search revealed a variety of resources and information available, and important differences between sites with regard to what and how information is presented. Implications for practice and further research are discussed. PMID:25255337

  8. Resource allocation to testes in walnut flies and implications for reproductive Laura D. Carsten-Conner a,

    E-print Network

    Papaj, Daniel

    Resource allocation to testes in walnut flies and implications for reproductive strategy Laura D in Rhagoletis juglandis, the walnut fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Like other members of this temperate genus

  9. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 920.27 Section 920.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  10. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 920.27 Section 920.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 920.27 Section 920.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate members. 920.27 Section 920.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 920.27 Section 920.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  14. Economic Contribution of the French LERU Members

    E-print Network

    Economic Contribution of the French LERU Members Areportto University of Strasbourg, Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC) and Université de Paris-Sud 3rd September2015 BiGGAR Economics BiGGAR Economics MidlothianInnovationCentre Pentlandfield Roslin,Midlothian EH259RE,Scotland +441314409032 info

  15. School Board Members: Advocates for American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updating School Board Policies, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This article offers suggestions to school board members for developing effective grassroots lobbying. Tips include: (1) hook up with an organized network; (2) set an advocacy policy; (3) select an advocacy strategy for policy issues; (4) reach out for broad support; and (5) deliver the message through the media. Guidelines are offered for writing,…

  16. Stability of structural members under axial load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E

    1937-01-01

    The principles of the cross method of moment distribution are used to check the stability of structural members under axial load. A brief theoretical treatment of the subject, together with an illustrative problem, is included as well as a discussion of the reduced modulus at high stresses and a set of tables to aid in the solution of practical problems.

  17. Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

    2007-01-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

  18. Legal Liability of Individual School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverett, E. Freeman

    Federal court decisions and federal statutes have established a number of new rights for individuals in recent years, and the Supreme Court decided in 1975 that school board members have only limited immunity from liability for the possible denial of those rights by school board actions. These two developments have drastically increased the amount…

  19. WTO Members' Commitments in Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of World Trade Organization is in line with the conclusion reached at the end of the Uruguay Round in April 1994 by the bulk of the world's trading nations. WTO is in charge of managing multilateral trading system. WTO's "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) requires member nations to comply with the following…

  20. How To Dismiss a Tenured Faculty Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Hans A.

    1992-01-01

    At many colleges and universities in the United States, the mystique of tenure has provided tenured faculty, even incompetent and inactive faculty, a protected status. Dismissing a tenured faculty member requires a specified cause for termination, and is often one of the most difficult personnel actions that a college can take. Dealing with…

  1. SFU Employee Benefit Plans TSSU Members

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    SFU Employee Benefit Plans TSSU Members (Sessional Instructors, Teaching Assistants & Tutor Markers) BENEFIT EFFECTIVE DATE COST Employee Share Employer Share 1. Medical Services Plan of British Columbia for themselves and each dependent. 0% 100% 2. Extended Health Care Plan (EHB) Pacific Blue Cross (PBC) Monthly

  2. Profile of an Effective Hospice Team Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Joseph L.; Stone, Donald B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined competencies that hospice practitioners and experts in the field would agree upon as necessary attributes to being an effective hospice team member. Results indicated strong positive agreement between the rankings of the practitioners on emotional and interpersonal characteristics needed by hospice personnel to effectively function with…

  3. (Original Signature of Member) 109TH CONGRESS

    E-print Network

    Knowles, David William

    , by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his inven- tion of the cyclotron of Member) 109TH CONGRESS 2D SESSION H. RES. ll Recognizing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as one on lllllllllllllll RESOLUTION Recognizing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as one of the world's premier science

  4. 43 CFR 1784.3 - Member service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as an advisor, however, does not limit the rights of a member acting as a private citizen or as a..., after written notice, terminate the service of an advisor if, in the judgment of the Secretary or the designated Federal officer, such removal is in the public interest, or if the advisor— (1) No longer...

  5. Member News Nano News Press Releases

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    NanoNEWS Member News Nano News Press Releases Nano Global News Nano Reports Nano Conferences", Exploring Matter with Synchrotron Light" and "Exploring Matter with Neutrons" by ordering from here. Nano. Send your Press R Judith.LightFeather@TNTG.org 14 Oct 2006 Researchers develop bistable nano switch

  6. Medical Education Committee Members 2013 -2014

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    /PhD Rep. Brian Reid Computing - Geisel John Dick III, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Glenda Shoop, Ph 6/1/2014 Student Member Robert Hyde, MD 6/1/2016 Assistant Professor of Medicine Sarah Johansen, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine and of Community & Family Medicine Dean Madden, PhD 6/1/2015 Professor

  7. Prof. Cha & lab members in Swiss Alps

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taejeong

    Prof. Cha & lab members in Swiss Alps A Global Engineering Lab ! Working with SAP Silicon Valley development -- State-of-art technology updates from Silicon Valley -- Leverage SAP's global R&D network thru SAP Korea labs SAP is 50,000-employee global software company with R&D labs in Germany, Silicon Valley

  8. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-12-10

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  9. 7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importer members. 1210.502 Section 1210.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importer members. 1210.502 Section 1210.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.502 - Importer members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importer members. 1210.502 Section 1210.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH...

  12. Ice Climatology & Modeling Team Team Members

    E-print Network

    Ice Climatology & Modeling Team Team Members: Anne Clites (GLERL), Xuezhi Bai (CILER), Haoguo Hu relationships between lake ice / regional climate variability and changing climate patterns. 2) Develops and implements coupled ice-circulation-ecosystem models to simulate ice-circulation- ecosystem's response

  13. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 985.25 Section 985.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  14. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 985.25 Section 985.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  15. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  16. A Helping Hand for Young Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    With the academic year just under way, many junior faculty members in search of much-needed advice and guidance have begun to make critical connections with senior colleagues. Departmental pairings are the most standard form of faculty mentoring, as is the practice of newly minted professors' tapping colleagues on their own to answer questions…

  17. Physical Fitness of University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, H. N.; Barksdale, J. M.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity, aerobic fitness, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in 27 male and 21 female university faculty members. Results of t-tests indicate that the males had significantly greater values for physical activity index, systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness (V02 max), and…

  18. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 985.25 Section 985.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  19. Board Member Testifies at Cyber Safety Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    House Education and Labor Subcommittee on Healthy Families and Communities unanimously expressed concern for the growing trend in cyberbullying during a hearing last June 24. The event, which featured National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) board member Barbara-Jane Paris and other witnesses, including TV personality Dr. Phil…

  20. Mission Statement Analysis of CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Gilson, Krista Merrick

    2010-01-01

    Assessed were the mission statements of 107 member institutions of the Coalition of Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). The analysis was conducted on a microlevel via appraising the frequency of words used in the statements as well as the general constructs expressed. The respective mission statements were coded for content and common…

  1. 7 CFR 925.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 925.27 Section 925.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  2. 7 CFR 925.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 925.27 Section 925.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  3. 7 CFR 925.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 925.27 Section 925.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  4. 7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 989.33 Section 989.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  5. 7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 989.33 Section 989.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  6. 7 CFR 925.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 925.27 Section 925.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  7. 7 CFR 925.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate members. 925.27 Section 925.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  8. 7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 989.33 Section 989.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  9. Successful Strategies for Teams Team Member Handbook

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Successful Strategies for Teams Team Member Handbook by Frances A. Kennedy, Ph.D. Associate of this handbook is to equip you with tools that can help your team work productively and successfully. In the networked organization, Cole's successful performance depends on his interactions with many of his coworkers

  10. Handbook for Members of Audit Committees in

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    sector 41 6.2 The role of the audit committee 42 7 Oversight of risk management and control 45 7Handbook for Members of Audit Committees in Higher Education Institutions February2008/06 #12 Foreword 5 Message from the CUC Chairman 6 Introduction 7 1 Good practice principles for audit committees

  11. Panchapakesan Ganesh Research & Development Associate Staff Member

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    reactive- and non-reactive force-field modeling to simulate and understand the structure, dynamicsPanchapakesan Ganesh Research & Development Associate Staff Member Center For Nanophase Materials) 2010 present R&D Associate Research Staff, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL 2010 2012

  12. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 930.28 Section 930.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  13. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 930.28 Section 930.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  14. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 923.27 Section 923.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 923.27 Section 923.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 923.27 Section 923.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 923.27 Section 923.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 930.28 Section 930.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  19. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate members. 923.27 Section 923.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 915.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 915.27 Section 915.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  1. 7 CFR 915.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 915.27 Section 915.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  2. 7 CFR 915.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 915.27 Section 915.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  3. Babysitting Beginnings. Leader's Guide [and] Member's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincemoyer, Claudia; Scholl, Jan; Gregory, Debra

    Using an experiential learning approach, these guides for 4-H leaders and members detail a 6-session program, "Babysitting Beginnings," to teach sixth through twelfth graders the responsibilities and skills involved in babysitting. Participants develop a babysitting tool kit for future use with children and a babysitting portfolio, a collection of…

  4. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  5. Found Poems, Member Checking and Crises of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish veracity, qualitative researchers frequently rely on member checks to insure credibility by giving participants opportunities to correct errors, challenge interpretations and assess results; however, member checks are not without drawbacks. This paper describes an innovative approach to conducting member checks. Six members…

  6. Metamorphs: Deformable Shape and Appearance Xiaolei Huang, Member, IEEE, and Dimitris Metaxas, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xiaolei

    Metamorphs: Deformable Shape and Appearance Models Xiaolei Huang, Member, IEEE, and Dimitris simultaneously. When applied to segmentation, a Metamorphs model can be initialized covering a seed region far territory with consistent appearance statistics. The Metamorphs formulation also allows natural merging

  7. The Francis Report--dento-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Foster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    This article explores the potential implications of the Francis Report for members of the dental team from a dento-legal perspective. It looks at the broad recommendations in light of the existing ethical environment in which dental registrants work and asks what is new and what the recommendations will actually mean for dental professionals in practical terms. Clinical Relevance: The fundamental recommendations of the Francis Report, namely, that those who provide care should put patients' interests first and be open about outcomes and performance, are not new concepts. A breach of these ethically based expectations may, however, create grounds for legal proceedings, which is clearly a significant point for all members of the dental team. It is therefore important to be aware of what is expected of those providing clinical care. PMID:26062256

  8. Infrared Scanning of FRP Composite Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, U. B.; Bangalore, G.; GangaRao, H. V. S.; Klinkhachorn, P.

    2003-03-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite is rapidly emerging as an alternative material for the infrastructure industry, and as a supplement to the conventional material such as steel, concrete, and timber. However, the long-term behavior of these materials has not been fully understood. In order to study the durability issues, it is important to develop a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system for continuous monitoring of structural members built with FRP materials. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on delamination detection in FRP composite members using infrared thermography. Simulated delaminations of various sizes were inserted into several FRP box sections and deck sections during the pultrusion process to create subsurface defects. The defective specimens were then tested in the laboratory using infrared thermography to predict the location and planar extent of these subsurface delaminations. The infrared tests yielded good results, which indicate that the technique can be developed for long-term in-service monitoring of FRP structural members in the field environment.

  9. Temple Mountain member, a new member of the Chinle formation in the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robeck, Raymond C.

    1956-01-01

    A lithologic unit, referred to as mottled purple and white, or the 'pinto bed,' in the San Rafael Swell has E?nough thickness and continuity to be formally named the Temple Mountain member of the Chinle formationo The member is characterized by the presence of: the interfingering of siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone; purple and white color; quartz grains and pebbles; jasper; and coalified material.

  10. 17 CFR 240.11a2-2(T) - Transactions effected by exchange members through other members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transactions effected by exchange members through other members. 240.11a2-2(T) Section 240.11a2-2(T) Commodity and Securities... Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a2-2(T) Transactions effected by exchange members through other members....

  11. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end of this century. PMID:26086045

  12. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a liberal arts education brought a generally broader perspective than the more specialized graduate students. Overcoming this condition for the grad students is one of the principal reasons that the course was designed, and incorporating undergrads involved in the humanities and social disciplines invigorated these transdisciplinary aspects of the course.

  13. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous hurdles that we did not anticipate, and often required a change in plan. In this study we summarize these key hurdles faced and offer a step by step approach to setting up river models for large ungauged river basins. Such a guide can be useful for the community wishing to set up RAS type models in basins such as Niger, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus etc.

  14. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Ann C; Davis, Kelly D; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers' income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers' reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the "long arm" of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring. PMID:18414596

  15. Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the Oldest Member of the Giant Panda Clade

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Juan; Alba, David M.; Robles, Josep M.; Valenciano, Alberto; Rotgers, Cheyenn; Carmona, Raül; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae), has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8–7 mya) was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12–11 Ma) Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos). The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint. PMID:23155439

  16. An eye for the I: Preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kerry; Williams, Amanda; Sidhu, David; Choma, Becky L; Rodriguez-Bailón, Rosa; Cañadas, Elena; Chung, Derek; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Human faces, and more specifically the eyes, play a crucial role in social and nonverbal communication because they signal valuable information about others. It is therefore surprising that few studies have investigated the impact of intergroup contexts and motivations on attention to the eyes of ingroup and outgroup members. Four experiments investigated differences in eye gaze to racial and novel ingroups using eye tracker technology. Whereas Studies 1 and 3 demonstrated that White participants attended more to the eyes of White compared to Black targets, Study 2 showed a similar pattern of attention to the eyes of novel ingroup and outgroup faces. Studies 3 and 4 also provided new evidence that eye gaze is flexible and can be meaningfully influenced by current motivations. Specifically, instructions to individuate specific social categories increased attention to the eyes of target group members. Furthermore, the latter experiments demonstrated that preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members predicted important intergroup biases such as recognition of ingroup over outgroup faces (i.e., the own-race bias; Study 3) and willingness to interact with outgroup members (Study 4). The implication of these findings for general theorizing on face perception, individuation processes, and intergroup relations are discussed. PMID:24956311

  17. "It's Helped Me with My Anger and I'm Realising Where I Go in Life": The Impact of a Scottish Youth Work / Schools Intervention on Young People's Responses to Social Strain and Engagement with Anti-Social Behaviour and Gang Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Ross; Ellis, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Moral panics relating to anti-social youth have accelerated in recent years, and there has been an increasing recognition that preventing problematic behaviour is more effective than sanctions once it occurs. Drawing upon General Strain Theory, this paper explores the social pressures that might stimulate anti-social behaviour and gang culture. It…

  18. Method of recertifying a loaded bearing member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described of recertifying a loaded bearing member using ultrasound testing to compensate for different equipment configurations and temperature conditions. The standard frequency F1 of a reference block is determined via an ultrasonic tone burst generated by a first pulsed phased locked loop (P2L2) equipment configuration. Once a lock point number S is determined for F1, the reference frequency F1a of the reference block is determined at this lock point number via a second P2L2 equipment configuration to permit an equipment offset compensation factor Fo1=((F1-F1a)/F1)(1000000) to be determined. Next, a reference frequency F2 of the unloaded bearing member is determined using a second P2L2 equipment configuration and is then compensated for equipment offset errors via the relationship F2+F2(Fo1)/1000000. A lock point number b is also determined for F2. A resonant frequency F3 is determined for the reference block using a third P2L2 equipment configuration to determine a second offset compensation factor F02=((F1-F3)/F1) 1000000. Next the resonant frequency F4 of the loaded bearing member is measured at lock point number b via the third P2L2 equipment configuration and the bolt load determined by the relationship (-1000000)CI(((F2-F4)/F2)-Fo2), wherein CI is a factor correlating measured frequency shift to the applied load. Temperature compensation is also performed at each point in the process.

  19. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  20. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  1. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept. PMID:7251875

  2. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    SciTech Connect

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1996-01-01

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  3. Idiopathic hypersomnia in an aircrew member.

    PubMed

    Withers, B G; Loube, D I; Husak, J P

    1999-08-01

    In aviation, it is essential that all aircrew members remain alert and contribute, by their observations and actions, to flight safety. Especially in helicopter operations, crewmembers riding in the rear of the aircraft play an integral role in many aspects of flight, such as take-offs, landings, turns, formation flights, hazard avoidance, situational awareness, military operations, and crew coordination. We present the case of a helicopter crew chief with idiopathic hypersomnia, briefly review the disorder, and give the recent U.S. military aviation experience with sleep disorders. Flight surgeons and aeromedical examiners should be active in considering and diagnosing sleep-related disorders as the aviator or crewmember may not be aware of the disease or may not volunteer the history. A directed history is important in making the diagnosis, as are reports from family and other aircrew members. Referral to a sleep specialist is required in performing objective sleep studies, establishing the diagnosis, recommending treatment, and providing a prognosis. Many sleep disorders are treatable and aeromedically waiverable. PMID:10447054

  4. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  5. Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Ray E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

  6. Method for electrically isolating an electrically conductive member from another such member

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, K.L.; Chen, Y.

    1984-02-09

    The invention relates to methods for electrically isolating a first electrically conductive member from another such member by means of an electrically insulating medium. In accordance with the invention, the insulating medium is provided in the form of MgO which contains a dopant selected from lithium, copper, cobalt, sodium, silver, gold and hydrogen. The dopant is present in the MgO in an amount effective to suppress dielectric breakdown of the MgO, even at elevated temperatures and in the presence of electrical fields.

  7. 7 CFR 1210.405 - Public member nominations and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Nominating Procedures Public Member § 1210.405 Public member... watermelons except as a consumer and shall not be a director, stockholder, officer or employee of any firm...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.405 - Public member nominations and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Nominating Procedures Public Member § 1210.405 Public member... watermelons except as a consumer and shall not be a director, stockholder, officer or employee of any firm...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.405 - Public member nominations and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Nominating Procedures Public Member § 1210.405 Public member... watermelons except as a consumer and shall not be a director, stockholder, officer or employee of any firm...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.405 - Public member nominations and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Nominating Procedures Public Member § 1210.405 Public member... watermelons except as a consumer and shall not be a director, stockholder, officer or employee of any firm...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.405 - Public member nominations and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Nominating Procedures Public Member § 1210.405 Public member... watermelons except as a consumer and shall not be a director, stockholder, officer or employee of any firm...

  12. Commercial & Residential Property Maintenance Snow & Ice Control Members of

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Commercial & Residential · Property Maintenance · Snow & Ice Control Members of: MGIA, Michigan Green Industry Association SIMA, Snow and Ice Management Association Lawn & Maintenance Team Member (248 & drug screening Self-motivated & good interpersonal skills Responsibilities Include: Perform lawn

  13. 78 FR 28243 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members...Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board...U.S.C. (as amended by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978) requires...

  14. 76 FR 29013 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members...Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board...U.S.C. (as amended by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978) requires...

  15. Ten Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help Changes in physical and cognitive abilities that may ... and their family members, friends, and caregivers. To help in determining when an older adult may need ...

  16. 26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

  17. 26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

  18. 26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

  19. 26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

  20. 7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

  1. 7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

  2. 7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

  3. 7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

  4. 7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

  5. 5 CFR 1200.2 - Board members and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Board members and duties. 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES BOARD ORGANIZATION General § 1200.2 Board members and duties. (a) The Board has three members whom the...

  6. 12 CFR 215.8 - Records of member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of member banks. 215.8 Section 215.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM LOANS TO EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.8 Records of member banks. (a) In general. Each...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940... § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director will appoint one FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  8. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940... § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director will appoint one FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940... § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director will appoint one FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  10. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940... § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director will appoint one FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  11. 7 CFR 1940.960 - Federal employee panel members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal employee panel members. 1940.960 Section 1940... § 1940.960 Federal employee panel members. (a) The State Director will appoint one FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 employee to serve as a voting member of the panel established in §...

  12. A Process Model for Project Members Conforming to Enterprise Architecture

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    A Process Model for Project Members Conforming to Enterprise Architecture Ralph Foorthuis Sjaak PROCESS MODEL FOR PROJECT MEMBERS CONFORMING TO ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE Ralph Foorthuis1 , Sjaak project members that carry out projects conforming to Enterprise Architecture. The paper is an appendix

  13. 18 CFR 701.53 - Council decisions by Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Council decisions by Members. 701.53 Section 701.53 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.53 Council decisions by Members. Council decisions by Members may be made by direct vote at...

  14. 18 CFR 701.53 - Council decisions by Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Council decisions by Members. 701.53 Section 701.53 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.53 Council decisions by Members. Council decisions by Members may be made by direct vote at...

  15. 38 CFR 1.507 - Disclosures to members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Congress. 1.507 Section 1.507 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Disclosures to members of Congress. Members of Congress shall be furnished in their official capacity in any... which may not be furnished a claimant, the member of Congress shall be advised that the information...

  16. 48 CFR 1305.403 - Requests from Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requests from Members of Congress. 1305.403 Section 1305.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... from Members of Congress. Requests from Members of Congress shall be handled in accordance with...

  17. 38 CFR 1.507 - Disclosures to members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Congress. 1.507 Section 1.507 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Disclosures to members of Congress. Members of Congress shall be furnished in their official capacity in any... which may not be furnished a claimant, the member of Congress shall be advised that the information...

  18. 29 CFR 1400.735-19 - Influencing Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Influencing Members of Congress. 1400.735-19 Section 1400... Responsibilities § 1400.735-19 Influencing Members of Congress. No money appropriated to the Service shall be used... devices intended to influence any Member of Congress regarding any legislation or appropriation before...

  19. 48 CFR 1305.403 - Requests from Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests from Members of Congress. 1305.403 Section 1305.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... from Members of Congress. Requests from Members of Congress shall be handled in accordance with...

  20. 43 CFR 4110.5 - Interest of Member of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interest of Member of Congress. 4110.5... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.5 Interest of Member of Congress. Title 18 U.S.C. 431 through 433 (1970) generally prohibits a Member of or Delegate to Congress from entering into any contract or agreement...