Evans, William P.; Fitzgerald, Carla; Weigel, Dan; Chvilicek, Sarah
Investigated factors associated with gang involvement among rural and urban adolescents using data from a sample of 1,183 Nevada students in grades 7 through 12. There was no significant difference in gang membership or pressure to join gangs between the rural and urban samples, but there were differences on other gang and violence indicators.…
Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey
This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected. PMID:27087767
Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.
This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…
Thornberry, Terence P.; Burch, James H., II
Teams at several universities collaborated in studies of the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency program in three cities. This bulletin presents the findings from the Rochester (New York) Youth Development Study (RYDS) concerning the contributions of youth gang membership to delinquency. The RYDS started with a sample of 1,000 boys and girls in…
PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY
Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563
Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle
The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…
Hunt, G P; Laidler, K J
Life within a gang includes two endemic features: violence and alcohol. Yet, to date, most researchers studying gang behavior have focused on violence and its relationship to illicit drugs, largely neglecting the importance of alcohol in gang life. Because alcohol is an integral and regular part of socializing within gang life, drinking works as a social lubricant, or social glue, to maintain not only the cohesion and social solidarity of the gang, but also to affirm masculinity and male togetherness. In addition to its role as a cohesive mechanism, particular drinking styles within gangs may operate, as with other social groups, as a mechanism to maintain group boundaries, thereby demarcating one gang from another. Other examples of internal gang violent activities associated with drinking include fighting between members because of rivalries, tensions, or notions of honor or respect. At a more symbolic level, drinking is associated with two important ritual events in gang life: initiation, or "jumping in,"and funerals. By better understanding the link between drinking and violence among youth gangs, steps can be taken to determine the social processes that occur in the development of violent behavior after drinking. PMID:11496969
Wang, Alvin Y.
Compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and self-professed role models. Results from 78 white and 77 black students revealed that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial…
Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.
Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…
Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith
Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…
Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.
This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…
Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among
Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen
While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970
Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.
This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191
De La Rosa, Mario; Rugh, Douglas; Rice, Christopher
Alcohol and illicit drug abuse is a serious problem among male Latino gang members. Research indicates that gang members increase their drug use while they are members, and use more drugs after they leave the gangs. This manuscript reports on data reflecting the influences of individual, familial, peer, and community factors on the number of drug use transitions that Latino gang members undergo during their drug using careers. Data from this study were collected from interviews conducted with seventy-six active Latino gang members. The study's results indicate that age at the time of interview and lower age of drug onset were associated with a greater number of drug use transitions. Positive family attitudes toward deviance, friend drug use, school truancy, conflict with parents, and living in neighborhoods with a high level of crime were also found to be associated with increased drug use transitions. PMID:17088228
Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan
Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…
Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…
Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen
This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…
Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.
This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…
Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.
There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…
After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…
Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708
US Government Accountability Office, 2009
The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…
Tapia, Hugo A.; Kinnier, Richard T.; MacKinnon, David P.
This exploratory study compares the differences between 43 Mexican American gang members and 43 Mexican American adolescents who are not members of a gang on several demographic, educational, familial, cultural, and psychological variables. Differences were analyzed using "t" tests and chi-square analyses. discussion focuses on implications for…
Guzmán-Facundo, Francisco Rafael; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge; Lopez-García, Karla Selene; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Esparza-Almanza, Santiaga Enriqueta
Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized. PMID:21739067
Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban
Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. PMID:25516384
Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael
How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. PMID:27194666
Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Levy, Jerrold E.
Extended interviews with 50 Navajo men, aged 21 to 45, provided information on peer relationships and gang formation among male Navajo youth in the 1960s through the 1980s. Results suggest that gangs are an extreme example of traditional hell-raising among young Navajo men and that most gang members "age out" of their gangs. Suggestions for gang…
Harris, Mary G.
Interviews with 21 present and former female gang members illustrate the lives of Mexican American girls in the gang milieu of the San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles, California). Gang structure, activities, and reasons for joining are discussed, along with the gang as a source of support. (SLD)
Green, Reginald Leon; Miller, Roger L.
To fight gang activity, an Ohio school system took the lead in forming a coalition consisting of representatives from 25 community groups and agencies. Actions have included providing school-based intervention and training at the high school, and establishing an intelligence link between the schools and local law enforcement. (MLF)
Reyes, Reynaldo, III
For many situationally marginalized Mexican-descent students today, hopelessness is fueled by a bleak life situation that is reflected in their school performance. Success in school remains elusive because they are not or have not had the opportunity to become members of a community that contributes to their sense of agency, possibility and hope…
Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg
Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…
Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.
This summary provides results from the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, administered to a representative sample of city and county police and sheriff's departments nationwide. Results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs decreased from 51 percent in 1997 to 48 percent in 1998. About 780,200 gang members were…
Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.
This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…
Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles
This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188
Clay, Douglas A.; Aquila, Frank D.
School board members, administrators, and teachers must remember that the wearing of "gang" clothing or the appearance of "gang" graffiti does not always translate into gang activity and crime. In reality, the so-called national spread of gang problems may be just another teenage fad. School personnel should treat gangs as a symptom of underlying…
Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed. PMID:23525778
Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.
A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood. PMID:24883000
Tabish, Kenneth R.; Orell, Linda Henry
Presents conflict resolution and mediation techniques used to resolve conflicts among rival gangs at Washington Middle School, an inner-city school in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Discusses formal mediation techniques and mediation for both male and female gang members. Focuses on preserving self-respect and dignity for gang members in all conflict…
Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004
Felgar, Michelle A.
Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…
National Consortium on Alternatives for Youth at Risk, Inc., Sarasota, FL.
A common misconception about gangs is that they resemble past images of motorcycle riders. Society is now faced with what are called "hybrid" gangs whose members are usually 14 to 16 years of age, who dress conservatively, who display subtle gang identifiers, and who are motivated by a combination of profit and poor family life. This booklet…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
This document provides guidelines for gang awareness and prevention in the California school system. It is based on the belief that inservice training programs help school staff recognize early signs of gang activity, a necessary step to intervention. Following the introduction, chapter 1 offers descriptive information on gangs and their members,…
2005-01-01This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand. Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter
2006-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…
Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre
Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…
Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.
We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.
Gurke, B; Armstrong, M L
Gangs are noted for establishing their territory, flaunting gang affiliation, intimidating nonmembers, and documenting their "services performed." These examples are a few reasons for the practice of "tagging," the labeling of an area, person, or object with gang-related graffiti or markings, such as tattoos. This article describes a school nurse's response to gang "tagging" and her efforts to assist former gang members who request removal of their tattoos, to get them removed-in essence to D-TAG themselves from their gang affiliation. D-TAG is a volunteer rehabilitation program utilizing family and community interaction to support gang tattoo removal and direct activities away from gang affiliations toward alternative educational programs and life styles. PMID:9146217
A California English teacher explores the school safety issue for both innercity and suburban high schools students. Wearing certain sports team jackets can place kids in danger; girls degrade themselves by keeping gang members' drugs and guns in their lockers. Schools can help reclaim the "Great Disconnected" by developing community-based…
Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.
We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well
Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.
We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well
2004-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06373 Ganges Chasma This image was collected December 8, 2002 during southern winter season. The local time at the image location was about 4:45 pm. The image shows an area of the floor of Ganges Chasma and shows dark dunes and brighter wind sculpted hills of unknown origin. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.7N, Longitude 313.3E (46.7 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary
Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh
Martin Sanchez Jankowski conducted a 10-year study of gangs of varying ethnicity in three major cities, with a focus on New York City and Los Angeles (California). The center of his research has been in low-income areas, where gangs have been an institution for more than 150 years. Jankowski acquired experience by living with gangs from a variety…
Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.
This book comprised of theories and findings from researchers concerning youth gangs in the United States, is organized into the following five parts: (1) Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Gang and the Community; (2) Defining and Measuring Gang Violence; (3) Diffusion, Diversity, and Drugs; (4) Assessing the Changing Knowledge…
Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.
This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…
Arthur, Richard; Erickson, Edsel
This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the…
Cantrell, Mary Lynn
Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…
Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.
Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…
Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.
Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…
Howell, James C.
This bulletin provides an overview of the problems that youth gangs pose. It pinpoints the differences between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations and examines the risk factors that lead to youth gang membership. Some promising strategies being used to curb youth gang involvement are reviewed. The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980…
Larence, Eileen R.
Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…
Bagard, Marie-Laure; West, A. Joshua; Newman, Karla; Basu, Asish R.
Lithium isotopes are a promising proxy for reconstructing past weathering processes, but unraveling the seawater record requires a comprehensive understanding of the magnitude and isotopic composition of Li fluxes to the oceans, and of how these change over time. Little information is available on the role of floodplain sediments and groundwater systems in setting the Li isotope signature of the dissolved flux delivered from the continents to the oceans. Here we investigate the Li dissolved fluxes of river waters and groundwaters in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain. The data suggest that a maximum of 3.1 ×108 and 1.5 ×108 moles Li/yr are carried to the Bay of Bengal by Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers and groundwaters, respectively. The riverine flux has a significantly heavier Li isotope composition (average δ7Li: 26‰) than the groundwater flux (average δ7Li: 16‰) and increases downstream across the floodplain. δ7Li in both river waters and shallow groundwater can be explained by Li scavenging by Quaternary floodplain sediments following a Rayleigh fractionation process, with preferential removal of 6Li. On the other hand, deep groundwaters (>40 m) contributing to submarine groundwater discharge to the Bay of Bengal are enriched in 6Li at depth, likely due to the dissolution of floodplain sediments releasing Li with a light isotope composition. Similarly low δ7Li has been reported in other large sedimentary aquifers. The deep groundwater values are close to the average isotope composition of the global Li inputs to the ocean (∼15‰), so groundwater submarine discharge has only a minor influence on the assessment of the modern Li isotope budget of the ocean. Our analysis further suggests that groundwater discharge of Li has probably played at most a small and secondary role in past changes in the isotope composition of the total continental flux of Li to the ocean.
Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…
Riley, Kevin W.
Schools cannot approach the problem of street gangs with the same strategies as law enforcement agencies, but rather must create a nurturing environment for all students, where success in school and life becomes the only attractive option for gang members. Street gangs represent the racial, cultural, and economic diversity of American society.…
Duran, Robert J.
Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…
Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432
Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L
This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594921
Cantrell, Mary Lynn
Considers cults as gangs, but also distinguishes cults from gangs by the cult's reference to and insistence on allegiance to single higher authority, usually spirit figure or spiritual leader. Examines Satanism, identifies Satanic holidays and symbols, and describes characteristics of cult-influenced youth. Includes list of organizations and books…
Cozic, Charles P., Ed.
Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…
This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…
Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy
We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios. PMID:22273322
This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. PMID:26897432
Barnes, J.C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Miller, J. Mitchell
This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated non-gang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching (PSM) was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001
Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin
In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…
All healthcare facilities--not just urban ones--need to train their staff and be equipped to handle gangs and gang-related crime and violence, says the author. This article discusses the various aspects of the ongoing training program in gang awareness for Durham Regional Hospital's Security Department--including types of gangs, their mindsets and what motivates them, and how to identify them as well as their graffiti, colors, hand signals, and tattoos. PMID:10557439
Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning
Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. PMID:25880890
Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.
The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007
Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…
This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…
An intensive three-day program at the Pines Catholic Camp, followed by weekly support meetings, aim to prevent Dallas teens from turning to gang participation. Program components include personal goal setting, commitment to a code of conduct, and physical activities that promote group unity and positive peer pressure. (SV)
2004-01-0124 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.
Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Howell, James C.; Harris, Meena
This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation's gang problem and summarizes findings from the 2012 survey. Of the 2,538 survey recipients, 2,199 (87 percent) responded to the survey. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100…
A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs, in…
Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Miller, J Mitchell
This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated nongang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001
The qualitative study presented in this article explores motivations for school board membership and conceptions of power held by school board members. The findings of the study suggest a relationship exists between the way board members define power and the type of motivation board members have for service. The implications of these findings for…
Campbell, Ian H.; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Upadhyay, Rajeev
He-Pb double dating of detrital zircons is more reliable than conventional U-Pb dating for tracing the source of detritus in sediments and can be used to constrain the percentage of recycled material in sediments. Conventional U-Pb dating can be used to constrain the provenance of sediments if the U-Pb zircon age pattern for potential source regions is known but can only be used to trace the source of individual zircons if they are first-cycle grains. The advantages of He-Pb double dating are demonstrated using examples from the Indus and Ganges rivers, and previously published data from the Navajo sandstone. Conventional U-Pb dating can unambiguously identify only 2.5% of the Ganges zircons, and 18% of the Indus zircons as coming from the Himalayan Mountains or Tibet Plateau and only 23% of the Navajo zircons as coming from the Appalachian Mountains. The correct figure, as determined from double dating, is over 95% from the Himalayan Mountains or Tibet Plateau in the case of the Indus and Ganges rivers and at least 70% from the Appalachian Mountains in the case of the Navajo Sandstone. This result casts doubt on the reliability of the U-Pb method when used in the absence of other techniques, such as He dating, to identify the true provenance of sediments, as opposed to the ultimate source of the zircons. Double dating also shows that at least 60% of the Indus and 70% of the Ganges and Navajo sandstone zircons have been recycled from earlier sediments. Exhumation rates, estimated from the He dates, reveal that ˜ 75% of the Indus and Ganges zircons were derived from areas where the exhumation rate exceeds 1.5 km/Myr. These rates are higher and more varied than those calculated from detrital muscovites. These results imply that ˜ 75% of the eroded material in the Himalayan Mountains is derived from areas of anomalously high erosion where the short-term exhumation rate exceeds the long-term average.
Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.
To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…
Huff, C. Ronald
A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…
Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo
Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed. PMID:25979430
Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.
The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…
Gluckman, Ivan B.
Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…
Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.
Notes that because individuals experiencing transitions seem to be particularly susceptible to cult membership, developing insight and resources to cope with transition must be an integral part of strategies to prevent cult membership. Discusses interventions focusing on treatment of former cult members are . (Author/MKA)
2004-01-0113 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.
2005-01-0117 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.
Austin Police Dept., TX.
This resource handbook provides facts about gangs in Austin (Texas) and suggests ways parents and the community can work to reduce the city's gang problem. Criminal street gangs are becoming one of the most serious crime problems in Texas today, with 38 major cities reporting the presence of gangs. Texas gangs are defined as social, delinquent,…
Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.
This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492
Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.
Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.
Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
This book describes the experiences of an inexperienced young teacher who, with the support of parents and teenagers in a Los Angeles (California) neighborhood, created a one-room schoolhouse and began to teach 30 gang members, ranging in age from 13 to nearly 20. He had no teaching credentials or college degree and the school had a tiny budget,…
2005-01-0121 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005. Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer
Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.
Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999
(Released 01 April 2002) This image shows a spectacular landslide along a portion of the southern wall of Ganges Chasma within Valles Marineris. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff is layered, with spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. Below the steep scarp is a smoother, steep slope of material with small, narrow tongues of debris that have eroded off of the escarpment since the landslide occurred (a talus slope). The actual landslide deposit, visible in the upper half of this image, shows striations that form by differences in the side-by-side motion during high velocity emplacement. This immense landslide traveled some 70 km at speeds that probably exceeded 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour) before coming to rest, forming abrupt, terminal fronts (upper right corner of image). Even at these high speeds, this massive landslide was moving for nearly an hour before it came to rest.
2005-01-018 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S. Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring
Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…
Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.
Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…
Spergel, I A; Grossman, S F
Based on substantial preliminary evidence, a four-year Gang Violence Reduction Project has demonstrated its effectiveness in terms of process and outcome. An innovative approach in the prevention and control of a serious gang violence problem was based on key interrelated strategies of community mobilization, social intervention, suppression, opportunities provision, organizational development, and targeting. A team of community youth workers, tactical police officers, adult probation officers, and representatives of a neighborhood organization operated under the aegis of the Chicago Police Department. Of special interest was the interrelated practice roles of police tactical officers and community youth workers, many of whom were former gang members. PMID:9311304
Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice
This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history/intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant’s last fight. Gang member participant’s ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member’s risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxicatiion levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Petrone, Frank M.
This manual is a comprehensive guide to identifiers of gang activities and memberships. The "People" and "Folks" concepts it uses represent the two main divisions of street gang affiliation. Gangs that belong to the "People" nation use the left side as an identifier, use a five-pointed star as an emblem, and claim affiliation with the "Latin King"…
Levesque, Juan C.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat
The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were
Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca
Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (
Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat
The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were
Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.
A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…
Vasquez, Eduardo A; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L
The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed. PMID:24833605
National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.
This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…
Foster, Linda G.
This publication identifies five levels of gang activity in middle and high schools and presents corresponding strategies for dealing with troublesome situations. The five levels of involvement include: (1) no known gang activity; (2) limited gang activity; (3) emerging gang activity; (4) community in crisis; and (5) gang-controlled community. A…
Burhans, R. W.
A ganged potentiometer with the interesting property of a constant 10k ohm or greater series impedance for all rotations of the shaft was rediscovered. The device provided a versatile passive mixer circuit when used with most signal sources and can be used as a variable series input summing resistor in operational amplifier networks. The potentiometer gave simple solutions to missing problems with a single control knob.
... 3,500). • Gang activity was concentrated primarily in urban areas, especially larger cities. • Gang-related homicides declined ... suggest that gang activity is concentrated primarily in urban areas, especially larger cities. NYGS 2011 results indicate ...
Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.
This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…
Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.
We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623
Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team
We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623
Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.
Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…
Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.
This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…
Bell, Kerryn E.
Research and theory about female gang involvement remain scarce. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addresses whether males and females differ in risk factors associated with gang membership (e.g., community characteristics, parent-child relationships, associations with deviant friends). Integrating theory…
Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.
The largest and most comprehensive national gang survey to date, the 1997 National Youth Gang Survey, contacted nearly 5,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. To allow for both comparative and trend analysis, the 1997 survey used the same sample as the 1996 survey. Survey results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting…
Howell, James C.
This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang…
Shaw, Mahauganee; Meaney, Sarah
This case study challenges readers to consider a contemporary issue for campus threat assessment and emergency preparedness: gang presence on college campuses. A body of research examining the presence of gangs and gang activity on college campuses has developed, revealing that gangs pose a viable threat for institutions of higher education. The…
Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.
This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…
Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III
Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Coffman, Donna L.; Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage
Objectives We examine whether anticipated guilt for substance use is a gendered mechanism underlying the noted enhancement effect of gang membership on illegal drug use. We also demonstrate a method for making stronger causal inferences when assessing mediation in the presence of moderation and time-varying confounding. Methods We estimate a series of inverse propensity weighted models to obtain unbiased estimates of mediation in the presence of confounding of the exposure (i.e., gang membership) and mediator (i.e., anticipated guilt) using three waves of data from a multi-site panel study of a law-related education program for youth (N=1,113). Results The onset of gang membership significantly decreased anticipated substance use guilt among both male and female respondents. This reduction was significantly associated with increased frequency of substance use only for female respondents, however, suggesting that gender moderates the mechanism through which gang membership influences substance use. Conclusions Criminologists are often concerned with identifying causal pathways for antisocial and/or delinquent behavior, but confounders of the exposure, mediator, and outcome often interfere with efforts to assess mediation. Many new approaches have been proposed for strengthening causal inference for mediation effects. After controlling for confounding using inverse propensity weighting, our results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing substance use by current and former female gang members should focus on the normative aspects of these behaviors. PMID:26190954
Hata, T; Yamaguchi, N; Tanaka, Y; Urushihara, H
The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum reproduces sexually under submerged and dark conditions. Its mating system is polymorphic and particularly interesting with respect to mechanisms of cell recognition. The cell-surface glycoprotein gp138 has been implicated in sexual cell interactions, as it was identified as a target molecule for the antibodies that block sexual cell fusion in D. discoideum. Two mutually homologous genes, GP138A and GP138B, have been cloned, but gene disruption experiments to clarify their functional relationships suggested that there is at least one more gene for gp138. Further protein analysis including peptide mapping also revealed that gp138 exists as three isoforms, DdFRP1, DdFRP2, and DdFRP3. GP138A encodes DdFRP2 and GP138B, DdFRP3, and the presence of a third gp138 gene encoding DdFRP1 was suggested. Here, we isolated and characterized a third GP138 gene, GP138C. Although the deduced amino acid sequences of GP138C matched completely with those of peptide fragments of DdFRP1 in the N-terminal half, the rest did not give complete matches. Overexpression of GP138C caused an increase in the intensity of DdFRP1, but disruption of this gene did not diminish DdFRP1. Our results indicate that GP138C encodes a protein very similar to but distinct from DdFRP1. The GP138 multigene family is thus composed of more members than previously expected, and their functional relationships are of special interest. PMID:10462174
Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy
Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…
Burns, Janet Z.; Otte, Fred L.
Leader/member exchange theory is proposed as an alternate approach to the study of organizational leadership. Recent research supports the theory but additional development work is needed. The theory seeks to explain how leader/member relationships develop and the behavioral components of leadership relations. Contains 74 references. (Author/JOW)
Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.
The 1996 National Youth Gang Survey was the largest of its type ever conducted, and the results are representative of the United States as a whole. Almost 5,000 law enforcement agencies were surveyed, and more than 80% of the sample responded. Agencies in all large cities, and a random sample of smaller cities were included, as were suburban…
Regarded as the nation's gang violence capital, Los Angeles' politicians and law enforcement and school administrators are using knowledge from lost battles to win the war. Solutions include targeting younger children, teaching self-esteem and communication skills, as well as organizing group graffiti cleanups. (SI)
Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…
Cull-Hearth, Selby; Clark, M. Caroline
Mars’ Valles Marineris canyon system reveals a several-kilometer deep stratigraphies sequence that extends thousands of kilometers; this sequence thus represents a unique opportunity to explore millions of years of volcanic and aqueous activity in this region of Mars. Of particular interest to the study of both volcanic and aqueous processes is Ganges Chasma, which lies on the northeastern boundary of the Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars. The canyon likely opened during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian, modifying previously emplaced Noachian-aged volcanic plains. During formation, volcanic activity from the nearby Tharsis shield complex emplaced olivine-rich dikes throughout the region. After formation, sulfate-bearing Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) were emplaced in Ganges and many other chasmata throughout the Valles Marineris system. Today, Ganges reveals a complex stratigraphy, including wide-spread olivine-rich sands, hydrated minerals on the plateaus surrounding the canyon, and a central sulfate-rich ILD. Here, we present updated stratigraphies of Ganges Chasma, using new data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), and synthesizing it with previous data sets. Olivine sands are traced back to source outcrops on the canyon floor, and new outcrops of hydrated minerals on the surrounding plateau are identified and mapped. Recently reported spectroscopic signatures of ankerite and smectite in the chasm are assessed, and new olivine-rich outcrops identified and mapped. Understanding the stratigraphy of Ganges Chasma will help us compare stratigraphies among the chasmata of the Valles Marineris, further building our understanding of the geologic history of this large region of Mars.
Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.
In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…
Howell, James C.
This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…
Krasowska, Małgorzata; Bettinger, Holger F
New low-energy pathways for the reaction between substituted boriranes and borirenes with unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethyne or ethene) were discovered using density functional and coupled cluster theory. The interaction between the π bond of the hydrocarbon and the empty p orbital of the boron center leads to ring expansion of the three-membered to a five-membered boron heterocycle. The reactions are strongly exothermic and have low or even no barriers. They involve intermediates with a pentacoordinate boron center with two hydrocarbon molecules coordinating to boron akin to metal-olefin complexes. These borylene complexes are shallow minima on the potential energy surfaces. But significantly higher barriers for ring formation are computed for 1,5-cyclooctadiene and dibenzocyclooctatetraene complexes of borylenes, making these complexes likely detectable under appropriate experimental conditions. Our computational findings have implications for the interpretation of trapping experiments of thermally generated small borylenes with excess of small π systems. Because of very low barriers for reactions of three-membered boron heterocycles with π systems and the at least locally large excess of the latter under such conditions, formation of five-membered boron heterocycles should be considered. PMID:27305278
Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina
The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as δ30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher δ30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).
Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.
Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.
Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi
The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26949818
Guina, Jeffrey; Welton, Randon S; Broderick, Pamela J; Correll, Terry L; Peirson, Ryan P
This review addresses how changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria has the potential to affect the care and careers of those who have served in the military, where the diagnosis often determines fitness for duty and veterans' benefits. PTSD criteria changes were intended to integrate new knowledge acquired since previous DSM editions. Many believe the changes will improve diagnosis and treatment, but some worry these could have negative clinical, occupational, and legal consequences. We analyze the changes in classification, trauma definition, symptoms, symptom clusters, and subtypes and possible impacts on the military (e.g., over- and under-diagnosis, "drone" video exposure, subthreshold PTSD, and secondary PTSD). We also discuss critiques and proposals for future changes. Our objectives are to improve the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of those service members who have survived trauma and to improve policies related to the military mental healthcare and disability systems. PMID:26971499
Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…
Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T
The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK. PMID:23429263
Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Wenwen; Huang, Yan; Gui, Li
Objectives: Accidental hypothermia (AH) is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to significant morbidity and life-long effects. Navy personnel are always at a greater risk of AH due to frequent outdoor work, wilderness exposure, prolonged immobility and exhaustion. The purpose of the survey was to assess Chinese Navy members’ awareness of AH and to make recommendations with regard to better measures for improving it. Methods: 111 Navy members completed a written questionnaire that was subsequently analyzed. Results: 30.6% of the respondents have experienced AH and 64.9% rated their knowledge of AH as “low” or “none”. Over half of them identified the initial symptom of AH as obvious shivering (69.4%) and apathy (45.0%). As for the aggravate symptoms, 60.9% chose the wrong answer of more obvious shivering instead of the right one—absence of shivering (5.4%). In the case of the treatment of mild AH, more than half of the respondents chose the wrong answers. Conclusions: This study suggests that the basic skills of recognition and treatment of AH are inadequate in the Chinese Navy. Further work is required to develop a systematical, comprehensive and corresponding education method that would promote correct actions during AH. PMID:26978382
Knishkowy, B; Furst, A; Fassberg, Y; Anor, E; Matthews, S; Paz, Y
A study was designed to investigate "the family as the unit of care" in family medicine consultations from the patient's end of the physician-patient axis, unlike most previous related studies, which have concentrated on it from the physician's perspective. During 2 separate weeks in November 1987 and February 1988, nine Israeli family physicians collected demographic and family-related data concerning the spontaneous visiting patterns generated by 1156 persons (899 patients and 257 nonpatients) who attended 796 separate consultations at their clinics during this time. More than one patient attended 12% of the consultations, and more than one person, patient or nonpatient, was present at 36%. At 31% of the consultations children alone or children and adults were recorded as patients (child consultations), and at 69% only adult patients were present (adult consultations). Adults were recorded as second or third patients at 19% of the child consultations but at only 5% of the adult consultations. The child consultations alone yielded 86% of all the nonpatients documented. Basic terminology and methodology for investigating such multiple family member visits to family physicians is discussed as well as the composition of the different family units encountered and their possible significance. PMID:1985136
Huddleston, Jamison P.; Burks, Elizabeth A.; Whitman, Christian P.
Tautomerase superfamily members are characterized by a β–α–β building block and a catalytic amino terminal proline. 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) are the title enzymes of two of the five known families in the superfamily. Two recent developments in these families indicate that there might be more metabolic diversity in the tautomerase superfamily than previously thought. 4-OT homologues have been identified in three biosynthetic pathways, whereas all previously characterized 4-OTs are found in catabolic pathways. In the MSAD family, homologues have been characterized that lack decarboxylase activity, but have a modest hydratase activity using 2-oxo-3-pentynoate. This observation stands in contrast to the first characterized MSAD, which is a proficient decarboxylase and a less efficient hydratase. The hydratase activity was thought to be a vestigial and promiscuous activity. However, this recent discovery suggests that the hydratase activity might reflect a new activity in the MSAD family for an unknown substrate. These discoveries open up new avenues of research in the tautomerase superfamily. PMID:25219626
Vigil, James Diego
Gangs have become a fixture in the Mexican American populations of southern California and other regions, spreading from low-income neighborhoods in the Southwest to working class and lower-middle class suburban areas. The development and institutionalization of gangs have involved many factors, including racial discrimination and economic…
Hamner, Carole J.
This report profiles the issue of youth violence: the history of its appearance in U.S. culture, the recent escalation of gang activity in U.S. communities, and the strategies put forth in smaller cities to meet this challenge. The report notes that there has been an explosion of gang violence in the United States that has been fostered by a…
Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…
Amarasinghe, U. A.; Mutuwatte, L.; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, S.; Jain, S. K.
The Ganges River Basin may have a major pending water crisis. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River Basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, have long been known as the "Ganges Water Machine". One approach for providing such SSS is through additional pumping prior to the onset of the monsoon season. An important necessary condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. This paper highlights that an unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 119 Bm3 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society - women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.
Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar
The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub
Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.
In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…
This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…
The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.
Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L
While violent crime has decreased in many cities in the USA, gang-related violence remains a serious problem in impoverished inner city neighborhoods. In Syracuse, New York, gang-related murders and gun shots have topped other New York state cities. Residents of the high-murder neighborhoods suffer trauma similar to those living in civil conflict zones. The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty. Since its inception, gang-related homicides and gun shots have decreased in the most severely affected census tracts. PMID:26282564
Richards, Maurice V.
This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158345.html Depression More Common in Kids Who Join Gangs, Study ... 15, 2016 FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts are common among ...
In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.
Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E
A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced. PMID:16302380
Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.
Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…
Miller, Walter B.
For many decades communities have been troubled by the criminal activities of youth gangs. This report looks at almost 30 years of information collected on gang problems in nearly 4,000 communities. The number of localities reporting gang problems increased between the 1970s and the 1990s, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cities…
Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.
Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…
Hagedorn, John M.; Macon, Perry
Minority gangs of the 1980s are examined as groups of juveniles and young adults and as a fraction of the forming underclass. Gangs today no longer disappear as their ethnic groups rises socially. Instead, gangs are becoming institutionalized in the central cities. This discussion of prior research in Los Angeles (California) and more recent…
Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.
We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.
Pitman, Janet K.; Price, Leigh C.; LeFever, Julie A.
The middle member of the Bakken Formation is an attractive petroleum exploration target in the deeper part of the Williston Basin because it is favorably positioned with respect to source and seal units. Progressive rates of burial and minor uplift and erosion of this member led to a stable thermal regime and, consequently, minor variations in diagenesis across much of the basin. The simple diagenetic history recorded in sandstones and siltstones in the middle member can, in part, be attributed to the closed, low-permeability nature of the Bakken petroleum system during most of its burial history. Most diagenesis ceased in the middle member when oil entered the sandstones and siltstones in the Late Cretaceous. Most oil in the Bakken Formation resides in open, horizontal fractures in the middle member. Core analysis reveals that sandstones and siltstones associated with thick mature shales typically have a greater density of fractures than sandstones and siltstones associated with thin mature shales. Fractures were caused by superlithostatic pressures that formed in response to increased fluid volumes in the source rocks during hydrocarbon generation
Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith
Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…
There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719
Highlights findings from a study by Irving Spergel of gang activity in 45 cities. Ronald Stephen, executive director of the National School Safety Center, cites an increase in drug-marketing and violence and advises educators to be aware of what is going on, establish rapport with community groups, and enlist the support of students. (MLF)
A Tucson principal learned that denial and traditional administrative strategies cannot mitigate evolving gang activity. He recommends that school leaders use respect; provide relevant programs; establish a zero-tolerance policy for weapons, drugs, and violence; create parent patrols; keep video records; regulate attire; welcome police; support…
Thiagarajan, Sivasailam; Pasigna, Aida L.
Describes basic structure of a framegame, Chain Gang, in which self-instructional modules teach a cognitive skill. Procedures are presented for loading new content into the game's basic framework to teach algorithms or heuristics and for game modification to suit different situations. Handouts used in the basic game are appended. (MBR)
Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi
The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…
Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen; MacKenzie, Kathleen
A growing body of research challenges the popular characterization that young mothers are bad mothers. This article focuses on a group of girls and young women who were pregnant or mothers and who were engaged in a risky lifestyle through their heavy involvement in gangs, partying, and drinking. The authors examine the impact of the process of…
Calabrese, Raymond L.; Noboa, Julio
Increasing gang membership among Mexican-American adolescents is rooted in a cultural context and reflects a desperate attempt to gain some control over barrio life marked by low employment, poverty, and discrimination. Discusses the decision-making process involved, and recommends three ways schools can reframe their views towards these students,…
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of IS401, an insertion sequence implicated in rearrangements of a 170-kb cryptic plasmid from Pseudomonas cepacia. ur analysis focused on a 4066-bp plasmid fragment containing adjacent copies of IS401 and of IS408, an element reported pr...
A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31β algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher’s Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed. PMID:22215970
Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane
Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762
Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane
Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762
Choi, S. H.; Choi, H. O.; Yu, Y.
South Korea separates two mantle source domains for late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in East Asia: depleted mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) mantle-enriched mantle type 1 (DMM-EM1) in the north and DMM-EM2 in the south. We determined geochemical compositions, including Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopes for the Jeongok trachybasalts (~0.51 to 0.15 Ma K-Ar ages) from northernmost South Korea, to better constrain the origin and distribution of the enriched mantle components. The Jeongok basalts exhibit light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns ([La/Yb]N = 9.2-11.6). The (La/Yb)N ratios are lower than that of typical oceanic island basalt (OIB). On a primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element plot, the Jeongok samples show OIB-like enrichment in highly incompatible elements. However, they are depleted in moderately incompatible elements (e.g., La, Nd, Zr, Hf, etc.) compared with the OIB and exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb. These anomalies are also prime characteristics of the Wudalianchi basalts, extreme EM1 end-member volcanics in northeast China. We have compared the geochemistry of the Jeongok basalts with those of available Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanic rocks from East Asia (from north to south, Wudalianchi, Mt. Baekdu and Baengnyeong for DMM-EM1, and Jeju for DMM-EM2). The mantle source for the Jeongok volcanics contains an EM1 component. The contribution of the EM1 component to East Asian volcanism increases toward the north, from Baengnyeong through Jeongok to Mt. Baekdu and finally to Wudalianchi. Modeling of trace element data suggests that the Jeongok basalts may have been generated by mixing of a Wudalianchi-like melt (EM1 end-member) and a melt that originated from a depleted mantle source, with some addition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Jeongok area. In Nd-Hf isotope space, the most enriched EM1-component-bearing Jeongok sample shows elevation of 176Hf/177Hf at a given 143Nd/144Nd compared with OIB. Recycled pelagic sediments
Wang, Hua; Liu, Congrong; Debnath, Gargi; Baines, Anthony J; Conboy, John G; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli
The members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, are encoded by four genes, all of which undergo complex alternative splicing. It is well established that 4.1R, the prototypical member of the family, serves as an adapter that links the spectrin-actin based cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane in red cells. It is required for mechanical resilience of the membrane, and it ensures the cell surface accumulation of selected membrane proteins. However, the function of 4.1 proteins outside erythrocytes remains under-explored, especially in endocrine tissues. Transcripts of all 4.1 homologs have previously been documented to be abundantly expressed in adrenal gland. In order to begin to decipher the function of 4.1 proteins in adrenal gland, we performed a detailed characterization of the expression pattern of various 4.1 proteins and their cellular localization. We show that 4.1R (~80 and ~135 kDa) splice forms are expressed on the membrane of all cells, while a ~160 kDa 4.1G splice form is distributed in the cytoplasm and the membrane of zona glomerulosa and of medullary cells. Two 4.1N splice forms, ~135 and ~95 kDa, are present in the peri-nuclear region of both zona glomerulosa and medullary cells, while a single ~130 kDa 4.1B splice form, is detected in all layers of adrenal gland in both the cytoplasm and the membrane. The characterization of distinct splice forms of various 4.1 proteins with diverse cellular and sub-cellular localization indicates multiple functions for this family of proteins in endocrine functions of adrenal gland. PMID:20890708
Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.
The silicon isotopic composition (δSi30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 μM. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between δSi30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low δSi30 (e.g., 40 μM, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high δSi30 component (e.g., 240 μM, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 μM while δSi30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of δSi30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher δSi30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.
Marshall, Brandon DL; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan
Objectives Evidence suggests that gang involvement is associated with adverse health outcomes among high-risk youth. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of gang affiliation among this population, particularly in Canada. We examined the relationship between self-reported gang involvement and early childhood traumatic experiences, social factors, and other behaviors in a study of drug-using, street-involved youth. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Between June 2009 and May 2011, participants were asked questions ascertaining lifetime gang involvement and gang affiliation in one’s social network. We examined the gender-specific correlates of gang involvement using stratified log-binomial regression analyses. Results Among 435 eligible participants, 94 (21.6%) reported gang involvement and 206 (47.4%) reported having friends in a gang. In gender-stratified models, males involved in gangs were more likely to be of Aboriginal ancestry (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 – 2.44), have grown up in government care (PR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.32 – 3.12), dealt drugs (PR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.66 – 3.85), and been incarcerated (PR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.29 – 2.80). Women involved in gangs were more likely to have reported a history of childhood sexual abuse (PR = 3.08, 95%CI: 1.15 – 8.27). Conclusions These results suggest that a variety of adverse experiences in early life are associated with an increased risk of gang affiliation among street-involved youth. Primary prevention strategies aiming to avert gang initiation among high-risk youth should seek to address childhood abuse and other traumatic experiences commonly experienced by this population. PMID:25542743
Jannotta, M.; Houghton, K.
In keeping with LANL policy to apply the principles of performance-based training (PBT), the Laboratory Training Office conducted a job/task survey prior to developing the procedure for training staff qualification. Over one hundred Laboratory employees whose roles include training responded. While there is a significant amount of training conducted at the Laboratory, findings indicate a need for (a) increased, specific documentation of training and related activities; (b) greater understanding and application of PBT by laboratory training staff; (c) isolating and responding to the reasons training staff are reluctant to attend Laboratory-sponsored PBT and OJT training, even when the need for such training was recognized by respondents. Most training staff members have roles other than the training role. Nonetheless they perform several training functions. About half the training staff do not provide training which addresses PBT standards, especially in the areas of analysis (which directly impacts resource requirements), evaluation (which directly impacts quality), and documentation (which directly affects liability).
Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William
Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable. PMID:22928103
Adel, Miah M.
Climate data pertaining to the Ganges basin in Bangladesh were analysed to find any climatic changes in the wake of the upstream water diversion by the Farakka Barrage. Whereas the diversions have been continuing from at least 30 international rivers upstream of Bangladesh, the diversion from the Ganges is the best known and has a wider coverage than all other diversions. The diversion reduced the Ganges' discharge through the delta by about 60% from a pre-diversion average value of 1932 m3 s-1, decreased water availability in flood plains, ponds, canals, and ditches by about 50%, dropped the groundwater table, and caused changes in surface features. It took about 5 years of diversions beyond the test run year of 1975 for the environment to react to set 1981 as the baseline year. During the post-baseline era: (1) heating degree days and cooling degree days were respectively 1.33 and 1.44 times more than their counterparts during the pre-baseline era; (2) the summertime and wintertime average temperatures were respectively 1 °C more and 0.5 °C less than the corresponding values during the pre-baseline era; (3) the mode 32 °C of summertime maximum temperatures was 1 °C higher and occurred 414 times more, and the mode 25 °C of wintertime temperature was 1 °C less and occurred 17 times less than the corresponding quantities during the pre-baseline era; (4) the average value of maximum relative humidity has increased by more than 2% and that of minimum relative humidity has dropped by the same amount; (5) the mode 95% and 70% of maximum and minimum relative humidity values have occurred 1322 times and 84 times more respectively than their pre-baseline counterparts; and (6) the frequency for 100 mm or more rainfall and the monthly average rainfalls have dropped by about 50% and 30% respectively. The solution to the climatic changes lies in the restoration of the virgin Ganges flow, dredging of the Ganges and its distributaries to remove shoals and siltation, and re
Calbick, Kenneth S.
This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95
Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…
Moriarty, Anthony; Fleming, Thomas W.
Innercity students who enter a suburban school system often find themselves at a significant disadvantage, both academically and socially, and seek acceptance by flaunting gang symbols. Identifies 10 strategies for addressing the problems of gang influence in suburban schools, including involving transfer students and providing career counseling.…
Mullis, Lelia Christie
Some models for collaboration among families, schools, law enforcement, and social agencies, which promote gang awareness and prevention of gang involvement at the elementary and middle school levels, are described in this research review. The studies were grouped into three categories: background information, prevention strategies, and…
Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.
Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…
Lopez, Jose; Mirande, Alfredo
Orange County's public policy responses to youth gangs have involved overt suppression or educational interventions directed at ethnic minorities, particularly Chicanos. Such approaches overlook the multiethnic nature of gang violence and ignore the problem's roots--emerging economic, demographic, and residential patterns that produce…
Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt
Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…
Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn
Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…
Barrett, Alice N.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Lewis, Kelly M.
Gang involvement is an increasing issue among Latino youth, yet nuanced research on its potential causes is scarce. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore links between acculturative stress and gang involvement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino middle school students (N = 199). Regression analyses showed that U.S.-born youths…
Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…
Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris
Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…
Rodriguez, Luis J.
This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…
Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.; Arrue, Rafael Martinez
This study examines the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 urban ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on 8 occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results…
Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia
The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…
Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum
Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…
The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile
Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation…
Muthuwatta, L.; Amarasinghe, U. A.; Sood, A.; Lagudu, S.
Surface runoff generated in the monsoon months in the upstream parts of the Ganges River Basin contributes substantially to downstream floods, while water shortages in the dry months affect agricultural production in the basin. This paper examines the parts (sub-basins) of the Ganges that have the potential for augmenting subsurface storage (SSS), increase the availability of water for agriculture and other uses, and mitigate the floods in the downstream areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to estimate sub-basin-wise water availability. The water availability estimated is then compared with the sub-basin-wise un-met water demand for agriculture. Hydrological analyses revealed that five sub-basins produced more than 10 billion cubic meters (B m3) of annual surface runoff consistently during the simulation period. In these sub-basins, less than 50 % of the annual surface runoff is sufficient to irrigate all irrigable land in both the Rabi (November to March) and summer (April to May) seasons. Further, for most of the sub-basins, there is sufficient water to meet the un-met water demand, provided that it is possible to capture the surface runoff during the wet season. It is estimated that the average flow to Bihar State from the upstream of the Ganges, a downstream basin location, is 277 ± 121 B m3, which is more than double the rainfall in the state alone. Strong relationships between outflows from the upstream sub-basins and the inflows to Bihar State suggested that flood inundation in the state could be reduced by capturing a portion of the upstream flows during the peak runoff periods.
... vessel; (iii) A specialized repair technician; or (iv) An individual who is otherwise required by the...'' who perform work beyond standard vessel maintenance and repair while ships are underway. In 2006..., repair, and maintenance work performed in shipyards located in the United States or Guam; and (3)...
... published an interim rule at 75 FR 65437 on October 25, 2010, to implement section 3504 of the National... applies to commercial contracts for carriage of cargo by a U.S.-flag vessel documented under chapter 121... to defense acquisitions of commercial items because section 3504 also applies to commercial...
Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie
Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health. PMID:22273341
McDaniel, Dawn D.; Logan, J.E.; Schneiderman, Janet U.
The impact of gang violence on a youth’s risk for death or injury is tremendous. Prevention of complex societal problems, such as gang violence, requires a substantial effort and commitment from many sectors and disciplines. Nurses are uniquely positioned to help lead such efforts. Understanding the public health perspective to gang violence may be an important tool for nurses attempting to prevent this problem. The public health approach has four key components: defining and monitoring the problem; identifying risk, protective, and promoting factors; developing and evaluating interventions; and dissemination. This article outlines these components, current research on gang violence, and concludes by summarizing critical challenges for nurses to consider as they contribute to public health initiatives to prevent gang violence. PMID:26752944
Sellers, C S; Taylor, T J; Esbensen, F A
The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a school-based gang prevention initiative developed in 1991 through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, and the Phoenix Police Department. Uniformed law enforcement officers, certified as G.R.E.A.T. instructors, teach the 9-week curriculum to middle students. In 1994, the National Institute of Justice funded a national evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. program. The process evaluation component of this larger study is reported. First, results of on-site observations of the G.R.E.A.T. Officer Training program, including an overview of the training activities, and the authors' assessment of the training process are reported. Second, observations of the implementation of the program by officers at six sites are reported. Of primary concern was whether the program delivered to students was similar to the program taught to the officers during the G.R.E.A.T. Officer Training. PMID:10186895
In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:
Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G
Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. PMID:22998539
Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer
Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598
Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
Objectives. We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Methods. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. Results. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. Conclusions. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs. PMID:24625155
Hoppie, Lyle O.
An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.
An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.
Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer
Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782
Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson
Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. )
The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.
Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.
In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.
Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.
The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…
Hughey, Matthew W.
In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…
Rios, Victor M.
This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…
Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena
This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…
Joseph, Jisha; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal
The assessment of hydrological responses to the change in climate at river basin scale is very essential for the proper planning and management of water resources. For studying the changes in land surface hydrology with climate, various hydrological models coupled with climate models were developed. However, modeling of the regional hydroclimate involves uncertainty at multiple levels. Generally, GCMs, downscaling methods and parameterization are the main sources of uncertainty. The major challenge in hydrological modeling is the calibration of parameters which demands very accurate observed data. The inter comparison of various uncertainties can be done by modeling the uncertainties. If the major source of uncertainty in modeling is identified, the level of accuracy required in the model calibration can be studied. Our objective is to assess future hydrological scenario in the Ganges basin considering multiple GCMs, scenarios and parameter uncertainty model and to identify and compare different sources of uncertainties in assessing the hydrological impacts of climate change. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model which is a semi-distributed macro scale hydrological model is used for the present study. The model is run for a historic period 1979-2005 using the observed and reanalysis data and is evaluated using soil moisture data. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is carried out for the four calibration parameters in VIC and the model is run for future scenario using different GCMs and downscaling methods. The probability distribution of the output is used for modeling the uncertainties. The present analysis shows that accuracy in climate change simulations can be achieved by modeling the uncertainty, which will certainly improve the future regional hydroclimate projection. Keywords: uncertainty, Variable Infiltration Capacity model, Monte Carlo simulation
On October 26, 1997, MOC took this image of Mars 10 minutes after its closest approach to the planet (1:46 AM PST). The view shows the floor of western Ganges Chasma (7.8oS 51.8oW), covering an area 2.6 km (1.6 miles) wide by 45.4 km (28.2 miles) long at a resolution of 5 by 7.4 meters (16.4 by 24.3 feet) per picture element. The local time on Mars when the picture was taken was 4:35 PM.The center image (available at higher resolution as PIA01028) shows the northern portion of the area inscribed in the left image. The right image (PIA01029) shows the southern portion.Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.
Moloney, Molly; Joe-Laidler, Karen; McKenzie, Kathleen
This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and gang girls—both stigmatized identities. For many of the young women, motherhood entails a retreat from the street and a renewed emphasis on time spent in the home. While many receive (financial and childcare) support from their families, this also often means a diminution of the autonomy they experienced while more heavily involved in the gang. Issues of respect and respectability remain important for the young women, but the dimensions on which these are based change. PMID:21116461
Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.
In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.
Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth
Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685
Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo
The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.
Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.
Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella
(Released 29 March 2002) The Science The Story These layered deposits are located on the floor of a large canyon called Ganges Chasma which is a part of the Valles Marineris. Dramatic layering can be seen throughout the deposit. Different styles of erosion are manifest in these different layers and at different locations within the layered material. For example, the southern portion of these deposits have a pronounced fluting, whereas in other areas the same layers are more intact. Relatively dark dunes and sand sheets can be observed surrounding the relatively brighter layered material in the upper right and lower portions of the image. Darker material also appears to mantle select areas of the layered deposits. The formation of the dunes is influenced by topography; this influence is best illustrated in the upper left of the image where a small hillock has interfered with the local wind flow. Impact craters of all sizes are noticeably absent in this image, indicating a relatively young age for this surface. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top. The Story If this wonderfully textured landform were on Earth, it would have to be designated as a 'national park,' much like the popular canyon parklands of the American Southwest. Look for the oblong plateau at the center right of this image, and see how the terrain descends from it on all sides. The southerly canyon wall (bottom third of the image) displays a visually beautiful canyon slope, with descending erosional flutes that cut pathways through the differently hued rock and mineral layers. While the northern side of the plateau might not look as dramatic, don't miss the dark-colored sand dunes that lie at the base of the canyon. Why did they form in just that place? To find out, look for the small hillock in the top left of the image that has interfered with the wind's flow, causing the ripply dunes to form. With so many interesting and physically stunning features
Rosko, Ashley E; McColl, Karen S; Zhong, Fei; Ryder, Christopher B; Chang, Ming-Jin; Sattar, Abdus; Caimi, Paolo F; Hill, Brian T; Al-Harbi, Sayer; Almasan, Alexandru; Distelhorst, Clark W
The tumor microenvironment is generally an acidic environment, yet the effect of extracellular acidosis on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not well established. Here we are the first to report that the extracellular acid sensing G-protein coupled receptor, GPR65, is expressed in primary CLL cells where its level correlate strongly with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member levels. GPR65 expression is found normally within the lymphoid lineage and has not been previously reported in CLL. We demonstrate a wide range of GPR65 mRNA expression among CLL 87 patient samples. The correlation between GPR65 mRNA levels and Bcl-2 mRNA levels is particularly strong (r=0.8063, p= <0.001). The correlation extends to other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Mcl-1 (r=0.4847, p=0.0010) and Bcl-xl (r=0.3411, p=0.0252), although at lower levels of significance. No correlation is detected between GPR65 and levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins BIM, PUMA or NOXA. GPR65 expression also correlates with the favorable prognostic marker of 13q deletion. The present findings suggest the acid sensing receptor GPR65 may be of significance to allow CLL tolerance of extracellular acidosis. The correlation of GPR65 with Bcl-2 suggests a novel cytoprotective mechanism that enables CLL cell adaptation to acidic extracellular conditions. These findings suggest the potential value of targeting GPR65 therapeutically. PMID:25984552
Katz, Susan Roberta
A teacher researcher studied Hispanic-American seventh graders in an English as a Second Language class who had older siblings or close friends in gangs, conducting interviews with students and their teachers. The research investigated teacher researchers' social responsibility beyond the study. This paper discusses lessons for teacher researchers…
Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.
Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…
Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.
Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…
By 1890 the legendary outlaws of the 1870s and 1880s were mostly dead or in prison. When Luther Perkins erected his new bank building in Coffeyville, Kansas, a bank robbery was the farthest thing from his mind. But the Dalton cousins, former Coffeyville residents, were interested in the bank because they wanted to outdo the James gang by using the…
Jha, P. K.; Subramanian, V.; Sitasawad, R.
Maximum mass transfer, in the Yamuna River takes place during the monsoon season. The sediment load constitutes 58-86% of the total load carried by the river depending upon the sites. Tributaries are chemically more active than the mainstream. The total load of the river seems to be controlled by lithology. At Allahabad, the Yamuna carries 42 × 10 6t dissolved chemical load and 64 × 10 6t sediment load to the Ganges river. The TSM/TDS ratio shows that upstream physical weathering is more dominant than chemical weathering. The negative relation between basin area and total erosion rate and the positive relation between the chemical and sediment erosion in the Yamuna basin is in agreement with the global trend. The average chemical erosion rate (165 t km -2yr -1) of the Yamuna is much higher than that of the Ganges and the Indian average. The total erosion rate (973 t km -2yr -1) is 1.7 times greater than that of the Ganges. Upstream the Yamuna removes 1.04 mm yr -1 of the basin surface; the removal rate decreases downstream to 0.19 mm yr -1 at Allahabad, the point of confluence with the Ganges.
Schwartz, Audrey J.
Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…
Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles
Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…
Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula
Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…
Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David
This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…
Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot
This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…
Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, "Backyard Games", about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed…
Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia
We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom
Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…
Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon
The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…
Spergel, Irving A.; Grossman, Susan F.
Reports preliminary evidence on an innovative approach to gang violence which relies on community mobilization, social intervention, suppression, opportunities provision, organizational development, and targeting. Describes program processes and outcomes. The project involved teams of community youth workers, tactical police officers, adult…