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1

A Phenomenological Study with Youth Gang Members: Results and Implications for School Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a phenomenological model, examines eight male adolescents' perceptions of their gang membership. Interviews revealed such themes as self-esteem, a sense of belonging, and protection. Outlines implications for school counselors when working with gang members individually, in groups, with families, or during school interventions. (RJM)

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Honda, Marianne R.

1997-01-01

2

Female Gang Members from East Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Los Angeles cholas are the female counterparts of the cholos, the latter the street gang members that come from marginal situations and conditions. While there has been little research on female gang members overall, the role of females in the street life is significant. Sisters, girlfriends, and other relatives share the same backgrounds as male gang members but additionally

James Diego VIGIL

2008-01-01

3

Are Rural Gang Members Similar to their Urban Peers?: Implications for Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated factors associated with gang involvement among rural and urban adolescents. The data were derived from a large self-report survey ( N = 2,183) of 7th through 12th grade Nevada students. Surprisingly, there was no significant dif- ference in gang membership or pressure to join gangs between the rural and urban samples. There were differences, however, on other

WILLIAM P. EVANS; CARLA FITZGERALD; DAN WEIGEL; SARAH CHVILICEK

1999-01-01

4

Mothers of Gang Members Give Voice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three mothers whose children were connected to Dallas (Texas) gangs told their stories at the Fourth Joint National Conference on Gangs, Schools, and Community. It is said that gang members come from dysfunctional families, usually from homes where fathers are not present or involved in children's upbringing. In spite of a great deal of research…

Cooke, Gwendolyn; McEvoy, Alan

1997-01-01

5

“Slinging dope”: The role of gangs and gang members in drug sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two competing views about the role of gangs and gang members in drug sales. The first argues that street gangs are well-organized purveyors of illegal drugs who reinvest the profits from drug sales into the gang. A second approach rejects this notion. Its proponents claim that drug sales by gangs are seldom well-organized and that gang members often

Scott H. Decker; Barrik Van Winkle

1994-01-01

6

Comparing the Effects of Treatment on Female Juvenile Gang and Non-Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research indicates that males comprise the greatest proportion of gang members. Since the 1990s, however, there has been an increasing interest in female gangs and gang members. The current study builds on this research interest by examining differences between female gang members and non-gang members who participated in a juvenile probation program designed to identify and intervene with youth

Pamela J. Schram; Larry K. Gaines

2008-01-01

7

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2013-10-01

8

Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teams at several universities collaborated in studies of the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency program in three cities. This bulletin presents the findings from the Rochester (New York) Youth Development Study (RYDS) concerning the contributions of youth gang membership to delinquency. The RYDS started with a sample of 1,000 boys and girls in…

Thornberry, Terence P.; Burch, James H., II

1997-01-01

9

Pre-Teen Gang Members: The Father Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang membership and violence are pervasive across the United States. Today children, adolescents and young adults of all social classes and environments are susceptible to gang involvement. Gang members are getting younger and gang leaders are getting older. The composition and structure of the family is examined for the common element between…

Bracki, Marie A.; Dolson, Bonnie M.; Maurice, Kenneth

10

DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS.  

PubMed

Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

Pih, Kay Kei-Ho; DE LA Rosa, Mario; Rugh, Douglas; Mao, Kuoray

2008-08-01

11

DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS  

PubMed Central

Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study.

PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

2009-01-01

12

SITUATIONS OF VIOLENCE IN THE LIVES OF GIRL GANG MEMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women and violence has become a topic of increasing concern. Women's involvement in perpetrating violence, especially girl gang members, also has raised national concern. The participation of young women in gangs and gang violence has caused public con- sternation as they are perceived to be violating traditional notions of femininity. In spite of this increased concern and burgeoning lit- erature,

Geoffrey Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler

2001-01-01

13

Female Gang Members: A Profile of Aggression and Victimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most gang membership research studies males; few examine the etiology of female gang membership. Presents themes of female gang membership gathered from interviews with 15 young women. Examines demographic material, family structure, initiation rites, and criminal behaviors. Explores implications for social work practice and research. (FC)

Molidor, Christian E.

1996-01-01

14

Gang involvement: psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth.  

PubMed

Research has noted the existence of a loose and dynamic gang structure. However, the psychological processes that underpin gang membership have only begun to be addressed. This study examined gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth across measures of criminal activity, the importance they attach to status, their levels of moral disengagement, their perceptions of out-group threat, and their attitudes toward authority. Of the 798 high school students who participated in this study, 59 were identified as gang members, 75 as peripheral youth, and 664 as nongang youth. Gang members and peripheral youth were more delinquent than nongang youth overall; however, gang members committed more minor offenses than nongang youth and peripheral youth committed more violent offenses than nongang youth. Gang members were more anti-authority than nongang youth, and both gang and peripheral youth valued social status more than nongang youth. Gang members were also more likely to blame their victims for their actions and use euphemisms to sanitize their behavior than nongang youth, whereas peripheral youth were more likely than nongang youth to displace responsibility onto their superiors. These findings are discussed as they highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the cognitive processes that relate to gang involvement. PMID:20718002

Alleyne, Emma; Wood, Jane L

2010-01-01

15

A Profile of Juvenile Street Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to fill the need for empirically derived information to determine the most salient factors which differentiate street gang youths from youths in comparable neighborhoods who remain independent of the street gang. (Author)

Friedman, C. Jack; And Others

1975-01-01

16

Pride and prejudice in high school gang members.  

PubMed

This study compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and their self-professed role models. A total of 78 Caucasian (65 nongang and 13 gang members) and 77 African-American students (41 nongang and 36 gang members) participated. Results indicated that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to their nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial stereotyping toward racial outgroups; gang members were not more racially prejudiced compared to other students. The role model data revealed that overall, gang members could name fewer role models than did their nongang peers. African-American students who were not gang members were much more likely to mention a parent or teacher as a role model. A regression analysis indicated that the absence of parental or teacher roles models was the best predictor of gang membership. These results are conceptualized within the framework provided by social identity theory. PMID:8085481

Wang, A Y

1994-01-01

17

Pride and Prejudice in High School Gang Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and self-professed role models. Results from 78 white and 77 black students revealed that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial…

Wang, Alvin Y.

1994-01-01

18

The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

2002-01-01

19

"Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

20

HIV Testing, Perceived Vulnerability and Correlates of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors of Latino and African American Young Male Gang Members  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examined HIV testing behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and correlates of sexual risk behaviors of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members ages 18–26 years old. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviors: had sex with someone they just met (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had an STD (AOR = 4.67), or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR= 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members.

Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.

2011-01-01

21

Gang Members on the Move. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Yout...

C. L. Maxson

1998-01-01

22

"GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY": DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

PubMed Central

This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling.

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

23

Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

2006-01-01

24

An analysis of risk domains associated with drug transitions of active Latino gang members.  

PubMed

Alcohol and illicit drug abuse is a serious problem among male Latino gang members. Research indicates that gang members increase their drug use while they are members, and use more drugs after they leave the gangs. This manuscript reports on data reflecting the influences of individual, familial, peer, and community factors on the number of drug use transitions that Latino gang members undergo during their drug using careers. Data from this study were collected from interviews conducted with seventy-six active Latino gang members. The study's results indicate that age at the time of interview and lower age of drug onset were associated with a greater number of drug use transitions. Positive family attitudes toward deviance, friend drug use, school truancy, conflict with parents, and living in neighborhoods with a high level of crime were also found to be associated with increased drug use transitions. PMID:17088228

De La Rosa, Mario; Rugh, Douglas; Rice, Christopher

2006-01-01

25

Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

2010-01-01

26

The drugs-violence nexus among Mexican-American gang members.  

PubMed

This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history /intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant's last fight. Gang member participant's ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member's risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxication levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450

Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Cepeda, Alice

2006-06-01

27

Internal and External Developmental Assets Among African American Male Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The presence of individual and ecological assets for positive development was assessed through data derived from individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males living in the same communities but involved in community-based organizations (CBOs) aimed at…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

2004-01-01

28

Bismarckian Transformations in Contemporary Nicaragua? From Gang Member to Drug Dealer to Legal Entrepreneur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a detailed life history of Bismarck, a Nicaraguan youth gang member turned illegal drug dealer turned legal entrepreneur, this paper explores the potential relationships between formal and informal economic activity. It focuses particularly on the various economic activities that he has been involved in at different stages in his life, tracing their origins and evolving dynamics in order to

Dennis Rodgers

2009-01-01

29

“Deterrability” Among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable Than Other Juvenile Offenders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not negated by past offending experience, morality,

Cheryl L. Maxson; Kristy N. Matsuda; Karen Hennigan

2011-01-01

30

"Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

2011-01-01

31

Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

32

Prison Gangs: Their Extent, Nature and Impact on Prisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; Methodology; State of knowledge of prison gangs prior to the research; Extent of prison gangs in United States; Nature of prison gangs; Prison gang problems; Identifying and tracking prison gang members and activities; Str...

G. M. Camp C. G. Camp

1985-01-01

33

Adolescent Male and Female Gang Members’ Experiences with Violent Victimization, Dating Violence, and Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial amount of scholarship has been devoted to examining the relationship between gang membership and criminal offending.\\u000a This research has produced a wealth of qualitative and quantitative studies indicating that gang membership increases the\\u000a likelihood of criminal offending for both males and females. Less research, however, has examined the relationship between\\u000a gang membership and violent victimization. The present study

Angela R. Gover; Wesley G. Jennings; Richard Tewksbury

2009-01-01

34

The relationship between dimensional self-concept and juvenile gang involvement: implications for prevention, intervention, and court referred diversion programs.  

PubMed

In this investigation we assessed 427 youths from an area with considerable gang activity to determine the way in which self-concept is related to gang involvement, and to assess how gang involvement fluctuates as a function of gender and grade level. Product moment correlations revealed a significant negative association between gang involvement and the self-concept dimensions of competence, affect, academic, family, and global; however, only the relationship with competence self-concept remained significant after adjusting for alpha inflation. Discriminant analysis revealed a significant predictive relationship between self-concept and classification into high or low gang-involved groups. Males were found to be significantly more gang involved than females, but no differences were found by grade level (although a significant gender by grade interaction was present). Implications for field-based prevention/intervention efforts and court referred diversion programs are discussed. PMID:9309856

Herrmann, D S; McWhirter, J J; Sipsas-Herrmann, A

1997-01-01

35

Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

36

Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

2004-01-01

37

Age, Social Context, and Street Gang Membership: Are "Youth" Gangs Becoming "Adult" Gangs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the extent to which street gangs in Los Angeles (California) are comprised of youth or adults, self-report data from 435 gang members are examined. Findings do not generally support the idea of the aging gang member. Gangs consist primarily of adolescents, regardless of racial and socioeconomic differences. (SLD)

Lasley, James R.

1992-01-01

38

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

39

Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

US Government Accountability Office, 2009

2009-01-01

40

Gangs. Substance Abuse Resource Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. cities have seen a proliferation of youth gangs in recent years. Since 1980, the number of cities with gang problems increased from an estimated 286 jurisdictions with more than 2,000 gangs and nearly 100,000 gang members to about 4,800 jurisdictions...

2000-01-01

41

"It's like we're just renting over here": The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai'i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai'i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K

2009-03-30

42

Modern-Day Youth Gangs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drawing on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys, the authors of this bulletin compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions...

J. C. Howell A. Egley D. K. Gleason

2002-01-01

43

Youth gang membership and serious violent victimization: the importance of lifestyles and routine activities.  

PubMed

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their nongang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at increased risk of victimization, although the reasons for this relationship have not fully been explored. The current study uses data from a multisite study of youth to explore whether the gang membership-victimization link is mediated by lifestyles and routine activities. In other words, is gang members' involvement in delinquent lifestyles and routine activities a viable explanation for their increased risk of serious violent victimization? Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:18319365

Taylor, Terrance J; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-10-01

44

[Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs].  

PubMed

Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized. PMID:21739067

Guzmán-Facundo, Francisco Rafael; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge; Lopez-García, Karla Selene; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Esparza-Almanza, Santiaga Enriqueta

2011-06-01

45

The Value of Comparisons in Street Gang Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article calls for greater attention to the use of comparative studies in street gang research. Five examples of good but noncomparative studies are reviewed to make the case. Then, a number of opportunities for comparative research are reviewed: gang member comparisons, gang members versus non-gang youth, cross-gang comparisons, comparisons across locations, historical comparisons, and methodological comparisons. For each type,

Malcolm W. Klein

2005-01-01

46

Safeguarding Schools against Gang Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang activities are often part of a complex web of drugs, abuse, and high regard for violent and criminal behavior. This article discusses the spread of street gangs and describes innovative intervention and prevention programs, such as Chicago's counseling/support project using ex-gang members. Experts' tips are also provided. (MLH)

Tursman, Cindy

1989-01-01

47

Girls around gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the roles played and risks faced by girlfriends of gang members in the UK. It argues that if we are to address serious youth violence, both policy and practice has to account for the role that young women as well as young men play. At present, the male dominated account of gang violence threatens to delay long-term

Carlene Firmin

2009-01-01

48

Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although childhood maltreatment has been found to contribute to a variety of youth problem behaviors, the implications of being maltreated on gang involvement remain unclear. This research examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that being maltreated increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth

KEVIN M. THOMPSON; RHONDA BRAATEN-ANTRIM

1998-01-01

49

Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.  

PubMed

The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed. PMID:19477786

Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

2008-09-01

50

Cholo to "Me": From Peripherality to Practicing Student Success for a Chicano Former Gang Member  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many situationally marginalized Mexican-descent students today, hopelessness is fueled by a bleak life situation that is reflected in their school performance. Success in school remains elusive because they are not or have not had the opportunity to become members of a community that contributes to their sense of agency, possibility and hope…

Reyes, Reynaldo, III

2006-01-01

51

Internal and External Developmental Assets Among African American Male Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of individual and ecological assets for positive development was assessed through data derived from individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangsand50 African American adolescent males living in the same communities but involved in community-based organizations (CBOs) aimed at promoting positive youth development.The CBO youth had higher levels of both domains of assets.

Carl S. Taylor; Richard M. Lerner; Alexander von Eye; Deborah L. Bobek; Elizabeth M. Dowling; Pamela M. Anderson

2004-01-01

52

Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-01-01

53

Gender dynamics in youth gangs: A comparison of males' and females' accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on interviews with 58 gang members in St. Louis, this paper compares males' and females' perspectives on the gender dynamics in street gangs. Feminist scholars have long criticized traditional gang scholarship for its reliance on male gang members to gain information about young women. We suggest that it is useful to revisit what male gang members say about gender

Jody Miller; Rod K. Brunson

2000-01-01

54

Understanding the Black Box of Gang OrganizationImplications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests that gangs are not very well organized. However, the findings from the current research

Scott H. Decker; Charles M. Katz; Vincent J. Webb

2008-01-01

55

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored the differences between the criminal behavior of youth gang members and non-gang, but similarly at-risk, youths. The research revealed that criminal behavior committed by gang members is extensive and significantly exceeds that committ...

C. R. Huff

1998-01-01

56

Gangs a Suburban Problem Too! "Taking the Gang Threat Seriously."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs are no longer the exclusive problem of large metropolitan areas. Suburban schools and communities are now vulnerable, and the problem is spreading. To combat the problem, it is essential to overcome denial in the school and community. The case study of Chris, a junior high school student, exemplifies suburban youth gang members.…

Stabile, Michael J.

57

National Youth Gang Survey, 1998. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary provides results from the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, administered to a representative sample of city and county police and sheriff's departments nationwide. Results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs decreased from 51 percent in 1997 to 48 percent in 1998. About 780,200 gang members were…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

58

Unemployment and gang crime: can prosperity backfire?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study how unemployment affects gang crime. We examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that a substitution\\u000a effect between petty crime and severe crime is at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private\\u000a knowledge. Thus, the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime

Panu Poutvaara; Mikael Priks

2011-01-01

59

Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has documented the enhancement effects of gang involvement for criminal offending, but little attention has been given to victimization. This article examines how gang involvement shapes young women's risks of victimization. Based on interviews with active gang members, the author suggests that (1) gang participation exposes youths to victimization risk and (2) it does so in gendered ways. Young

JODY MILLER

1998-01-01

60

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and victimization); "Delinquency and…

Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

61

Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent VictimizationThe Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their nongang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at increased risk of victimization, although the

Terrance J. Taylor; Adrienne Freng; Finn-Aage Esbensen; Dana Peterson

2008-01-01

62

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs A Situational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situa- tional factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immi- grant youth involvement in these types of violent

Avelardo Valdez; Alice Cepeda; Charles Kaplan

2010-01-01

63

Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public atten- tion during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses data from a multi-site study of youth

Terrance J. Taylor; D. Peterson; F.-A. Esbensen; A. Freng

2007-01-01

64

The Folk Devil Reacts: Gangs and Moral Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analyses of moral panics and gangs have emphasized the impact of media images as well as the public, police, and legislative response in relation to the immediate threat posed by gangs and gang members. What is absent from the current moral panic literature is the effect that a moral panic may have on the group (or individual) to whom

Jenna L. Cyr

2003-01-01

65

On Alert! Gang Prevention. School In-Service Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for gang awareness and prevention in the California school system. It is based on the belief that inservice training programs help school staff recognize early signs of gang activity, a necessary step to intervention. Following the introduction, chapter 1 offers descriptive information on gangs and their members,…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

66

The Girls in the Gang. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the role of female gangs and the part women play in those that are predominantly male and provides an account of how these people came to accept casual killings, fire bombings, and the warfare and violence of the streets. It focuses on female gang members by setting out their stories as biographies and accounts of relationships…

Campbell, Anne

67

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs: A Situational Analysis.  

PubMed

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

2009-09-01

68

Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

69

Youth gangs, delinquency and drug use: a test of the selection, facilitation, and enhancement hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c) selection and facilitation work interactively (enhancement hypothesis). The aim of this study was to

Uberto Gatti; Richard E. Tremblay; Frank Vitaro; Pierre McDuff

2005-01-01

70

Mentoring as an Intervention for Adolescents in the School Setting with Potential or Actual Gang Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to address gang concerns, educators should develop intervention strategies that keep youth from considering gang involvement. It is vital that schools reach the students before gang members are able to influence them. Intervention strategies should stress prevention, conversion, and address the causes of gang activity and not merely the…

Vanover, Beverly; Utesch, William E.

71

Self-definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant disagreement among researchers as to the appropriate concep- tual and operational definitions of gang membership. One of the key issues involves the validity of allowing respondents to identify themselves as gang members. This re- search examines the construct validity of gang membership by examining the relation- ship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquent involvement.

BETH BJERREGAARD

2002-01-01

72

Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

2005-01-01

73

D-TAG: erasing the tag of gang membership.  

PubMed

Gangs are noted for establishing their territory, flaunting gang affiliation, intimidating nonmembers, and documenting their "services performed." These examples are a few reasons for the practice of "tagging," the labeling of an area, person, or object with gang-related graffiti or markings, such as tattoos. This article describes a school nurse's response to gang "tagging" and her efforts to assist former gang members who request removal of their tattoos, to get them removed-in essence to D-TAG themselves from their gang affiliation. D-TAG is a volunteer rehabilitation program utilizing family and community interaction to support gang tattoo removal and direct activities away from gang affiliations toward alternative educational programs and life styles. PMID:9146217

Gurke, B; Armstrong, M L

1997-04-01

74

Ganges Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color infrared image was taken by the camera system on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft over part of Ganges Chasma in Valles Marineris (approximately 13 degrees S, 318 degrees E). The infrared image has been draped over topography data obtained by Mars Global Surveyor. The color differences in this image show compositional variations in the rocks exposed in the wall and floor of Ganges (blue and purple) and in the dust and sand on the rim of the canyon (red and orange). The floor of Ganges is covered by rocks and sand composed of basaltic lava that are shown in blue. A layer that is rich in the mineral olivine can be seen as a band of purple in the walls on both sides of the canyon, and is exposed as an eroded layer surrounding a knob on the floor. Olivine is easily destroyed by liquid water, so its presence in these ancient rocks suggests that this region of Mars has been very dry for a very long time. The mosaic was constructed using infrared bands 5, 7, and 8, and covers an area approximately 150 kilometers (90 miles) on each side. This simulated view is toward the north.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

75

Native American Youth Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of Native American youth gangs has increased dramatically since the 1990s. These gangs bring increases in crime and pose unique challenges to tribal leaders and local police departments. Using an integrated theoretical perspective, this article connects cultural and historical factors to explain the emergence of gangs in Indian country, identify risk factors for gang involvement, and outline important

Matthew T. Theriot; Barbara “Sunshine” Parke

2008-01-01

76

MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community's drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang's organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

Valdez, Avelardo

2005-10-01

77

The impact of curfews and electronic monitoring on the social strains, support and capital experienced by youth gang members and offenders in the west of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about youth gang violence and offending have occurred in developed societies across the globe, and a plethora of youth justice sanctions have arisen in response to this. This article is focused upon an empirical study of 20 young men from socially deprived areas of the west of Scotland, whose involvement in individualized offending emerged from their earlier participation in

Ross Deuchar

2012-01-01

78

Ganges Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06373 Ganges Chasma

This image was collected December 8, 2002 during southern winter season. The local time at the image location was about 4:45 pm. The image shows an area of the floor of Ganges Chasma and shows dark dunes and brighter wind sculpted hills of unknown origin.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.7N, Longitude 313.3E (46.7 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

79

Gang Research.Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted and maintained by John Hagedorn, a professor of criminal justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago, this site provides information about the nature of gangs around the United States, with a particular emphasis on gangs in Chicago. The prime objective of the site is "to dispel stereotypes and present research, original documents, and helpful links." The site is divided into three main sections, including information on globalization, Chicago gangs, and gang research. There are several compelling primary documents on the site, including transcriptions of interviews and presentations from current and former gang leaders from Chicago. Also, there is a chronology detailing the history of one of the most infamous African-American gangs in Chicago, the Blackstone Rangers. The site will be of great interest to those studying the nature of gangs in the United States and particularly to those interested in the evolution of gangs in Chicago over the past century.

80

Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street gangs have been of primary concern to the public, policy makers, and criminologists for well over a century. There\\u000a is a very good reason for such concern: gang members contribute disproportionately to the overall level of crime, especially\\u000a violent and serious offenses (Battin-Pearson, Thornberry, Hawkins, & Krohn, 1998; Curry, 2000; Curry, Ball, & Decker, 1996;\\u000a Hill, Hawkins, Catalano, Maguin,

Marvin D. Krohn; Terence P. Thornberry

81

The Professor of Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Martin Sanchez Jankowski conducted a 10-year study of gangs of varying ethnicity in three major cities, with a focus on New York City and Los Angeles (California). The center of his research has been in low-income areas, where gangs have been an institution for more than 150 years. Jankowski acquired experience by living with gangs from a variety…

Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

1993-01-01

82

The Gang Intervention Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

83

Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

Larence, Eileen R.

2010-01-01

84

Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: Street gang membership, social and psychological factors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24127897

Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

2014-06-01

85

National Youth Gang Survey (1997). Summary: National Youth Gang Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States and the growth of youth gang violence have heightened the awareness of the youth gang problem among public policymakers, law enforcement agencies, and social scientists. To measure the e...

1999-01-01

86

Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Youth Gang Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Yout...

J. C. Howell S. H. Decker

1999-01-01

87

Street Gangs and the Schools: A Blueprint for Intervention. Fastback 321.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools cannot approach the problem of street gangs with the same strategies as law enforcement agencies, but rather must create a nurturing environment for all students, where success in school and life becomes the only attractive option for gang members. Street gangs represent the racial, cultural, and economic diversity of American society.…

Riley, Kevin W.

88

Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive individual and social behaviors were assessed among male gang members and males involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. Correlations of attribute scores were more often significant for the gang than for the nongang youth. Approximately one-quarter of the gang youth had total positive…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Pamela M.

2003-01-01

89

The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

Duran, Robert J.

2009-01-01

90

Aboriginal Youth and Violent Gang Involvement in Canada: Quality Prevention Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an epidemic of Aboriginal youth gang violence in some parts of Canada today, and young Aboriginal gang members are killing each other and committing suicide at rates that exceed those of any other group in Canada. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, and describes five major pathways to violent gang involvement for Aboriginal youth. It

Mark Totten

91

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

2002-01-01

92

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs

Huff, C. Ronald

93

A comparison of gang and individual rape incidents.  

PubMed

This study examined differences between gang and individual offender rape incidents reported to the Chicago police. Analyses showed that victims and offenders in gang rape incidents were younger, more likely to be unemployed, but not different in marital status or race than victims and offenders in individual rapes (e.g., single offender, single victim crimes). Gang rapes were characterized by more alcohol and drug involvement, fewer weapons, more night attacks, less victim resistance, and more severe sexual assault outcomes compared with individual rapes. Regression analyses revealed distinct correlates of physical injury outcomes for gang and individual rape incidents. Implications for treatment and prevention of these types of assaults are discussed. PMID:10418766

Ullman, S E

1999-01-01

94

Preventing Youths from Joining Gangs: How to Apply Inoculation Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years, gang prevalence, the number of gang members nationwide, and the seriousness of their impact on society, particularly schools, have increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to analyze Inoculation Theory, a process by which attitude transformation can be resisted during social interactions that involve persuasive messages designed to change existing attitudes, and to promote

Gerald-Mark Breen; Jonathan Matusitz

2008-01-01

95

The Effect of Gang Perpetrated Crime on the Likelihood of Non-Lethal Victim Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies consistently find that gang members are involved in a disproportionately high rate of violence. The association between\\u000a gangs and violence is largely based on the legal definition of violence, however. The current study moves beyond the legal\\u000a definition of gang violence by examining the relationship between non-lethal gang involved incidents and the likelihood of\\u000a victim injury, using pooled data

Chris Melde; Callie Marie Rennison

2008-01-01

96

THE MEANING OF FAMILY AND HOME FOR YOUNG PASIFIKA PEOPLE INVOLVED IN GANGS IN THE SUBURBS OF SOUTH AUCKLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses in-depth interviews conducted with 26 Pasifika1 youth gang members from two South Auckland suburbs to explore how these youth perceive family and home in the context of their role as a gang member. The voices of these youth, obtained in a series of focus group interviews organised according to their gang affiliation, provide us with the opportunity

Camille Nakhid

97

Youth gangs and drugs: the case of marijuana.  

PubMed

While the association between drug sales and violence has been a central focus of gang research since the 1980s, the issue of drug use within gangs has been given much less attention. This is especially true in the case of marijuana. This lack of interest is surprising given the extent to which gang members use marijuana. Other than alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used substance in gang life. In examining the culture and role of marijuana in the lives of gang members, we highlight the integration and normalization of recreational drug use within their day-to-day activities and cultural practices. In doing so, we emphasize the similarity of the role of marijuana in gangs to its role in other youth groups. Data for this paper are drawn from the results of an on-going qualitative study of street gangs in the San Francisco Bay Area, in which 383 male gang members from three different ethnic groupings were interviewed. PMID:16537330

MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

2005-01-01

98

Influence of Gang Membership on Negative Affect, Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior Among Homeless African American Male Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial\\/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members,

Gary W. Harper; Jonathan Davidson; Sybil G. Hosek

2008-01-01

99

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

100

Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…

Esbensen, Finn-Aage

101

Gangs. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

102

Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the

Scott Decker; David Pyrooz

2011-01-01

103

Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

SciTech Connect

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

2011-08-01

104

Street Gang Violence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over

Malcolm W. Klein; Frank M. Weerman; Terence P. Thornberry

2006-01-01

105

Vietnamese Youth Gangs in Honolulu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theories of the connection between immigrant youth and gangs have not been sufficient in explaining why some are not in gangs. Therefore, this study examines Vietnamese youth gangs in Honolulu and the factors contributing to Vietnamese delinquency and youth gang participation. Twenty-six interviews were conducted with agency, school, police, Vietnamese adults, and Vietnamese youth. Results suggest that though the

Nghi Dong Thai

2003-01-01

106

Gang membership and violent victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant gang research supports an enhancement effect of membership on delinquency; that is, while delinquent youths may be attracted to gangs, it is also true that gang membership increases delinquency among youths and that while delinquency levels decrease after gang membership, they do not decrease to nongang levels. In this paper, we build on this research, examining the relationship between

Dana Peterson; Terrance J. Taylor; Finn-Aage Esbensen

2004-01-01

107

Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2003-01-01

108

The organisation of London's street gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a grossly neglected area of the street gang literature: the nature and extent of gang organisation. Based upon fieldwork with gangs in London, UK, this article illustrates how recreation, crime, and enterprise are not specific gang ‘types’, but rather represent sequential stages in the evolutionary cycle of gangs. This article demonstrates not only how gangs typically begin

J. A. Densley

2011-01-01

109

The organisation of London's street gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a grossly neglected area of the street gang literature: the nature and extent of gang organisation. Based upon fieldwork with gangs in London, UK, this article illustrates how recreation, crime, and enterprise are not specific gang ‘types’, but rather represent sequential stages in the evolutionary cycle of gangs. This article demonstrates not only how gangs typically begin

J. A. Densley

2012-01-01

110

Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

2006-01-01

111

Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

2004-01-01

112

Wasted resources in gang scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang scheduling (the scheduling of a number of interacting threads to run simultaneously on distinct processors) can leave processors idle if the sizes of the gangs do not match the number of available processors. Given an optimal offline algorithm it is shown that the wasted processing power can range from 0% to 50%, depending on the distribution of gang sizes.

D. G. Feitelson; L. Rudolph

1990-01-01

113

Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

1998-01-01

114

Analysing youth gangs in Glasgow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs remain a considerable police and public health challenge. Knife crime is a significant cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Glasgow. Examples of gang fighting in Glasgow can be traced back to the 1700s, but the phenomena escalated in the 1840s following mass migration, rapid population expansion and the emergence of territorialism.By examining the intra and inter gang

W Linden

2010-01-01

115

Youth Gangs and Definitional Issues: When is a Gang a Gang, and Why Does it Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent explosion in gang research has highlighted the importance of consistent definitions for gang affiliation and gang-related crime. Definitional questions have assumed greater significance in the wake of broad-ranging prevention and intervention strategies. In this article, the authors utilize a sample of approximately 6,000 middle-school students to examine the youth gang phenomenon using five increasingly restrictive membership definitions. The

Finn-Aage Esbensen; L. Thomas Winfree; Ni He; Terrance J. Taylor

2001-01-01

116

Estimating the effect of gang membership on nonviolent and violent delinquency: a counterfactual analysis.  

PubMed

This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated nongang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001

Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Miller, J Mitchell

2010-01-01

117

Victory Junction Gang Camp  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

Shell, Ryan

2007-01-01

118

Youth Gangs and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

2007-01-01

119

Journey: The Gang Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intensive three-day program at the Pines Catholic Camp, followed by weekly support meetings, aim to prevent Dallas teens from turning to gang participation. Program components include personal goal setting, commitment to a code of conduct, and physical activities that promote group unity and positive peer pressure. (SV)

Castellaw, Bonni

1992-01-01

120

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

2011-01-01

121

Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

2003-01-01

122

Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. As anticipated, the groups differed in

Carl S. Taylor; Richard M. Lerner; Alexander von Eye; Deborah L. Bobek; Aida B. Balsano; Elizabeth M. Dowling; Pamela M. Anderson

2003-01-01

123

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having higher overall needs and risks,

Terri-Lynne Scott; Rick Ruddell

2011-01-01

124

Views on sex and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in the United States.  

PubMed

Although gang-involved Latino youth in the United States are uniquely at risk of adverse consequences from sexual behavior, little research is available that can guide those who wish to develop interventions to reduce sexual risk among these youth. To facilitate the development of effective interventions, we identified cultural and contextual factors that influence sexual behavior and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in one U.S. community. By analyzing transcripts from interviews and focus groups with three different groups of key stakeholders--gang-experienced Latino youth, the parents of gang-experienced Latino youth, and the personnel of a program providing comprehensive human services for gang-involved Latino youth--we identified three domains to be considered in developing sexual risk-reduction interventions for gang-involved U.S. Latino youth. The focus of our discussion is on the implications of these findings for future development or adaptation of interventions. PMID:24705683

Kassab, Veronica A; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Grzybowski, Megan M; Stout, Stacy; Richards, Allyn E; Barnett, Miya L; Guerra-Morales, Aileen; Bell, Katrina M; Crider, Elizabeth A; Beck, Kara L; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; Alfaro, Mario; Saxena, Suchita R

2014-05-01

125

Individual and Ecological Assets and Thriving Among African American Adolescent Male Gang and Community-Based Organization MembersA Report From Wave 3 of the “Overcoming the Odds” Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third wave of the Overcoming the Odds longitudinal study involves data about individual and ecological developmental assets and thriving among African American male adolescents in inner-city Detroit gangs (N = 43) or in youth development, communitybased organizations (CBO; N = 50). Both groups had comparable levels of either low or high assets across the three waves. Stability in asset

Carl S. Taylor; Pamela R. Smith; Virgil A. Taylor; Alexander von Eye; Richard M. Lerner; Aida Bilalbegovic Balsano; Pamela M. Anderson; Rumeli Banik; Jason B. Almerigi

2005-01-01

126

Individual and Ecological Assets and Thriving among African American Adolescent Male Gang and Community-Based Organization Members: A Report From Wave 3 of the "Overcoming the Odds" Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third wave of the Overcoming the Odds longitudinal study involves data about individual and ecological developmental assets and thriving among African American male adolescents in inner-city Detroit gangs (N = 43) or in youth development, community-based organizations (CBO; N = 50). Both groups had comparable levels of either low or high…

Taylor, Carl S.; Smith, Pamela R.; Taylor, Virgil A.; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Anderson, Pamela M.; Banik, Rumeli; Almerigi, Jason B.

2005-01-01

127

Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph explains the linkage of contemporary criminal street gangs (that is, the gang phenomenon or third generation gangs) to insurgency in terms of the instability it wreaks upon governments and the concomitant challenge to state sovereignty. Alt...

M. G. Manwaring

2005-01-01

128

Youth Gangs: An Overview. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) has init...

1998-01-01

129

He Pb double dating of detrital zircons from the Ganges and Indus Rivers: Implication for quantifying sediment recycling and provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

He-Pb double dating of detrital zircons is more reliable than conventional U-Pb dating for tracing the source of detritus in sediments and can be used to constrain the percentage of recycled material in sediments. Conventional U-Pb dating can be used to constrain the provenance of sediments if the U-Pb zircon age pattern for potential source regions is known but can only be used to trace the source of individual zircons if they are first-cycle grains. The advantages of He-Pb double dating are demonstrated using examples from the Indus and Ganges rivers, and previously published data from the Navajo sandstone. Conventional U-Pb dating can unambiguously identify only 2.5% of the Ganges zircons, and 18% of the Indus zircons as coming from the Himalayan Mountains or Tibet Plateau and only 23% of the Navajo zircons as coming from the Appalachian Mountains. The correct figure, as determined from double dating, is over 95% from the Himalayan Mountains or Tibet Plateau in the case of the Indus and Ganges rivers and at least 70% from the Appalachian Mountains in the case of the Navajo Sandstone. This result casts doubt on the reliability of the U-Pb method when used in the absence of other techniques, such as He dating, to identify the true provenance of sediments, as opposed to the ultimate source of the zircons. Double dating also shows that at least 60% of the Indus and 70% of the Ganges and Navajo sandstone zircons have been recycled from earlier sediments. Exhumation rates, estimated from the He dates, reveal that ˜ 75% of the Indus and Ganges zircons were derived from areas where the exhumation rate exceeds 1.5 km/Myr. These rates are higher and more varied than those calculated from detrital muscovites. These results imply that ˜ 75% of the eroded material in the Himalayan Mountains is derived from areas of anomalously high erosion where the short-term exhumation rate exceeds the long-term average.

Campbell, Ian H.; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Upadhyay, Rajeev

2005-09-01

130

Youth Gangs and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have begun to document the changing organizational forms of youth gangs in the United States. The emergence\\/re-emergence of these gangs, often accompanied by increased violence and involvement in drug use and\\/or trafficking, poses major public policy issues. However, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject, and very few studies have been based on interviews with gang

C. Ronald Huff

1989-01-01

131

Ganges River Delta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image of the Ganges River Delta in Bangladesh was acquired by the Landsat- 7 satellite on February 28, 2000. It's a false-color composite image made using green, blue and near infrared wavelengths, provided by the USGS, EROS Data Center. The Ganges River forms an impressive and extensive area of distributaries where it empties into the Bay of Bengal after moving across India. This delta is referred to as the Sunderbans and is home to approximately 120 million people. It's routinely flooded during cyclones and monsoonal rains. Because its inhabitant are so poor and the delta is so densely populated, even when flood and storm warnings are issued, each year thousands of people lose their lives as a result of floods. Note the sediment (milky blue color) flowing from the delta into the Bay of Bengal.

Observatory, Nasa E.; Day, Earth S.

132

Legitimating drug use: A note on the impact of gang membership and drug sales on the use of illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good deal is known about gang members' involvement as sellers of drugs. We know little, however, about the extent to which gang members are involved in the drug market as users, and about the role that involvement in drug sales plays in the use of drugs. This paper presents data from an 11-city survey of arrestees that includes a

Scott H. Decker

2000-01-01

133

Dress Codes and Gang Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…

Gluckman, Ivan B.

1996-01-01

134

Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

135

Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.  

PubMed

This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl's relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment. PMID:21218177

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2003-01-01

136

Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime  

PubMed Central

This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl’s relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment.

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2010-01-01

137

Breaking the Code: Austin's Gang Enigma. Austin Police Department Gang Suppression Unit Resource Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource handbook provides facts about gangs in Austin (Texas) and suggests ways parents and the community can work to reduce the city's gang problem. Criminal street gangs are becoming one of the most serious crime problems in Texas today, with 38 major cities reporting the presence of gangs. Texas gangs are defined as social, delinquent,…

Austin Police Dept., TX.

138

Gang crime and its punishment in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from an inmate survey in Tianjin, China this study examines selected characteristics of youth gangs, gang crime, and official punishment in contemporary China, and compares them to those commonly reported in the United States. The findings indicate that the organizational level of Chinese youth gangs is low, that the age distribution of offenders committing gang-related crime increases rapidly

Xiaogang Deng; Steven F. Messner; Zhou Lu

1997-01-01

139

The Impact of Gangs on Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

his bulletin considers the impact of gang-related criminal activity on communities. To assess this, however, it is important to take into account the scope and nature of gang activity in different size communities, because gang impact on communities varies in accordance with their differing characteristics. This is the point of departure in this bulletin. Next, the impact of youth gangs

James C. Howell

140

Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

141

Gangs in New York's Chinatown. Monograph No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the phenomenon of gangs among Chinese youths in New York, interviews were conducted with members of the Chinatown community and with persons working in this community. In this document the texts of the author's discussions with eight individuals are presented. A social worker who works with delinquent Chinese youth and a former…

Sung, Betty Lee

142

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

143

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

144

Eyes of Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

2005-01-01

145

Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund prog...

2009-01-01

146

Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

2014-01-01

147

Street Gang Crime in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

revenge, while another may be associated with expansion of a drug business into new territory. Consequently, street gangs and the crimes in which they engage can- not be viewed as monolithic in nature. This Research in Brief describes these and other patterns of street gang-related vio- lence in a major U.S. city-Chicago. All available information, including Chicago police records of

R. Block; Carolyn Rebecca Block

1993-01-01

148

Street Gangs and Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an evaluation of an intervention aimed at youth at risk for joining street gangs. In a quasi-experimental design, targeted youth were assigned to one of two levels of treatment (classroom sessions or a combination of classroom sessions and structured after-school activities) or to a no-treatment control group. To ascertain gang membership following the intervention, the youths' names

DAVID W. THOMPSON; LEONARD A. JASON

1988-01-01

149

Gang change and evolutionary theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most street gangs are temporary and disorganized, some have institutionalized, and a number of these show signs of evolving\\u000a into more serious criminal enterprises, becoming more networked, technologically savvy and internationalized, less visible,\\u000a more predatory and sometimes more violent. The boundaries that researchers have drawn between gangs and other types of criminal\\u000a groups, particularly organized crime, are becoming blurred.

Julie Ayling

2011-01-01

150

Adolescent gang participation: Psychological perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

An issue concerning societal welfare that receives much exposure in the media is the existence of gangs and their effects\\u000a on children. There is a perception that the level of youth related violence is going up while the age of gang participation\\u000a is going down. Multiple sources (e.g., statistics from the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of

Hohn Hitchcock

2001-01-01

151

Gangs as Alternative Transitional Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a comparative study of youth gangs in minority communities in Los Angeles and London, England. A combined qualitative-quantitative research design was used to obtain information on the experiences, attitudes and behaviors of Black youth who were involved with or influenced by gangs.Measures included two semi-structured interview schedules for focus groups and individual youth, respectively.

Jewelle Taylor Gibbs

2000-01-01

152

African American Street Gangs: A Quest for Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the phenomenon of African American street gangs. It examines the scope of the gang problem, gives a historical review of gangs in America, and examines gang activity and membership for African American youth. Some of the causes for gang formation are delineated, and comprehensive programs for addressing the gang problem are proposed.

Jerome L. Blakemore; Glenda M. Blakemore

1998-01-01

153

Ethical, social, and personal implications of extended human lifespan identified by members of the public.  

PubMed

There are a number of ethical, social, and personal implications generated by the potential development and use of technologies that may extend human longevity by intervening in aging. Despite speculations about likely public attitudes toward life extension, to date there have been few attempts to empirically examine the public's perspective of these issues. Using open-ended survey questions via telephone interviews, this study explored the attitudes of 605 members of the Australian public toward the implications of life extension. Participants were asked to briefly describe in their own words what they believed would be the beneficial, as well as negative, implications arising from life extension (if there were any), both for themselves personally and for society as a whole. Participants were also asked to describe any ethical concerns they had about life extension, if they had any at all. All open-ended responses were collated and then underwent a thematic analysis to uncover commonly cited issues regarding personal benefits/negatives, societal benefits/negatives, and ethical concerns. A considerable number of participants envisioned at least some beneficial as well as negative implications for themselves and for society, and many claimed to have at least some ethical concerns. Some novel issues were raised as well as a number of those discussed within the bioethical literature. The results should encourage researchers, bioethicists, and policy makers to engage with members of the public about the goals of research surrounding life extension, the expected outcomes of such research, and the likely implications for individuals and society. PMID:19929257

Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Bartlett, Helen; Hall, Wayne

2009-10-01

154

Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

2001-01-01

155

Do the Himalaya Export Air Pollutants from the Ganges Basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges Basin in South Asia ranks close to Eastern China in both population and air pollutant emissions. During the winter-spring dry season it often experiences a similar "atmospheric brown cloud" haze layer of aerosols and trace gases. Global model results, however, have suggested that the Ganges Basin's contribution to long distance pollution transport is significantly less than that of Eastern China. The assumption is that, for much of the dry season, the Ganges Basin experiences a large-scale inversion that suppresses vertical mixing of pollutants into the jet stream aloft. Yet both observations at high-altitude stations (such as the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid station located at 5079 meters above sea level near Everest Base Camp) and vertically resolved satellite data show significant pollution levels at high altitudes over the Himalaya, which line the northern edge of the Ganges Basin. Using the WRF model at resolutions as high as 1 km, along with photography over the Himalaya, we present several mechanisms by which pollutants from the boundary layer over the Ganges Basin can be transported vertically by Himalaya meteorology to heights where they can mix into the jetstream and be exported long distances. These mechanisms are closely tied to the shape of the topography and operate at scales of less than a few kilometers while global model grid spacing typically exceeds 100 km. We attempt to sum up the total contribution to pollutant export by the entire Himalaya region, and discuss the implications for both air quality over the Ganges Basin and global atmospheric chemistry and climate.

Panday, A.; Fiore, A.; Horowitz, L.; Levy, H.

2009-04-01

156

American Based Biker Gangs: International Organized Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many American based motorcycle clubs have evolved into biker gangs involved in organized crime nationally and internationally.\\u000a Using the information contained on the national websites of seven biker gangs—Hells Angels, Outlaws, Bandidos, Mongols, Warlocks,\\u000a Sons of Silence and the Vagos, this article provides a listing of the gangs by chapter in the United States and internationally.\\u000a These gangs have exported

Tom Barker

157

Ganges Chasma Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S.

Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

158

YOUTH GANGS AND THEIR FAMILIES: EFFECT OF GANG MEMBERSHIP ON FAMILY'S SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a quasi-experimental design and self report methodology, this paper examines the effects of youth gang membership on families’ subjective well-being. Two groups of families consisting of 57 families with children in gangs or at risk of being in gangs and 57families with children not involved in gangs and not identified as at-risk of joining gangs are compared to (1)

Suman Kakar

1998-01-01

159

Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end goal of this project was to provide useful data on how street gang crime patterns (by amount and type of offense) relate to common patterns of street gang structure, thus providing focused, data-based guidelines for gang intervention and control. ...

M. W. Klein C. L. Maxson

2001-01-01

160

National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The youth gang problem in the United States has become an important public policy issue in recent years, largely because of the growth of youth gang violence and the apparent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States. In order to measure t...

1999-01-01

161

Adolescent involvement in Kansas City gangs.  

PubMed

The authors present information to enlighten physicians on the subject of adolescent gang involvement. Discussion includes explanations of who gets involved in these gangs, why they get involved and why it is important to identify youths who may be involved with gangs. PMID:1944115

Earl, D T; Smith, K W

1991-10-01

162

Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

White, Rob

2009-01-01

163

Building Inside/Studio Gang  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exhibition from the Art Institute of Chicago (AIC) takes visitors inside the working process of Studio Gang Architects. Founded by Jeanne Gang in 1997, Studio Gang is the creative force behind projects inspired by the city of Chicago, such as the Aqua Tower, an 82-story, ÃÂàmulti-use high-rise with a hotel, apartments, condominiums, parking, offices, and one of Chicagoâ≢s largest green roofs. Also in the exhibition is an unbuilt concept for an apartment complex in India: Hyderabad Tellapur 02, that "transforms the traditional Indian courtyard house into a new porous building type that serves a much larger-scale...development." The porousness is a system of cracks that provide cross ventilation for individual apartments, without air conditioning. The web exhibition concludes with a short video of the installation of the show at AIC.

2012-09-24

164

Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

165

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Jobs that do not require all processors in the system can bepacked together for gang scheduling. We examine accounting traces fromseveral parallel computers to show that indeed many jobs have small sizesand can be packed together. We then formulate a number of such packingalgorithms, and evaluate their effectiveness using simulations based onour workload study. The results are that two

Dror G. Feitelson

1996-01-01

166

Steering Students Clear of Gangs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young adolescents yearn to belongâespecially when they are new to a community and don't speak the language. Communication and awareness among administrators, teachers, parents, and students are keys to ensuring students have the strength to say "no" to gang involvement and "yes" to continuing their education.

Kluttz, Tess; Brewer, Amy; Clifford, Scott; Turano, Daniela

2010-10-01

167

Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

168

Treatment of Gangs\\/Gang Behavior in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs constitute the largest component of criminally active adolescent peer groups in the United States (Howell, 2003a).\\u000a Applying primary prevention and health promotion models to this topic is a complex matter, especially in light of the guiding\\u000a definition of primary prevention and health promotion used in this volume, which is “those planned actions that help participants\\u000a prevent predictable problems,

Mark B. Borg; Michael R. Dalla

169

Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

170

THE URBAN STREET GANG AFTER 1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract This review discusses research on the urban street gang after the 1960s, the period in which,social scientists began,to conceptualize,the gang,outside of the social-problems framework. Street-gang research has changed,dramatically in the past three decades in accordance with general shifts in sociological research, including developments in gender studies, economic sociology, and race and ethnic relations. This review addresses these major

Brenda C. Coughlin; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

2003-01-01

171

Gangs in Nigeria: an updated examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes gangs in Nigeria, providing an updated examination of their current strategies and activities. The premise\\u000a of this analysis partly draws on Social Identity Theory, with respect to gang affiliation. Particularly explored are (1) gang\\u000a cultism as a common phenomenon on college campuses in Nigeria (through their malicious, secret, fraternity-like activities)\\u000a and (2) the role of Islam in

Jonathan Matusitz; Michael Repass

2009-01-01

172

Seasonal variability of geochemical signatures of streamflow: potential implications for end-member characterizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, the vast majority of investigations on water source and flowpaths have been focusing on small catchments with homogenous landuse and geology. While these studies have brought new knowledge on how these individual hydrological systems behave, we still face uncertainties inherent to basic assumptions related to end-member stability and degree of mixing. We rely on hydroclimatological and hydrogeochemical datasets collected in three small experimental catchments with contrasting lithology in the Attert river basin (Luxembourg, Europe): the Weierbach (schists), the Huewelerbach (sandstone) and the Wollefsbach (marls). Investigations based on oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope signatures in streamwater show the dominant influence of geology on catchment storage and mixing potential (Pfister et al., in preparation). Catchments dominated by permeable substrate exhibit stable isotopic signatures through the entire range of the flow duration curve, consistent with large storage volumes and mixing potential. On impermeable substrate, storage volumes are smaller and reduced mixing potential exists; isotopic signatures of streamflow are much more variable. Here, our objective is to determine whether (i) geochemical signatures along the individual flow duration curves of catchments exhibit similar patterns to those of stable isotopes and (ii) what potential implications those patterns have on mixing assumptions and end-member stability/identification. Our findings show two distinct patterns along the flow duration curves for cations, silica, EC and Abs254: during low flow conditions (i.e. restricted to groundwater contributions), concentrations of these parameters tend to increase as discharge values decrease, whereas during high flows, concentrations are more or less stable. For anions, no distinct patterns could be determined. Nitrates exhibit a special behaviour, in that their concentrations gradually increase with rising discharge values along the entire flow duration curve. Our observations document a significant variability of all investigated geochemical parameters during low flow conditions - a flow condition were only one well-mixed component is supposed to be hydrologically active. These findings give new insights to the use of streamwater sampled during low flow conditions for characterizing groundwater as a potential end-member.

François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, Francois; Hissler, Christophe; Klaus, Julian; Martinez Carreras, Núria; Pfister, Laurent

2014-05-01

173

Gangs in the United States and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of this report is to bring up to date portions of the material published recently (Klein, 1995) on street gangs in the United States and Europe, much of which was current only through 1992. This will be done in two ways: by reporting on new material on European street gangs gathered since 1992, 2 and by describing

Malcolm W. Klein

1996-01-01

174

Crimes of the Big Four motorcycle gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorcycle clubs (MCs) can be divided into conventional and deviant clubs. The most deviant clubs are those known as 1 percent or outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs). The Big Four OMGs are the Hells Angels MC, the Outlaws MC, the Bandidos MC, and the Pagans MC. The first three, although American based, have international chapters and are the largest motorcycle gangs

Thomas Barker; Kelly M. Human

2009-01-01

175

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For many years, female gangs were regarded simply as satellites of male gangs and rigorous research to better understand them was rarely undertaken. This oversight has resulted in gaps in our knowledge about the girls and young women who are at risk for g...

J. Moore J. Hagedorn

2001-01-01

176

National Youth Gang Survey, 1997. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The largest and most comprehensive national gang survey to date, the 1997 National Youth Gang Survey, contacted nearly 5,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. To allow for both comparative and trend analysis, the 1997 survey used the same sample as the 1996 survey. Survey results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

177

Gangs, My Town and the Nation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of youth gangs is explored, with suggestions for gang prevention and intervention. The emphasis is on organizing citizens, especially at the neighborhood level, to affect all community institutions. Suggestions are offered for citizens' groups to look at critical areas in schooling, incarceration, law enforcement, community programs,…

Randolph, Norman; Erickson, Edsel

178

Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This collection of papers presents a representative selection of NIJ's portfolio of gang-related research. The genesis was the upsurge in gang crime beginning in the mid-1980s, which prompted NIJ to expand research in this area. NIJ's major focus is to ge...

2006-01-01

179

Family Members' Narratives of Divorce and Interparental Conflict: Implications for Parental Alienation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the internal dynamics of family members who experience divorce and interparental conflict. Interparental conflict and triangulating children increase the likelihood of alienating children from a parent. Narrative interviews with members of three families were used to explore meaning structures. Results showed how parents and children thought, felt, and created meaning about their experiences; how family members

Jennifer Gerber Moné; David MacPhee; Sharon K. Anderson; James H. Banning

2011-01-01

180

An Economic Analysis Of A Drug-Selling Gang'S Finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a unique data set detailing the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang to analyze gang economics. On average, earnings in the gang are somewhat above the legitimate labor market alternative. The enormous risks of drug selling, however, more than offset this small wage premium. Compensation within the gang is highly skewed, and the prospect of future riches,

Steven D. Levitt; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

2000-01-01

181

Youth Gangs In Southern New Mexico: A Qualitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1980's experienced a resurgence of gang activity and gang research in the United States. Some of this gang activity was drug related (especially the sale of drugs as an organized criminal enterprise). Much of the recent law enforcement attention and research has focused on Southern California. However, the whole U.S.-Mexico border has been a fertile area for gang activity

G. Larry Mays; L. Thomas Winfree; Stacey Jackson

1993-01-01

182

The protective influence of gangs: Can schools compensate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gangs have risen to the level of a broad social problem, yet, to date, research has neglected the influence of school factors on gang membership. Although gang involvement leads to many negative outcomes, such as incarceration, drug and alcohol use, injury, and death, gangs may also serve a protective influence to those who join them. For this reason, it is

Jill D. Sharkey; Zhanna Shekhtmeyster; Lizbeth Chavez-Lopez; Elizabeth Norris; Laura Sass

2011-01-01

183

Policing Minority Street Corner Gangs in Singapore: A View from the Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the evolution and manifestation of the Social Disciplinary model of policing in Singapore, a model which eschews concern for both legal and factual guilt, concentrating instead on the task of subjugating sections of society who are viewed as 'anti-police'. We argue that understanding the experiences of minority gang members as recipients of such policing has to be

N. Ganapathy; Lian Kwen Fee

2002-01-01

184

Gang involvement and delinquency in a middle school population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between self-reported gang involvement and self-reported delinquency has been confirmed in a number of studies. However, there have been fewer studies of the relationship between self-reported gang involvement and officially recorded delinquency. This article examines variation in self-reported gang involvement, operationalized as three distinct categories—no involvement, gang involvement but not membership, and gang membership—and its relation to both

G. David Curry; Scott H. Decker; Arlen Egley Jr

2002-01-01

185

The Chola life course: Chicana heroin users and the barrio Gang.  

PubMed

The theoretical argument of the paper is as follows: Traditional values may deter many Latinas from drug use, but they operate to ostracize adolescent girls from cholo (street) families. Those girls may be propelled into drug-using youth gangs or similar peer groups, where they are further channeled to the more deviant subcliques. This pivotal experience initiates a drug-oriented adult lifestyle. Gender norms mean that the typical male career path to and from the gang is different. Data bearing on this argument are presented, and research and intervention implications are explored. PMID:7960308

Moore, J

1994-07-01

186

Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

1991-12-01

187

Implications of Leader-Member Exchange Theory and Research for Human Resource Development Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leader/member exchange theory is proposed as an alternate approach to the study of organizational leadership. Recent research supports the theory but additional development work is needed. The theory seeks to explain how leader/member relationships develop and the behavioral components of leadership relations. Contains 74 references. (Author/JOW)

Burns, Janet Z.; Otte, Fred L.

1999-01-01

188

Individual and familial characteristics of youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore.  

PubMed

Thirty-six youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore were compared with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Of note were the findings that gang youths reported a relative absence of parental abuse and indifference, and experienced less open communication and higher levels of over-control with their mothers, but not fathers. These findings diverge from anticipated familial correlates of antisocial activity in youths and were discussed with reference to cultural factors and their implications on prevention and intervention. PMID:12887930

Kee, C; Sim, K; Teoh, J; Tian, C S; Ng, K H

2003-08-01

189

GANGS AND GANG ACTIVITY IN SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO: A DESCRIPTIVE LOOK AT A GROWING RURAL PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, youth gangs have attracted much public attention. Because of concern by public policy makers, school officials and law enforcement agencies, a school- based survey was undertaken during the spring of 1991 to assess the gang situation in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. This project involved a random sample survey of 9th and 11th grade students in two

G. Larry Mays; Kathy Fuller; L. Thomas Winfree Jr

1994-01-01

190

The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students  

PubMed Central

Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college.

Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

2013-01-01

191

Gangs in Arizona, 2006. Statistical Analysis Center Publication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the summer of 2006 the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission surveyed law enforcement and prosecutors on issues regarding gangs and gang activity in Arizona. This study, done to fulfill the requirements set out in Arizona Revised Statute (ARS) (section m...

2007-01-01

192

Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose  

PubMed Central

Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene-based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with 13C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our 13C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry–in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The 13C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products.

Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazeas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Theodore

2014-01-01

193

Gang culture from the streets to the emergency department.  

PubMed

Gangs, gang activity, and the results of such activities, can have a special impact on hospitals, their employees, and others in the hospital community. In this article, the authors spell out in detail the extent of the gang culture to assist hospital professionals in understanding its many ramifications and guide them in taking actions to reduce the impact of gangs on hospital operations. PMID:18409448

Michelman, Bonnie; Patak, George

2008-01-01

194

Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses: A Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end goal of this project was to provide useful data on how street gang crime patterns relate to common patterns of street gang structure, thus providing focused, databased guidelines for gang intervention and control. The intermediate stages of the pr...

M. W. Klein C. L. Maxson

2001-01-01

195

Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

2006-01-01

196

Gang problems in nometropolitan areas: A longitudinal assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of youth gangs to nonmetropolitan counties in the 1990s has been widely cited but difficult to document empirically and interpret theoretically. Using merged data from the 1996, 1997, and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys, and matching the combined National Youth Gang Surveys with demographic data from the Departments of Commerce and Agriculture, we provide a comparative analysis of

L. Edward Wells; Ralph A. Weisheit

2001-01-01

197

Gang of Four Congressional Intelligence Notifications, July 20, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the Gang of Eight notification procedure. The 'Gang of Eight' procedure is statutorily based and provides that that the Chairmen and Ranking Memb...

A. Cumming

2009-01-01

198

Youth Gangs--In Search of a Miracle: Our Part.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doing something positive about youth gangs will require hard work, attitude change, and enlisting the help of many people. In addition to the many obvious causes of gangs, there are less well-known factors, such as academic achievement, that are related to youth participation in gangs. Participation in extracurricular activities helps young people…

Randolph, Norman

1996-01-01

199

The Social Outcomes of Street Gang Involvement. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined links between early adolescent exposure to entrepreneurial gang activity and later criminal justice, economic, and social outcomes, comparing the social and behavioral outcomes of young people with active gang involvement and their non-gang affiliated counterparts. Participants came from a concentrated poor, predominantly…

Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi

200

Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide. Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides guidelines for agencies and community groups to develop individualized responses to local gang problems. The manual contains a foundation for understanding the diverse nature of gangs, the problems they pose, and the harm they cause. Two models are presented for addressing gang-related problems. The problem-solving model to…

Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC.

201

YOUTH GANGS IN A SMALL MIDWESTERN CITY: INSIDERS’ PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are not unique to large urban areas, but are now reported in a significant number of communities with lesser populations. In response to this reported phenomenon, gang researchers have begun to focus their attention on the structural conditions and processes that have given rise to these deviant groups in smaller-sized cities and towns. From recent studies of gangs

Richard Zevitz

1993-01-01

202

Gang behavior in the schools: Reality or myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to explore the nature of gang behavior in U.S. schools, with a particular focus on the extent to which such behavior affects or exacerbates the larger issue of school violence. An unanticipated finding was the absence of strong empirical support for school gang violence. The evidence does show youth gangs have changed dramatically over

Carolyn P. Parks

1995-01-01

203

Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Chicano Male Gang Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of gang violence poses a significant threat to the mental health of Chicano children. Although there has been considerable media attention given to the increase in gang violence, the mental health literature is sparse with clinical information on the assessment and treatment of Chicano gang-involved youth. The sparsity of information has been related to public apathy toward these

Jerald Belitz; Diana Valdez

1994-01-01

204

Changes in a Gang Community: Conversation with David Jarmusz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents interview with David Jarmusz, a Chicago (Illinois) police officer who specializes in gang activity. Jarmusz describes the Chicago Police Department's gang units program and gang specialist detectives, discusses goals and objectives, activities of the program, and outcomes of the project. (NB)

Cantrell, Mary Lynn

1992-01-01

205

Implication of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in infertile family members of Indian CF patients.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Among males with CF, 95% are infertile due to congenital absence of the vas deferens. We investigated the role of family history of infertility among CF subjects and characterized mutations in them. Among 50 CF subjects, four had a family history of infertility. A homozygous c.1521_1523delCTT mutation was detected in one, two had a compound heterozygous genotype (c.1521_1523delCTT/c.3717 + 10 kbC>T), and c.1521_1523delCTT mutation was identified on one allele of fourth CF subject. Genetic analysis of each infertile family members of CF subjects revealed the c.1521_1523delCTT mutation on one allele; however, no mutation could be identified on other allele. Haplotype analysis of the infertile family members showed that at least one of the alleles shared the same haplotype as that of the index case. It is suggested that the CFTR gene is implicated in the infertile members of the CF families. Failure to detect mutations on the other allele by SSCP analysis demands direct gene sequencing to detect mutations in the intronic or promoter region. PMID:18810634

Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, Meenu; Acharya, Naveen; Singh, Shrawan K; Thapa, Babu R; Kaur, Gurjeet; Prasad, Rajendra

2008-12-01

206

Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-10-01

207

Are Gangs an Alternative to Legitimate Employment? Investigating the Impact of Labor Market Effects on Gang Affiliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds to the literature estimates of local labor market effects on gang participation. I use data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to model the probability of gang involvement. The effect of the local unemployment rate is statistically significant and positive, across a wide-range of model specifications. However, robustness checks reveal gang

R. Alan Seals

2007-01-01

208

Snowmelt contributions to discharge of the Ganges.  

PubMed

Himalayan headwaters supply large quantities of runoff derived from snowmelt and monsoon rainfall to the Ganges River. Actual snowmelt contribution to discharge in the Ganges remains conjectural under both present and future climatic conditions. As snowmelt is likely to be perturbed through climatic warming, four hydrological models, VIC, JULES, LPJmL and SWAT, appropriate for coupling with regional climate models, were used to provide a baseline estimate of snowmelt contribution to flow at seasonal and annual timescales. The models constrain estimates of snowmelt contributions to between 1% and 5% of overall basin runoff. Snowmelt is, however, significant in spring months, a period in which other sources of runoff are scarce. PMID:23791434

Siderius, C; Biemans, H; Wiltshire, A; Rao, S; Franssen, W H P; Kumar, P; Gosain, A K; van Vliet, M T H; Collins, D N

2013-12-01

209

Gangs as contractors: the social organization of American Taiwanese youth gangs in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the organizational structure and operations of Taiwanese organized crime and youth gangs in Southern California.\\u000a In-depth interviews were used as the principle method of research. In contrast to transnational criminal conspiracy claims\\u000a and the La Cosa Nostra model of vertically integrated organizations, our findings suggest that these criminal groups consist of discrete local Taiwanese\\u000a youth gangs which

Kay Kei-ho Pih; Akihiko Hirose; KuoRay Mao

2010-01-01

210

Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK.

Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

2013-01-01

211

Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

Deuchar, Ross

2009-01-01

212

Hepatic trematodiasis in a Ganges River dolphin.  

PubMed

Hepatic trematodiasis caused by Cyclorchis campula was diagnosed in a juvenile Ganges River dolphin that had been in captivity at an aquarium for approximately 1 year. Histopathologic findings were severe chronic suppurative cholangitis, hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium, and periductal fibrosis associated with fluke infection of the large bile ducts. PMID:521375

Migaki, G; Lagios, M D; Herald, E S; Dempster, R P

1979-11-01

213

Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

1986-01-01

214

National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1996 National Youth Gang Survey was the largest of its type ever conducted, and the results are representative of the United States as a whole. Almost 5,000 law enforcement agencies were surveyed, and more than 80% of the sample responded. Agencies in all large cities, and a random sample of smaller cities were included, as were suburban…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

215

Central American maras: from youth street gangs to transnational protection rackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the empirical research on Central American street gangs, called maras, has been published only in Spanish. Reviewing that literature, the American scholarship on gangs, and my own research on Central American gangs from the mid-1990s, this article depicts the processes through which the maras (Mara Salvatrucha and the Eighteenth Street Gang) evolved from youth street gangs in the

José Miguel Cruz

2010-01-01

216

Are There Gangs in Schools?: It Depends upon Whom You Ask  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…

Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.

2006-01-01

217

Violence risk and gang affiliation in youth offenders: a recidivism study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are ubiquitous around the world and have been problematic for the social and criminal justice agencies. Despite widespread public concern, there has been relatively scarce empirical scrutiny of youth gangs internationally and little outside of America and Europe. In particular, the activities of youth gangs, the function of gang membership, the criminogenic needs of gang-affiliated youth, and the

Chi Meng Chu; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas; Jia Ying Lim

2010-01-01

218

Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

Howell, James C.

2010-01-01

219

Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.  

PubMed

Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently. PMID:22278158

2012-01-27

220

Response of the Ganges River of India to monsoonal changes since the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges rises in the Himalaya and supplies water for agriculture to hundreds of millions of people, as it has since the beginnings of agriculture in the Neolithic. The river derives most of its discharge from the Southwest Indian Monsoon with some local snowmelt, and proxy records from the Arabian Sea indicate strong fluctuations in past monsoon intensity, driven largely by changes in solar insolation. OSL dating of cores and river cliffs along the Ganges Valley near Kanpur demonstrates a first-order link between monsoon intensity and phases of incision and aggradation in the Ganges system. The river has adjusted its equilibrium profile over relatively short periods (centuries to thousands of years), and is sensitive to the changing balance between sediment and water discharge imposed by monsoonal fluctuations. This has important implications for the agricultural plains over the next century. In more detail, the Ganges experienced reduced discharge and was underfit during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of Marine Isotope Stage 2. Eolian and lacustrine strata accumulated on the interfluves adjacent to the Ganges Valley until about 26 ka B.P., after which gully erosion set in. Following the LGM, the monsoon intensified. Clusters of dates indicate that Ganges channels aggraded between about 16 and 11 ka, with dates especially focused around the Younger Dryas period of low monsoon intensity. Channels also aggraded late in the Holocene (after 2.5 ka) as the monsoon declined through to the present following its mid-Holocene peak. Although more difficult to constrain, phases of incision correspond broadly with periods of monsoonal intensification, especially following the LGM. In general, the river had sufficient energy for both sediment transport and incision as the monsoon waxed, but its transport capability was reduced as the monsoon waned, leading to aggradation. The Ganges appears to have shifted course in its valley mainly during monsoon highs. Archeological sites along the tributary Belan River testify to the links between early human settlements and the monsoon. Reworked gravels with Upper Paleolithic artefacts are dated at 21-31 ka, and may represent floodplain gully erosion during the LGM monsoonal low. Mesolithic settlements appear to have been established during a period of climatic instability that includes the Younger Dryas and early Holocene, based on eolian sediments dated at 7-14 ka. Neolithic settlements were probably established in the mid Holocene under stronger monsoon conditions suitable for the development of agriculture, as indicated by overlying floodplain muds.

Gibling, M.; Sinha, R.; Roy, N.

2011-12-01

221

Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.  

PubMed

This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes. PMID:11768147

Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

2001-01-01

222

A System ic Analysis of th e Dynam ics and Organ ization of Urban Street Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street gangs function as ongoing, open social systems in relation to their surrounding sociocultural context. Fundamentally, gangs are comparable to some family systems. In fact, most gangs do consider themselves to be \\

NIKKI M. RUBLE; WILLIAM L. TURNER

2000-01-01

223

It's Time to "Gang Up" on an Age-Old Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs can be found throughout all racial, ethnic, and religious groups. Characteristics of gang membership and suggestions for parent and school involvement in preventing gangs are discussed. (DF)

O'Donnell, Harriet

1985-01-01

224

Implications of Member Role DifferentiationAnalysis of a Key Concept in the Lmx Model of Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research exploring the leader-member exchange (LMX) model of leadership has suggested that members within the same work unit are differentiated in terms of their level of negotiating latitude. In this study, the possible impact of this role differentiation on member affective reactions was explored. As hypothesized, groups whose members experienced higher levels of negotiating latitude tended to have higher

William E. McClane

1991-01-01

225

Youth gangs and unions: Civil and criminal remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits James Jacobs’ interest in prison gangs. We first address criminologists’ neglect of labor corruption,\\u000a then discuss the street and prison gangs with which Jacobs was concerned and societal responses to them. Subsequent trends\\u000a in street gangs and efforts to control them are reviewed and compared to recent organized crime control efforts. Special attention\\u000a is given to civil

Lorine A. Hughes; James F. Short

2006-01-01

226

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicingschemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknownimpact on the future: should a job be scheduled,risking that it will block other larger jobs later,or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipationof future arrivals? This dilemma is solvedby using gang scheduling, because then the impact ofeach decision is limited to its time slice,

Dror G. Feitelson; Morris A. Jette

1997-01-01

227

Legal and Ethical Problems of Street Gang Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new technique in the control of juvenile delinquency, street gang work raises a singularly knotty problem involving legal and ethical considerations. Since successful street work is based on the trust and confidence established between the worker and his gang boys, the worker often has knowledge of their of fenses. Disclosure of such information to the police impairs the

Solomon Kobrin

1964-01-01

228

Learning from Gangs: The Mexican American Experience. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs have become a fixture in the Mexican American populations of southern California and other regions, spreading from low-income neighborhoods in the Southwest to working class and lower-middle class suburban areas. The development and institutionalization of gangs have involved many factors, including racial discrimination and economic…

Vigil, James Diego

229

Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

Sanders, Bill

2012-01-01

230

Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian...

V. R. Kotamarthi

2010-01-01

231

The American Street Gang. Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is known about gangs is reviewed and the information is brought up to date. The book covers reported changes in the structure and crime patterns of gangs, their age, ethnic, and gender characteristics, and their spread into almost all corners of the United States. The early chapters consider four issues that are major concerns in…

Klein, Malcolm W.

232

Understanding Vietnamese youth gangs in America: An ecological systems analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the problem of Vietnamese American youth gangs using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. I first present a brief historical overview of Vietnamese migration to America, which is followed by examining risk factors that operate within five system levels: the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro-, and chrono-systems. Theories that explain relationships between the risk factors and gang involvement also are included.

Jun Sung Hong

2010-01-01

233

Predicting early adolescent gang involvement from middle school adaptation.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations in 6th grade were used to predict multiple measures of gang involvement by 8th grade. The multiple measures of gang involvement included self-, peer, teacher, and counselor reports. Unexpectedly, self-report measures of gang involvement did not correlate highly with peer and school staff reports. The results, however, were similar for other and self-report measures of gang involvement. Mean level analyses revealed statistically reliable differences in 8th-grade gang involvement as a function of the youth gender and ethnicity. Structural equation prediction models revealed that peer nominations of rejection, acceptance, academic failure, and antisocial behavior were predictive of gang involvement for most youth. These findings suggest that the youth level of problem behavior and the school ecology (e.g., peer rejection, school failure) require attention in the design of interventions to prevent the formation of gangs among high-risk young adolescents. PMID:15677281

Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Yasui, Miwa

2005-03-01

234

Moving beyond Labels: Approaching Gang Involvement through Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the specific nature of the relationship between involvement in various risk-taking behaviors and levels of gang involvement. Forty-nine high school students, 24 girls and 25 boys, ages 14 to 18, from a rural Texas community, completed a gang involvement questionnaire and the Risk Inventory and Perception Scale during individual…

Crowley, Carolyn L.; Lavery, Barbara; Siegel, Alexander W.; Cousins, Jennifer H.

235

Gang Identity or Self-Expression? Researchers Look beyond the Surface of "Gang Clothing" and Appearance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that included observations and interviews in street and school settings throughout California and in selected cities nationwide documented the changing nature of gang identity within the broader context of street style and adolescent expression. Suggests that targeting student behavior, as opposed to style of clothing, would be more…

Hethorn, Janet

1994-01-01

236

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

237

An alternative to dolphin oil as a fish attractant in the Ganges River system: conservation of the Ganges River dolphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil extracted from blubber of the Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica, is used as a fish attractant in India and Bangladesh. This oil fishery is associated with the mortality of hundreds of dolphins every year. Oil from fish scraps was field tested for 121 days during 1997–1999 in the Ganges at Patna and was a very effective alternative to dolphin

R. K. Sinha

2002-01-01

238

Are Gangs a Substitute for Legitimate Employment? Investigating the Impact of Labor Market Effects on Gang Affiliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYThis paper adds to the literature estimates of local labor market effects on gang participation. The local unemployment rate is a proxy for the availability of legitimate employment. I use data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to model the probability of gang involvement. The effect of the local unemployment rate is statistically significant

Alan Seals

2009-01-01

239

Ethnic heterogeneity in the activity and structure of a Black street gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite acknowledgment of ‘hybrid’ street gangs in the literature, there is little systematic research into ethnic heterogeneity within gangs. This research aims at moving beyond the broad categorization of the Black street gang. For this purpose, we examine an all-Black London-based gang in detail, using fieldwork and police arrest data, and investigate the role of ethnic heterogeneity for the workings

Thomas U. Grund; James A. Densley

2012-01-01

240

Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang

Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

241

Alliances, Conflicts, and Contradictions in Montreal’s Street Gang Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes an analytical framework for examining the network of street gangs in Montreal. The objectives are twofold. One aim is to describe the core features of Montreal gangs. The second aim is to examine the structure of social relations between these gangs. These analyses allow us to assess whether the city’s gang landscape is structured around popularized rivalries

Karine Descormiers; Carlo Morselli

2011-01-01

242

A Comparative Study of Youth Gangs in China and the United States: Definition, Offending, and Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the research on youth gangs in the United States has been around for generations, relatively little research on Chinese youth gangs has been published in Western journals. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of the gang involvement of school-age youth in China and to explore whether or not some of the correlates associated with gang

Vincent J. Webb; Ling Ren; Jihong “Solomon” Zhao; Ni “Phil” He; Ineke Haen Marshall

2011-01-01

243

Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang Involvement among African American and Hispanic Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female minority students at an urban alternative high school completed interviews regarding perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement. Peer pressure was the largest influence on female gang involvement. Respondents believed girls might turn to gangs for protection from neighborhood crime, abusive families, and other gangs. Lack of…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

2001-01-01

244

Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2002-01-01

245

2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

246

Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

Jette, M.A.

1998-03-01

247

The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian…

Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-01-01

248

Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

Richards, Maurice V.

2010-01-01

249

The X-It gang desistance programme: an interview with Julia Wolton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-It gang desistance programme began in 2004 in the wake of a spate of fatal, gang-related shootings in Brixton, South London. The programme is owned and run by the X-It peer youth workers, gang-involved young people who wish to find alternatives to gang violence for other young people living in gang-affected neighbourhoods. The programme won the Guardian Public Service

John Pitts

2009-01-01

250

GANG INVOLVEMENT AND DELINQUENCY IN A MIDDLE SCHOOL POPUI,ATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between self-reported gang involvement and self-reported delinquency has been confirmed in a number of studies. However, there have been fewer studies of the relationship between self-reported gang in- volvement and officially recorded delinquency. This article examines varia- tion in self-reported gang involvement, operationalized as three distinct categories--no involvement, gang involvement but not membership, and gang membership--and its relation

G. DAVID CURRY; SCOTT H. DECKER; ARLEN EGLEY

2002-01-01

251

Integrating seepage heterogeneity with the use of ganged seepage meters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Rosenberry, D. O.

2005-01-01

252

Cultural Explanations for Vietnamese Youth Involvement in Street Gangs Public Safety: Gangs and Delinquency Research Project 95-JD-FX-0014.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to provide recommendations toward the development of effective community-based programs to prevent gang membership and related delinquency. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between gang involvement and deli...

D. R. Kent G. T. Felkenes

1998-01-01

253

Gang of Four Congressional Intelligence Notifications, January 29, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gang of Four intelligence notifications generally are oral briefings of certain particularly sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities, including principally, but not exclusively, intelligence collection programs, that the Intelligence Community...

A. Cumming

2010-01-01

254

Ganges Cone: A Wide Angle Seismic Reflection and Refraction Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A seismic wide angle reflection and refraction survey on the Ganges Cone sediments has indicated an overall layered sediment sequence. Surface layers have indicated depositional features associated with submarine river channels. Structural highs suggest t...

B. R. Naini R. Leyden

1973-01-01

255

Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

Hernandez, Arturo

2001-01-01

256

Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

2011-10-01

257

The Enemy Within: The Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Moral Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

When there is a period devoid of sensationalistic biker news, the public’s concern about outlaw bikers can be quite low. All\\u000a it takes is one overt act of violence to heighten the public’s fear of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs are\\u000a the most current “dangerous class” which have been the subject of a moral panic in Canada. Outlaw Motorcycle

Karen Katz

258

Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)  

DOE Data Explorer

In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

259

Heterodimerization and functional interaction between EGF receptor family members: a new signaling paradigm with implications for breast cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGF receptor (EGFR) and HER2 are members of a growth factor receptor family. Overexpression of either protein in advanced breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis. EGF stimulates growth by binding to EGFR, activating the receptor's intracellular tyrosine kinase. The initial consequence is phosphorylation of specific tyrosine-containing sequences in the receptor's carboxyl terminus. These phosphotyrosines serve as high affinity recognition

H. Shelton Earp; Thomas L. Dawson; Xiong Li; Hong Yu

1995-01-01

260

CHARACTERISTICS OF IS401, A NEW MEMBER OF THE IS3 FAMILY IMPLICATED IN PLASMID REARRANGEMENTS IN PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have determined the nucleotide sequence of IS401, an insertion sequence implicated in rearrangements of a 170-kb cryptic plasmid from Pseudomonas cepacia. ur analysis focused on a 4066-bp plasmid fragment containing adjacent copies of IS401 and of IS408, an element reported pr...

261

Petrology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implications of Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Deposition was partly controlled by paleotopographic relief of underlying Permian strata. Triassic Black Dragon sediments filled lowlands on an erosion surface (unconformity) cut into the Permian White Rim Sandstone and Kaibab Limestone. The Black Dragon Member consists of four distinct facies containing a wide variety of sedimentary structures that characterize both fluvial and tidal environments. The facies are: (1) a Chert Pebble Conglomerate (CPC) facies, characterized by calcite-cemented channel-fills of nodular and banded chert pebbles; (2) an Interbedded Sandstone, Siltstone, and Shale (SSS) facies, containing oscillation ripples and flaser bedding; (3) a large-scale Trough Cross-Stratified Sandstone (TXS) facies, consisting of 6.6-13.1 ft (2-4 m) thick sets of fine- to medium-grained sandstone; and (4) an Oolitic and Algal Limestone (OAL) facies, with cross-stratified oolitic beds, fenestral fabric, and laminated algal rip-up clasts. The CPC facies and the TXS facies were deposited by braided streams when the shoreline lay west of the San Rafael Swell. Rivers drained off and eroded localized Permian highlands, located most likely within a 62 mi (100 km) distance to the south and southeast of the study area. The SSS facies which constitutes the bulk of the Black Dragon Member, and the OAL facies are inter- and supratidal deposits formed during relative sea level highstands, when the shoreline lay within or east of the San Rafael Swell. A decrease in continent-derived sand supply and a corresponding increase in carbonate production within the OAL facies characterizes the end of Black Dragon deposition and the gradation into the overlying Sinbad Limestone Member.

Chan, M.A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA)); Ochs, S.

1990-01-01

262

Likelihood of Collaboration Between Central American Transnational Gangs and Terrorist Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on the growing threat of transnational criminal gangs spreading throughout Central America and the United States (U.S.). More specifically, the thesis addresses the Mara Salvatrucha (MS- 13) gang, examining how it emerged as a formidab...

J. C. Poveda

2007-01-01

263

Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identifying early precursors of youth gang membership can facilitate the development of more effective interventions to prevent youth from becoming involved in gangs. The Seattle Social Development Project is a longitudinal study of youth living in high-c...

K. G. Hill C. Lui J. D. Hawkins

2001-01-01

264

Two Members of the Tcf Family Implicated in Wnt\\/b-Catenin Signaling during Embryogenesis in the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tcf transcription factors interact with b-catenin and Armadillo to mediate Wnt\\/Wingless signaling. We now report the characterization of genes encoding two murine members of the Tcf family, mTcf-3 and mTcf-4. mTcf-3 mRNA is ubiquitously present in embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) mouse embryos but gradually disappears over the next 3 to 4 days. mTcf-4 expression occurs first at E10.5 and is

VLADIMIR KORINEK; NICK BARKER; KARL WILLERT; MIRANDA MOLENAAR; JEROEN ROOSE; GERRY WAGENAAR; MARRY MARKMAN; WOUT LAMERS; OLIVIER DESTREE; HANS CLEVERS

1998-01-01

265

Paleomagnetism of the early Archean Marble Bar Chert Member, Pilbara craton, Western Australia: Implication for Archean geomagnetic reversals and Paleogeography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted Paleomagnetic study on the early Archean rocks in Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The Pilbara craton is the one of the best exposed and complete record during Archean evolution of the Earth. Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) had drilled a continuous 250 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation in north-eastern part of the Pilbara craton. This drilling was essential to obtain the fresh samples from below the influence of intense weathering. Lithofacies of the core are divided into basalt/dolerite and various colored chert named the Marble Bar Chert Member. The Marble Bar Chert Member, dated between 3463 to 3454 Ma (Thorpe et al., 1992), is a world famous early Archean unit with little metamorphism. Initial magnetic measurements of the whole core revealed that the black or red layers in the Marble Bar Chert Member display strong Natural Remanence Magnetization. Petrographic observations revealed that the black and red layers are preserving the primary structure of sedimentation. Hematite, magnetite, and siderite were separately precipitated as primary minerals. Rock magnetic analysis indicates an existence of the large amount of magnetite associated with minor amount of hematite. Through the thermal demagnetization, we had found that the remanent magnetizations define two components: (1) a mid-temperature (<450° C) component; (2) a high-temperature component (450 to 575° C) with stable decay going to origin. This results indicate that the main magnetic carrier of remanence likely to be magnetite, which is consistent with petrologic and rock magnetic analysis. Characteristics Remanent Magnetization directions of the 2nd component are put on nearly opposite side of the hemisphere. The polarity transition from normal to reverse recorded in continuous stratigraphic section. Petrologic, rock magnetic, and paleomagnetic analysis suggested that the Marble Bar Chert Member is probably preserving the primary magnetization. This result may suggest that the geomagnetic field has reversed at 3.46 Ga, which is the oldest observed geomagnetic reversal. The previous oldest geomagnetic reversal was reported from the Kaap Valley pluton of South Africa at 3.2 Ga (Layer et al., 1996). Our result is at least 260 m.y. older than that reported geomagnetic reversal. We also present a new paleomagnetic pole at 3.5 Ga and argue the APWP and paleogeography before 1.7 Ga. In contrast to the paleomagnetic poles from McElhinny and Senanayake (1980), our paleomagnetic pole is located in southern hemisphere, near the other poles about 2.7 Ga. Therefore, two possibilities should be considered: (1) our paleomagnetic pole is over print, which might be recorded about 2.7 Ga; (2) our paleomagnetic pole is primary, and recording the geomagnetic filed at 3.5 Ga.

Suganuma, Y.; Niitsuma, S.; Hoashi, M.; Hamano, Y.; Niitsuma, N.; Hisamitsu, T.; Kodama, K.; Nedachi, M.

2004-12-01

266

Glasgow's ‘Reign of Terror’: Street Gangs, Racketeering and Intimidation in the 1920s and 1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glasgow gangs of the 1920s and 1930s were widely viewed as fighting gangs rather than as criminal gangs in any wider sense. Retrospective accounts frequently suggest that the gangs only fought each other, leaving ‘ordinary’ residents of the city's working-class districts safe from the threat of robbery or random assault.This article offers an alternative perspective. It examines widespread reports

Andrew Davies

2007-01-01

267

A Systemic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the organization of street gangs and suggests that some of the same concepts used to describe family systems may be applied to them. States that the complex organization of gangs forms a web of interconnectedness, and that in order to provide effective intervention plans, gangs must be viewed from a systematic and holistic perspective.…

Turner, William L.; Ruble, Nikki M.

2000-01-01

268

Streets and Schools: How Educators Can Help Chicano Marginalized Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs socialize Chicano youths, who then exhibit behaviors that interfere with learning. Educators are not well informed about gang culture to intervene. Three Los Angeles programs provide examples of ways schools can stop exacerbating the problem and successfully reach youth in gangs. (SK)

Vigil, James Diego

1999-01-01

269

Developmental Influences and Gang Awareness among African-American Inner City Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 489 African American first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade students examined children's knowledge of gangs. Findings indicated that students are well aware of gang activities in their neighborhoods and can readily name the groups present in their inner-city environment. Students' awareness of gangs increases with age and may represent a…

Cadwallader, Tom W.; Cairns, Robert B.

2002-01-01

270

The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. OJJDP Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many decades communities have been troubled by the criminal activities of youth gangs. This report looks at almost 30 years of information collected on gang problems in nearly 4,000 communities. The number of localities reporting gang problems increased between the 1970s and the 1990s, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cities…

Miller, Walter B.

271

Childhood Risk Factors for Adolescent Gang Membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents who join gangs are more frequently involved in serious delinquency com - pared with those who do not, yet few studies have conducted a prospective examina - tion of risk factors for gang membership. The present study uses longitudinal data to predict gang membership in adolescence from factors measured in childhood. Data were from the Seattle Social Development Project,

KARL G. HILL; JAMES C. HOWELL; J. DAVID HAWKINS; SARA R. BATTIN-PEARSON

1999-01-01

272

Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang involvement (21%) were younger and less educated than those without

Michelle Widlitz; Helen Dermatis; Marc Galanter; Gregory Bunt

2007-01-01

273

Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang

Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

2007-01-01

274

Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey. OJJDP Fact Sheet. FS-200601  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…

Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.

2006-01-01

275

Gangs: A Handbook for Teachers and Counselors Working with Immigrant Students. Publication No. GC-123.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides information about gangs for education professionals working with immigrants. As the introduction makes clear, gangs are one of the many problems that newly arrived immigrants face in their neighborhoods and at school in the United States. Following the introduction, the first section describes the types of gangs including…

Ponce, Ernest, Comp.

276

Determining Youth Gang Membership: Development of a Self-Report Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gang Membership Inventory (GMI) was developed for use with urban high-risk youth and administered as part of a larger survey. The GMI consists of 15 true/false items asking about the respondent's involvement in gang activities in the year just past. Activities range from peripheral involvement to more serious involvement in gangs (e.g., being…

Pillen, Michelle B.; Hoewing-Roberson, Renee C.

277

A Comparative Study of Gang-Involved and Other Adolescent Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent women have been a part of gangs in the United States since the early 1800s, but they have been neglected in gang research. To address the shortfall, this study used structured interviews, standardized questionnaires, and collaborative records to gather information about adolescent women in a metropolitan area with an emerging gang

Shulmire, Sandra Rodden

278

In Gangs We Trust: A Close-Up of the New Induction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the needs children are trying to meet through gang involvement are the same ones that societies meet with rites of passage. Although gang rituals are antisocial, the needs they meet for youth are healthy. Offers several strategies that can be used when working with youth involved in gangs. Urges educators to help youth develop…

Blankstein, Alan Meredith; Sandoval, Gilbert "Sandy"

1998-01-01

279

Gangs: Straight Talk, Straight Up. A Practical Guide for Teachers, Parents, and the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written about youth gangs with the aim of educating teachers and administrators, parents, and others who work with youth. The main emphasis is on gang identifiers and positive behavior management strategies and crisis intervention techniques that can be used in schools and the home. Section 1, "Youth Gangs Past and Present," provides…

Jensen, Mary M.; Yerington, Philip C.

280

Targeted Outreach: Boys & Girls Clubs of America's Approach to Gang Prevention and Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach (GPTTO) and Gang Intervention Through Targeted Outreach (GITTO) initiatives of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America. The study examined whether the clubs were attracting youth at high risk of gang involvement, whether clubs could keep GPTTO and GITTO youth…

Arbreton, Amy J. A.; McClanahan, Wendy S.

281

Race and gender differences between gang and nongang youths: Results from a multisite survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most examinations of youth gangs have been limited to a single city or a single state. In this article we examine gang affiliation in a multisite survey of 5,935 eighth grade students in 42 schools located in 11 cities across the United States. We use this diverse sample to examine two related issues: the demographic composition of gangs and the

Finn-Aage Esbensen; L. Thomas Winfree

1998-01-01

282

Community-Based Gang Prevention and Intervention: An Evaluation of the Neutral Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an assessment of the Neutral Zone, a community-based gang prevention and intervention program developed in Mountlake Terrace and now operating in several other Washington communities. The Neutral Zone offers youths at risk of joining a gang or already gang-affiliated an attractive and safe alternative for productively spending their time. An evaluation suggests that this late evening program

Quint C. Thurman; Andrew L. Giacomazzi; Michael D. Reisig; David G. Mueller

1996-01-01

283

Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event  

SciTech Connect

During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis.

Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

1992-08-01

284

Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable.

Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William

2012-01-01

285

Functional characterization of thioesterase superfamily member 1/Acyl-CoA thioesterase 11: implications for metabolic regulation[S  

PubMed Central

Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1; synonyms acyl-CoA thioesterase 11 and StarD14) is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue and limits energy expenditure in mice. Them1 is a putative fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase that comprises tandem hot dog-fold thioesterase domains and a lipid-binding C-terminal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain. To better define its role in metabolic regulation, this study examined the biochemical and enzymatic properties of Them1. Purified recombinant Them1 dimerized in solution to form an active fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Dimerization was induced by fatty acyl-CoAs, coenzyme A (CoASH), ATP, and ADP. Them1 hydrolyzed a range of fatty acyl-CoAs but exhibited a relative preference for long-chain molecular species. Thioesterase activity varied inversely with temperature, was stimulated by ATP, and was inhibited by ADP and CoASH. Whereas the thioesterase domains of Them1 alone were sufficient to yield active recombinant protein, the START domain was required for optimal enzyme activity. An analysis of subcellular fractions from mouse brown adipose tissue and liver revealed that Them1 contributes principally to the fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of microsomes and nuclei. These findings suggest that under biological conditions, Them1 functions as a lipid-regulated fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase that could be targeted for the management of metabolic disorders.

Han, Shuxin; Cohen, David E.

2012-01-01

286

Who needs enemies with friends like these? The importance of place for young people living in known gang areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination of fieldwork observations and focus group

Robert Ralphs; Juanjo Medina; Judith Aldridge

2009-01-01

287

Historical Risk Factors Associated with Gang Affiliation in a Residential Treatment Facility: A Case\\/Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate differences between gang and non-gang affiliated adolescents who reside in residential treatment. Sixty-one (31 male, 30 female) residents were studied. Thirty (14 male, 16 female) were determined, based on a behavioral screening method, to be gang involved. Likewise, 31 screened negative for gang involvement. The study employed a case control design.

Stephen J. Danyko; Alisondra Arlia; Jose Martinez

2002-01-01

288

Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments  

SciTech Connect

Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

Jette, M.A.

1997-11-01

289

Molecular heterogeneity in the choroid plexus epithelium: the 22-member ?-protocadherin family is differentially expressed, apically localized, and implicated in CSF regulation  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium develops from the ependyma that lines the ventricular system, and plays a critical role in the development and function of the brain. In addition to being the primary site of CSF production, the CP maintains the blood-CSF barrier via apical tight junctions between epithelial cells. Here we show that the 22-member ?-Protocadherin (?-Pcdh) family of cell adhesion molecules, which we have implicated previously in synaptogenesis and neuronal survival, is highly expressed by both CP epithelial and ependymal cells, in which ?-Pcdh protein localization is, surprisingly, tightly restricted to the apical membrane. Multi-label immunostaining demonstrates that ?-Pcdhs are excluded from tight junctions, basolateral adherens junctions, and apical cilia tufts. RT-PCR analysis indicates that, as a whole, the CP expresses most members of the Pcdh-? gene family. Immunostaining using novel monoclonal antibodies specific for single ?-Pcdh proteins shows that individual epithelial cells differ in their apically-localized ?-Pcdh repertoire. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-? locus in the choroid plexus and ependyma leads to significant reductions in ventricular volume, without obvious disruptions of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Together, these results suggest an unsuspected role for the ?-Pcdhs in CSF production and demonstrate a surprising molecular heterogeneity in the CP epithelium.

Lobas, Mark A.; Helsper, Lindsey; Vernon, Claire G.; Schreiner, Dietmar; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Weiner, Joshua A.

2011-01-01

290

Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.  

PubMed

The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community. PMID:20830865

Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

291

Gang membership and subsequent engagement into a drug free therapeutic community.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang involvement (21%) were younger and less educated than those without prior gang involvement. Although gang involved residents were more likely to achieve a high work role status in the program they scored lower on multiple indicators of engagement in treatment including acceptance of Daytop philosophy and TC clinical progress. PMID:19266711

Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

2007-06-01

292

Cooperation between c-Met and focal adhesion kinase family members in medulloblastoma and implications for therapy  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated the involvement of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met in medulloblastoma malignancy. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2, are key players in the progression of different cancers. However, their role in medulloblastoma malignancy is not well understood. In this study, using a protein array approach, we found that c-Met phosphorylates FAK and Pyk2 in medulloblastoma cells. We therefore studied the interactions between c-Met and FAK/Pyk2 and their implications for medulloblastoma therapy. We found that c-Met activates FAK and Pyk2 in several medulloblastoma cell lines. We also found that FAK and Pyk2 mediate the malignant effects of c-Met on medulloblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that combined c-Met and FAK inhibitions would have additive effects on the inhibition of medulloblastoma malignancy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects on medulloblastoma malignancy parameters of single or combined treatments of medulloblastoma cells with c-Met and FAK small molecule kinase inhibitors. We found a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of both inhibitors on medulloblastoma cell migration and cell invasion as compared to single inhibitions (p<0.05). Additionally, oral gavage treatment with c-Met inhibitor of mice bearing medullobastoma xenografts significantly reduced in vivo tumor growth. Therefore, combining c-Met inhibitors with FAK inhibitors constitutes a new potential strategy for medulloblastoma therapy. Altogether, our study describes a role for FAK and Pyk2 in medulloblastoma malignancy, uncovers new interactions between c-Met and FAK/Pyk2, and proposes for the first time combining anti-c-Met and anti-FAK inhibitors as a new strategy for medulloblastoma therapy.

Guessous, Fadila; Yang, Yanzhi; Johnson, Elizabeth; Marcinkiewicz, Lukasz; Smith, Matthew; Zhang, Ying; Kofman, Alexander; Schiff, David; Christensen, James; Abounader, Roger

2011-01-01

293

Union Members Are Community Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

Gray, David

2013-01-01

294

Who Can You Believe? Complexities of International Street Gang Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article stresses considerations in carrying out comparative street gang research, with comparative here meaning cross-national research. The discussion rests heavily on three comparative enterprises: the International Self-Report Delinquency Program, the Eurogang Research Program, and the STAGE proposal from the University of Manchester. All three have involved collaborative efforts of a large number of international scholars over a combined 40

Malcolm W. Klein

2011-01-01

295

A Former Street Gang Leader Reinterviewed Eight Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

A former street gang leader restates his earlier endorsement of the economic, or differential opportunity, model of crime causation. He also maintains that most of his former associates continued in crime because of adherence to the lower-class values of toughness, autonomy, and easy money. He himself abandoned crime and has become moderately successful as an independent businessman. He believes that

Glenn E. Weisfeld; Roger Feldman

1982-01-01

296

Street Gangs Are Big Business--And Growing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights findings from a study by Irving Spergel of gang activity in 45 cities. Ronald Stephen, executive director of the National School Safety Center, cites an increase in drug-marketing and violence and advises educators to be aware of what is going on, establish rapport with community groups, and enlist the support of students. (MLF)

Harrington-Lueker, Donna

1990-01-01

297

Gangs and Victimization at School. Education Policy Issues: Statistical Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue brief looks at the relationship between gang presence in schools and students' reports of victimization and fear. There is limited data about the causes of either juvenile street violence or school-related crime. Data collected in 1989 and 1993 reveal: (1) minority students living in urban areas are not the only ones who attend schools…

Ralph, John H.; And Others

298

A Former Street Gang Leader Reinterviewed Eight Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a followup interview with a former street gang leader first interviewed eight years before. Restates his earlier endorsement of the economic or differential opportunity model of crime causation. Maintains that the advantages of work are not evident to most urban youths and improved employment opportunities are needed. (Author/JAC)

Weisfeld, Glenn E.; Feldman, Roger

1982-01-01

299

Proceedings from the transnational street gang\\/organization seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

They came from all over. Researchers from Barcelona, Genova, Milan, Santo Domingo, Quito, and New York City descended on John Jay College of Criminal Justice to discuss the emerging socio-cultural phenomenon of transnational youth gangs developing into street organizations, similar to those documented by the author in the late 1990s in New York City (see Brotherton and Barrios, 2004). The

David Brotherton

2007-01-01

300

The Indus and the Ganges: river basins under extreme pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basins of the Indus and Ganges rivers cover 2.20 million km and are inhabited by more than a billion people. The region is under extreme pressures of population and poverty, unregulated utilization of the resources and low levels of productivity. The needs are: (1) development policies that are regionally differentiated to ensure resource sustainability and high productivity; (2) immediate

Bharat Sharma; Upali Amarasinghe; Cai Xueliang; Devaraj de Condappa; Tushaar Shah; Aditi Mukherji; Luna Bharati; G. Ambili; Asad Qureshi; Dhruba Pant; Stefanos Xenarios; R. Singh; Vladimir Smakhtin

2010-01-01

301

The silicon isotopic composition of the Ganges and its tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon isotopic composition (?Si30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 ?M. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between ?Si30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low ?Si30 (e.g., 40 ?M, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high ?Si30 component (e.g., 240 ?M, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 ?M while ?Si30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of ?Si30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher ?Si30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.

Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.

2013-11-01

302

Moving into Motherhood: Gang Girls and Controlled Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research challenges the popular characterization that young mothers are bad mothers. This article focuses on a group of girls and young women who were pregnant or mothers and who were engaged in a risky lifestyle through their heavy involvement in gangs, partying, and drinking. The authors examine the impact of the process of…

Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen; MacKenzie, Kathleen

2005-01-01

303

Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

2005-01-01

304

Representations of Gangs and Delinquency: Wild in the Streets?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the coverage of juvenile crime in the Hawaiian press. Analyses of a master list of 649 newspaper articles for a 10-year period show a wide disparity between the output of articles and actual youth crime trends. The media also tended to focus on gang activity in its coverage of youth crime. (SLD)

Perrone, Paul A.; Chesney-Lind, Meda

1997-01-01

305

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

306

Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.  

PubMed

Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

2014-07-01

307

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider  

PubMed Central

Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

2014-01-01

308

Gang Activity and Overall Levels of Crime: A New Mapping Tool for Defining Areas of Gang Activity Using Police Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, a new method for defining gang activity areas based uponpolice records is illustrated using the Chicago Police Department's1996 incident files. This method is based upon standard geographictechniques and uses a uniform grid that divides the city into 150-msquares. It is shown that this technique may be useful both in describinggang activity areas and in describing the spatial

Richard Block

2000-01-01

309

Youth, gangs and violence: Analysing the social and spatial mobility of young people in Guatemala City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have become an increasingly significant, and controversial, social institution in low-income communities in many cities in Central America, and yet the local-level impacts of this phenomenon, especially on young people, remain under-explored. Drawing on research with young people in Guatemala City, this paper explores the multiple barriers to the social and spatial mobility of both gang and non-gang

Ailsa Winton

2005-01-01

310

Individual and familial characteristics of youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore were compared with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent–adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Of note were the findings that gang youths reported a relative absence of parental abuse and indifference, and experienced less

C Kee; K Sim; J Teoh; C. S Tian; K. H Ng

2003-01-01

311

Gang membership and student behavior: nursing's involvement with prevention, intervention, and suppression.  

PubMed

Gangs are alive, and growing stronger each day, as they infiltrate all socioeconomic levels of most towns, cities, and metropolitan areas. This is the first of two articles in this issue discussing students and gang membership and a school nurse's involvement with gang prevention, intervention, and suppression. It is also about a large metropolitan school district's proactive approach to gang prevention, which includes a meaningful partnership involving the family, community, and school. The program is a comprehensive developmental guidance program to promote pro-social behaviors, equip students with refusal skills, and encourage problem-solving strategies that enable students to avoid engaging in high-risk activities. PMID:9146216

Armstrong, M L; Gurke, B

1997-04-01

312

Subaqueous delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges-Brahmaputra is among the world's three largest river systems in terms of sediment load, but, until now, no high-resolution seismic data have been obtained to document the nature of the sediment deposit seaward of the rivers' mouths. The other two (Amazon, Huanghe) discharge into energetic coastal environments and form subaqueous deltas with characteristic clinoform stratigraphy. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles

Steven A. Kuehl; Beth M. Levy; Willard S. Moore; Mead A. Allison

1997-01-01

313

Concentration of organochlorines in Ganges River dolphins from Patna, Bihar.  

PubMed

Concentrations of DDT, HCH, aldrin and endosulfan were determined in river dolphins from the River Ganges, Patna. Among the organochlorines studied in the dolphins, DDT concentration was highest followed by HCH. This shows exposure of dolphins to these organochlorine pesticides. Presences of organochlorines to higher degree in tissues suggest that the river dolphins be at greater risk due to pesticidal contamination of the river system. PMID:12597572

Kumari, Anupma; Sinha, R K; Gopal, Krishna; Lata, Swarn

2002-07-01

314

Hydro-meteorological variability in the greater Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flows of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) are highly seasonal, and heavily influenced by monsoon rainfall. As a result, these rivers swell to their banks and often overflow during the monsoon months. This is most pronounced in the downstream regions, particularly in Bangladesh, which is the lowest riparian country. The objective of this paper is to study this hydro-meteorological variability in the greater GBM regions, including the headwater regions in India and their role in streamflows in Bangladesh, and explore the large-scale oceanic factors affecting this hydro-meteorological variability. Global precipitation data, Bangladesh rainfall and streamflow records have been analysed and related to large-scale climate patterns, including upstream rainfall, regional atmospheric circulation and patterns of sea-surface temperature.The findings have quantified how the streamflows of these rivers in Bangladesh are highly correlated with the rainfall in the upper catchments with typically a lag of about 1 month. Therefore, streamflows in Bangladesh could be reasonably estimated for 1 to 3 months in advance (especially for the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers) by employing simple correlation, if rainfall data from countries further up are available on a real-time and continuous basis. In the absence of rainfall data, streamflow forecasts are still possible from unusually warm or cold sea-surface temperatures in the tropics. The study concludes that hydro-meteorological information flow between Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries is essential for developing a knowledge base for evaluating the potential implications of seasonal streamflow forecast in the GBM basins in Bangladesh.

Chowdhury, Rashed; Ward, Neil

2004-10-01

315

[Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].  

PubMed

A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents. PMID:6509422

Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

1984-11-01

316

Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program. Research for Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Few rigorous evaluations have been conducted on gang prevention programs. But one, a careful 5-year longitudinal evaluation, shows that Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) has modest positive effects on adolescents' attitudes and delinquen...

2004-01-01

317

A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

Chiprany, David Thomas

2011-01-01

318

Gangs of Chicago: Perceptions of Crime and its Effect on the Recreation Behavior of Latino Residents in Urban Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of safety is an important factor affecting the leisure behavior of Latinos residing in urban neighborhoods. Yet research on how fear of crime and fear of gangs in particular affect leisure of ethnic and racial minorities is underdeveloped. The objectives of this study are to examine how gangs operate in recreation spaces in Latino neighborhoods, how gangs affect the

Monika Stodolska; Juan Carlos Acevedo; Kimberly J. Shinew

2009-01-01

319

Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation…

Hernandez, Arturo

320

Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

2003-01-01

321

'Sleep Occupies No Space': The Use of Public Space by Street Gangs in Kinshasa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with issues of territoriality, public space, the microphysics of power and street gang life in the current urban context of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In this city, a growing number of street children invade the public places. They team up in gangs and scour the streets in search of a location to settle

Kristien Geenen

2009-01-01

322

Street gang theory and research: Where are we now and where do we go from here?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an upsurge of attention paid to street gangs as scholars and criminal justice officials strive to understand and counteract the effects of gang membership. Yet, despite a wealth of theoretical frameworks and empirical findings, even fundamental issues such as an agreed definition continue to elude us. We consider some of the most influential theoretical frameworks and

Jane Wood; Emma Alleyne

2010-01-01

323

Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the Southwestern United States, the current study found that inmates

Alan J. Drury; Matt DeLisi

2011-01-01

324

Street Gangs and Aggregate Homicides: An Analysis of Effects During the 1990s Violent Crime Peak  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the body of research examining why city-level violence rates peaked in 1993. Taking homicide data from that year, we introduce an indicator for active street gangs along with indicators derived from common structural explanations of homicide rates. We assess whether gang presence is empirically associated with homicide variation across 154 U.S. central cities. Consistent with conceptual

S. E. Costanza; Ronald Helms

2012-01-01

325

Gang Units in Large Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2007, 365 of the nation's large police departments and sheriffs' offices had specialized gang units, employing more than 4,300 sworn officers dedicated to addressing gang-related activities. Thirty-five percent (35%) of these units were established bet...

L. Langton

2010-01-01

326

Northeast Gang Information System (NEGIS): Participant Survey. Police Executive Research Forum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NEGIS is meant to act as a demonstration for a planned National Gang Information Network that will enable local, state, and federal law enforcement personnel across the country to share and exchange gang-related intelligence. The distributed, shared-syste...

L. Pitts

2000-01-01

327

Effect on Water Resources from Upstream Water Diversion in the Ganges Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROJECT SITE Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions Parts of the basins of the Ganges and its Baral and Musa of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Khan distributaries (Fig. 2) were selected for the study. Farak- Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been ka Barrage over the Ganges is

Miah M. Adel

2001-01-01

328

Gang Activity in Orange County, California: Final Report to the National Institute of Justice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past decade, however, gang activity appears to have been on the rise in the county. In 1991, the Orange County Grand Jury reported that gang problems were escalating at an alarming rate, a sentiment echoed by the 1995 Orange County Grand Jury. ...

B. J. Vila J. W. Meeker

2000-01-01

329

Reflectances in the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and in the adjacent coastal sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution patterns of reflectance were analysed from Landsat TM band 3, along the course of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and their adjacent coastal sea. It was observed that during the high discharge period, reflectance values in the Ganges river are higher than that in the Brahmaputra. But in the low discharge period, it is vice versa. Reflectances varied

M. R. Islam; Y. Yamaguchi; K. Ogawa

2000-01-01

330

Suspended sediment in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in Bangladesh: observation from TM and AVHRR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing was used to understand the seasonal and spatial variation of suspended sediment in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in Bangladesh for two different discharge periods. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in these rivers was estimated from the reflectance of Landsat TM band 3. During the high discharge period, SSC in the Ganges is higher than that in the Brahmaputra.

Mohammad Rezwanul Islam; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Katsuro Ogawa

2001-01-01

331

Biodegradation capacity and residue pattern of organochlorines in Ganges river dolphins from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of PCBs (including non?ortho coplanar congeners), DDTs, HCHs, HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and chlordanes were determined in river dolphins from the Ganges, India. Residue levels of DDTs were the highest followed by PCBs and HCHs. Noticeable amounts of toxic non?ortho coplanar PCBs were also detected in the blubber. A continuing exposure of the Ganges biota to organochlorine

K. Kannan; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; R. K. Sinha

1994-01-01

332

The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh: basin denudation and sedimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in Bangladesh transport 316 and 721 million tonnes of sediment, respectively. These high loads of suspended sediment reflect the very high rate of denudation in their drainage basins. The average mechanical denudation rate for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins together is 365 mm 103 yr-1. However, the rate is higher in the Brahmaputra

Mohammad Rezwanul Islam; Syeda Fahliza Begum; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Katsuro Ogawa

1999-01-01

333

Geogenic distribution and baseline concentration of heavy metals in sediments of the Ganges River, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a better understanding of heavy metal distribution in large river sediments is a major concern in the exogenic cycling of elements through fluvial processes and in assessing the effects of anthropogenic influences. From the Asian continent, the Ganges River contributes a significant amount of sediments to the world's ocean. Freshly deposited sediments of the Ganges River were

Munendra Singh; German Müller; I. B Singh

2003-01-01

334

Quantity–Intensity Relationships and Potassium Buffering Capacity of Four Ganges River Floodplain Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganges river floodplain soil extends from Nepal through India to Bangladesh, which is a good niche for rice–rice and rice–wheat cropping systems in Asia. Application of potassium (K) fertilizer does not give any yield benefits to rice and wheat grown on most of the Ganges floodplain soils in Bangladesh. Understanding of soil K dynamics in this soil is important for

M. A. Saleque; M. Anisuzzaman; A. Z. M. Moslehuddin

2009-01-01

335

Hydrological changes in the Ganges system in Bangladesh in the post-Farakka period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basin area of the Ganges River in Bangladesh is extremely dependent on a regular water supply from upstream to meet requirements for agriculture, fisheries, navigation, salinity control, and domestic and industrial sectors. In 1975, India commissioned a barrage on the Ganges River at Farakka to divert a significant portion of the dry season flow in order to make the

M. MONIRUL QADER MIRZA

1998-01-01

336

Precursors of Gang Involvement among Ninth Grade Students: A Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 urban ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on 8 occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.; Arrue, Rafael Martinez

337

Similarities and Differences in Risk Factors for Violent Offending and Gang Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established that there is a cumulative effect of risk factors on both youth violence and gang membership and that risk factors in multiple domains increase the probability of youth violence and gang involvement. In this article we expand upon this risk factor approach to the study of youth violence by addressing two questions concerning youth violence: (1)

Finn-Aage Esbensen; Dana Peterson; Terrance J. Taylor; Adrienne Freng

2009-01-01

338

Reasons and Remedies for Gangs and Delinquency among School Age Children. Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the common characteristics associated with juveniles who become involved in gang activities are identified. Programs that attempt to alleviate the situations that lead to gang involvement and programs that deal with juvenile delinquents are discussed. The history of the juvenile justice system is also traced. Characteristics that can…

Sloan, David L.

339

Delinquency and Substance Use among Gang-Involved Youth: The Moderating Role of Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency,

Chanequa J. Walker-Barnes; Craig A. Mason

2004-01-01

340

Safe Voluntary Exit Plans for Gang Involved Youth in Rhode Island: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted with the intent of understanding safe exit plans for gang involved youth. There is limited literature around the existence of exit planning in the State of Rhode Island. Three interviews were conducted with four local stakeholders in the Rhode Island community. These interviews revealed that at risk youth can be safely guided out of gang life

Patricia Foley

2011-01-01

341

Correlates and consequences of pre-incarceration gang involvement among incarcerated youthful felons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe primary aim of the study is to document the prevalence and variation in types of pre-incarceration gang membership among a sample of incarcerated felons. The second goal is to consider if and how pre-incarceration gang involvement affects institutional behavior.

Sean P. Varano; Beth M. Huebner; Timothy S. Bynum

2011-01-01

342

Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

Rodriguez, Luis J.

343

An Approach to Engagement with Youth in Gangs Participatory Action Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of engaging youth who have been involved with gangs in the context of a local street gang prevention project. A case study of the local project was conducted with interviews with twelve (N= 12) participants, most of whom were project staff Interviews were conducted by the author and two youth

Lisa Armstrong

2011-01-01

344

Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

2007-01-01

345

Residence Time of Sediments in Alluvial Plains from U-Th Isotope Analyses: The Ganges River System. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As illustrated in recent studies (Granet et al., 2007 ; 2010), the analysis of U-Th disequilibria in sediments collected along rivers allows the estimation of sediment transfer time in alluvial plains. Such an approach requires understanding the secondary processes which modify the U and Th isotopes of the sediments during their transfer within the plain. It also assumes a negligible contribution of new and fresh sediments coming from the erosion of the plain substratum during the sedimentary transfer. In order to specify these first results on the Ganges Basin river system, the main Himalayan tributaries of the Ganges were sampled at the exit of the Himalayan range and at the outlet of their watershed just before their confluence with the Ganges. In addition, at several sampling locations, suspended sedimentary load was collected at different depths of the water column. Our new data along with previously published data in (Granet et al., 2007 ; 2010) show that a wide range of variation in Th activity ratios in bedload and suspended sediments for several of these rivers. Such differences probably point to contrasting (geographical, geological, lithological, pedological..) origins of these two types of sediments. Furthermore, bedload and suspended load exhibit very different covariations of U and Th isotope ratios from upstream to downstream. These different trends of variations highlight the occurrence of different transfer histories within the plain for the coarse-grained and fine-grained sediments: 100 ky or more for the bedload sediments from the Himalayan range to the confluence with the Ganges, but much less for the suspended sediments. Variations in the U-Th isotope ratios of suspended sediments recorded for the same sampling location but at different seasons suggest that their transfer time could be as fast as one year. These data therefore confirm the real potential of U and Th isotopes in river sediments to constrain their transfer time within alluvial plain but also their origin. M. Granet et al. (2007) time-scales of sedimentary transfer and weathering processes from U-series nuclides: Clues from the Himalayan rivers, Earth and Planet. Sc. Let., 261, 389-406. Granet M et al. (2010) U-series disequilibria in suspended river sediments and implication for sediment transfer time in alluvial plains : the case of the Himalayan rivers Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 2851-2865

Chabaux, F. J.; Blaes, E.; Granet, M.; Dosseto, A.; Stille, P.; France-Lanord, C.; Lupker, M.

2010-12-01

346

RESEARCH: Diversion of the Ganges Water at Farakka and Its Effects on Salinity in Bangladesh  

PubMed

/ The Ganges River supplies water to the southwest region of Bangladesh mainly through one of its distributaries-the Gorai River. India commissioned a barrage on the Ganges River at Farakka in April 1975 to divert water and make the Bhagirathi-Hooghly River navigable. The diversion has reduced the dry season discharge of the Ganges and Gorai rivers in Bangladesh. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in the dry season discharge of these rivers are significant. Reduced discharge in the Gorai River has induced accelerated sedimentation and increased salinity in the southwest region of Bangladesh. Empirical analyses demonstrate the relationship between discharge in the Gorai River and salinity. Analyses also determine the requirement of flow for the Ganges and Gorai rivers to keep salinity at threshold limits. Increased salinity has caused negative effects on agriculture, forestry, industry, and drinking water in the southwest region of Bangladesh.KEY WORDS: Bangladesh; Ganges River; Gorai River; Farakka diversion; Salinity PMID:9680539

Mirza

1998-09-01

347

Delinquency and substance use among gang-involved youth: the moderating role of parenting practices.  

PubMed

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency, and substance use). Three of the four parenting variables (behavioral control, psychological control, parent-adolescent conflict, and warmth) are found to moderate the relationship between gang involvement and problem behavior, with the most consistent effects found for behavioral control and warmth. These findings indicate that intervention efforts aimed at reducing the impact of gang involvement on adolescent development should consider factors that may decrease the deleterious behavioral outcomes associated with youth gangs. PMID:15663209

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J; Mason, Craig A

2004-12-01

348

Elastomeric member  

DOEpatents

An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1985-01-01

349

Elastomeric member  

DOEpatents

An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

Hoppie, L.O.

1985-07-30

350

Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1–3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The

Yusuke Suganuma; Yozo Hamano; Sachiko Niitsuma; Masamichi Hoashi; Toshio Hisamitsu; Nobuaki Niitsuma; Kazuto Kodama; Munetomo Nedachi

2006-01-01

351

Origin of the dissolved U-Sr fluxes in the Himalayan rivers: cases of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rivers draining the Himalaya are recognised as major contributors to the dissolved riverine flux to the oceans, with a non-negligible effect on the global budget of elements such as Sr and U. The precise characterisation of the different sources contributing to these fluxes is important and has to be done to model correctly the Himalayan river chemical flux variations through time, in response to climatic or tectonic variations and to better constrain the impact of these rivers on the U and Sr oceanic budget. The recent study of the Ganges watershed has shown the potential of the U-Sr combined isotopic analyses to reach this objective (Chabaux et al., 2001). We propose to extend this approach for the two other main Himalayan rivers: the Brahmaputra and the Indus. Our results show that the U and Sr fluxes carried by the Brahmaputra are not only controlled by the Himalayan end-member identified during the study of the Ganges watershed, but also by a chemical flux coming from the Tibetan plateau and another one specific of the plain formations. These two latter fluxes contribute to the U and Sr dissolved budget of the Brahmaputra during the dry season, and at different intensities for these two elements. During the monsoon, their impact seems to be negligible compared to the flux coming from the Himalayan chain. As a first approximation therefore, the annual hydrological cycle of the Brahmaputra river would have a U-Sr systematics very close to that of the Ganges river. By contrast, for the Indus River, in addition to the Himalyan flux, U and Sr dissolved budget is significantly affected by chemical fluxes from the Tibetan plateau, the plain and also from the West Pakistan Fold belt. The input of the Punjab river, the main Indus tributary that strongly influences the U-Sr budgets, on the Indus can be explained in terms of mixing between the Himalayan and the plain end members. These results will be used to constrain the response of U and Sr fluxes of the Himalayan river system to climatic variations and to discuss the impact of these variations on U and Sr oceanic budgets. Chabaux F., Riotte J., Clauer N. and France-Lanord C. (2001) GCA 65(19), 3201-3217

Schmitt, A.; Chabaux, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Singh, S.; Veizer, J.; Karim, A.

2003-12-01

352

Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: implications for an Apparent Polar Wander Path for Pilbara craton during Archean  

Microsoft Academic Search

aleomagnetic study is conducted on the early Archean Marble Bar Chert Member (3454 - 3471 Ma) in Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia, to reconstruct an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for this craton and understand for geodynamic feature during early Archean time. The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, includes

Y. Suganuma; Y. Hamano; S. Niitsuma; M. Hoashi; T. Hisamitsu; N. Niitsuma; K. Kodama; M. Nedachi

2005-01-01

353

Rapid diagnostic PCR assays for members of the Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides pulicaris species complexes, implicated vectors of bluetongue virus in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biting midges of the Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and Culicoides pulicaris L. species complexes (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are increasingly implicated as vectors of bluetongue virus in Palearctic regions. However, predicting epidemiological risk and the spread of disease is hampered because whilst vector competence of Culicoides is expressed only in adult females, morphological identification of constituent species is only readily applicable to adult

Damien V. Nolan; Simon Carpenter; James Barber; Philip S. Mellor; John F. Dallas; Stuart B. Piertney

2007-01-01

354

Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health.

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

355

Exploring the Gang Problem in Redlands, CA: An Evaluation of a Problem Solving Partnership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the late 1990s, violence, drugs, and gangs within schools became a major subject of interest among residents, public officials, and law enforcement officers. This was largely a consequence of the school shootings in Jonesboro, Arkansas, West Paducah, K...

C. D. Uchida C. M. Katz D. R. Schaefer

2002-01-01

356

Street Gangs and Drug Sales in Two Suburban Cities. Research in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The degree to which street gang involvement in drug distribution presents special and substantial difficulties to law enforcement is a matter of some debate in police and academic circles. Most of the literature emanating from law enforcement sources sugg...

C. L. Maxson

1995-01-01

357

State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible 'Midwives of New Social Orders'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph introduces a misunderstood aspect of 'wars among the people.' The author addresses the interesting subject of the multifaceted nature and predominant role of gangs operating as state and nonstate proxies in the modern unbalanced global secu...

M. G. Manwaring

2009-01-01

358

Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles.  

PubMed

Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2009-11-01

359

Targeted Outreach: Boys and Girls Clubs of America's Approach to Gang Prevention and Intervention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Commissioned by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) and underwritten by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Pinkerton Foundation, the scholarly study offers readers an inside look at two approaches to reducing youth involvement in gangs -- a clear catalyst of violent crime among teens. Focusing on Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach (GPTTO) and Gang Intervention Through Targeted Outreach (GITTO), the report clearly illustrates the need for and benefits of proactive, community-based programs for at-risk populations. Arguing that both intervention and prevention programs are essential, the authors of the report examine the success of such approaches in a broad cross section of metropolitan settings. Far from controversial, the report concludes that youth can escape the gang-related cycles of violence and criminality if alternatives exist and other people are there for them.

Arbreton, Amy J.; Mcclanahan, Wendy S.

2002-01-01

360

Aeolian Sediment Sources and Transport in Ganges Chasma, Mars: Morphology and Atmospheric Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results from aeolian bedform mapping and atmospheric modeling in Ganges Chasma that suggest (1) sand sources are widespread throughout the chasma and (2) saltation threshold friction velocities may be lower than expected.

Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.; Beyer, R. A.

2012-03-01

361

The Si Isotopic Composition of the Ganges and Related Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved silicon (DSi) in rivers currently represents ~85% of DSi input to the ocean, giving it a significant influence over the average stable isotopic composition (?30Si) of seawater. In the modern ocean, both the average ?30Si of silica exported to the sediments and of deep water DSi should therefore be very close to the average value of the riverine inputs. Any changes to the average ?30Si or rivers should thus drive a shift in the average ?30Si of seawater and exported silica over time. The average ?30Si of DSi reaching the ocean may change with time, reflecting changes in weathering processes. In some systems, ?30Si increases with increasing DSi, in others it increases with decreasing DSi. Although not fully understood, these patterns must relate to interactions between water flow, primary and secondary mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the production, transport, and dissolution of biogenic and amorphous silica like phytoliths. In the Ganges river system we observe that ?30Si ranges from +0.5 % in the High Himalaya to +2.5 % on the Ganges floodplain. In the Himalaya, DSi increases from 40 ?M to 150 ?M in the Ganges and four of its largest headwater rivers (the Alaknanda, Nandakini, Mandakini, and Bhagirathi) with decreasing elevation. This increase occurs through the addition of DSi from smaller tributaries whose concentrations ranged from 75 ?M to 240 ?M. At the same time, ?30Si increases in the larger rivers from +0.5 % to +1.0 %, most likely due to the inputs from the smaller tributaries, which had ?30Si values ranging from +0.6 % to +1.6 %. As with the larger headwater rivers, ?30Si increases with increasing DSi in the smaller tributaries, with the whole dataset showing a linear increase in ?30Si of 0.005 % per ?M DSi (?30Si = 0.005(DSi) + 0.2; r2 = 0.81; n = 22). On the Ganges floodplain, DSi concentrations range from 120 to 240 ?M and ?30Si from +1.6 % to +2.5 %. Although the relationship between DSi and ?30Si is less clear, in the Gompti River and some smaller tributaries, ?30Si appears to increase with decreasing DSi (?30Si = -0.007(DSi) + 3.2; r2 = 0.69; n = 13). An increase in ?30Si with decreasing DSi can be ascribed to isotope fractionation during the incorporation of DSi into clay minerals. It is not surprising that this appears to be the dominant process in the warm, low gradient rivers of the floodplain. More difficult to explain is the positive correlation between DSi and ?30Si in the steep Himalayan rivers; there is no known biological or mineral source that could add DSi of a high ?30Si through its dissolution. However, repeated cycles of mineral dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in a closed or restricted flow reservoir could result in water with ?30Si that exhibits a positive correlation with DSi.

De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Bickle, M. J.

2011-12-01

362

Erosion and sediment transport in the Ganges river basin (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on sampling of the entire region of the Ganges basin, chemical and sediment load supplied at various parts of the basin have been computed. Annual flux of materials from sub-basin into the main basin and input to the Hoogly estuary have been calculated and compared to major river systems of the world. The total annual load at Calcutta (mouth of the river) was calculated as 411 · 10 6 t (328 · 10 6 t sediment load + 83 · 10 6 t chemical load). Erosion rate (549 t km -2 yr. -1) is among the highest in this river system and controlling factors on a global scale, such as basin area, are discussed in detail. Annual decrease in basin elevation indicates a rapid process of denudation and such rates have a bearing on rates of shelf sediment accumulation.

Abbas, Nazar; Subramanian, V.

1984-02-01

363

Arbuscular mycorrhizal relations of mangrove plant community at the Ganges river estuary in India.  

PubMed

Mangroves are climax formation of hydrohalophytes inhabiting estuarine or marine salt marshes in the tropics and subtropics. As a terrestrial plant community inhabiting tidally inundated estuarine or marine sediments, mangroves show considerable adaptation to salinity, water-logging and nutrient stress. Thirty-one species of mangrove and mangrove associates and 23 species of transported flora, belonging to 25 families at four physiographic stages of succession of the mangrove plant community at the terminal part of the Ganges river estuary in India were examined for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root association. Dominant members of the mangrove plant community were all AM, mostly with 'Paris' type structures. Many of the known non-mycotrophic plant families, except the Cyperaceae, also showed AM association, with intracellular hyphae and vesicles as the most discernible endophyte structures. Intensity of AM colonization varied both with the species and situations of their occurrence, being more intense and also more extensive in less saline dry ridge mangroves than in more saline formative and developed swamp mangroves. Introduced exotic trees on the ridges and embankments were infected by AM, but less than the declining mangroves in the same location. Seven species of AM fungi in common with those of the upstream mesophytic plants were isolated from root-free rhizosphere soils of the mangroves, three of which predominated in root association. These species, individually and as mixtures, infected roots of salinity tolerant herbs and trees in both locational silt and upstream alluvial soil with obvious improvements in their biomass yield and phosphorus nutrition. AM infective potential of root-free rhizosphere soils of the dominant members of the mangrove community were negatively related to salinity level of the sediment soil of the successional stages. The evidences of AM association of mangroves and other salt marsh plants obtained here and those reported elsewhere are discussed. PMID:12189470

Sengupta, Anjan; Chaudhuri, Subhendu

2002-08-01

364

Size characteristics and mineralogy of suspended sediments of the Ganges river, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a mean annual flow of 5.9×1011m3yr-1 and sediment load of 1600x1012gyr-1 the Ganges river ranks second and third, respectively, in terms of water flow and sediment load among the world's rivers. Considering the enormous sediment transport by Ganges to the Bay of Bengal, a study was conducted on the size distribution and mineral characteristics of the suspended sediments of

G. J. Chakrapani; V. Subramanian; R. J. Gibbs; P. K. Jha

1995-01-01

365

Peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river mouth area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic peculiarities of the hydrological regime of one of the largest mouth areas of the world, i.e., the common mouth\\u000a of the rivers of Ganges and Brahmaputra, are discussed. The main features of natural conditions (including climatic) of the\\u000a mouth of these rivers and the delta drainage system are characterized. The hydrological regime of the Ganges and Brahmaputra\\u000a rivers,

V. N. Mikhailov; M. A. Dotsenko

2006-01-01

366

Affiliation to Youth Gangs During Adolescence: The Interaction Between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely\\u000a to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in\\u000a the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested\\u000a whether a combination of individual

Véronique Dupéré; Éric Lacourse; J. Douglas Willms; Frank Vitaro; Richard E. Tremblay

2007-01-01

367

Self-control, differential association, and gang membership: A theoretical and empirical extension of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data gathered from a sample of two hundred jail inmates housed in a large California city, this research extends the still nascent literature on the self-control\\/gang membership association. The article begins by first articulating more comprehensively than earlier research Gottfredson and Hirschi's theoretical justification for expecting a self-control\\/gang membership link. Next, an examination is undertaken of the relative independent

Jason Kissner; David C. Pyrooz

2009-01-01

368

The police and social threat: Urban transition, youth gangs, and social control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of U.S. cities of 25,000 or more, this paper describes the impact of urban decline from 1970–1980 and the magnitude of youth gang problems on municipal fiscal commitment to policing. After statistical controls are imposed for the city's crime rate, revenues and demographic characteristics, the results indicate that urban transition and recognition of youth gang problems

Pamela Irving Jackson

1992-01-01

369

Seafloor precipitates and C-isotope stratigraphy from the Neoproterozoic Scout Mountain Member of the Pocatello Formation, southeast Idaho: implications for Neoproterozoic earth system behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroscopic seafloor-precipitated crystal fans are rare in post-Paleoproterozoic strata, but they are more common in the unusual carbonates that cap certain Neoproterozoic glacial strata. The uppermost carbonate and marble unit of the Scout Mountain Member of the Neoproterozoic Pocatello Formation (younger than 667±5Ma) contains seafloor fans, records negative ?13C values, and lies within a transgressive sequence, all features consistent with

Nathaniel J. Lorentz; Frank A. Corsetti; Paul Karl Link

2004-01-01

370

Long-term consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Methods. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. Results. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. Conclusions. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs. PMID:24625155

Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

2014-05-01

371

Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.

Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo

2006-12-01

372

Precious and base metal geochemistry and mineralogy of the Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for a multistage emplacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member within the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex is a mineralized, layered package of mafic cumulates developed to the south of the town of Mokopane, at a similar stratigraphic position to the Platreef. The concentration of platinum-group elements (PGE) in base metal sulfides (BMS) has been determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. These data, coupled with whole-rock PGE concentrations and a detailed account of the platinum-group mineralogy (PGM), provide an insight into the distribution of PGE and chalcophile elements within the GNPA member, during both primary magmatic and secondary hydrothermal alteration processes. Within the most unaltered sulfides (containing pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite only), the majority of IPGE, Rh, and some Pd occur in solid solution within pyrrhotite and pentlandite, with an associated Pt-As and Pd-Bi-Te dominated PGM assemblage. These observations in conjunction with the presence of good correlations between all bulk PGE and base metals throughout the GNPA member indicate the presence and subsequent fractionation of a single PGE-rich sulfide liquid, which has not been significantly altered. In places, the primary sulfides have been replaced to varying degrees by a low-temperature assemblage of pyrite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. These sulfides are associated with a PGM assemblage characterized by the presence of Pd antimonides and Pd arsenides, which are indicative of hydrothermal assemblages. The presence of appreciable quantities of IPGE, Pd and Rh within pyrite, and, to a lesser, extent millerite suggests these phases directly inherited PGE contents from the pyrrhotite and pentlandite that they replaced. The replacement of both the sulfides and PGM occurred in situ, thus preserving the originally strong spatial association between PGM and BMS, but altering the mineralogy. Precious metal geochemistry indicates that fluid redistribution of PGE is minimal with only Pd, Au, and Cu being partially remobilized and decoupled from BMS. This is also indicated by the lower concentrations of Pd evident in both pyrite and millerite compared with the pentlandite being replaced. The observations that the GNPA member was mineralized prior to intrusion of the Main Zone and that there was no local footwall control over the development of sulfide mineralization are inconsistent with genetic models involving the in situ development of a sulfide liquid through either depletion of an overlying magma column or in situ contamination of crustal S. We therefore believe that our observations are more compatible with a multistage emplacement model, where preformed PGE-rich sulfides were emplaced into the GNPA member. Such a model explains the development and distribution of a single sulfide liquid throughout the entire 400-800 m thick succession. It is therefore envisaged that the GNPA member formed in a similar manner to its nearest analogue the Platreef. Notable differences however in PGE tenors indicate that the ore-forming process may have differed slightly within the staging chambers that supplied the Platreef and GNPA member.

Smith, J. W.; Holwell, D. A.; McDonald, I.

2014-03-01

373

Clockwise rotation and implications for northward drift of the western Transverse Ranges from paleomagnetism of the Piuma Member, Sespe Formation, near Malibu, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from mid-Tertiary sedimentary beds in the Santa Monica Mountains reinforce the evidence for large-scale rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, and anisotropy measurements indicate that compaction-induced inclination flattening may resolve a long-standing controversy regarding the original paleolatitude of the rotated block. Previously published paleomagnetic data indicate that post-Oligocene rotation amounts to 70°-110° clockwise, affecting the Channel Islands, Santa Monica Mountains, and Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sespe Formation near Malibu consists of a lower member dominated by nonmarine sandstone and conglomerate and an upper section, the Piuma Member, which consists of gray-red sandstone and mudstone interbedded with minor tuff and limestone beds. The Piuma Member has a paleomagnetic pole at 36.6°N, 326.7°E (A95min = 5.0°, A95max = 9.6°), obtained by thermal demagnetization of 34 oriented cores from Oligocene and early Miocene beds. After correcting for plunge of the geologic structure, the data are consistent with significant clockwise rotation (77° ± 7°) of the region relative to stable North America. Rotation of the western Transverse Ranges is generally viewed as a consequence of Pacific-North American plate interactions after 28 Ma, when east-west subduction gave way to northwest transform motion in southern California. Inclinations from the Piuma study indicate a paleolatitude anomaly of 11° ± 7° and are consistent with a mean northward drift that exceeds generally accepted San Andreas fault displacement by a factor of 3. However, sedimentary inclination error may accentuate the anomaly. Anisotropy of isothermal remanent magnetization indicates inclination flattening of approximately 8°, and correction for the effect reduces the paleolatitude anomaly to 5.3° ± 5.8°. Compaction may explain the inclination flattening in these sedimentary rocks, but the process does not adequately explain lower-than-expected inclinations found in previous studies of Miocene volcanic rocks of the western Transverse Ranges.

Hillhouse, John W.

2010-07-01

374

Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use.

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

375

Chemical and Isotopic Variations of Three Typical End-Member Organic Materials During Aging Process: Implications for Assessment of Relative Contributions of Various Organic Inputs in Altamaha Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the applicability of the end-member model in assessment of relative contributions of organic matter from various sources in estuarine system, we incubated three typical end-member organic materials (C3 marine diatom, C3 land grass, and C4 salt marsh plant) in Altamaha estuarine water over two months. Chemical and isotopic parameters (bulk organic carbon/nitrogen, lipid composition, stable C/N isotopes and lipid stable carbon isotopic ratios) were analyzed for fresh and aged materials. The analytical results showed that the chemical and isotopic compositions of three organic materials varied from material to material and from compound to compound during aging process. TOC and TN contents of C3 marine diatom and C3 land grass dramatically decreased (by 40-60%) while C4 salt marsh plant reduced its TOC and TN contents by less than 13% during incubation. Lipid compositions in all materials were greatly changed by aging process, as indicated by marked drops of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (e.g., 16:1/16:0 for diatom and 18:2+3/16:0 for higher plants). Bulk ?13C ratios of aged materials changed in a small range (-0.17‰ to +1.99‰) while their ?15N ratios shifted more noticeably (from +3‰ to +7‰). Lipid carbon isotopic compositions of three materials changed differently during aging process: some sterols (e.g., 27?5 and 29?5) had small isotopic shifts (<±1.7‰) while most plant fatty acids showed much greater enrichment (up to +8.3‰) except 16:0 in marine diatom (-2.6‰ depletion). Bacteria-specific fatty acids [iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0 and 18:1(?7)] became significant components during incubations of all materials and their specific carbon isotopic ratios well corresponded to those of the substrate materials. These results suggest that use of end-member model must consider the age of organic materials and the potential changes in isotopic signals. The ?13C ratios of bacterial-specific fatty acids also provide insights to the distributions of bioavailable organic matter in estuarine system.

Dai, J.; Sun, M.

2005-05-01

376

Clockwise Rotation and Implications for Northward Drift of the Western Transverse Ranges from Paleomagnetism of the Piuma Member, Sespe Formation, near Malibu, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from mid-Tertiary sedimentary beds in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California reinforce the evidence for large-scale rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, originally postulated from observations of basement-structure trends and supported by paleodeclination data from Eocene and younger rocks. Previously published paleomagnetic data indicate that post-Oligocene rotation amounts to 70°-110° clockwise, affecting the Channel Islands, Santa Monica Mountains, and Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sespe Formation near Malibu consists of a lower member dominated by nonmarine sandstone and conglomerate and an upper section, the Piuma Member, which consists of gray-red sandstone and mudstone interbedded with minor tuff and limestone beds. The Piuma Member has a paleomagnetic pole at 36.7°N, 326.7°E (A95min=5.0°, A95max=9.6°), resulting from thermal demagnetization of 34 oriented cores covering beds from Oligocene to Early Miocene age. The data are consistent with significant clockwise rotation (68°±7°) of the region relative to stable North America. Rotation of the western Transverse Ranges is generally viewed as a consequence of Pacific-North American plate interactions after 28 Ma, when east-west subduction gave way to northwest transform motion in southern California. Inclinations from the Piuma study lead to a paleolatitude anomaly of 11°±7°, or a mean northward drift that exceeds generally accepted San Andreas fault displacement by a factor of three. However, analysis of magnetization-direction distributions from this study combined with J. Liddicoat's work at other Sespe Formation sites (total N=131) reveals that sedimentary inclination error, rather than northward drift, may be the primary contributor to the anomaly. Application of the Tauxe and Kent method, which tests the elliptical shape of a given field-direction dataset against a global geomagnetic field model (TK03.GAD), requires mean inclination flattening of approximately 15° to predict the 1.34:1 azimuthal elongation of the Sespe magnetization directions. Compaction may explain the inclination flattening in these sedimentary rocks, but the process does not adequately explain lower-than-expected inclinations found in previous studies of Miocene volcanic rocks of the western Transverse Ranges.

Hillhouse, J. W.

2007-12-01

377

Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: implications for an Apparent Polar Wander Path for Pilbara craton during Archean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

aleomagnetic study is conducted on the early Archean Marble Bar Chert Member (3454 - 3471 Ma) in Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia, to reconstruct an apparent polar wander path (APWP) for this craton and understand for geodynamic feature during early Archean time. The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, includes the Marble Bar Chert Member. Stepwise thermal demagnetization (ThD) for 431 discrete specimens, extracted from 158.5 to 182.0 m in depth of the drilled core, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component is divided into two depth groups, which provide the mean paleomagnetic directions of MB1 and MB2. The MB1, MB2, and published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton displays continuous shift of the paleomagnetic poles along the stratigraphic sequence of them. This indicates the MT component preserving the primary magnetization acquired during sedimentation. Based on the result of this study and the other published paleomagnetic poles, the simplest early to late Archean APWP for the Pilbara craton is reconstructed. The fast shift of the paleomagnetic poles was observed between MB1 and MB2, which corresponds to the 4.1° of paleolatitude change and approximately 460 km of latitudinal drift of the Pilbara craton. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 13.6 -129 cm/y, which is significantly large compared with current plate motion velocities. Plate tectonic process, relating the anomalous active convection of the mantle during Archean time, likely explains the significant fast lateral drift of the Pilbara craton. On the other hand, true polar wander (TPW) also can explain the significant paleolatitude change. Although, an angular velocity of TPW estimated as 1.0° - 9.4°/Myr is extremely lager that reported velocity of the TPW (0.5°/Myr), inertial interchange TPW might explain the fast lateral drift of the Pilbara craton.

Suganuma, Y.; Hamano, Y.; Niitsuma, S.; Hoashi, M.; Hisamitsu, T.; Niitsuma, N.; Kodama, K.; Nedachi, M.

2005-12-01

378

Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.  

PubMed

Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents. PMID:19852186

Papachristos, Andrew V

2009-07-01

379

Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration  

SciTech Connect

The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

Lorenz, J.C.

1997-05-01

380

Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

Rios, Victor M.

2010-01-01

381

The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.  

PubMed

The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides. PMID:19247837

Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2009-07-01

382

Underwater behavioral study of Ganges river dolphins by using echolocation clicks recorded by 6hydrophone array system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeting the 9 Ganges river dolphins inhabiting the Narora area in Ganges river system, the first recordings using an compact acoustic observation system, which consists of a high frequency 6-hydorophone cross array connected with a PC on land-base by a wireless LAN system have been carried out during 17 to 21 February 2008. The system also uses the prototype of

Harumi Sugimatsu; Tamaki Ura; Junichi Kojima; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera

2008-01-01

383

Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

384

Mortality in members of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa and implications for antiretroviral therapy initiation: Results of analyses from a multicenter randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of HIV-1 related mortality is strongly related to CD4 count. Guidance on optimal timing for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still evolving, but the contribution of HIV-1 infection to excess mortality at CD4 cell counts above thresholds for HIV-1 treatment has not been fully described, especially in resource-poor settings. To compare mortality among HIV-1 infected and uninfected members of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples followed for up to 24 months, we conducted a secondary data analysis examining mortality among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples participating in a multicenter, randomized controlled trial at 14 sites in seven sub-Saharan African countries. Methods Predictors of death were examined using Cox regression and excess mortality by CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA was computed using Poisson regression for correlated data. Results Among 3295 HIV serodiscordant couples, we observed 109 deaths from any cause (74 deaths among HIV-1 infected and 25 among HIV-1 uninfected persons). Among HIV-1 infected persons, the risk of death increased with lower CD4 count and higher plasma viral levels. HIV-1 infected persons had excess mortality due to medical causes of 15.2 deaths/1000 person years at CD4 counts of 250 – 349 cells/?l and 8.9 deaths at CD4 counts of 350 – 499 cells/?l. Above a CD4 count of 500 cells/?l, mortality was comparable among HIV-1 infected and uninfected persons. Conclusions Among African serodiscordant couples, there is a high rate of mortality attributable to HIV-1 infection at CD4 counts above the current threshold (200 – 350 cells/?l) for ART initiation in many African countries. These data indicate that earlier initiation of treatment is likely to provide clinical benefit if further expansion of ART access can be achieved. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00194519)

2012-01-01

385

Young Mother (in the) Hood: Gang Girls' Negotiation of New Identities.  

PubMed

This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and gang girls-both stigmatized identities. For many of the young women, motherhood entails a retreat from the street and a renewed emphasis on time spent in the home. While many receive (financial and childcare) support from their families, this also often means a diminution of the autonomy they experienced while more heavily involved in the gang. Issues of respect and respectability remain important for the young women, but the dimensions on which these are based change. PMID:21116461

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Joe-Laidler, Karen; McKenzie, Kathleen

2011-02-01

386

Size characteristics and mineralogy of suspended sediments of the Ganges river, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a mean annual flow of 5.9×1011m3yr-1 and sediment load of 1600x1012gyr-1 the Ganges river ranks second and third, respectively, in terms of water flow and sediment load among the world's rivers. Considering the enormous sediment transport by Ganges to the Bay of Bengal, a study was conducted on the size distribution and mineral characteristics of the suspended sediments of the Ganges river and is reported here. Most of the sediment load has a size range between <4 5.75 ?). The sediments are mostly medium to coarse silt and are poorly sorted. Mica dominates among the clay minerals, followed by chlorite, vermiculite, kaolinite, and smectite. Due to differences in geology, smectite becomes a major clay mineral in downstream rivers. At Calcutta, the clay mineral transport in millions of tons per year is 18,464, 8000, and 2147, for mica, smectite, and chlorite, respectively.

Chakrapani, G. J.; Subramanian, V.; Gibbs, R. J.; Jha, P. K.

1995-04-01

387

Morphology of the tracheobronchial tree of the Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica).  

PubMed

To contribute to the phylogenetic evaluation of the river dolphin, the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree of the Ganges river dolphin was analyzed according to Nakakuki's fundamental bronchial tree model of mammals. In the right lung, the bronchial tree consists of the tracheal bronchus, five lateral series bronchi, three dorsal series bronchi and one ventral series bronchus. In the left lung, it consists of five lateral series bronchi, four dorsal series bronchi and one ventral series bronchus. In the Ganges river dolphin, the tracheal bronchus corresponds to type III of Nakakuki's nomenclature. This characteristic is of especial interest in light of the fact that the Ganges river dolphin has a forestomach as do Artiodactyla. PMID:2290635

Kida, M Y

1990-10-01

388

Cognitive and social influences on gang involvement among delinquents in three Chinese cities.  

PubMed

Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsi ble for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To investigate these factors across different sociocultural contexts, we surveyed delinquents in three diverse Chinese cities-Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Shanghai. Because of the sociocultural differences among the three cities, social control by parents and cognitive development are likely to be greater protective factors in terms of youths' gang involvement in Hong Kong, while social control by teachers is likely to be a greater protective factor in mainland cities. Results bear out these hypotheses. PMID:17849942

Ngai, Ngan-Pun; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

2007-01-01

389

Local Ganging in the Central Calorimeter and Major Portions of the Endcap Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

This is the minority report on the decision to use local ganging in the central calorimeter and major portions of the end cap calorimeters. The method not chosen for the readout is distant ganging. This method requires that the signal from each pad be carried to the outer radial edge of the board. There the signals from successive boards are connected together in parallel(ganged). From there the signal is carried to the cryostat port. All of the procedures needed to effect this design are known at this time. The line connecting each pad to the outer edge of its board can be produced by routing the line onto the readout board when the pads are routed. The lines are designed to be .007 inches wide with .008 inch spacings between lines. Lines of these dimension have been produced at Fermi Lab with very little difficulty. Three lines each 50 feet long were cut with out a break or short on the first attempt using the Fermi Gerber router. The connection from the lead to ganging cable is made with lands at the outer edge of the board. The ganging cable is created by layering copper and mylar. The first surface is copper with spaces etched on it to create leads with the same spacing as the lands on the boards. the second layer is mylar. The third layer is a solid copper sheath. The fourth layer is mylar. This cable is held in contact with the lands by spring clips. This system was used to connect over 300 lines in series. The test piece was cold shocked in LN{sub 2} ten times without a failure in any connection. The ganging cable is then connected to a twisted pair cable. Several connectors are commercially available for this transition. All are extremely reliable.

Pitas, A.; /Fermilab

1986-02-03

390

Complex Floor Deposits Within Western Ganges Chasma, Valles Marineris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 26, 1997, MOC took this image of Mars 10 minutes after its closest approach to the planet (1:46 AM PST). The view shows the floor of western Ganges Chasma (7.8oS 51.8oW), covering an area 2.6 km (1.6 miles) wide by 45.4 km (28.2 miles) long at a resolution of 5 by 7.4 meters (16.4 by 24.3 feet) per picture element. The local time on Mars when the picture was taken was 4:35 PM.

The center image (available at higher resolution as PIA01028) shows the northern portion of the area inscribed in the left image. The right image (PIA01029) shows the southern portion.

Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1997-01-01

391

Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

2012-02-01

392

Generating and forecasting monthly flows of the Ganges river with PAR model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary building techniques and underlying theories of periodic autoregressive (PAR) models are revisited, reviewed, modified and recast. New techniques for generating synthetic data from any PAR model with provision to constrain some parameter values to zero have been proposed. The developed method is applied to the Ganges river for its monthly flow forecasting and generation. The results demonstrate that the PAR model can capture the seasonal variability of the Ganges river flow reasonably well preserving both its short- and the long-term important historical statistics.

Mondal, M. Shahjahan; Wasimi, Saleh A.

2006-05-01

393

Chicano Gangs: One Response to Mexican Urban Adaptation in the Los Angeles Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban adaptation among Mexican Americans resulting in the rise of youth street gangs is assessed in this article within a framework that examines the adaptation's ecological, economic, cultural, and psychological aspects. It is argued that difficulties in changing to Anglo-American patterns have been exacerbated by living and working conditions…

Vigil, James Diego

1983-01-01

394

MALDITOS: STREET GANG SUBVERSIONS OF NATIONAL BODY POLITICS IN CENTRAL AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s, street gangs known as maras have emerged as a new social entity in Central America. In Honduras, these informal organizations are repeatedly represented in various forms of media as an aberration that is clearly separate from populace and state. Such representations render mareros as entities that possess a radically alien ontology, which is the sole locality of

Roberto Barrios

2009-01-01

395

Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present river chemistry data for a network of rivers draining the western and central Nepal Himalaya. Our sampling locations cover the system from the sources of rivers in Tibet to the Gangetic plain. Water samples were collected throughout the year, including the monsoon season, for rivers in Nepal and for the Ganges and Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Rivers draining the

Albert Galy; Christian France-Lanord

1999-01-01

396

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-12-01

397

Paradoxical outcomes in an educational drama about gang rape: ethical responsibilities of practitioners and educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, Backyard Games, about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed by Oded Kotler, at the

Anat Gesser-Edelsburg

2005-01-01

398

An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

2013-01-01

399

Principals' Leadership Behaviors in Gang-Impacted High Schools and Their Effects on Pupil Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…

Schwartz, Audrey J.

400

Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey. OJDP Fact Sheet No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on survey results, it is estimated that, in 2002, youth gangs were active in more than 2,300 cities with a population of 2,500 or more and in more than 550 jurisdictions served by county law enforcement agencies. These results are comparable to those from recent NYGC surveys and provide preliminary evidence that the overall number of…

Egley, Arlen; Major, Aline K.

2004-01-01

401

School Dress Codes v. The First Amendment: Ganging up on Student Attire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do school dress codes written with the specific purpose of limiting individual dress preferences, including dress associated with gangs, infringe on speech freedoms granted by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution? Although the Supreme Court has extended its protection of political speech to nonverbal acts of communication, it has…

Jahn, Karon L.

402

School Dress Code Law in the 90's: "Tinkering" with Fashion and Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…

Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

403

Evaluating a School-Based Gang-Prevention Program: A Theoretical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the Gang Resistance Education and Training Program, developed by the Phoenix (Arizona) police department and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, consisted of pedagogical elements with strong conceptual and operational ties to social learning and self-control theories, and two mainstream criminological theories. (SLD)

Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.; And Others

1996-01-01

404

POLLUTION KNOWLEDGE AND URBAN WATER POLITICS IN THE GANGES RIVER BASIN (INDIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people rely upon the Ganges River as a source of water provision and a site of disposal for sewage, solid waste, agricultural runoff and industrial effluent. The river is also a goddess in the Hindu pantheon who is worshipped for her purificatory powers, despite water quality levels that fall far short of standards for use in bathing, washing,

Sya Buryn Kedzior

2011-01-01

405

Surfacing and diving behaviour of free-ranging Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Present address: Wildlife Trust of India, Noida 401 301, India 3 Present address: GPRS, Zoological Survey of India, Patna 800 016, India Swimming and breathing are the two most important behaviours of cetaceans. Due to the turbid waters of the Ganges, underwater activities of the Ganga river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica in wild condi- tions are difficult to observe.

R. K. Sinha; Samir Kumar Sinha; Gopal Sharma; D. K. Kedi

2010-01-01

406

Generating and forecasting monthly flows of the Ganges river with PAR model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary building techniques and underlying theories of periodic autoregressive (PAR) models are revisited, reviewed, modified and recast. New techniques for generating synthetic data from any PAR model with provision to constrain some parameter values to zero have been proposed. The developed method is applied to the Ganges river for its monthly flow forecasting and generation. The results demonstrate that the

M. Shahjahan Mondal; Saleh A. Wasimi

2006-01-01

407

International water transfer and sharing: the case of the Ganges River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper is concerned with water sharing of the Ganges River between India and Bangladesh, with possible augmentation through water transfers from Nepal. We analyzed the case when water from Nepal can be transferred to Bangladesh through the upstream country, India, as the local geography only permits such water transfer. A game theoretic model is formulated to determine the

ANIK BHADURI; EDWARD B. BARBIER

2008-01-01

408

Chemical and sediment mass transfer in the Yamuna River — A tributary of the Ganges system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum mass transfer, in the Yamuna River takes place during the monsoon season. The sediment load constitutes 58-86% of the total load carried by the river depending upon the sites. Tributaries are chemically more active than the mainstream. The total load of the river seems to be controlled by lithology. At Allahabad, the Yamuna carries 42 × 10 6t dissolved chemical load and 64 × 10 6t sediment load to the Ganges river. The TSM/TDS ratio shows that upstream physical weathering is more dominant than chemical weathering. The negative relation between basin area and total erosion rate and the positive relation between the chemical and sediment erosion in the Yamuna basin is in agreement with the global trend. The average chemical erosion rate (165 t km -2yr -1) of the Yamuna is much higher than that of the Ganges and the Indian average. The total erosion rate (973 t km -2yr -1) is 1.7 times greater than that of the Ganges. Upstream the Yamuna removes 1.04 mm yr -1 of the basin surface; the removal rate decreases downstream to 0.19 mm yr -1 at Allahabad, the point of confluence with the Ganges.

Jha, P. K.; Subramanian, V.; Sitasawad, R.

1988-12-01

409

Environmental geochemistry of the River Gomti: A tributary of the Ganges River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and sediment samples collected from the Gomti River, a tributary of the Ganges River system, during the postmonsoon season have been analyzed to estimate major elemental chemistry. Water chemistry of the River Gomti shows almost monotonous spatial distribution of various chemical species, especially because of uniform presence of alluvium Dun gravels throughout the basin. The river annually transports 0.34×106

L. P. Gupta; V. Subramanian

1994-01-01

410

Generating alternative designs for interjurisdictional natural resource development schemes in the Greater Ganges River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning for the development of regional water resources is often complicated by severe disputes. For example, in the Greater Ganges River basin, there are disagreements between India and Bangladesh over sharing the low river flows during the dry season and over controlling the potentially destructive large river flows during the monsoon. This paper illustrates an approach for providing the two

John T. Quinn; Joseph J. Harrington

1992-01-01

411

Isolation of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the Ganges River.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 was detected among bacteria collected from the Ganges River. O157:H7 isolates tested positive for stx(1), stx(2), and eae gene sequences. Identification of potentially pathogenic isolates from extensively used source water indicates that O157:H7 may be a significant but as yet underacknowledged public health concern in India. PMID:17293524

Hamner, Steve; Broadaway, Susan C; Mishra, Veer Bhadra; Tripathi, Anshuman; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Pulcini, Elinor; Pyle, Barry H; Ford, Timothy E

2007-04-01

412

Isolation of Potentially Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the Ganges River?  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 was detected among bacteria collected from the Ganges River. O157:H7 isolates tested positive for stx1, stx2, and eae gene sequences. Identification of potentially pathogenic isolates from extensively used source water indicates that O157:H7 may be a significant but as yet underacknowledged public health concern in India.

Hamner, Steve; Broadaway, Susan C.; Mishra, Veer Bhadra; Tripathi, Anshuman; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Pulcini, Elinor; Pyle, Barry H.; Ford, Timothy E.

2007-01-01

413

Young mother (in the) hood: gang girls' negotiation of new identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and

Molly Moloney; Geoffrey P. Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler; Kathleen MacKenzie

2011-01-01

414

Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2013-01-01

415

Layer Thickness Determination of the Interior Layered Deposit within Ganges Chasma, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer thicknesses measured over 3 km of stratigraphy on the large ILD within Ganges Chasma indicate that layering is on average 1.26 m thick. These layer thickness measurements are less than similar measurements made on layers in Candor Mensa.

Ismailos, C.; Fueten, F.; Stesky, R.; Flahaut, J.; Rossi, A.; Hauber, E.

2012-03-01

416

Paradoxical Outcomes in an Educational Drama about Gang Rape: Ethical Responsibilities of Practitioners and Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, "Backyard Games", about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed…

Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

2005-01-01

417

Ecology, changes in fisheries, and energy estimates in the middle stretch of the River Ganges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Ganges is the most important of all Indian rivers. It is being harnessed for several onsite and offsite benefits for various sections of society. Through varied man-induced interventions, over the years, the river system has recorded changes in its ecological functions, especially at some stations of the middle stretch viz., Kanpur, Varanasi and Allahabad. An attempt has been

K. K. Vass; R. K. Tyagi; H. P. Singh; V. Pathak

2010-01-01

418

"American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

De Genova, Nicholas

2008-01-01

419

Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

2009-01-01

420

Mineralogic Investigation of Capri/Ganges/Eos Chasmata, Mars: Insights into the Geologic History of Valles Marineris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here detailed analyses of Ganges, Capri, and Eos chasmata (Valles Marineris eastern end) using high-resolution morphologic and mineralogic data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission.

Flahaut, J.; Quantin, C.; Bishop, J. L.; Fueten, F.; Allemand, P.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.

2012-03-01

421

The Effect of Urban Street Gang Densities on Small Area Homicide Incidence in a Large Metropolitan County, 1994–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through\\u000a a process of gun–drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates\\u000a of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure\\u000a to local street gang densities on

Paul L. Robinson; W. John Boscardin; Sheba M. George; Senait Teklehaimanot; Kevin C. Heslin; Ricky N. Bluthenthal

2009-01-01

422

Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program. Research for Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program differs from typical efforts to reduce gang involvement in that the G.R.E.A.T. program does not target at-risk youth but rather targets its classroom-based program at all middle school students. The three main objectives of the 9-hour curriculum taught by uniformed officers are to:…

Esbensen, Finn-Aage

2004-01-01

423

The El Niño southern oscillation and long-range forecasting of flows in the Ganges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have shown that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index has a significant influence on various climatic and hydrologic signals across the globe. This study attempts to identify the nature and strength of possible teleconnections between the Ganges River flow and ENSO, and to develop a model which can capture, at least in part, the natural variability of flow, and provide a large forecasting lead-time. The motivation came from the fact that, in the past, hydrologic forecasts of the basin through rainfall-runoff modelling could provide a lead-time on the order of the basin response time, which is several days or so. Such a short forecasting lead-time is not adequate to hedge against extreme events (flood or drought) in large river basins. This is, perhaps, the first attempt to relate flows in the Ganges with ENSO.Our analysis suggests that a significant relationship exists between the natural variability of the Ganges annual flow and ENSO index. Through further investigation, we show that the rate of change of ENSO index is also statistically related to the Ganges flow. A statistical model that combines all these indicators to forecast annual flow in the Ganges is proposed. This model uses current flow data, predicted ENSO data and its gradient to forecast flow in the Ganges with a forecasting lead-time of 1 year. The model also provides a quantitative measure of forecasting uncertainty. A key advantage of this model is that it does not require rainfall and stream flow information from upstream areas and countries. We have used 45 years of data for model development and calibration, and 15 years of data for validation. It is encouraging to note that all four of the validation forecasts during the El Niño and La Niña events are within the 95% confidence intervals. These results demonstrate the strength of the proposed approach and suggest further exploration of this long-range forecasting methodology for other major rivers in the world.

Whitaker, Douglas W.; Wasimi, Saleh A.; Islam, Shafiqul

2001-01-01

424

Determination of transfer time for sediments in alluvial plains using 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria: The case of the Ganges river system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to deriving the transfer time of sediments within alluvial plains by using the variation of the U-series nuclides in sediments collected along rivers is presented in this article and discussed in the light of new data from samples from different locations within the Ganges watershed and its outlet. These data indicate that the upstream-downstream variation of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in the sediments, with different variation trends for suspended and coarse-grained sediments, is probably a general feature of all Himalayan rivers flowing across the Indo-Gangetic plain. The data therefore confirm the occurrence of very different transfer times within the plain, depending on the sediments granulometry, with much shorter transfer time for the fine-grained (a few ky or less) than for the coarse-grained sediments (100 ky or more). A new solving approach, using a parallel stochastic Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (p-QPSO), has been developed for identifying the unknown parameters of the model necessary for the determination of the transfer time. The data of sediments collected at the Ganges outlet show significant variations of the 234U/230Th activity ratios for the fine-grained sediment end-member collected in 2004 and 2008. Such variations indicate that the fine-grained sediments transit quickly (a year or less) within the plain. The highly variable activity ratios might be the result of quickly changing weathering intensities. Conversely, the U-Th variations observed for the 2004 and 2008 bedload from the Ganges basin cannot result from a short sedimentary transfer time. They probably result from the dredge sampling procedure, which might be influenced by local placer effects controlling the abundance of U and Th carrying minerals. Dredging may not allow the sampling of a representative bedload, hence it may cause an artificial mineralogical and, therefore, an U-Th variability for bedload sediments collected at different periods. At this stage, the transfer time uncertainty induced by this variability is difficult to assess.

Chabaux, François; Blaes, Estelle; Granet, Mathieu; Roupert, Raphaël di Chiara; Stille, Peter

2012-11-01

425

Annual behavioral changes of the Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica) based on the three long-term monitoring seasons using 6hydrophone array system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) belongs to small toothed whale (dolphin) family and inhabits mainly the Ganges river system in India. Like other dolphin species, it uses bio-sonar clicks for echolocation. For understanding the Ganges river dolphin's acoustic behavior over a long-time span, the annual long-term real-time monitoring for 4-6 months in the dry season using 6-hydrophone array system

Harumi Sugimatsu; Junichi Kojima; Tamaki Ura; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera; Vivek Sheel Sagar

2011-01-01

426

Organizational Supporting Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organizations show their support of the objectives of AGU through supporting membership in one of the following dues categories (1989 rates): Sustaining Members ($3600), Contributing Members ($1800), Supporting Members ($600).Such affiliation is the company's public avowal that it is committed to the support of the objectives of the Union and to the fulfilling of the needs of geophysicists.

427

MRI examination of trachea and bronchi in the Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica).  

PubMed

The MRI examination was carried out in a formalin-fixed specimen of the Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica), one of the evolutionary primitive species of cetaceans. We could morphologically elucidate the tracheobronchial ramification in the intact whole body. We demonstrated from the MRI sections that the characteristic tracheal bronchus branches from the trachea at the cranial portion. These findings suggest the phylogenetic relationships between cetaceans and artiodactyls. The left bronchus is obviously larger in diameter than the right one. We suggest that the right bronchus has smaller capacity of gas exchange than the left one, because the dolphin possesses the tracheal bronchus in the right lung. The MRI method will be important in the non-invasive study of the anatomy in endangered animal carcass as Ganges River dolphin. PMID:10563292

Endo, H; Yamagiwa, D; Arishima, K; Yamamoto, M; Sasaki, M; Hayashi, Y; Kamiya, T

1999-10-01

428

“Are we a family or a business?” History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 1987, in pool halls and city parks, high school football games, storefront churches, youth centers, and other sites where police presence was minimal, high-ranking leaders from Chicago’s largest AfricanAmerican street gang ‘‘Nations’’ began meeting to discuss the latest period of change in their respective associations. Adorned in jewelry and expensive designer clothes, and transported in luxury cars, the leaders

Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh; Steven D. Levitt

2000-01-01

429

The Asian factor: Methodological barriers to the study of Asian gangs and organized crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines methodological barriers that confront the study of Asian criminal gangs and organized crime. Researchers\\u000a need to address definitional issues, appreciate the pluralistic nature of Asian communities, incorporate region as a unit\\u000a of analysis, enhance the reliability of interviewees’ responses, and recognize the impact of news media on the public perception\\u000a of Asian crime. A research agenda is

John Huey-Long Song

1996-01-01

430

Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of ganges and Brahmaputra rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected\\u000a stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analysed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni,\\u000a Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial

V. Subramanian; R. Van Grieken; L. Van't Dack

1987-01-01

431

Processes of delta formation in the mouth area of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river delta during the Holocene period is discussed. Particular attention is given\\u000a to the processes of delta formation, the dynamics of the delta hydrographic systems, the channel processes in river branches,\\u000a as well as to the dynamics of the delta coastline and nearshore zone bed over the last 150–200 years. The calculation of

V. N. Mikhailov; M. A. Dotsenko

2007-01-01

432

Beam pattern estimation of clicks of a free-ranging Ganges river dolphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first recordings of bio-sonar clicks of free-ranging Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) were made in Budhabalanga river in Orissa, India. The system used for recording is a 3.2 meter long array composed of three hydrophones forming an equispaced linear SBL array and another two hydrophones in conjunction with the central hydrophone forming a small SSBL triangular array in a

Rajendar Bahl; H. Sugimatsu; J. Kojima; T. Ura; S. Behera; T. Inoue; T. Fukuchi

2007-01-01

433

Dissolved fluoride in the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system in the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolved fluoride (F?) in the Lower Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river system, Bengal basin, Bangladesh, was studied during 1991–1993 to determine\\u000a its distribution and source in the basin, and its annual flux to the Bay of Bengal. The concentration of dissolved F? varied between 2 and 11??mol?l?1 with statistically significant variations both spatially and temporally in the basin. Such variations are

D. K. Datta; L. P. Gupta; V. Subramanian

2000-01-01

434

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and

K. Senthilkumar; K. Kannan; R. K. Sinha; S. Tanabe; J. P. Giesy

1999-01-01

435

Holocene stratigraphy of the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major part of the Holocene Ganges-Brahmaputra delta occupies the southern and southwestern part of Bangladesh with a smaller\\u000a part extending beyond the international boundary in the west. Five facies assemblages are documented in the lower deltaic\\u000a plain in five different depositional environments: levee or levee complex, bil or depression, abandoned meander belt, interdistributary\\u000a plain and estuarine plain. The thickness of

Sirajur Rahman Khan; Badrul Islam

2008-01-01

436

Modern sediment supply to the lower delta plain of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibracores and auger samples collected from the lower (tidal) delta plain of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh were examined to determine whether the area is a significant sink for riverine sediments. Measurements of 137Cs activity and radiocarbon in the sediments indicate sediment accumulation is taking place on decadal and millennial time scales at rates reaching 1.1 cm\\/year. The sediment of

M. A. Allison; E. B. Kepple

2001-01-01

437

Suicide ideation, attempts and abuse among incarcerated gang and nongang delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines suicide ideation and attempts as well as reported levels of physical and sexual abuse among gang and nongang-involved incarcerated youth. The self-report survey data were collected from 334 males and 61 females who were incarcerated in Nevada youth correctional facilities in the summer of 1994. Over half (58.3 percent) of the males and nearly half (45.2

William Evans; Eric Albers; Dan Macari; Alex Mason

1996-01-01

438

Female Gang Affiliation: Knowledge and Perceptions of At-Risk Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to inquire into at-risk female teenagers with regard to their knowledge and perceptions of gang involvement by their peers. Seven youth service–providing organizations in a major southern city participated in a youth survey project. The data collected from the project on at-risk middle school girls (n=216) are analyzed here. Preliminary findings indicate that sexual or physical abuse

John Z. Wang

2000-01-01

439

Friends, status symbols and weapons: the use of dogs by youth groups and youth gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent UK media reports and government responses evidence a rising concern over irresponsible dog ownership, particularly\\u000a the use of so-called status or weapon dogs. Youth criminal and antisocial behaviour using these dogs has been widely reported\\u000a in urban areas and associated with street-based youth groups, in particular, the growing phenomenon of UK youth gangs. This\\u000a article reports on the findings

Jennifer Maher; Harriet Pierpoint

2011-01-01

440

Mineralogy of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers: implications for river switching and Late Quaternary climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary sediments of the Bengal basin contain a history of river switching and climate change as revealed from sand- and clay-size mineralogy of boreholes and modern riverbed grabs. Epidote to garnet ratios (E\\/G) in sand fraction sediments are diagnostic of source, with high (>1) E\\/G indicating Brahmaputra provenance and low (Analysis of mineralogic and stratigraphic data indicates that the

David C. Heroy; Steven A. Kuehl; Steven L. Goodbred

2003-01-01

441

Rich pickings near large communal roosts favor 'gang' foraging by juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax.  

PubMed

Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as 'information centers' regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in 'gangs' and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. PMID:19240813

Dall, Sasha R X; Wright, Jonathan

2009-01-01

442

Stratigraphic evolution of the late Holocene Ganges Brahmaputra lower delta plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh were examined for sedimentological character, clay mineralogy, elemental trends (C, N, S), and 14C geochronology to develop a model for the sedimentary sequence resulting from lower delta plain progradation in the late Holocene. A widespread facies succession from Muddy Sand to Interbedded Mud records progradation of shoal-island complexes and the transition from subtidal to intertidal conditions. Mangrove-vegetated islands and peninsulas represent the final phase of progradation; a Mottled Mud that is deposited by penetration of turbid coastal water into the mangroves during high water events. Organic matter preservation is generally low (<1% TOC) in most of these well-drained deposits that are characterized by a permeable, silt-dominated granulometry. Clay mineralogy in the cores records the relative influence of smectite and kaolinite-rich Ganges sediments and illite and chlorite-rich Brahmaputra material. The lower delta plain west of the modern river mouths was deposited as a Ganges-dominated delta in three phases since 5000 cal years BP, with Brahmaputra influence confined to the Meghna estuary area and to the supratidal section of western delta deposits. Evolution of the lower delta plain in the late Holocene was influenced by regional subsidence patterns in the tectonically active Bengal Basin, which controlled distributary channel avulsion and migration, and the creation of accommodation space.

Allison, M. A.; Khan, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Kuehl, S. A.

2003-02-01

443

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

SciTech Connect

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-07-01

444

Environmental geochemistry of the River Gomti: A tributary of the Ganges River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and sediment samples collected from the Gomti River, a tributary of the Ganges River system, during the postmonsoon season have been analyzed to estimate major elemental chemistry. Water chemistry of the River Gomti shows almost monotonous spatial distribution of various chemical species, especially because of uniform presence of alluvium Dun gravels throughout the basin. The river annually transports 0.34×106 tonnes of total suspended material (TSM) and 3.0×106 tonnes of total dissolved solids (TDS), 69 percent of which is accounted for by bicarbonate ions only. Samples collected downstream of the city of Lucknow show the influence of anthropogenic loadings for a considerable distance in the river water. Na+, Cl-, and SO4 2- concentrations build up downstream. The bed sediment chemistry is dominated by Si (36 percent), reflecting a high percentage of detrital quartz, which makes up about 74 percent of the mineralogy of the bed sediments in the River Gomti. The average Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration (234 ?g/g) indicates indirectly the amount of organic matter in the sediments. The Hg concentration in sediments has been found to be higher (average 904 ppb) than the background value. The suspended sediments are well sorted, very finely skewed, and extremely leptokurtic, indicating a low energy condition of flow in the Gomti River. The influence of chemical loads in the Gomti has been found to be small or nonexistent on the Ganges River, perhaps because the water discharge of the Gomti (1.57 percent) to the Ganges is quite low.

Gupta, L. P.; Subramanian, V.

1994-12-01

445

PSI Member Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

446

Collapsable seal member  

DOEpatents

A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

Sherrell, D.L.

1983-12-08

447

The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

448

Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.  

PubMed

Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

2008-05-01

449

Changes in the Discharge of Major Rivers in the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Yangtze Rivers During the Next 100 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to estimate the behavior of future river discharge in the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Yangtze Rivers, forced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Such determinations are critical in order to determine risk from flooding or droughts in the context of rapidly increasing populations. We concentrate on the hydrological discharge in three major river basins: the Yangtze, the Ganges, and

P. J. Webster; J. Jian

2007-01-01

450

A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the reports of the occurrence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in industrialized nations, information on PFCs in less industrialized countries is meager. In the present study, concentrations and profiles of PFCs were investigated in surface waters (rivers, lakes, coastal seas and untreated sewage; n=42) including the Ganges River water, and biota such as shrimp (n=2), fish (n=28), and Ganges River dolphin

Leo W. Y. Yeung; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Sachi Taniyasu; Paul K. S. Lam; Ravindra K. Sinha; Dnyandev V. Borole; Kurunthachalam Kannan

2009-01-01

451

Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

2009-01-01

452

Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

Rodriguez, Hector

2009-01-01

453

Perfluorinated compounds in surficial sediments of the Ganges River and adjacent Sundarban mangrove wetland, India.  

PubMed

This study reports the first evidence of the quantification of two dominant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanesulfate (PFOS) and perfluorooctannoate (PFOA), in surface sediment samples (0-5 cm; n=13) from the Ganges (Hugli) River including Sundarban wetland, India using HPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFOA exhibited a wide range of concentrations from <0.5 to 14.09 ng/g dry wt, whereas the concentration of PFOS was always below the detection limit of <0.5 ng/g dry wt. A consistent enrichment of PFOA was recorded in all the five sites of Sundarban (mean value 11.61±1.86) whereas it was of moderate concentration or below the detection level in the seven sites along with the lower stretch of the Ganges (Hugli) River estuary (mean value 5.96 ng/g dry wt±5.36). Wastewater and untreated effluents are likely the major causes of accumulation of PFCs in sediments. The present paper could be used as baseline study to assess future monitoring programs of the ecosystem. PMID:23122626

Corsolini, Simonetta; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Guerranti, Cristiana; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Rakshit, Dibyendu; Jonathan, M P; Godhantaraman, Nallamuthu

2012-12-01

454

Natural selection in a bangladeshi population from the cholera-endemic ganges river delta.  

PubMed

As an ancient disease with high fatality, cholera has likely exerted strong selective pressure on affected human populations. We performed a genome-wide study of natural selection in a population from the Ganges River Delta, the historic geographic epicenter of cholera. We identified 305 candidate selected regions using the composite of multiple signals (CMS) method. The regions were enriched for potassium channel genes involved in cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated chloride secretion and for components of the innate immune system involved in nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling. We demonstrate that a number of these strongly selected genes are associated with cholera susceptibility in two separate cohorts. We further identify repeated examples of selection and association in an NF-?B/inflammasome-dependent pathway that is activated in vitro by Vibrio cholerae. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of cholera resistance in a population from the Ganges River Delta and present a promising approach for identifying genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases. PMID:23825302

Karlsson, Elinor K; Harris, Jason B; Tabrizi, Shervin; Rahman, Atiqur; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Patterson, Nick; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Schaffner, Stephen F; Gupta, Sameer; Chowdhury, Fahima; Sheikh, Alaullah; Shin, Ok Sarah; Ellis, Crystal; Becker, Christine E; Stuart, Lynda M; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Sabeti, Pardis C; Larocque, Regina C

2013-07-01

455

Evaluating Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT): Is the Impact the Same as That of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) prevention program at several sites. Findings show a very small effect on children, but as has been the case for the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE), GREAT will continue because of its importance to stakeholders and political symbolism. (SLD)

Palumbo, Dennis J.; Ferguson, Jennifer L.

1995-01-01

456

YIELD RESPONSE OF BORO AND T. AMAN RICE TO NPKS FERTILIZERS IN HIGH GANGES RIVER FLOODPLAIN SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zaman, S. M., Amin, M. R., Choudhury, D. A., Choudhury, R. U. and Hossain, M. I. 2007. Yield Response of Boro and T. aman rice to NPKS Fertilizers in High Ganges River Floodplain Soil. Int. J. Sustain Crop Prod. 1(2): 18-22. The experiment was conducted at farmer's field of Kalaroa under Satkhira district, during three consecutive years of Boro and

S. M. ZAMAN; M. R. AMIN; D. A. CHOUDHURY; R. U. CHOUDHURY

457

Coordination Process by a Third Party in the Conflict Between Bangladesh and India over Regulation of the Ganges River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graph model for conflict resolution is used to formally analyze an ongoing conflict between India and Bangladesh over the regulation of the Ganges River in order to illustrate the crucial role a third party can play in resolving the dispute. Because a third party can assist in resolving a dispute in a variety of ways, a general systems approach

Maiko Sakamoto; Yoshimi Hagihara; Keith W. Hipel

2005-01-01

458

Distribution of suspended sediment in the coastal sea off the Ganges–Brahmaputra River mouth: observation from TM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing technique was applied to estimate suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and to understand transportation, distribution and deposition of suspended sediment in the estuary and throughout the coastal sea, off the Ganges–Brahmaputra River mouth. During low river discharge period, zone of turbidity maximum is inferred in the estuary near the shore. SSC map shows that maximum SSC reaches 1050 mg\\/l

Mohammad Rezwanul Islam; Syeda Fahliza Begum; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Katsuro Ogawa

2002-01-01

459

‘I thought people would be mean and shout.’ Introducing the Hobbema Community Cadet Corps: a response to youth gang involvement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbema, Alberta, Canada is a community comprised of four First Nations. As with many of Canada's Aboriginal communities, Hobbema's population is young. High rates of socio-economic disadvantage, violence, family dysfunction, and substance abuse are linked to colonization, residential school policies, and discrimination. Crime rates, including gang-related crime in the area, are disproportionately high. In 2005 two police officers created the

Jana Grekul; Kim Sanderson

2011-01-01

460

“The Spectacle of Fearsome Acts”: Crime in the Melting P(l)ot in Gangs of New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the multi-layered representations of violence and crime in the recent Hollywood film Gangs of New York [Scorcese (2003) Miramax]. We use our exploration of this film to suggest that popular culture, even through its most mainstream products, can be seen as a critical criminological space where alternative views of law, crime and the state are made available.

Martin O’Brien; Rodanthi Tzanelli; Majid Yar; Sue Penna

2005-01-01

461

Understanding the Psychosocial Characteristics of Gang-Involved Youths in a System of Care: Individual, Family, and System Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 64 gang-involved youth found that they represent all ethnic and gender groups; experience multiple child and family risk factors; present mental health, substance abuse, and academic problems; and often score within clinical ranges on behavioral and emotional indices. Non-Latina females present more internalizing and externalizing…

Wood, Michelle; Furlong, Michael J.; Rosenblatt, Jennifer A.; Robertson, Laurel M.; Scozzari, Frank; Sosna, Todd

1997-01-01

462

Mistakes Board Members Make.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

2001-01-01

463

Cryogenic support member  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a nonmetallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

1986-05-15

464

Phosphorus Distribution in the Sediments of the Hooghly (Ganges) Estuary, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolved reactive phosphorus concentration in the Hooghly Estuary is maintained at a near constant value of 40 ?g l -1. Sediments act as a major sink for the high dissolved phosphate input into the estuary from the Ganges River. The distribution of various forms of P and their association with other sediment components were determined in the Hooghly estuarine sediments. Total P concentration ranges from 250 to 500 ?g g -1 in the surface sediments of the estuary; organic and inorganic P average 35 and 400 ?g g -1 respectively; P bound to Ca is the dominant form of sediment inorganic P (70%) and occluded P constitutes 24%, whereas non-occluded P makes up 6% of inorganic P. Non-occluded and occluded P are strongly correlated with Fe, Al, Mn and the organic matter content in the surficial sediments. There are no significant changes in inorganic and organic P in the top 50-100 cm of the sediment cores.

Vaithiyanathan, P.; Jha, P. K.; Subramanian, V.

1993-12-01

465

Chain Gang  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

466

Contribution à une amélioration de la gestion de l'enherbement dans des systèmes de production à dominance riz dans le terroir de Gang-Léo Baktana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving weed management in rice-based production systems in the Gang\\/Léo Baktana region in Chad. In the Gang-Léo Baktana region in Chad, weed problems cause major losses in agricultural production, sometimes as much as 35%, over and above the socio-economic, technical and biotic (diseases and pests) constraints. The high population density in the region means that rice growers can no longer

Bouré Ouéyé GAOUNA; Samedi ASSANE

467

Life history traits of the Monsoon River prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844) (Palaemonidae) in the Ganges (Padma) River, northwestern Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon River prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844), is one of the dominant benthic species in the Ganges River. Our study describes some biological parameters including sex ratio, length–frequency distributions (LFD), length–weight relationships (LWR), and relative-condition (Kn) factor of M. malcolmsonii in the lower part of the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. A total of 502 specimens of the ranges 3.54–11.76?cm

Jun Ohtomi; Ahmed Jaman; Saleha Jasmine; Robert L. Vadas Jr

2012-01-01

468

Life history traits of the Monsoon River prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844) (Palaemonidae) in the Ganges (Padma) River, northwestern Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon River prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne-Edwards, 1844), is one of the dominant benthic species in the Ganges River. Our study describes some biological parameters including sex ratio, length–frequency distributions (LFD), length–weight relationships (LWR), and relative-condition (Kn) factor of M. malcolmsonii in the lower part of the Ganges River, northwestern Bangladesh. A total of 502 specimens of the ranges 3.54–11.76?cm

Jun Ohtomi; Ahmed Jaman; Saleha Jasmine; Robert L. Vadas Jr

2011-01-01

469

Underwater behavioral study of the Ganges river dolphins based on the first long-term real-time monitoring using the integrated observation system with multiple acoustic arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

For targeting 13 Ganges river dolphins which includes calves from Karnavas to Narora, the world's first long-term real-time monitoring using the integrated observation system that can record the high frequency bio-sonar clicks from the Ganges river dolphins to estimate their 3-D location had been conducted continuously for nearly 6 months from 21st November 2008 to 28th April 2009. The dolphins'

Harumi Sugimatsu; Junichi Kojima; Tamaki Ura; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera; Vivek Sheel Sagar; Bushra Khan

2009-01-01

470

Cross-national study of risky sexual behavior among gang-involved youth in metropolitan Boston and San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conformity to peer norms poses significant risks for adolescent sexual behavior, information is limited on types of gang-related activities that predict risky sexual behavior among gang-involved youth. Using data from Boston (n?=?375) and San Salvador (n?=?207), we compared the two groups on key characteristics and assessed factors associated with risky sexual behaviors. Number of arrests and aggression predicted number

Bipasha Biswas; René Olate; Michael G. Vaughn

2011-01-01

471

Gang Exposure and Pregnancy Incidence among Female Adolescents in San Francisco: Evidence for the Need to Integrate Reproductive Health with Violence Prevention Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a pre- dominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated

A. M. Minnis; J. G. Moore; I. A. Doherty; C. Rodas; C. Auerswald; S. Shiboski; N. S. Padian

2008-01-01

472

Cryogenic support member  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

473

Members of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) peptide family are differentially distributed both between and within the neuroendocrine organs of Cancer crabs: implications for differential release and pleiotropic function.  

PubMed

The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family of peptides includes CHH, moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone (MOIH). In the crab Cancer pagurus, isoforms of these peptides, as well as CHH precursor-related peptide (CPRP), have been identified in the X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) system. Using peptides isolated from the C. pagurus SG, antibodies to each family member and CPRP were generated. These sera were then used to map the distributions and co-localization patterns of these peptides in the neuroendocrine organs of seven Cancer species: Cancer antennarius, Cancer anthonyi, Cancer borealis, Cancer gracilis, Cancer irroratus, Cancer magister and Cancer productus. In addition to the XO-SG, the pericardial organ (PO) and two other neuroendocrine sites contained within the stomatogastric nervous system, the anterior cardiac plexus (ACP) and the anterior commissural organ (ACO), were studied. In all species, the peptides were found to be differentially distributed between the neuroendocrine sites in conserved patterns: i.e. CHH, CPRP, MIH and MOIH in the XO-SG, CHH, CPRP and MOIH in the PO, and MOIH in the ACP (no immunolabeling was found in the ACO). Moreover, in C. productus (and probably in all species), the peptides present in the XO-SG and PO were differentially distributed between the neurons within each of these neuroendocrine organs (e.g. CHH and CPRP in one set of XO somata with MIH and MOIH co-localized in a different set of cell bodies). Taken collectively, the differential distributions of CHH family members and CPRP both between and within the neuroendocrine organs of crabs of the genus Cancer suggests that each of these peptides may be released into the circulatory system in response to varied, tissue-specific cues and that the PO- and/or ACP-derived isoforms may possess functions distinct from those classically ascribed to their release from the SG. PMID:16888072

Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Messinger, Daniel I; Chung, J Sook; Webster, Simon G; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Christie, Andrew E

2006-08-01

474

Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs.  

PubMed

Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents) showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people. PMID:18695808

Facundo, Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

2008-01-01

475

Methyl mercury in fish—a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water\\u000a fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any\\u000a toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and

Moumita Pal; Santinath Ghosh; Madhumita Mukhopadhyay; Mahua Ghosh

476

Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

2013-01-01

477

Ecology of heterotrophic dinitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere of mangrove plant community at the Ganges river estuary in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Heterotrophic dinitrogen fixation in root associations of successional stages of the tropical mangrove plant community at\\u000a the Ganges river estuary in India was investigated by excised-root acetylene reduction assay, and enumeration and identification\\u000a of diazotrophic bacteria from sediment, root and tidal water samples. High to very high rates of nitrogenase activity (64–130\\u000a nmol C2H4\\/g dry root\\/h) were associated with washed

Anjan Sengupta; Subhendu Chaudhuri

1991-01-01

478

An integrated observation system with multiple acoustic arrays for underwater behavioral study of the Ganges river dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have been developing an acoustic observation system that can record the high frequency bio-sonar clicks of the Ganges river dolphins and can estimate their 3-D location in real-time. In order to expand the coverage of the acoustic measurement, a new integrated observation system, which consists of one main array system and the newly developed multiple small array system,

Junichi Kojima; Harumi Sugimatsu; Tamaki Ura; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera; Vivek Sheel Sagar

2011-01-01

479

Estimated beam pattern and echolocation characteristics of clicks recorded from a free-ranging Ganges river dolphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recordings of bio-sonar clicks from a free-ranging Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) in Budhabalanga river in Orissa, India have been made for the first time in April 2006. A high frequency multi-hydrophone 3.2 meter long array composed of three hydrophones forming an equispaced linear array and another two hydrophones in conjunction with the central hydrophone forming a small SSBL triangular

T. Ura; R. Bahl; H. Sugimatsu; J. Kojima; T. Inoue; T. Fukuchi; S. Behera; A. Pattnaik; M. Khan; S. Kar; C. S. Kar

2007-01-01

480

Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.  

PubMed

Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

Jensen, Frants H; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M; Smith, Brian D; Janik, Vincent M; Madsen, Peter T

2013-01-01

481

Low school engagement and sexual behaviors among African American youth: Examining the influences of gender, peer norms, and gang involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether negative peer influences (i.e., norms favoring risky sex and drug use and gang involvement) mediated the relationship between school engagement (i.e., grade point averages [GPAs] obtained from school records and student–teacher connectedness) and sexual behaviors (i.e., sexual début, sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs) among African American high school adolescents, and whether

Dexter R. Voisin; Torsten B. Neilands

2010-01-01

482

Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation-Downscaled from GCM predictors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia-the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of large rural populations linked to subsistence agriculture in the basins. Uncertainty analysis of the downscaled precipitation indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than the uncertainty in the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is suggested for comprehensive impact studies.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

2014-09-01

483

Climate Change Impacts on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Precipitation--Downscaled from GCM Predictors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling GCM projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional analyses by generating specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse, river basins in South Asia--the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used Canadian Center for Climate Modeling version 3.1 (CGCM3.1) predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) re-analysis large-scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcing in the basins. The precipitation of both basins were largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 hPa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 hPa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled projected precipitation with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of rural populations that rely on subsistence agriculture. Analysis indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than that of the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is recommended for comprehensive impact studies.

Pervez, M.; Henebry, G. M.

2013-12-01

484

River avulsions in the presence of tectonic tilting, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bangladesh, the set of active rivers of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta overlie a landscape that is being continually modified by tectonics. The response of rivers to a surface being altered by tectonic tilting or other causes of spatially variable subsidence is generally understood to be a preferred path direction toward regions of higher subsidence. Quantifying the magnitude of the effect of variable subsidence on the timescale and path direction of channel avulsion remains, however, an open question. Recent experimental work has suggested an equilibrium-slope explanation for the timescale and conditions for avulsion, which provides a way forward on understanding how varied subsidence conditions would affect the avulsion process. Here we adapt this model for avulsion to the context of variable subsidence, developing a new framework to quantify its effect on channel avulsions. We find that variable subsidence results in two effects: differing timescales between avulsions on different parts of the delta, and differing frequencies of avulsion to these locations. Regions of higher subsidence both draw avulsions more frequently, and result in longer channel residence times in these locations. We also describe the effect of incision or aggradation due to sea level changes within this framework: incisional events lengthen avulsion timescales everywhere on the delta, while periods of sea-level rise drive the timescales back toward their minimum values. Finally, we apply this theory to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, where we use a map of regional variable subsidence that we derived from GPS and published stratigraphic data, to predict the variation in avulsion timescale and frequency for the Brahmaputra River due to this variable subsidence. We make estimates for two different tectonic history interpretations, and for the cases with or without the estimated incision from the most recent sea-level fall. Comparison between our predictions and our stratigraphy-derived estimates of avulsion timescale shows encouraging consistency. The work presented here represents the first quantitative, general framework for the influence of variable tectonics or subsidence on large-scale nodal avulsion timescale and path direction.

Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Williams, L. A.

2013-12-01

485

Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved ?+? core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger  

PubMed Central

Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2_DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfito­bacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23_SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63_THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like ?+? core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed ?-sheet flanked by several ?-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2_DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure of Q9HJ63_THEAC is atypical for a treble-cleft zinc finger in that three Cys side chains and an Asp side chain are within coordination distance of the zinc.

Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

2010-01-01

486

Air pollution modeling over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal in the early post-monsoon season using the NASA GEOS-5 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges basin is characterized by a significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation. This has resulted in increased anthropogenic emissions and declining air quality. The NASA GEOS-5 model was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol components (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, desert dust, and sea-salt). The model includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. The obtained eight-year (2002 - 2009) MERRA-driven aerosol dataset (MERRAero) was applied to study AOT and its trends over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; lower cloud fraction compared to the monsoon season; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mm/month. In the early post-monsoon season (October), modeled data showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the north-west of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions due to higher population density, increased industrial output and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the north-west of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and north-west BoB, AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation, but mainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Air pollution modeling allowed us to determine aerosol species responsible for the increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB: aerosols were dominated by anthropogenic air pollution, such as sulfates and carbon aerosols. In October 2009, the vertically integrated aerosol mass flux over north-west BoB was maximal, while monthly mean wind was minimal. This indicates accumulating aerosol particles over north-west BoB. The wind convergence over north-west BoB was also maximal in October 2009. Therefore, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux is sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation.

Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

2014-05-01

487

The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

2014-05-01

488

Hydrogeochemistry and arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Geochemical composition and the level of Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, southwestern Bangladesh were elucidated. Hydrogeochemical data of tube well samples suggested that the groundwater is mostly Ca-Mg-HCO(3) type with bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) as the dominant anion, though other type waters are also observed. In contrast, the elevated EC, Cl(-) and high content of Na(+) relative to Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+) in six groundwater samples suggest their saline origin. Low concentrations of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), HCO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) indicate the reducing conditions of subsurface aquifer where sediments are deposited with abundant organic matter. The total As concentration in the analyzed samples is very high (0.0431-1.352 mg/L) along with high Fe (2.791-17.058 mg/L) and relatively low Mn (0.134-1.972 mg/L) at different depths. Distinct relationship of As with Fe and Mn, and strong correlation with DOC suggests that the biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxide is considered to be the dominant processes to release As in aquifers. Moreover, negative correlation between As and SO(4)(2-) demonstrates the As may not be directly mobilized from sulfide minerals like arsenopyrite. PMID:18977593

Halim, M A; Majumder, R K; Nessa, S A; Hiroshiro, Y; Uddin, M J; Shimada, J; Jinno, K

2009-05-30

489

Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Ganges river (India)  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine(OC) insecticides have been extensively used in India since 1954 in agriculture as well as public health sector. The use of OCs which are banned or restricted in most developed countries are still being used in this country. The major factors responsible for detrimental effects on the environment from use of these chemicals are that they are very persistent, extremely toxic to fish, used more as preventive measures rather than cure in controlling insects and some of them were found to biomagnify in organisms. Their accumulation about 26 mg DDT in their body through food items. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic compounds but may also be synthesized by some bacteria, algae and plants. PAHs are on the USEPA and EC priority pollutants list since some PAHs are known or suspected carcinogens/mutagens. In surface waters, they are known to be strongly adsorbed on sediment clays and other particles while their degradation in sediment also occur. Therefore, during low stream flow, fluvial materials settle down and may contain concentrations of OCs and PAHs. Hence, it is necessary to include sediment in the determination of organic contaminants in surface waters. This paper refers to a monitoring programme for screening the OCs and PAHs concentrations in the Ganges river sediments. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Ahmad, S.; Ajmal, M. [A.M.U., Aligarh (India)] [A.M.U., Aligarh (India); Nomani, A.A.

1996-12-31

490

The gang of four gene regulates growth and patterning of the developing Drosophila eye  

PubMed Central

We report here the identification of a novel complementation group in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster named gang of four (gfr). Mutations in gfr disrupt patterns of cell differentiation in the eye and increase eye size through a proliferative mechanism that can be enhanced by a block in apoptosis. gfr mutant cells show several features of deregulated Ras/MAP kinase activity, including reduced expression of the Capicua growth suppressing transcription factor and synthetically lethality with alleles of the Jun N-terminal kinase phosphatase puckered. gfr alleles also upreguate Notch activity in the eye. Thus, gfr alleles appear to elicit growth and patterning phenotypes via effects on multiple signaling pathways. Moreover, the gfr alleles behave as gain-of-function lesions and overexpress the gene, bruno-3 (bru-3), which is located at the genomic region to which gfr lesions map. Genetic reduction of bru-3 suppresses phenotypes caused by gfr alleles, and like gfr alleles, overexpression of bru-3 depresses levels of Cic protein, indicating that overexpression of bru-3 is central to gfr mutant phenotypes.

Beam, Carolyn K.; Moberg, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

491

Bullies, gangs, drugs, and school: understanding the overlap and the role of ethnicity and urbanicity.  

PubMed

Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as youth ethnicity, urbanicity, and school characteristics, also has been overlooked in previous research. The current study examined different subtypes of involvement in bullying-as primarily a victim, as primarily a bully, as both a victim and bully, and no involvement-and the association with significant health-risk behaviors, including engaging in violence and substance use, as well as academic problems. The analyses use self-report data from 16,302 adolescents (50.3 % female, 62.2 % Caucasian, 37.8 % African American) enrolled in 52 high schools. A series of three-level HLM analyses revealed that bullies and bully/victims were generally at greatest of risk of being involved in violence, engaging in multiple types of substance use, and having academic problems. These findings extend prior research by emphasizing a potential link between involvement in bullying and multiple health-risk behaviors, particularly among urban and African American high school youth. PMID:23180070

Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2013-02-01

492

Lay REC members: patient or public?  

PubMed

In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice. PMID:23536688

Staley, Kristina

2013-12-01

493

Green and blue water accounting in the Ganges and Nile basins: Implications for food and agricultural policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryMost food globally is produced from soil moisture that comes exclusively from precipitation, or "green" water. Moreover, most of the water reaching plants in irrigated systems also stems from precipitation. Despite this, irrigation or "blue" water has typically been the focus for policy analysis in the past, given the possibility for human manipulation of these resources. This paper analyzes alternative water futures using a combined green and blue water accounting framework embedded within the water simulation components of IFPRI's International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Recently developed future scenarios for the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) and other work are assessed with this adjusted green/blue water accounting framework. Accounting explicitly for green water resources broadens the scope of options for decision-makers trying to improve agricultural production in the face of rising food and energy prices and a degrading water and land resource base in the face of increasing demands. Results highlight the importance of green/blue water accounting presenting a wider range of agricultural science and technology policy options for increasing global crop productivity across a span of potential futures.

Sulser, Timothy B.; Ringler, Claudia; Zhu, Tingju; Msangi, Siwa; Bryan, Elizabeth; Rosegrant, Mark W.

2010-04-01

494

Air pollution over the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal in the early postmonsoon season based on NASA MERRAero data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation but mainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

Kishcha, Pavel; Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

2014-02-01

495

The provenance of vegetation and environmental signatures encoded in vascular plant biomarkers carried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter carried by rivers and deposited in continental and marine sediments contains valuable information on past environmental conditions and their impact on the terrestrial biosphere. In order to use sedimentary records to reconstruct past environmental conditions on the continents, such as vegetation cover and type, or precipitation intensity, we need to understand the provenance of the organic signatures and how they are transferred, and potentially modified, by fluvial transport to the sedimentary reservoir. In particular, we need to understand how environmental conditions are imprinted in the composition of riverine particulate organic carbon. Here we investigate the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of vascular plant leaf wax biomarkers in the modern-day Ganges and Brahmaputra river complex, one of the largest fluvial systems on Earth. The distribution of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in Ganges-Brahmaputra river sediments suggests that vascular plant inputs are consistently a significant component of the organic carbon pool. Molecular ? 13C measurements reveal that C 3 vegetation inputs delivered by the Himalayan rivers are partly degraded and replaced by mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation input in the floodplain. The hydrogen isotopic composition of long-chain (C 24+) n-alkanoic acids, in combination with their stable C isotopic composition, provides constraints on the isotopic composition of the environmental water used by higher plants within the drainage basin. Calculated compositions compare well with the depleted ?D isotopic ratios of the river water during the summer monsoon, suggesting that H-isotopic compositions of long-chain alkanoic acids are a valuable proxy for the composition of summer monsoon moisture in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Detailed studies of the "isotopic anatomy" of modern river systems are critical for informed interpretation of marine sedimentary records in river-influenced continental margins.

Galy, Valier; Eglinton, Timothy; France-Lanord, Christian; Sylva, Sean

2011-04-01

496

Response of the Ganges dispersal system to climate change: a source-to-sink view since the last interstade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forcing of sediment dispersal systems by climate is widely accepted, but our understanding of source-to-sink responses remains limited. Here, a comprehensive overview of climate impacts on the Ganges River dispersal-system is provided since the last interstade. Evidence from multiple source-to-sink components reveals major, coeval responses to variation in the South Asian monsoon. At >3000 km from its mountain headwaters to deep-sea fan, the Ganges dispersal system is immense and yet shows tight coupling between source area, catchment basin, and coastal and marine depocenters. Furthermore, sedimentary signals appear to propogate through the entire system at least as fast as our current chronological resolution of 1-2 kyr. This tight linkage of source-to-sink components is considered a function of the southwest (summer) monsoon's overwhelming control on regional hydrology. About 80% of the Ganges discharge and 95% of its sediment load are delivered to the margin during only four months, making the system extremely sensitive to this seasonal forcing. Also, the regional scale and distribution of the monsoon weather system means that changes in atmospheric circulation affect the entire drainage basin rather than local subcomponents. Finally, despite its present intensity, strength of the summer monsoon has varied significantly over the past 150 kyr under orbitally driven changes in insolation and global (glacial) boundary conditions. The resulting changes in precipitation, both well above and below modern values, have forced responses of glacier advance/retreat, riverine alluviation/incision, and varying sediment fluxes to the margin and deep-sea fan. Overall conclusions are that (1) this immense dispersal system responds to multimillennial-scale (<104 yr) climate change in a system-wide and largely contemporaneous manner and (2) that major sedimentary signals can be transferred rapidly from source to sink with little apparent attenuation. Furthermore, these acute responses to climate change have produced sedimentary/stratigraphic features that diverge from traditional sequence models in their nature and timing.

Goodbred, S. L.

2003-12-01

497

Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.  

PubMed

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin. PMID:12833986

Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

2003-06-01

498

Model study of the impacts of future climate change on the hydrology of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity, duration, and geographic extent of floods in Bangladesh mostly depend on the combined influences of three river systems, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM). In addition, climate change is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins and might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on basin-scale hydrology by using well-constrained hydrologic modelling has rarely been conducted for GBM basins due to the lack of data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a macro-scale hydrologic model H08 has been applied regionally over the basin at a relatively fine grid resolution (10 km) by integrating the fine-resolution (~0.5 km) DEM data for accurate river networks delineation. The model has been calibrated via analyzing model parameter sensitivity and validated based on a long-term observed daily streamflow data. The impact of climate change on not only the runoff, but also the basin-scale hydrology including evapotranspiration, soil moisture and net radiation have been assessed in this study through three time-slice experiments; present-day (1979-2003), near-future (2015-2039) and far-future (2075-2099) periods. Results shows that, by the end of 21st century (a) the entire GBM basin is projected to be warmed by ~3°C (b) the changes of mean precipitation are projected to be +14.0, +10.4, and +15.2%, and the changes of mean runoff to be +14, +15, and +18% in the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna basin respectively (c) evapotranspiration is predicted to increase significantly for the entire GBM basins (Brahmaputra: +14.4%, Ganges: +9.4%, Meghna: +8.8%) due to increased net radiation (Brahmaputra: +6%, Ganges: +5.9%, Meghna: +3.3%) as well as warmer air temperature. Changes of hydrologic variables will be larger in dry season (November-April) than that in wet season (May-October). Amongst three basins, Meghna shows the largest hydrological response which indicates higher possibility of flood occurrence in this basin. The uncertainty due to the specification of key model parameters in predicting hydrologic quantities, has also been analysed explicitly in this study and found that the uncertainty in estimation of runoff, evapotranspiration and net radiation is relatively less. However, the uncertainty in estimation of soil moisture is quite large (coefficient of variation ranges from 11 to 33% for three basins). It is significant in land use management, agriculture in particular and highlights the necessity of physical observation of soil moisture.

Masood, M.; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Hanasaki, N.; Takeuchi, K.

2014-06-01

499

Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the river. Pilgrimage areas without adequate waste treatment are possible "hot spots" for AR transmission, and waste treatment must be improved to reduce broader AR dissemination via exposed returning visitors. PMID:24521347

Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W