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1

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: RIDING GANG MEMBER REQUIREMENTS (OCT 2010)...

2011-10-01

2

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2013-10-01

3

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2012-10-01

4

Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

5

Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

2012-01-01

6

The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

2002-01-01

7

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth Mackenzie, and Larry  

E-print Network

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Workloads Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth-purpose multiprocessors usu- ally include both compute-bound parallel jobs, which often require gang scheduling, as well as I/O-bound jobs, which require high CPU priority for the individual gang members of the job in order

Feitelson, Dror

8

"Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

9

Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…

Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

2012-01-01

10

Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among former patients. These efforts should be continued and complemented by funding support from the Salvadoran government for DAT centers that obtain certification. In addition, tailored/alternative treatment modalities are needed for gang members in treatment for heavy drinking. PMID:23734635

2013-01-01

11

THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS  

PubMed Central

While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

2009-01-01

12

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman and Dror G. Feitelson, Senior Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman and Dror G. Feitelson, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Conventional gang scheduling has the disadvantage that when processes perform I/O or blocking communication, their processors remain idle because alternative processes cannot be run independently of their own gangs

Wiseman, Yair

13

Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

2006-01-01

14

Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

2011-01-01

15

Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

2010-01-01

16

Bismarckian Transformations in Contemporary Nicaragua? From Gang Member to Drug Dealer to Legal Entrepreneur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a detailed life history of Bismarck, a Nicaraguan youth gang member turned illegal drug dealer turned legal entrepreneur, this paper explores the potential relationships between formal and informal economic activity. It focuses particularly on the various economic activities that he has been involved in at different stages in his life, tracing their origins and evolving dynamics in order to

Dennis Rodgers

2009-01-01

17

Gallo's BodyDecoration and Damnation in the Life of a Chicano Gang Member  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent body marking both reinforces and challenges existing social divisions. Looking at the life of a Chicano tattoo artist, this article presents an analysis of tattoo as self-damnation. For gang members and prisoners, layers of tattoos evince personal experience and social history alike. While they are tools of empowerment, individuality, and livelihood, tattoos also represent oppression and exclusion from the

Susan A. Phillips

2001-01-01

18

Predictors of violence and delinquency among high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low future orientation, low empathy, educational difficulty, school expulsion, delinquent peers, gang membership, and low social support were found to be significant risk factors for violence and delinquency among a sample (N = 174) of high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador.

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2012-01-01

19

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Workloads Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth Mackenzie, and Larry Rudolph  

E-print Network

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Workloads Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth compute-bound parallel jobs, which often require gang scheduling, and I/O-bound jobs, which require high multiprocessor scheduler must weigh both the benefits and costs of gang scheduling when deciding how to allocate

Frank, Matthew I.

20

"Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

2011-01-01

21

Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

22

Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

23

Age, Social Context, and Street Gang Membership: Are "Youth" Gangs Becoming "Adult" Gangs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the extent to which street gangs in Los Angeles (California) are comprised of youth or adults, self-report data from 435 gang members are examined. Findings do not generally support the idea of the aging gang member. Gangs consist primarily of adolescents, regardless of racial and socioeconomic differences. (SLD)

Lasley, James R.

1992-01-01

24

Gangs and Girls in the 'Hood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers to commonly asked questions about female gang members. Girls typically join gangs at age 14 to 15. If given alternatives, females will often leave gangs sooner than males. Female gang members are respected, and see themselves as strong, committed soldiers. Includes "Myths about Females in Gangs" and suggestions for additional readings.…

Garland, Richard

1996-01-01

25

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

26

Resource Brief: Gangs. Inquiry Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…

Johnston, Howard

2013-01-01

27

Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

US Government Accountability Office, 2009

2009-01-01

28

Female Gang Delinquency: A Search for "Acceptably Deviant Behavior"  

E-print Network

This paper explores tile forms of female gang delinquency through an analysis of ambiguous deviance norms operating within the gang structure. Caught within competing behavioral norms, female gang members are forced to "fine tune" their deviant...

Swart, William J.

1991-01-01

29

Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,550…

Egley, Jr., Arlen; O'Donnell, Christina E.

2009-01-01

30

The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

2007-01-01

31

Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-01-01

32

National Youth Gang Survey, 1998. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary provides results from the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, administered to a representative sample of city and county police and sheriff's departments nationwide. Results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs decreased from 51 percent in 1997 to 48 percent in 1998. About 780,200 gang members were…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

33

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs  

PubMed Central

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

2010-01-01

34

Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

2008-01-01

35

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and victimization); "Delinquency and…

Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

36

Gang violence.  

PubMed

During childhood and adolescence, the formation of groups or gangs is a normal part of the growing process. Playmates, school friends, Boy and Girl Scout troops are each examples of the natural inclination to form group attachments that provide a stable social outlet. However, gangs, as we now know them, are part of the pathological process brought on by the inability to disassociate from adolescent groupings, and more frightening, the result of infiltration by criminal elements, such as drug dealers, who exert violent influence on impressionable youngsters, particularly in major urban areas. The transition of gangs from innocent to deadly is due in large part to society's failure to respond to the environment that causes their pathology. In order to reverse the process, society must engage in programs that reinforce the gang or group experience as a positive one by incorporating adult supervision and mentoring as essential elements. PMID:7795033

Sigler, R T

1995-01-01

37

Coping with Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to coping with street gangs is aimed at the young person who may be considering gang membership or who is afraid of gang violence. Understanding gangs leads to the ability to cope with the problems they pose. Part I explores "What Gangs Are," explaining characteristics of gangs and why young people join them. It is essential that…

Webb, Margot

38

Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004

Akiyama, Cliff

2015-01-01

39

The Girls in the Gang. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the role of female gangs and the part women play in those that are predominantly male and provides an account of how these people came to accept casual killings, fire bombings, and the warfare and violence of the streets. It focuses on female gang members by setting out their stories as biographies and accounts of relationships…

Campbell, Anne

40

Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

2007-01-01

41

On Alert! Gang Prevention. School In-Service Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for gang awareness and prevention in the California school system. It is based on the belief that inservice training programs help school staff recognize early signs of gang activity, a necessary step to intervention. Following the introduction, chapter 1 offers descriptive information on gangs and their members,…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

42

The Black Hole Gang  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Black Hole Gang Web site is authored by fifth grade teacher Stephen Kramer and illustrated by Richard Torrey. The main page of the site contains pictures of the five members of the gang, which, when clicked, bring up another scene with the character in a room with various objects such as a rock collection, map, chemistry set, poster of Albert Einstein, telescope, and other science related items. Once an item is chosen, students read a brief description of it and can explore a variety of informational material and links relating to it. Although some of the pages only contain one link to an outside source, the design of the site is good at getting the attention of students and will hopefully spark an interest in them to continue learning.

1998-01-01

43

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2014-02-01

44

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean (IO) dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins respectively) precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline respectively) precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr), precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agricultural sector due to its reliance of consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole models, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

2014-01-01

45

Self-definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant disagreement among researchers as to the appropriate concep- tual and operational definitions of gang membership. One of the key issues involves the validity of allowing respondents to identify themselves as gang members. This re- search examines the construct validity of gang membership by examining the relation- ship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquent involvement.

BETH BJERREGAARD

2002-01-01

46

Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

47

Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

2005-01-01

48

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2015-01-01

49

Ganges Landslides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

50

Ganges Landslide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide

Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2006-01-01

51

Gender and Gang Membership: A Contrast of Rural and Urban Youth on Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…

Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

2003-01-01

52

Gang Research.Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted and maintained by John Hagedorn, a professor of criminal justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago, this site provides information about the nature of gangs around the United States, with a particular emphasis on gangs in Chicago. The prime objective of the site is "to dispel stereotypes and present research, original documents, and helpful links." The site is divided into three main sections, including information on globalization, Chicago gangs, and gang research. There are several compelling primary documents on the site, including transcriptions of interviews and presentations from current and former gang leaders from Chicago. Also, there is a chronology detailing the history of one of the most infamous African-American gangs in Chicago, the Blackstone Rangers. The site will be of great interest to those studying the nature of gangs in the United States and particularly to those interested in the evolution of gangs in Chicago over the past century.

53

Gangs and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the…

Arthur, Richard; Erickson, Edsel

54

Urban Street Gang Enforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

55

Gang zag rten  

E-print Network

Gang zag rten Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshe 'dzin tells a folktale named Gang zag rten. Gang zag rten was a holy man who married a herdswoman. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Folktale Name...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-17

56

Moving beyond the gang–drug–violence connection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members’ lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members’ lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members’ lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future. PMID:24049247

Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P.

2013-01-01

57

Preventing Youths from Joining Gangs: How to Apply Inoculation Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years, gang prevalence, the number of gang members nationwide, and the seriousness of their impact on society, particularly schools, have increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to analyze Inoculation Theory, a process by which attitude transformation can be resisted during social interactions that involve persuasive messages designed to change existing attitudes, and to promote

Gerald-Mark Breen; Jonathan Matusitz

2008-01-01

58

Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2010-01-01

59

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs

Huff, C. Ronald

60

Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive individual and social behaviors were assessed among male gang members and males involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. Correlations of attribute scores were more often significant for the gang than for the nongang youth. Approximately one-quarter of the gang youth had total positive…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Pamela M.

2003-01-01

61

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

2002-01-01

62

The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

Duran, Robert J.

2009-01-01

63

Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization  

PubMed Central

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

Sanders, Bill

2014-01-01

64

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

65

Concurrent Gang: Towards a Flexible and Scalable Gang Scheduler  

E-print Network

Concurrent Gang: Towards a Flexible and Scalable Gang Scheduler Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1.S.A. isaac@ics.uci.edu x Abstract--- Gang scheduling has been widely used as a practical solution on a partition of a parallel com­ puter. Gang Scheduling has many advantages, such as responsiveness, efficient

Scherson, Isaac D.

66

Gulabi Gang (2012) Enter the badlands of Bundelkhand in central India and you have entered a place of  

E-print Network

Gulabi Gang (2012) Enter the badlands of Bundelkhand in central India and you have entered a place of desolation, dust and despair. This film follows the Gulabi Gang, an unusual group of rural women led against them to protect the perpetrators of violence. While we see Gulabi Gang members struggling against

Brierley, Andrew

67

Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2003-01-01

68

Educational Implications of Affiliation Factors Existent among Members of Senior Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 100 members of senior citizen centers was interviewed to determine educational implications of affiliation phenomenon. A modified semantic differential technique was used to determine the rank ordering of four affiliation factors. The results showed that members tend to affiliate with groups primarily to gather new information. (Author)

Sadowski, Bernard Stanley; Schill, William John

1979-01-01

69

Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

2004-01-01

70

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman  

E-print Network

Paired Gang Scheduling£ Yair Wiseman� School of CS & Engineering Hebrew University and Dept Hebrew University Jerusalem Israel feit@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract Conventional gang scheduling has alternative processes cannot be run independently of their own gangs. To alleviate this problem we suggest

Feitelson, Dror

71

Ganges Sedimentary Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

2004-01-01

72

Youth Gangs and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

2007-01-01

73

California Prison Gang Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs, in…

Cummins, Eric

74

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

2011-01-01

75

Ganges River Delta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image of the Ganges River Delta in Bangladesh was acquired by the Landsat- 7 satellite on February 28, 2000. It's a false-color composite image made using green, blue and near infrared wavelengths, provided by the USGS, EROS Data Center. The Ganges River forms an impressive and extensive area of distributaries where it empties into the Bay of Bengal after moving across India. This delta is referred to as the Sunderbans and is home to approximately 120 million people. It's routinely flooded during cyclones and monsoonal rains. Because its inhabitant are so poor and the delta is so densely populated, even when flood and storm warnings are issued, each year thousands of people lose their lives as a result of floods. Note the sediment (milky blue color) flowing from the delta into the Bay of Bengal.

Observatory, Nasa E.; Day, Earth S.

76

Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

77

The Global Impact of Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American study of gangs can no longer start and stop with local conditions but today must also be rooted in a global context. Studying gangs is important because of unprecedented world urbanization, the retreat of the state under the pressure of neoliberal policies, the strengthening of cultural resistance identities, including fundamentalist religion, nationalism, and hip-hop culture, the valorization of

John M. Hagedorn

2005-01-01

78

Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

79

Ganges Rocks and Sand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

2005-01-01

80

Gang crime and its punishment in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from an inmate survey in Tianjin, China this study examines selected characteristics of youth gangs, gang crime, and official punishment in contemporary China, and compares them to those commonly reported in the United States. The findings indicate that the organizational level of Chinese youth gangs is low, that the age distribution of offenders committing gang-related crime increases rapidly

Xiaogang Deng; Steven F. Messner; Zhou Lu

1997-01-01

81

Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

82

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS Xiao-Gang Wen  

E-print Network

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS Xiao-Gang Wen 1. Electric and Magnetic Charges in Superstring Models Xiao-Gang Xiao-Gang Wen and E. Witten Phys. Lett. 166B, 397 (1986) 3. Nonperturbative Effect on String World Sheet M. Dine, N. Seiberg, Xiao-Gang Wen and E. Witten Nucl. Phys. B278, 769 (1986) 4. Nonperturbative

Wen, Xiao-Gang

83

The Sandhouse Gang presents.... John W. (Jack) Barriger  

E-print Network

as the TRANSCON) was shut down in the vicinity of Kansas City by extremely heavy rainfall in the Kansas River (KAW Lower Level ­ Ruan Conference Center Santa Fe's 1951 Kansas City Flood Sandhouse Gang member, Jack Barriger, will provide insights into the 1951 Kansas City flood and how the Santa Fe dealt

Bustamante, Fabián E.

84

Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

2014-01-01

85

Ganges Chasma Landslide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 01 April 2002) This image shows a spectacular landslide along a portion of the southern wall of Ganges Chasma within Valles Marineris. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff is layered, with spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. Below the steep scarp is a smoother, steep slope of material with small, narrow tongues of debris that have eroded off of the escarpment since the landslide occurred (a talus slope). The actual landslide deposit, visible in the upper half of this image, shows striations that form by differences in the side-by-side motion during high velocity emplacement. This immense landslide traveled some 70 km at speeds that probably exceeded 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour) before coming to rest, forming abrupt, terminal fronts (upper right corner of image). Even at these high speeds, this massive landslide was moving for nearly an hour before it came to rest.

2002-01-01

86

Do the Himalaya Export Air Pollutants from the Ganges Basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges Basin in South Asia ranks close to Eastern China in both population and air pollutant emissions. During the winter-spring dry season it often experiences a similar "atmospheric brown cloud" haze layer of aerosols and trace gases. Global model results, however, have suggested that the Ganges Basin's contribution to long distance pollution transport is significantly less than that of Eastern China. The assumption is that, for much of the dry season, the Ganges Basin experiences a large-scale inversion that suppresses vertical mixing of pollutants into the jet stream aloft. Yet both observations at high-altitude stations (such as the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid station located at 5079 meters above sea level near Everest Base Camp) and vertically resolved satellite data show significant pollution levels at high altitudes over the Himalaya, which line the northern edge of the Ganges Basin. Using the WRF model at resolutions as high as 1 km, along with photography over the Himalaya, we present several mechanisms by which pollutants from the boundary layer over the Ganges Basin can be transported vertically by Himalaya meteorology to heights where they can mix into the jetstream and be exported long distances. These mechanisms are closely tied to the shape of the topography and operate at scales of less than a few kilometers while global model grid spacing typically exceeds 100 km. We attempt to sum up the total contribution to pollutant export by the entire Himalaya region, and discuss the implications for both air quality over the Ganges Basin and global atmospheric chemistry and climate.

Panday, A.; Fiore, A.; Horowitz, L.; Levy, H.

2009-04-01

87

Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

2001-01-01

88

Groundwater Flow in the Ganges Delta  

E-print Network

Groundwater Flow in the Ganges Delta Basu et al. (1) reported that 2 1011 m3 /year of groundwater groundwater than in Ganges-Brahmaputra river water. The flow could also have impli- cations for the origin and fate of other groundwater constituents in the Ganges delta that could be flushed by such rapid regional

Entekhabi, Dara

89

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang

Howell, James C.

90

Youth Gangs in the Print Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular image of youth gangs is largely dependent on law enforcement data and subsequent media reinforcement of these data in the popular press. Recent research on youth gangs, however, calls into question the accuracy of these portrayals. In spite of an ever-increasing body of research that contradicts the popular stereotype of gangs, the media perpetuates this inaccuracy. In a

Finn-Aage Esbensen; Karin E. Tusinski

2007-01-01

91

Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs

Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

2005-01-01

92

Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

White, Rob

2009-01-01

93

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling  

E-print Network

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling Dror G. Feitelson1 and Morris A. Jette is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice overall system utilization and responsiveness. Em- pirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T

Feitelson, Dror

94

Building Inside/Studio Gang  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exhibition from the Art Institute of Chicago (AIC) takes visitors inside the working process of Studio Gang Architects. Founded by Jeanne Gang in 1997, Studio Gang is the creative force behind projects inspired by the city of Chicago, such as the Aqua Tower, an 82-story, ÃÂàmulti-use high-rise with a hotel, apartments, condominiums, parking, offices, and one of Chicagoâ≢s largest green roofs. Also in the exhibition is an unbuilt concept for an apartment complex in India: Hyderabad Tellapur 02, that "transforms the traditional Indian courtyard house into a new porous building type that serves a much larger-scale...development." The porousness is a system of cracks that provide cross ventilation for individual apartments, without air conditioning. The web exhibition concludes with a short video of the installation of the show at AIC.

2012-09-24

95

Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

96

Odyssey/Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These Mars Odyssey images show layered deposits located on the floor of Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris canyon system, in both infrared (left) and visible (right) wavelengths. The images were acquired simultaneously by the thermal emission imaging system on March 17, 2002. The box shows where the visible image is located within the infrared image. The infrared image displays variations in surface temperature where bright tones indicate warmer surfaces and dark tones are cooler ones. Dramatic layering can be seen throughout the central deposit in both the infrared and visible images. Different styles of erosion are shown in these different layers, suggesting that Mars was subject to changing environments during its history. The infrared image has a resolution of 100 meters (328 feet) per pixel and is 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide. The visible image has a resolution of 18 meters per pixel and is approximately 18 kilometers (11 miles) wide. Pixel brightness in the infrared image is controlled by the temperature of the surface, which is in turn depend on how much Sun the area gets. Hence, dark units will heat up during the day and appear bright in the infrared. Conversely, visibly bright areas will not heat up as much and will appear dark in the infrared image. The images are centered at 7.1 degrees south latitude and 310.4 degrees east longitude.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

97

Highly efficient gang scheduling implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and more highly efficient gang scheduling implementation technique is the basis for this paper. Network preemption,in which network interface contexts are saved and restored, has already been proposed to enable parallel applications to perform efficent user-level communication. This network preemption technique can be used to for detecting global state, such as deadlock, of a parallel program execution. A

Atsushi Hori; Hiroshi Tezuka; Yutaka Ishikawa

1998-01-01

98

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Jobs that do not require all processors in the system can bepacked together for gang scheduling. We examine accounting traces fromseveral parallel computers to show that indeed many jobs have small sizesand can be packed together. We then formulate a number of such packingalgorithms, and evaluate their effectiveness using simulations based onour workload study. The results are that two

Dror G. Feitelson

1996-01-01

99

How community members and health professionals conceptualize medical emergencies: implications for primary care promotion.  

PubMed

Access to continuous care through a primary care provider is associated with improved health outcomes, but many communities rely on emergency departments (EDs) for both emergent and non-emergent health problems. This article describes one portion of a community-based participatory research project and investigates the type of education that might be needed as part of a larger intervention to encourage use of a local primary care clinic. In this article we examine how people who live in a low-income urban community and the healthcare workers who serve them conceptualize 'emergency medical condition'. We conducted forum and focus group discussions with 52 community members and individual interviews with 32 healthcare workers. Our findings indicate that while community members share a common general definition of what constitutes a medical emergency, they also desire better guidelines for how to assess health problems as requiring emergency versus primary care. Pain, uncertainty and anxiety tend to influence their choice to use EDs rather than availability of primary care. Implications for increasing primary care use are discussed. PMID:22907536

Wilkin, Holley A; Tannebaum, Michael A; Cohen, Elizabeth L; Leslie, Travie; Williams, Nora; Haley, Leon L

2012-12-01

100

Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

101

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

2012-01-01

102

Improving Gang Scheduling through Job Performance Analysis and Malleability  

E-print Network

Improving Gang Scheduling through Job Performance Analysis and Malleability Julita Corbalan, Xavier present two new approaches to attack the two main problems of Gang Scheduling: the excessive number slot of Gang Scheduling to distribute processors among applications considering their efficiency

Corbalan, Julita

103

Ganged series potentiometer mixer networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ganged potentiometer with the interesting property of a constant 10k ohm or greater series impedance for all rotations of the shaft was rediscovered. The device provided a versatile passive mixer circuit when used with most signal sources and can be used as a variable series input summing resistor in operational amplifier networks. The potentiometer gave simple solutions to missing problems with a single control knob.

Burhans, R. W.

1974-01-01

104

Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

105

Gender and Gangs: A Quantitative Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research and theory about female gang involvement remain scarce. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addresses whether males and females differ in risk factors associated with gang membership (e.g., community characteristics, parent-child relationships, associations with deviant friends). Integrating theory…

Bell, Kerryn E.

2009-01-01

106

Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

2013-01-01

107

THE LINGUISTIC CONSTRUCTION OF YOUTH GANG VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

THE LINGUISTIC CONSTRUCTION OF YOUTH GANG VIOLENCE: TALK ABOUT THE MARA SALVATRUCHA AND THE MARA 18 OF EL SALVADOR AND GUATEMALA MARCH 4TH 12-1PM Wean Hall Conference Room 4625 Lunch talk with Prof during that period, reveal a diversity of stances and ideological positions on gang membership

Andrews, Peter B.

108

The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

109

Improving Throughput and Utilization in Parallel Machines Through Concurrent Gang  

E-print Network

Improving Throughput and Utilization in Parallel Machines Through Concurrent Gang Fabricio Alves Gang, that combines the advan­ tages of gang scheduling for communication and synchro­ nization. Besides that, scalability in Concurrent Gang is achieved through the use of a global synchronizer

Scherson, Isaac D.

110

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations #3; Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson School of Computer parallel jobs is gang scheduling [10, 5]. The idea is to map the threads of a parallel job to distinct studies find gang schedul­ ing to be very efficient. A major drawback of current implementations of gang

Wiseman, Yair

111

An Economic Analysis Of A Drug-Selling Gang'S Finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a unique data set detailing the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang to analyze gang economics. On average, earnings in the gang are somewhat above the legitimate labor market alternative. The enormous risks of drug selling, however, more than offset this small wage premium. Compensation within the gang is highly skewed, and the prospect of future riches,

Steven D. Levitt; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

2000-01-01

112

Policing Minority Street Corner Gangs in Singapore: A View from the Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the evolution and manifestation of the Social Disciplinary model of policing in Singapore, a model which eschews concern for both legal and factual guilt, concentrating instead on the task of subjugating sections of society who are viewed as 'anti-police'. We argue that understanding the experiences of minority gang members as recipients of such policing has to be

N. Ganapathy; Lian Kwen Fee

2002-01-01

113

Geometry Analysis Numerics Graphics (GANG) Pre-print series 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry Analysis Numerics Graphics (GANG), an interdisciplinary differential geometry research team at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, has posted pre-prints from its team members. Although this page is not new (the pre-prints were posted during 1999-2000), a variety of research results can be found here. The abstracts are in HTML format, and the full text must be downloaded in .ps format. Examples of article titles from the most recent pre-print series (5): "From microscopic interactions to macroscopic laws of cluster evolution," "New constant mean curvature trinoids," and "Periodic discrete conformal maps."

114

48. Molekulare Analyse des dorsal-Gens bei der Honigbiene (Apis mellifera). GangGang  

E-print Network

48. Molekulare Analyse des dorsal-Gens bei der Honigbiene (Apis mellifera). GangGang Chena Xiang vor. Obwohl der Apis-Embryo ebenso wie der von Dro- sophila zum Typus Langkeim gehört, sind in der-Gradienten bei Arthropoden erweitern könnte. Wir versuchten, das Apis- dorsal-Gen zu klonieren. Mit Hilfe dege

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose.  

PubMed

Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene -based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with (13) C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our (13) C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry-in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The (13) C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

2014-04-01

116

Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose  

PubMed Central

Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene-based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with 13C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our 13C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry–in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The 13C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

2014-01-01

117

FINITE MAXIMAL TORI GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR.  

E-print Network

FINITE MAXIMAL TORI GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR. To Nolan Wallach, with respect, admiration, and the second author in part by NSF grant DMS-0967272. 1 #12;2 GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR. Unfortunately

Vogan, David

118

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN  

E-print Network

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN Abstract. In [26] the authors STREETS AND GANG TIAN certain entropy functional. Finally, we discuss some applications of our conjectural

Streets, Jeff

119

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN  

E-print Network

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN Abstract. In [8] the authors with torsion given by a closed Date: August 16, 2010. 1 #12;2 JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN three-form, namely

Streets, Jeff

120

El astrologo y el Emperador del Ganges1 Nota preliminar  

E-print Network

El astr´ologo y el Emperador del Ganges1 Nota preliminar El explorador y aventurero Sir Richard~nos las Actas de las audiencias del Emperador del Ganges, pero apenas logr´o recopilar algunos de los comunicante: Las audiencias del Emperador del Ganges eran re- gistradas en Actas, con todo lujo de detalles

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

121

IndIa'sHoly Ganges River Aboard Bengal Ganga  

E-print Network

IndIa'sHoly Ganges River KolKata to Varanasi Aboard Bengal Ganga KolKata to Varanasi Aboard Bengal riverboat to ply the Ganges-Hooghly Waterway between Kolkata and Varanasi in more than 100 years. Explore challenges. deaR PRIncetonIan, F rom its source high in the mighty Himalayas, the Ganges River (Mother Ganga

Rowley, Clarence W.

122

An Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Multiprogrammed Parallel Computing Environments  

E-print Network

An Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Multiprogrammed Parallel Computing Environments Mark S­8285 fwang­fang,papaefthymiou­mariosg@cs.yale.edu Abstract Gang scheduling is a resource management scheme and analyze a queueing theoretic model for a general gang scheduling scheme that forms the basis of a multipro

Papaefthymiou, Marios

123

Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

2006-01-01

124

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling Dror G. Feitelson Institute of Computer Science The Hebrew that do not require all processors in the system can be packed together for gang scheduling. We examine, proved to be counterproductive. The buddy system approach depends on the capability to gang-schedule jobs

Feitelson, Dror

125

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson Institute of Computer determines when and on which nodes a job will be executed. One way of scheduling parallel jobs is gang run simultaneously makes it possible for them to synchronize with each other [10]. The price of gang

Feitelson, Dror

126

Reconfigurable Gang Scheduling Algorithm Lus Fabrcio Wanderley Ges1  

E-print Network

Reconfigurable Gang Scheduling Algorithm Luís Fabrício Wanderley Góes1 , Carlos Augusto Paiva da {capsm@pucminas.br} Abstract Using a single traditional gang scheduling algorithm cannot provide the best the performance of a Reconfigurable Gang Scheduling Algorithm (RGSA) using simulation. The RGSA uses combinations

Feitelson, Dror

127

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming  

E-print Network

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming Fang Wang 1. In this paper we explore the performance of various aspects of gang scheduling designs. We developed an event­driven simulator of a vanilla gang scheduler that relies on the Distributed Hierarchical Control (DHC) structure

Papaefthymiou, Marios

128

Response Time Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Real Time Systems  

E-print Network

Response Time Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Real Time Systems Fabrício A. B. Silva, Ernesto P investigates the application of gang scheduling-based algorithms for real time systems that contain multiple processors. We derive the worst-case response time analysis for gang scheduling with and without machine

Cirne, Walfredo

129

Gang Migration of Virtual Machines using Cluster-wide Deduplication  

E-print Network

Gang Migration of Virtual Machines using Cluster-wide Deduplication Umesh Deshpande, Brandon}@binghamton.edu Abstract--Gang migration refers to the simultaneous live migration of multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) from failures. Gang migration generates a large volume of network traffic and can overload the core network

Gopalan, Kartik

130

Gang Scheduling Performance Bene ts for Fine-Grain Synchronization  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling Performance Bene#12;ts for Fine-Grain Synchronization Dror G. Feitelson #3; Larry policies. A promising new idea is gang scheduling, where a set of threads are scheduled to execute, without the risk of waiting for a thread that currently is not running. Without gang scheduling, threads

Newhall, Tia

131

Gang Scheduling with Lightweight User-Level Communication Eitan Frachtenberg,  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling with Lightweight User-Level Communication Eitan Frachtenberg, ¡ Fabrizio Petrini,fabrizio,scoll, feng}@lanl.gov Abstract In this paper, we explore the performance of gang scheduling on a cluster using of processes, timeslice quantum, and multiprogramming lev- els. Our experiments show that the gang scheduler

132

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming  

E-print Network

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming Fang Wang1. In this paper we explore the performance of various aspects of gang scheduling designs. We developed an event-driven simulator of a vanilla gang scheduler that relies on the Distributed Hierarchical Control (DHC) structure

Feitelson, Dror

133

Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-10-01

134

Gangs as contractors: the social organization of American Taiwanese youth gangs in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the organizational structure and operations of Taiwanese organized crime and youth gangs in Southern California.\\u000a In-depth interviews were used as the principle method of research. In contrast to transnational criminal conspiracy claims\\u000a and the La Cosa Nostra model of vertically integrated organizations, our findings suggest that these criminal groups consist of discrete local Taiwanese\\u000a youth gangs which

Kay Kei-ho Pih; Akihiko Hirose; KuoRay Mao

2010-01-01

135

Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK. PMID:23429263

Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

2013-01-01

136

Caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in Alzheimer disease research: implications for recruitment and retention.  

PubMed

Current levels of participation in Alzheimer disease (AD) research are inadequate, particularly among nonwhites. This study was conducted to examine caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in AD research. Six focus group interviews were conducted with 38 white and 12 African-American caregivers of participants enrolled in clinical research projects. Both white and African-American families participated in research to help their care recipients and future generations, receive support from the clinical and research staff, and obtain feedback about patient status and research results. Among white caregivers, primary barriers to participation in research included the potential for no direct benefit, problems with the procedures and tests involved, lack of time and resources, and difficulty accepting the diagnosis. Among African-American caregivers, primary barriers included general skepticism about the research process and firmly established attitudes about medical treatment and help seeking that serve as disincentives to research participation. To maximize the perceived benefits of research participation, potential participants should have access to regular personal contact with staff, information about health status changes in the care recipient, and the short-term and long-term results of the research studies in which they are participants. In addition, researchers should be sensitive to the concerns that may serve as barriers to participation, particularly among African Americans. PMID:11522931

Connell, C M; Shaw, B A; Holmes, S B; Foster, N L

2001-01-01

137

Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

1986-01-01

138

Forecast Combination With Outlier Protection Gang Chenga,  

E-print Network

Forecast Combination With Outlier Protection Gang Chenga, , Yuhong Yanga,1 a313 Ford Hall, 224 Church St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 Abstract Numerous forecast combination schemes with distinct on combining forecasts with minimizing the occurrence of forecast outliers in mind. An unnoticed phenomenon

Yuhong, Yang

139

Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

Howell, James C.

2010-01-01

140

Are There Gangs in Schools?: It Depends upon Whom You Ask  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…

Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.

2006-01-01

141

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Peter Strazdins*  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Cluster Peter Strazdins* and John Uhlmann & Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf 1 1 Outline · introductory concepts for gang and local scheduling of Local & Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf 2 2 Gang and Local Scheduling; Introductory Concepts · run time

Strazdins, Peter

142

Central American maras: from youth street gangs to transnational protection rackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the empirical research on Central American street gangs, called maras, has been published only in Spanish. Reviewing that literature, the American scholarship on gangs, and my own research on Central American gangs from the mid-1990s, this article depicts the processes through which the maras (Mara Salvatrucha and the Eighteenth Street Gang) evolved from youth street gangs in the

José Miguel Cruz

2010-01-01

143

A possible structural model of members of the CPF family of cuticular proteins implicating binding to components other than chitin.  

PubMed

The physical properties of cuticle are determined by the structure of its two major components, cuticular proteins (CPs) and chitin, and, also, by their interactions. A common consensus region (extended R&R Consensus) found in the majority of cuticular proteins, the CPRs, binds to chitin. Previous work established that beta-pleated sheet predominates in the Consensus region and we proposed that it is responsible for the formation of helicoidal cuticle. Remote sequence similarity between CPRs and a lipocalin, bovine plasma retinol binding protein (RBP), led us to suggest an antiparallel beta-sheet half-barrel structure as the basic folding motif of the R&R Consensus. There are several other families of cuticular proteins. One of the best defined is CPF. Its four members in Anopheles gambiae are expressed during the early stages of either pharate pupal or pharate adult development, suggesting that the proteins contribute to the outer regions of the cuticle, the epi- and/or exo-cuticle. These proteins did not bind to chitin in the same assay used successfully for CPRs. Although CPFs are distinct in sequence from CPRs, the same lipocalin could also be used to derive homology models for one A. gambiae and one Drosophila melanogaster CPF. For the CPFs, the basic folding motif predicted is an eight-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet, full-barrel structure. Possible implications of this structure are discussed and docking experiments were carried out with one possible Drosophila ligand, 7(Z),11(Z)-heptacosadiene. PMID:20417215

Papandreou, Nikos C; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Willis, Judith H; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

2010-10-01

144

Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control Dror G, Israel Abstract Gang scheduling | the scheduling of a number of related threads to execute simultaneously, gang scheduling can leave processors idleifthe sizes ofthe gangsdo not matchthe

Feitelson, Dror

145

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicingschemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknownimpact on the future: should a job be scheduled,risking that it will block other larger jobs later,or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipationof future arrivals? This dilemma is solvedby using gang scheduling, because then the impact ofeach decision is limited to its time slice,

Dror G. Feitelson; Morris A. Jette

1997-01-01

146

Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

2012-12-01

147

Gang Identity or Self-Expression? Researchers Look beyond the Surface of "Gang Clothing" and Appearance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that included observations and interviews in street and school settings throughout California and in selected cities nationwide documented the changing nature of gang identity within the broader context of street style and adolescent expression. Suggests that targeting student behavior, as opposed to style of clothing, would be more…

Hethorn, Janet

1994-01-01

148

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

149

Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

Sanders, Bill

2012-01-01

150

Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

2011-01-01

151

Satzung der Johann Wolf-gang Goethe-Universitt  

E-print Network

Satzung der Johann Wolf- gang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main für das Verfahren in zulassungs- schulischen Leistungen, die über die Eignung für den gewählten Studien- gang besonderen Auf- schluss geben

Mester, Rudolf

152

Youth Violence: Gangs on Main Street, USA. Issues in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report profiles the issue of youth violence: the history of its appearance in U.S. culture, the recent escalation of gang activity in U.S. communities, and the strategies put forth in smaller cities to meet this challenge. The report notes that there has been an explosion of gang violence in the United States that has been fostered by a…

Hamner, Carole J.

153

Social Network Intelligence Analysis to Combat Street Gang Violence  

E-print Network

In this paper we introduce the Organization, Relationship, and Contact Analyzer (ORCA) that is designed to aide intelligence analysis for law enforcement operations against violent street gangs. ORCA is designed to address several police analytical needs concerning street gangs using new techniques in social network analysis. Specifically, it can determine "degree of membership" for individuals who do not admit to membership in a street gang, quickly identify sets of influential individuals (under the tipping model), and identify criminal ecosystems by decomposing gangs into sub-groups. We describe this software and the design decisions considered in building an intelligence analysis tool created specifically for countering violent street gangs as well as provide results based on conducting analysis on real-world police data provided by a major American metropolitan police department who is partnering with us and currently deploying this system for real-world use.

Paulo, Damon; Markow, Tanya; Martin, Michael; Shakarian, Paulo

2013-01-01

154

Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

Jette, M.A.

1998-03-01

155

The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian…

Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-01-01

156

Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2002-01-01

157

2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

158

Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang Involvement among African American and Hispanic Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female minority students at an urban alternative high school completed interviews regarding perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement. Peer pressure was the largest influence on female gang involvement. Respondents believed girls might turn to gangs for protection from neighborhood crime, abusive families, and other gangs. Lack of…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

2001-01-01

159

Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang

Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

160

U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

Tapia, Mike

2011-01-01

161

Improvements in Parallel Job Scheduling Using Gang Service Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Improvements in Parallel Job Scheduling Using Gang Service Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 of California, Irvine CA 92697, U.S.A Abstract Gang scheduling has been widely used as a practical solution we propose a class of scheduling policies, dubbed Concurrent Gang, that is a generalization of gang

Scherson, Isaac D.

162

Live Gang Migration of Virtual Machines Umesh Deshpande, Xiaoshuang Wang, and, Kartik Gopalan  

E-print Network

Live Gang Migration of Virtual Machines Umesh Deshpande, Xiaoshuang Wang, and, Kartik Gopalan VMs as live gang migration. Cluster administrators may often need to perform live gang migration that our prototype for live gang mi- gration can achieve significant reductions in both network traffic

Gopalan, Kartik

163

Overhead Analysis of Preemptive Gang Atsushi Hori1, Hiroshi Tezuka1, Yutaka Ishikawa1  

E-print Network

Overhead Analysis of Preemptive Gang Scheduling Atsushi Hori1, Hiroshi Tezuka1, Yutaka Ishikawa1,tezuka,ishikawag@rwcp.or.jp Abstract. A preemptive gang scheduler is developed and evaluated. The gang scheduler, called SCore user processes are gang-scheduled, communica- tion messages are rst ushed, then the messages

Feitelson, Dror

164

Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

2014-01-01

165

Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

Richards, Maurice V.

2010-01-01

166

Integrating seepage heterogeneity with the use of ganged seepage meters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Rosenberry, D.O.

2005-01-01

167

Diagenesis and fracture development in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin; implications for reservoir quality in the middle member  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The middle member of the Bakken Formation is an attractive petroleum exploration target in the deeper part of the Williston Basin because it is favorably positioned with respect to source and seal units. Progressive rates of burial and minor uplift and erosion of this member led to a stable thermal regime and, consequently, minor variations in diagenesis across much of the basin. The simple diagenetic history recorded in sandstones and siltstones in the middle member can, in part, be attributed to the closed, low-permeability nature of the Bakken petroleum system during most of its burial history. Most diagenesis ceased in the middle member when oil entered the sandstones and siltstones in the Late Cretaceous. Most oil in the Bakken Formation resides in open, horizontal fractures in the middle member. Core analysis reveals that sandstones and siltstones associated with thick mature shales typically have a greater density of fractures than sandstones and siltstones associated with thin mature shales. Fractures were caused by superlithostatic pressures that formed in response to increased fluid volumes in the source rocks during hydrocarbon generation

Pitman, Janet K.; Price, Leigh C.; LeFever, Julie A.

2001-01-01

168

Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

2011-10-01

169

The Enemy Within: The Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Moral Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

When there is a period devoid of sensationalistic biker news, the public’s concern about outlaw bikers can be quite low. All\\u000a it takes is one overt act of violence to heighten the public’s fear of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs are\\u000a the most current “dangerous class” which have been the subject of a moral panic in Canada. Outlaw Motorcycle

Karen Katz

170

Positive selection, molecular recombination structure and phylogenetic reconstruction of members of the family Tombusviridae: Implication in virus taxonomy  

PubMed Central

A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31? algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher’s Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed. PMID:22215970

Boulila, Moncef

2011-01-01

171

Paleomagnetism of the early Archean Marble Bar Chert Member, Pilbara craton, Western Australia: Implication for Archean geomagnetic reversals and Paleogeography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted Paleomagnetic study on the early Archean rocks in Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The Pilbara craton is the one of the best exposed and complete record during Archean evolution of the Earth. Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) had drilled a continuous 250 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation in north-eastern part of the Pilbara craton. This drilling was essential to obtain the fresh samples from below the influence of intense weathering. Lithofacies of the core are divided into basalt/dolerite and various colored chert named the Marble Bar Chert Member. The Marble Bar Chert Member, dated between 3463 to 3454 Ma (Thorpe et al., 1992), is a world famous early Archean unit with little metamorphism. Initial magnetic measurements of the whole core revealed that the black or red layers in the Marble Bar Chert Member display strong Natural Remanence Magnetization. Petrographic observations revealed that the black and red layers are preserving the primary structure of sedimentation. Hematite, magnetite, and siderite were separately precipitated as primary minerals. Rock magnetic analysis indicates an existence of the large amount of magnetite associated with minor amount of hematite. Through the thermal demagnetization, we had found that the remanent magnetizations define two components: (1) a mid-temperature (<450° C) component; (2) a high-temperature component (450 to 575° C) with stable decay going to origin. This results indicate that the main magnetic carrier of remanence likely to be magnetite, which is consistent with petrologic and rock magnetic analysis. Characteristics Remanent Magnetization directions of the 2nd component are put on nearly opposite side of the hemisphere. The polarity transition from normal to reverse recorded in continuous stratigraphic section. Petrologic, rock magnetic, and paleomagnetic analysis suggested that the Marble Bar Chert Member is probably preserving the primary magnetization. This result may suggest that the geomagnetic field has reversed at 3.46 Ga, which is the oldest observed geomagnetic reversal. The previous oldest geomagnetic reversal was reported from the Kaap Valley pluton of South Africa at 3.2 Ga (Layer et al., 1996). Our result is at least 260 m.y. older than that reported geomagnetic reversal. We also present a new paleomagnetic pole at 3.5 Ga and argue the APWP and paleogeography before 1.7 Ga. In contrast to the paleomagnetic poles from McElhinny and Senanayake (1980), our paleomagnetic pole is located in southern hemisphere, near the other poles about 2.7 Ga. Therefore, two possibilities should be considered: (1) our paleomagnetic pole is over print, which might be recorded about 2.7 Ga; (2) our paleomagnetic pole is primary, and recording the geomagnetic filed at 3.5 Ga.

Suganuma, Y.; Niitsuma, S.; Hoashi, M.; Hamano, Y.; Niitsuma, N.; Hisamitsu, T.; Kodama, K.; Nedachi, M.

2004-12-01

172

The Medicago truncatula sucrose transporter family: characterization and implication of key members in carbon partitioning towards arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

We identified de novo sucrose transporter (SUT) genes involved in long-distance transport of sucrose from photosynthetic source leaves towards sink organs in the model leguminous species Medicago truncatula. The identification and functional analysis of sugar transporters provide key information on mechanisms that underlie carbon partitioning in plant-microorganism interactions. In that way, full-length sequences of the M. truncatula SUT (MtSUT) family were retrieved and biochemical characterization of MtSUT members was performed by heterologous expression in yeast. The MtSUT family now comprises six genes which distribute among Dicotyledonous clades. MtSUT1-1 and MtSUT4-1 are key members in regard to their expression profiles in source leaves and sink roots and were characterized as functional H(+)/sucrose transporters. Physiological and molecular responses to phosphorus supply and inoculation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices was studied by gene expression and sugar quantification analyses. Sucrose represents the main sugar transport form in M. truncatula and the expression profiles of MtSUT1-1, MtSUT2, and MtSUT4-1 highlight a fine-tuning regulation for beneficial sugar fluxes towards the fungal symbiont. Taken together, these results suggest distinct functions for proteins from the SUT1, SUT2, and SUT4 clades in plant and in biotrophic interactions. PMID:22930732

Doidy, Joan; van Tuinen, Diederik; Lamotte, Olivier; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Wipf, Daniel

2012-11-01

173

JOINTLY RECOGNIZING MULTI-SPEAKER CONVERSATIONS Gang Ji and Jeff Bilmes  

E-print Network

JOINTLY RECOGNIZING MULTI-SPEAKER CONVERSATIONS Gang Ji and Jeff Bilmes Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, Washington, USA {gang,bilmes}@ee.washington.edu ABSTRACT We

Noble, William Stafford

174

UNIVERSALITY IN MEAN CURVATURE FLOW NECKPINCHES ZHOU GANG AND DAN KNOPF  

E-print Network

UNIVERSALITY IN MEAN CURVATURE FLOW NECKPINCHES ZHOU GANG AND DAN KNOPF Abstract. We study for support in DMS-1308985. DK thanks NSF for support in DMS-1205270. 1 #12;2 ZHOU GANG AND DAN KNOPF One says

Knopf, Dan

175

Thermal contact resistance across nanoscale silicon dioxide and silicon Jie Chen, Gang Zhang, and Baowen Li  

E-print Network

Thermal contact resistance across nanoscale silicon dioxide and silicon interface Jie Chen, Gang://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Thermal contact resistance across nanoscale silicon dioxide and silicon interface Jie Chen,1 Gang

Li, Baowen

176

Ellis, Erle. C., Rong Gang Li, Lin Zhang Yang, and Xu Cheng. 2000. Nitrogen and the  

E-print Network

Ellis, Erle. C., Rong Gang Li, Lin Zhang Yang, and Xu Cheng. 2000. Nitrogen and the sustainable Strategies. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. #12;Nitrogen and the Sustainable Village Erle C. Ellis, Rong Gang Li

Ellis, Erle C.

177

A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang That Sold College Degrees, Hijacked an  

E-print Network

A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang That Sold College Degrees, Hijacked an Embassy, and Bought, be a bystander. --Yehuda Bauer © 2012 George Gollin #12;2 George Gollin A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang

Gollin, George

178

Isotope geochemistry of Jeongok basalts, northernmost South Korea: Implications for the enriched mantle end-member component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Korea separates two mantle source domains for Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in East Asia: depleted mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) mantle-enriched mantle type 1 (DMM-EM1) in the north and DMM-EM2 in the south. We determined geochemical compositions, including Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopes for the Jeongok trachybasalts (?0.51 to 0.15 Ma K-Ar ages) from northernmost South Korea, to better constrain the origin and distribution of the enriched mantle components. The Jeongok basalts exhibit light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns ([La/Yb]N = 9.2-11.6). The (La/Yb)N ratios are lower than that of typical oceanic island basalt (OIB). On a primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element plot, the Jeongok samples show OIB-like enrichment in highly incompatible elements. However, they are depleted in moderately incompatible elements (e.g., La, Nd, Zr, Hf, etc.) compared with the OIB and exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb. These anomalies are also prime characteristics of the Wudalianchi basalts, extreme EM1 end-member volcanics in northeast China. We have compared the geochemistry of the Jeongok basalts with those of available Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanic rocks from East Asia (from north to south, Wudalianchi, Mt. Baekdu and Baengnyeong for DMM-EM1, and Jeju for DMM-EM2). The mantle source for the Jeongok volcanics contains an EM1 component. The contribution of the EM1 component to East Asian volcanism increases toward the north, from Baengnyeong through Jeongok to Mt. Baekdu and finally to Wudalianchi. Modeling of trace element data suggests that the Jeongok basalts may have been generated by mixing of a Wudalianchi-like melt (EM1 end-member) and a melt that originated from a depleted mantle source, with some addition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Jeongok area. In Nd-Hf isotope space, the most enriched EM1-component-bearing Jeongok sample shows elevation of 176Hf/177Hf at a given 143Nd/144Nd compared with OIB. Recycled pelagic sediments may explain the EM1-end-member component of northeastern Asian volcanism, possibly from the mantle transition zone.

Choi, Hyun-Ok; Choi, Sung Hi; Yu, Yongjae

2014-09-01

179

Molecular heterogeneity in the choroid plexus epithelium: the 22-member ?-protocadherin family is differentially expressed, apically localized, and implicated in CSF regulation.  

PubMed

The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium develops from the ependyma that lines the ventricular system, and plays a critical role in the development and function of the brain. In addition to being the primary site of CSF production, the CP maintains the blood-CSF barrier via apical tight junctions between epithelial cells. Here we show that the 22-member ?-protocadherin (?-Pcdh) family of cell adhesion molecules, which we have implicated previously in synaptogenesis and neuronal survival, is highly expressed by both CP epithelial and ependymal cells, in which ?-Pcdh protein localization is, surprisingly, tightly restricted to the apical membrane. Multi-label immunostaining demonstrates that ?-Pcdhs are excluded from tight junctions, basolateral adherens junctions, and apical cilia tufts. RT-PCR analysis indicates that, as a whole, the CP expresses most members of the Pcdh-? gene family. Immunostaining using novel monoclonal antibodies specific for single ?-Pcdh proteins shows that individual epithelial cells differ in their apically localized ?-Pcdh repertoire. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-? locus in the choroid plexus and ependyma leads to significant reductions in ventricular volume, without obvious disruptions of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Together, these results suggest an unsuspected role for the ?-Pcdhs in CSF production and demonstrate a surprising molecular heterogeneity in the CP epithelium. PMID:22092001

Lobas, Mark A; Helsper, Lindsey; Vernon, Claire G; Schreiner, Dietmar; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J; Thedens, Daniel R; Weiner, Joshua A

2012-03-01

180

Childhood Risk Factors for Adolescent Gang Membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents who join gangs are more frequently involved in serious delinquency com - pared with those who do not, yet few studies have conducted a prospective examina - tion of risk factors for gang membership. The present study uses longitudinal data to predict gang membership in adolescence from factors measured in childhood. Data were from the Seattle Social Development Project,

KARL G. HILL; JAMES C. HOWELL; J. DAVID HAWKINS; SARA R. BATTIN-PEARSON

1999-01-01

181

Developmental Influences and Gang Awareness among African-American Inner City Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 489 African American first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade students examined children's knowledge of gangs. Findings indicated that students are well aware of gang activities in their neighborhoods and can readily name the groups present in their inner-city environment. Students' awareness of gangs increases with age and may represent a…

Cadwallader, Tom W.; Cairns, Robert B.

2002-01-01

182

The Impact of Job Memory Requirements on Gang-Scheduling Performance  

E-print Network

The Impact of Job Memory Requirements on Gang-Scheduling Performance Sanjeev Setia Computer Science,vkng@watson.ibm.com Abstract Almost all previous research on gang-scheduling has ig- nored the impact of real job memory memory require- ments on the performance of gang-scheduling policies. We rst present an analysis

Jiang, Song

183

Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang

Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

2007-01-01

184

Implementation of Gang-Scheduling on Workstation Cluster Atsushi Hori, Hiroshi Tezuka, Yutaka Ishikawa,  

E-print Network

Implementation of Gang-Scheduling on Workstation Cluster Atsushi Hori, Hiroshi Tezuka, Yutaka for parallel pro- grams and gang-scheduling on a workstation cluster. In this paper, we report the techniques used to imple- ment gang-scheduling on a workstation cluster and the problems we faced. The most

Feitelson, Dror

185

Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey. OJJDP Fact Sheet. FS-200601  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…

Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.

2006-01-01

186

The E ect of Correlating Quantum Allocation and Job Size for Gang Scheduling ?  

E-print Network

The E ect of Correlating Quantum Allocation and Job Size for Gang Scheduling ? Gaurav Ghare Scott T,leutg@cs.du.edu Abstract. Gang scheduling is an e ective scheduling policy for multi- processing workloads with signi cant has generalized and re ned the coscheduling (now often called gang scheduling) concept 5,6,8,9,11, 14

Feitelson, Dror

187

Analytics for Gang Scheduling Railway tracks wear down and thus need to be constantly maintained.  

E-print Network

Analytics for Gang Scheduling PROBLEM Railway tracks wear down and thus need to be constantly maintained. Groups of maintenance workers, called gangs, are responsible for such maintenance tasks. Throughout a year, a gang works for a few days on a particular track section and then relocates to another

Bustamante, Fabián E.

188

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang , Antony Yang , Anand-located with the file blocks it needs. Gang scheduling (GS), which is used in supercomputing centers to schedule that gang scheduling delivers poor performance towards workloads with high I/O in- tensities (I/O ratio

Feitelson, Dror

189

GAnGS: Gather, Authenticate 'n Group Securely Chia-Hsin Owen Chen  

E-print Network

GAnGS: Gather, Authenticate 'n Group Securely Chia-Hsin Owen Chen , Chung-Wei Chen , Cynthia Kuo in a scalable, secure, and easy to use fashion. In this paper, we propose GAnGS, a protocol for the se- cure exchange of authenticated information among a group of people. In contrast to prior work, GAnGS resists

Xu, Wenyuan

190

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS YU  

E-print Network

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION SCHEMES TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS CRG on Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis. Gang Xie's research was supported, Georgi Medvedev, and Mark Levi for discussions on dynamical systems. 1 #12;2 TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE

Yu, Thomas P.-Y.

191

Resource Allocation Schemes for Gang Scheduling School of Computing and Mathematics  

E-print Network

Resource Allocation Schemes for Gang Scheduling B. B. Zhou School of Computing and Mathematics 0200, Australia Oxford OX1 3QD, UK Abstract Gang scheduling is currently the most popular scheduling of gang scheduling. We then present some ex- perimental results obtained by implementing four dif- ferent

Feitelson, Dror

192

Improving First-Come-First-Serve Job Scheduling by Gang Scheduling ?  

E-print Network

Improving First-Come-First-Serve Job Scheduling by Gang Scheduling ? Uwe Schwiegelshohn and Ramin and emphasizes the notion of fairness. Severe fragmentation is prevented by using gang scheduling which is only of gang scheduling to be used in the management system of the IBM RS/6000 SP2, a widely available

Feitelson, Dror

193

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Cluster Peter Strazdins and John Uhlmann,  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Cluster Peter Strazdins and John Uhlmann.Strazdins@cs.anu.edu.au,John.Uhlmann @anu.edu.au] Abstract Gang Scheduling and related techniques are widely be- lieved to be necessary Ethernet switches are mnde comparing the Score buddy- based gang scheduling with local scheduling (pmvided

Strazdins, Peter

194

Gang FTP scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid real-time tasks Joel Goossens Vandy Berten  

E-print Network

Gang FTP scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid real-time tasks Jo¨el Goossens Vandy Berten prove cor- rect) an exact schedulability test for Fixed Task Priority (FTP) Gang scheduler sub-classes: Parallelism Mono- tonic, Idling, Limited Gang, and Limited Slack Reclaim- ing. Additionally, we study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

UserLevel Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

User­Level Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson School. However, if gang scheduling is used, it is possible to swap buffer contents as part of the context switch buffers residing in each process's virtual memory. This is enabled by the use of gang scheduling, which

Feitelson, Dror

196

The Effect of Correlating Quantum Allocation and Job Size for Gang Scheduling \\Lambda  

E-print Network

The Effect of Correlating Quantum Allocation and Job Size for Gang Scheduling \\Lambda Gaurav Ghare­0189 fgghare,leutg@cs.du.edu Abstract Gang scheduling is an effective scheduling policy for multiprocessing at the same time. Subsequent work has generalized and refined the coscheduling (now often called gang

Leutenegger, Scott T.

197

Adaptation of an Animal Territory Model to Street Gang Spatial Patterns in Los Angeles  

E-print Network

Adaptation of an Animal Territory Model to Street Gang Spatial Patterns in Los Angeles Laura M Territorial animals and street gangs exhibit similar behavioral characteristics. Both organize themselves this approach to simulate gang dynamics in the Hollenbeck policing division of eastern Los Angeles. We

Soatto, Stefano

198

Job Re-Packing for Enhancing the Performance of Gang Scheduling  

E-print Network

Job Re-Packing for Enhancing the Performance of Gang Scheduling B. B. Zhou1 , R. P. Brent2 , C. W of gang scheduling. We first intro- duce a job re-packing scheme. In this scheme we try to rearrange. Currently the most popular scheme for coordinated scheduling is explicit coscheduling [4], or gang

Feitelson, Dror

199

An Integrated Approach to Parallel Scheduling Using Gang-Scheduling, Backfilling and Migration  

E-print Network

An Integrated Approach to Parallel Scheduling Using Gang-Scheduling, Backfilling and Migration Y technique we analyze is backfilling, the second is gang-scheduling, and the third is migration. The main that, under certain conditions, a strategy that combines backfilling, gang-scheduling, and migration

Feitelson, Dror

200

Date: Wed, 4 Nov 2009 12:20:43 -0500 From: "Xiao-Gang Wen"  

E-print Network

Date: Wed, 4 Nov 2009 12:20:43 -0500 From: "Xiao-Gang Wen" To: prb@aps.org CC again Xiao-Gang On Wed, 4 Nov 2009 10:51:58 -0500, prb wrote > Re: BH11160 > Emergence of helicity pm 2 modes or gravitons from qubit models > by Zheng-Cheng Gu and Xiao-Gang Wen > > Dear Dr. Wen

Wen, Xiao-Gang

201

Fachstudien-und Prfungsordnung fr den Masterstudien-gang Economics der Rechts-und Wirtschaftswissenschaftli-  

E-print Network

Fachstudien- und Prüfungsordnung für den Masterstudien- gang Economics der Rechts- und Fachprüfungsordnung für den forschungsorientierten konsekutiven Masterstudien- gang ,,Economics" mit dem Abschluss Studiengang, 4. insbesondere ein Bachelorabschluss in einem ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Studien- gang, 5

Fiebig, Peter

202

Bounds on Gang Service Scheduling Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1  

E-print Network

Bounds on Gang Service Scheduling Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 Isaac D. Scherson 1;2 \\Lambda.S.A Abstract We define the bounds of two gang service algorithms, namely time balanced and instruction balanced balanced gang service is the best possible non­clairvoyant algorithm. When the objective is to increase

Scherson, Isaac D.

203

User-Level Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

User-Level Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson School. However, if gang scheduling is used, it is possible to swap buffer contents as part of the context switch buffers residing in each process's virtual memory. This is enabled by the use of gang scheduling, which

Feitelson, Dror

204

Youth Gangs and Schools: The Need for Intervention and Prevention Strategies. Occasional Paper #1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers an analysis of urban youth gangs and intervention and prevention strategies for schools, and describes an example of a Cleveland (Ohio) school-wide response. After reviewing the scope of the problem and recent attention to gangs and youth violence, the paper looks at why youth join gangs and lists 12 conditions. Another section…

Trump, Kenneth S.

205

Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable. PMID:22928103

Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William

2012-01-01

206

Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

2009-01-01

207

Improvements in Gang Scheduling for Parallel Supercomputers Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1;\\Lambda Luis Miguel Campos 2  

E-print Network

Improvements in Gang Scheduling for Parallel Supercomputers Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 and Comp. Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, U.S.A Abstract Gang scheduling has been­ current Gang, that is a generalization of gang­ scheduling, and allows for the flexible simultane­ ous

Scherson, Isaac D.

208

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang + , Antony Yang + , Anand Sivasubramaniam # , Jose Moreira  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang + , Antony Yang + , Anand­located with the file blocks it needs. Gang scheduling (GS), which is widely used in supercomputing centers to schedule that gang scheduling does not do a good job scheduling I/O intensive applications. We extend gang scheduling

Zhang, Yanyong

209

Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.  

PubMed

The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community. PMID:20830865

Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

210

Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95% level of confidence: 37% variance explained on the environmental sustainability performance composite indicator out of 73%, 55% (of 55%) on the waste and pollution subindex, 20% (of 70%) on the sustainable energy subindex, 5% (of 100%) on the sustainable cities subindex, and 55% (of 81%) on the GHG indicator. Energy prices are relevant to Canadian policy; increasing prices could substantially improve Canada's performance. Policy makers should increase energy prices through a carbon pricing strategy that is congruent with the ecological fiscal reform advanced by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Keywords: sustainable development; composite indices; environmental policy; environmental governance; energy prices; Canada.

Calbick, Kenneth S.

211

The silicon isotopic composition of the Ganges and its tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon isotopic composition (?Si30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 ?M. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between ?Si30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low ?Si30 (e.g., 40 ?M, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high ?Si30 component (e.g., 240 ?M, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 ?M while ?Si30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of ?Si30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher ?Si30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.

Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.

2013-11-01

212

Intransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers Jeff Bilmes and Gang Ji  

E-print Network

-likelihood ratio and G @DB ¦PI4Q#R ! 7XYV`! 8 is the log prior odds. The strategy proceeds by evaluating 9aIntransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers Jeff Bilmes and Gang Ji Department of Electrical In this work, we introduce an information-theoretic based correction term to the likelihood ratio

Washington at Seattle, University of

213

Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

2005-01-01

214

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

215

Moving into Motherhood: Gang Girls and Controlled Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research challenges the popular characterization that young mothers are bad mothers. This article focuses on a group of girls and young women who were pregnant or mothers and who were engaged in a risky lifestyle through their heavy involvement in gangs, partying, and drinking. The authors examine the impact of the process of…

Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen; MacKenzie, Kathleen

2005-01-01

216

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider  

PubMed Central

Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

2014-01-01

217

Gang Activity and Overall Levels of Crime: A New Mapping Tool for Defining Areas of Gang Activity Using Police Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, a new method for defining gang activity areas based uponpolice records is illustrated using the Chicago Police Department's1996 incident files. This method is based upon standard geographictechniques and uses a uniform grid that divides the city into 150-msquares. It is shown that this technique may be useful both in describinggang activity areas and in describing the spatial

Richard Block

2000-01-01

218

Management of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna System: Way Forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) system is considered to be one transboundary river basin even though the three rivers\\u000a of this system have certain distinct characteristics and flow through very different regions for most parts of their lengths.\\u000a Not only each of these three individual rivers are big, but each one of them have tributaries which are important by themselves\\u000a in social,

Asit K. Biswas

219

Gangs, Migration, and Crime: The Changing Landscape in Europe and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of gangs is intertwined with migration. In America, a number of classic studies have reported on the possible\\u000a causal link between immigration, socio-economic position, social disorganization, and gang formation. More recently in Europe,\\u000a the impact of migration on gangs reflects a complex mix of factors that also includes cultural and media influences. In addition,\\u000a there are other contextual

Scott H. Decker; Frank van Gemert; David C. Pyrooz

2009-01-01

220

Man-made climatic changes in the Ganges basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate data pertaining to the Ganges basin in Bangladesh were analysed to find any climatic changes in the wake of the upstream water diversion by the Farakka Barrage. Whereas the diversions have been continuing from at least 30 international rivers upstream of Bangladesh, the diversion from the Ganges is the best known and has a wider coverage than all other diversions. The diversion reduced the Ganges' discharge through the delta by about 60% from a pre-diversion average value of 1932 m3 s-1, decreased water availability in flood plains, ponds, canals, and ditches by about 50%, dropped the groundwater table, and caused changes in surface features. It took about 5 years of diversions beyond the test run year of 1975 for the environment to react to set 1981 as the baseline year. During the post-baseline era: (1) heating degree days and cooling degree days were respectively 1.33 and 1.44 times more than their counterparts during the pre-baseline era; (2) the summertime and wintertime average temperatures were respectively 1 °C more and 0.5 °C less than the corresponding values during the pre-baseline era; (3) the mode 32 °C of summertime maximum temperatures was 1 °C higher and occurred 414 times more, and the mode 25 °C of wintertime temperature was 1 °C less and occurred 17 times less than the corresponding quantities during the pre-baseline era; (4) the average value of maximum relative humidity has increased by more than 2% and that of minimum relative humidity has dropped by the same amount; (5) the mode 95% and 70% of maximum and minimum relative humidity values have occurred 1322 times and 84 times more respectively than their pre-baseline counterparts; and (6) the frequency for 100 mm or more rainfall and the monthly average rainfalls have dropped by about 50% and 30% respectively. The solution to the climatic changes lies in the restoration of the virgin Ganges flow, dredging of the Ganges and its distributaries to remove shoals and siltation, and re-excavation of canals for water discharge to depleted surface water bodies to re-establish the lost wetland ecosystems. The findings are useful for climate modellers to predict the climatic changes due to changes in surface features, for policy makers of governments of riparian countries constructing dams/barrages on international rivers for unilateral diversion of water, and for donor agencies who finance such projects.

Adel, Miah M.

2002-06-01

221

Residence Time of Sediments in Alluvial Plains from U-Th Isotope Analyses: The Ganges River System. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As illustrated in recent studies (Granet et al., 2007 ; 2010), the analysis of U-Th disequilibria in sediments collected along rivers allows the estimation of sediment transfer time in alluvial plains. Such an approach requires understanding the secondary processes which modify the U and Th isotopes of the sediments during their transfer within the plain. It also assumes a negligible contribution of new and fresh sediments coming from the erosion of the plain substratum during the sedimentary transfer. In order to specify these first results on the Ganges Basin river system, the main Himalayan tributaries of the Ganges were sampled at the exit of the Himalayan range and at the outlet of their watershed just before their confluence with the Ganges. In addition, at several sampling locations, suspended sedimentary load was collected at different depths of the water column. Our new data along with previously published data in (Granet et al., 2007 ; 2010) show that a wide range of variation in Th activity ratios in bedload and suspended sediments for several of these rivers. Such differences probably point to contrasting (geographical, geological, lithological, pedological..) origins of these two types of sediments. Furthermore, bedload and suspended load exhibit very different covariations of U and Th isotope ratios from upstream to downstream. These different trends of variations highlight the occurrence of different transfer histories within the plain for the coarse-grained and fine-grained sediments: 100 ky or more for the bedload sediments from the Himalayan range to the confluence with the Ganges, but much less for the suspended sediments. Variations in the U-Th isotope ratios of suspended sediments recorded for the same sampling location but at different seasons suggest that their transfer time could be as fast as one year. These data therefore confirm the real potential of U and Th isotopes in river sediments to constrain their transfer time within alluvial plain but also their origin. M. Granet et al. (2007) time-scales of sedimentary transfer and weathering processes from U-series nuclides: Clues from the Himalayan rivers, Earth and Planet. Sc. Let., 261, 389-406. Granet M et al. (2010) U-series disequilibria in suspended river sediments and implication for sediment transfer time in alluvial plains : the case of the Himalayan rivers Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 2851-2865

Chabaux, F. J.; Blaes, E.; Granet, M.; Dosseto, A.; Stille, P.; France-Lanord, C.; Lupker, M.

2010-12-01

222

Delinquency and Substance Use among Gang-Involved Youth: The Moderating Role of Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency,

Chanequa J. Walker-Barnes; Craig A. Mason

2004-01-01

223

"Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief discusses the use of traffic barriers to block automobile access to streets as a way to reduce gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles, California, that had experienced a high level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults. The program, Operation Cul de Sac (OCDS), was evaluated as a…

Lasley, James

224

The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

2010-01-01

225

Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

2011-01-01

226

Acculturative Stress and Gang Involvement among Latinos: U.S.-Born versus Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang involvement is an increasing issue among Latino youth, yet nuanced research on its potential causes is scarce. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore links between acculturative stress and gang involvement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino middle school students (N = 199). Regression analyses showed that U.S.-born youths…

Barrett, Alice N.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Lewis, Kelly M.

2013-01-01

227

Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

2010-01-01

228

Sets of uniqueness of the power of the continuum J. Marshall Ash and Gang Wang  

E-print Network

Sets of uniqueness of the power of the continuum J. Marshall Ash and Gang Wang Abstract. By means of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, DePaul University. 1 #12;2 J. MARSHALL ASH AND GANG WANG Definition

Ash, J. Marshall

229

Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.  

PubMed

Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age?=?14.62, SD?=?1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25288165

Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

2014-10-01

230

Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2007-01-01

231

Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

2007-01-01

232

76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG25 Defense Federal...These comments relate to the clause at 252.247-7027(c)(2) as promulgated, which...Visa. DoD Response: The clause at 252.247-7027 has been revised to state that...

2011-10-04

233

75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG81 Defense Federal...List of Subjects in 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 Government procurement. Ynette...System. 0 Therefore, 48 CFR parts 212, 247, and 252 are amended as follows: 0...

2010-10-25

234

A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

Chiprany, David Thomas

2011-01-01

235

Q&A: The Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence New York State Office for the  

E-print Network

Q&A: The Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence New York State Office..............................................................................................Cover The Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence .....................................Cover Did You Know&A About the Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence............ Page 3 Legislative Update

Qiu, Weigang

236

Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

Kotamarthi, VR

2010-06-21

237

Facies analysis of the Caballero Formation and the Andrecito Member of the Lake Valley Formation (Mississippian): implications for Waulsortian bioherm inception, Alamo Canyon area, Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico  

E-print Network

. . . . . 9 . . . . 9 . . . 17 METHODS. Field Methods Petrographic Methods. Paleoenvironmental Analysis 27 . . . 27 . . . 29 . . . 31 STRATIGRAPHIC MARKER BEDS. Caballero Formati. on. Andzecito/Caballero Contact Andrecito Member 32 . . . 32...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 11 photographs and diagrams of Andrecito/Caballero contact relations. 12 Map showing Andrecito/Caballero contact types at measured section localit. ies. 37 13 Photographs of correlative marker beds in the Andrecito Member . 40 14 Photographs...

Byrd, Thomas Martin

1989-01-01

238

Impact of a Value-Based Insurance Design for Back Pain on Health Plan Member Satisfaction and Its Implications for Patient Outcomes.  

PubMed

Abstract Back pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking care, and physical therapy (PT) can be an effective treatment option. However, PT coverage for back pain varies widely among private health plans, usually requiring high cost sharing, thereby potentially leading to member dissatisfaction and worse outcomes. In this study, a quasi-experimental design was used to estimate the impact of a new value-based insurance design for back pain-related PT on selected Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey items. Under this design, eligible members receive a bundle of 5 PT sessions for a 1-time co-payment; if deemed necessary, the bundle is renewable for 1 additional co-payment. The results indicate that the proportion of members reporting the highest satisfaction rating was higher by about 6 to 10 percentage points among those who received the PT bundle. The data also indicate that those PT bundle members who reported the highest satisfaction rating had improvements in their functional status scores that were roughly 3 to 4 times higher than those who reported a lower satisfaction rating. These findings suggest that providing a value-based insurance design for back pain-related PT can potentially improve health plan members' care experiences and their overall satisfaction. Further study is needed to determine its impact on back pain-related medical care utilization and cost of care. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25248037

Maeng, Daniel D; Fisher, Dorothy Y; Graboski, Anthony; Allison, Peiling L; Rodriguez, Jennifer M; Starr, Alison E; Tomcavage, Janet F; Davis, Duane E

2014-09-23

239

Climatic Forcing of Organic-Carbon-Export Dynamics from the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are modulated by exchanges between atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial reservoirs of carbon, which in turn are driven by changes in the residence times of carbon within each of these pools, as well as the transport efficiencies between them. This study employs inorganic proxies of sediment composition and delivery, coupled with compound-specific stable-isotope and radiocarbon (?14C) measurements of terrestrial biomarkers delivered to the Bay of Bengal since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to investigate how changing climate has affected the timescales and dynamics of terrestrial organic-carbon export from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system. Specifically, this study seeks to reconstruct variations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon, in paleo-vegetation and in the residence time of organic carbon delivered to the Bengal Fan by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, as recorded in compound-specific ?14C measurements. At the LGM, reduced differential heating between the Indian Ocean and the Asian continent weakened summer circulation and produced cooler, drier conditions over Asia and across the Himalayas. Increasing Northern Hemisphere insolation during deglaciation and until the Holocene Climatic Optima (HCO; 9-5 ka) corresponded with an increase in atmospheric CO2, mean effective moisture and monsoonal activity in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. These variations were manifested as a large decline of C4 plants in the basin and a general decrease in salinity in the northern Bay of Bengal; these trends have reversed as monsoon strength has weakened since the mid-Holocene. Preliminary compound-specific measurements of long-chain n-alkanoic (fatty) acids from a series of cores capturing the last 20,000 years of sedimentation in the Bay of Bengal record a 30 ‰ shift in ?D between the LGM and HCO, indicating a change from weaker to stronger monsoon conditions over this time period. Likewise, compound-specific fatty-acid ?13C demonstrate a ca. 5 ‰ shift during that same time period, thereby mimicking bulk organic-carbon ?13C records and recording the trend from C4 to C3 plants between LGM and the HCO. Both trends have reversed since the HCO. Preliminary compound-specific ?14C measurements reveal that the residence time of terrestrial biospheric organic carbon in continental reservoirs has decreased following the LGM, likely in response to increases in precipitation and temperature associated with a strengthening Indian summer monsoon. Thus, we have identified climate changes as a likely driver of terrestrial-organic-carbon export and can use these records to characterize the relationships between climate change and the dynamics of terrestrial-organic-carbon export to, and burial in, marine sediments. Additionally, they will have important implications for the estimation of the net atmospheric CO2 consumption caused by climate-driven changes in organic-carbon cycling the largest erosional system on earth.

Galy, V.; Hein, C. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.

2012-12-01

240

Implementing long-term EAP follow-up with clients and family members to help prevent relapse—With implications for primary prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study in progress which involves (a) regular post-treatment contact by employee assistance program (EAP) staff with employees who seek help through the EAP, and (b) contact with a family member or other support person designated by the employee. The contacts are designed to provide support for maintenance of therapeutic gains, assistance in adjusting to current

Andrea Foote; Bradley Googins; Michael Moriarty; Claudia Sandonato; Jerome Nadolski; Claudette Jefferson

1994-01-01

241

Joint Sandhouse Gang Meeting & Transportation Center Seminar........ "Recent Railroad Research at Northwestern"  

E-print Network

Joint Sandhouse Gang Meeting & Transportation Center Seminar........ "Recent Railroad Research to railroad operations, safety and infrastructure maintenance of Railroad Pedestrian Fatalities in Metropolitan Chicago 2004-10" There were 260 pedestrian fatalities

Bustamante, Fabián E.

242

Targeted Outreach: Boys and Girls Clubs of America's Approach to Gang Prevention and Intervention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Commissioned by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) and underwritten by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Pinkerton Foundation, the scholarly study offers readers an inside look at two approaches to reducing youth involvement in gangs -- a clear catalyst of violent crime among teens. Focusing on Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach (GPTTO) and Gang Intervention Through Targeted Outreach (GITTO), the report clearly illustrates the need for and benefits of proactive, community-based programs for at-risk populations. Arguing that both intervention and prevention programs are essential, the authors of the report examine the success of such approaches in a broad cross section of metropolitan settings. Far from controversial, the report concludes that youth can escape the gang-related cycles of violence and criminality if alternatives exist and other people are there for them.

Arbreton, Amy J.; Mcclanahan, Wendy S.

2002-01-01

243

Precious and base metal geochemistry and mineralogy of the Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for a multistage emplacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member within the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex is a mineralized, layered package of mafic cumulates developed to the south of the town of Mokopane, at a similar stratigraphic position to the Platreef. The concentration of platinum-group elements (PGE) in base metal sulfides (BMS) has been determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. These data, coupled with whole-rock PGE concentrations and a detailed account of the platinum-group mineralogy (PGM), provide an insight into the distribution of PGE and chalcophile elements within the GNPA member, during both primary magmatic and secondary hydrothermal alteration processes. Within the most unaltered sulfides (containing pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite only), the majority of IPGE, Rh, and some Pd occur in solid solution within pyrrhotite and pentlandite, with an associated Pt-As and Pd-Bi-Te dominated PGM assemblage. These observations in conjunction with the presence of good correlations between all bulk PGE and base metals throughout the GNPA member indicate the presence and subsequent fractionation of a single PGE-rich sulfide liquid, which has not been significantly altered. In places, the primary sulfides have been replaced to varying degrees by a low-temperature assemblage of pyrite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. These sulfides are associated with a PGM assemblage characterized by the presence of Pd antimonides and Pd arsenides, which are indicative of hydrothermal assemblages. The presence of appreciable quantities of IPGE, Pd and Rh within pyrite, and, to a lesser, extent millerite suggests these phases directly inherited PGE contents from the pyrrhotite and pentlandite that they replaced. The replacement of both the sulfides and PGM occurred in situ, thus preserving the originally strong spatial association between PGM and BMS, but altering the mineralogy. Precious metal geochemistry indicates that fluid redistribution of PGE is minimal with only Pd, Au, and Cu being partially remobilized and decoupled from BMS. This is also indicated by the lower concentrations of Pd evident in both pyrite and millerite compared with the pentlandite being replaced. The observations that the GNPA member was mineralized prior to intrusion of the Main Zone and that there was no local footwall control over the development of sulfide mineralization are inconsistent with genetic models involving the in situ development of a sulfide liquid through either depletion of an overlying magma column or in situ contamination of crustal S. We therefore believe that our observations are more compatible with a multistage emplacement model, where preformed PGE-rich sulfides were emplaced into the GNPA member. Such a model explains the development and distribution of a single sulfide liquid throughout the entire 400-800 m thick succession. It is therefore envisaged that the GNPA member formed in a similar manner to its nearest analogue the Platreef. Notable differences however in PGE tenors indicate that the ore-forming process may have differed slightly within the staging chambers that supplied the Platreef and GNPA member.

Smith, J. W.; Holwell, D. A.; McDonald, I.

2014-08-01

244

Clockwise rotation and implications for northward drift of the western Transverse Ranges from paleomagnetism of the Piuma Member, Sespe Formation, near Malibu, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from mid-Tertiary sedimentary beds in the Santa Monica Mountains reinforce the evidence for large-scale rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, and anisotropy measurements indicate that compaction-induced inclination flattening may resolve a long-standing controversy regarding the original paleolatitude of the rotated block. Previously published paleomagnetic data indicate that post-Oligocene rotation amounts to 70°-110° clockwise, affecting the Channel Islands, Santa Monica Mountains, and Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sespe Formation near Malibu consists of a lower member dominated by nonmarine sandstone and conglomerate and an upper section, the Piuma Member, which consists of gray-red sandstone and mudstone interbedded with minor tuff and limestone beds. The Piuma Member has a paleomagnetic pole at 36.6°N, 326.7°E (A95min = 5.0°, A95max = 9.6°), obtained by thermal demagnetization of 34 oriented cores from Oligocene and early Miocene beds. After correcting for plunge of the geologic structure, the data are consistent with significant clockwise rotation (77° ± 7°) of the region relative to stable North America. Rotation of the western Transverse Ranges is generally viewed as a consequence of Pacific-North American plate interactions after 28 Ma, when east-west subduction gave way to northwest transform motion in southern California. Inclinations from the Piuma study indicate a paleolatitude anomaly of 11° ± 7° and are consistent with a mean northward drift that exceeds generally accepted San Andreas fault displacement by a factor of 3. However, sedimentary inclination error may accentuate the anomaly. Anisotropy of isothermal remanent magnetization indicates inclination flattening of approximately 8°, and correction for the effect reduces the paleolatitude anomaly to 5.3° ± 5.8°. Compaction may explain the inclination flattening in these sedimentary rocks, but the process does not adequately explain lower-than-expected inclinations found in previous studies of Miocene volcanic rocks of the western Transverse Ranges.

Hillhouse, John W.

2010-07-01

245

Clockwise Rotation and Implications for Northward Drift of the Western Transverse Ranges from Paleomagnetism of the Piuma Member, Sespe Formation, near Malibu, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from mid-Tertiary sedimentary beds in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California reinforce the evidence for large-scale rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, originally postulated from observations of basement-structure trends and supported by paleodeclination data from Eocene and younger rocks. Previously published paleomagnetic data indicate that post-Oligocene rotation amounts to 70°-110° clockwise, affecting the Channel Islands, Santa Monica Mountains, and Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sespe Formation near Malibu consists of a lower member dominated by nonmarine sandstone and conglomerate and an upper section, the Piuma Member, which consists of gray-red sandstone and mudstone interbedded with minor tuff and limestone beds. The Piuma Member has a paleomagnetic pole at 36.7°N, 326.7°E (A95min=5.0°, A95max=9.6°), resulting from thermal demagnetization of 34 oriented cores covering beds from Oligocene to Early Miocene age. The data are consistent with significant clockwise rotation (68°±7°) of the region relative to stable North America. Rotation of the western Transverse Ranges is generally viewed as a consequence of Pacific-North American plate interactions after 28 Ma, when east-west subduction gave way to northwest transform motion in southern California. Inclinations from the Piuma study lead to a paleolatitude anomaly of 11°±7°, or a mean northward drift that exceeds generally accepted San Andreas fault displacement by a factor of three. However, analysis of magnetization-direction distributions from this study combined with J. Liddicoat's work at other Sespe Formation sites (total N=131) reveals that sedimentary inclination error, rather than northward drift, may be the primary contributor to the anomaly. Application of the Tauxe and Kent method, which tests the elliptical shape of a given field-direction dataset against a global geomagnetic field model (TK03.GAD), requires mean inclination flattening of approximately 15° to predict the 1.34:1 azimuthal elongation of the Sespe magnetization directions. Compaction may explain the inclination flattening in these sedimentary rocks, but the process does not adequately explain lower-than-expected inclinations found in previous studies of Miocene volcanic rocks of the western Transverse Ranges.

Hillhouse, J. W.

2007-12-01

246

Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.  

PubMed

The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution. PMID:25433377

Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

2015-02-15

247

Clumped Isotopes, trace elements, and ?18O of stromatolites from the Laney Member of the Green River Formation (Eocene): Implications for paleoenvironments during the Eocene Climatic Optimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green River Formation, a large lacustrine deposit located across parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming, was deposited during the Eocene Climatic Optimum (~50 Ma), a period of sustained high temperatures and high atmospheric CO2 levels that may provide a geologic analog for future climate scenarios. Large variations in basin hydrology, water chemistry, and paleotemperatures occurring on time scales of tens of thousands of years or longer have been documented in the sedimentary record. Here, we use stromatolites to investigate much finer-scale resolution of paleoenvironmental changes in the Green River Formation and paleo-Lake Gosiute. We studied the lower LaClede Bed, the base of the Laney Member of the Green River Formation, comprised of cyclic layers of oil shale and carbonate. The lower LaClede Bed represents the filling of the lake following an extended period of closure during deposition of the underlying Wilkins Peak Member. To characterize fluctuations in water chemistry and lake level at greater temporal resolution, we conducted micro-stratigraphic and chemostratigraphic analyses on 24 distinct mm-scale laminae in a single 10 cm carbonate stromatolite bed, including ?13C, ?18O, and trace elemental analyses (Mg, Mn, Fe, Si, K, Na, Al, Sr). Sub-cm-scale correlations between petrographic analyses, elemental composition, and carbonate ?13C and ?18O suggest that this stromatolite records both hydrologically-closed and -open periods in the history of Lake Gosiute. During periods of apparent basin closure, we used two models to investigate lake volume change: 1) a Rayleigh distillation model of water evaporation to estimate lake depth variations and 2) a conservative ion model based on Na incorporation into the stromatolites. In both models, lake depth fluctuated by up to 8 m; this represents up to 40km of shoreline change in Lake Gosiute during the deposition of this stromatolite layer. Interestingly, the modern Great Salt Lake experienced similar fluctuations since 1700 AD, with over 100 km of shoreline shift. Clumped isotope analyses were performed on 8 carbonate beds found at the LaClede site to characterize the temperatures during deposition. Temperatures from the stromatolites and other lacustrine phases fell between 21.0 and 32.5 ×1.3°C, whereas a pedogenically-modified sample was higher (41×2.6°C), consistent with paleo-floral temperature estimates for the region. This research was conducted during the 2013 International GeoBiology Summer Course.

Corsetti, F. A.; Miller, H. M.; Asangba, A. E.; Johannessen, K. C.; Wang, D. T.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Tripati, A.; Shapiro, R. S.

2013-12-01

248

DBN-BASED MULTI-STREAM MODELS FOR MANDARIN TONEME RECOGNITION Xin Lei, Gang Ji, Tim Ng, Jeff Bilmes, Mari Ostendorf  

E-print Network

DBN-BASED MULTI-STREAM MODELS FOR MANDARIN TONEME RECOGNITION Xin Lei, Gang Ji, Tim Ng, Jeff Bilmes, Mari Ostendorf Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 {leixin,gang

Washington at Seattle, University of

249

Multiple oxide content media for columnar grain growth in L10 FePt thin Hoan Ho, En Yang, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu  

E-print Network

, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu Citation: Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 112411 (2013); doi: 10. Laughlin,1,2,3 and Jian-Gang Zhu1,2,3 1 Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

Laughlin, David E.

250

Experimental demonstration of a broadband all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflector Parikshit Moitra, Brian A. Slovick, Zhi Gang Yu, S. Krishnamurthy, and Jason Valentine  

E-print Network

Moitra, Brian A. Slovick, Zhi Gang Yu, S. Krishnamurthy, and Jason Valentine Citation: Applied Physics all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflector Parikshit Moitra,1 Brian A. Slovick,2 Zhi Gang Yu,2 S

Simaan, Nabil

251

Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone  

SciTech Connect

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

1993-11-01

252

Family with Sequence Similarity 5, Member C (FAM5C) Increases Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Implication in Vascular Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Identification of the regulators of vascular inflammation is important if we are to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to atherosclerosis and consequent ischemic heart disease, including acute myocardial infarction. Gene polymorphisms in family with sequence similarity 5, member C (FAM5C) are associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but little is known about the function of this gene product in blood vessels. Here, we report that the regulation of the expression and function of FAM5C in endothelial cells. We show here that FAM5C is expressed in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence microcopy showed localization of FAM5C in the Golgi in cultured human endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry on serial sections of human coronary artery showed that FAM5C-positive endothelium expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) or vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). In cultured human endothelial cells, the overexpression of FAM5C increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity and the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin mRNAs, resulting in enhanced monocyte adhesion. FAM5C was upregulated in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as TNF-?, in an NF-?B- and JNK-dependent manner. Knockdown of FAM5C by small interfering RNA inhibited the increase in the TNF-?-induced production of ROS, NF-?B activity and expression of these leukocyte adhesion molecule mRNAs, resulting in reduced monocyte adhesion. These results suggest that in endothelial cells, when FAM5C is upregulated in response to inflammatory stimuli, it increases the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules by increasing ROS production and NF-?B activity. PMID:25251368

Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Knox, Aaron J.; Asada, Yujiro; Wierman, Margaret E.; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

253

Solution Structure and Phylogenetics of Prod1, a Member of the Three-Finger Protein Superfamily Implicated in Salamander Limb Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Following the amputation of a limb, newts and salamanders have the capability to regenerate the lost tissues via a complex process that takes place at the site of injury. Initially these cells undergo dedifferentiation to a state competent to regenerate the missing limb structures. Crucially, dedifferentiated cells have memory of their level of origin along the proximodistal (PD) axis of the limb, a property known as positional identity. Notophthalmus viridescens Prod1 is a cell-surface molecule of the three-finger protein (TFP) superfamily involved in the specification of newt limb PD identity. The TFP superfamily is a highly diverse group of metazoan proteins that includes snake venom toxins, mammalian transmembrane receptors and miscellaneous signaling molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of identifying potential orthologs of Prod1, we have solved its 3D structure and compared it to other known TFPs using phylogenetic techniques. The analysis shows that TFP 3D structures group in different categories according to function. Prod1 clusters with other cell surface protein TFP domains including the complement regulator CD59 and the C-terminal domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. To infer orthology, a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of representative TFP family members was built and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. Prod1 has been proposed to be the salamander CD59 but our analysis fails to support this association. Prod1 is not a good match for any of the TFP families present in mammals and this result was further supported by the identification of the putative orthologs of both CD59 and N. viridescens Prod1 in sequence data for the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Conclusions/Significance The available data suggest that Prod1, and thereby its role in encoding PD identity, is restricted to salamanders. The lack of comparable limb-regenerative capability in other adult vertebrates could be correlated with the absence of the Prod1 gene. PMID:19771161

Garza-Garcia, Acely; Harris, Richard; Esposito, Diego; Gates, Phillip B.; Driscoll, Paul C.

2009-01-01

254

Concurrent loss of INI1, PBRM1, and BRM expression in epithelioid sarcoma: implications for the cocontributions of multiple SWI/SNF complex members to pathogenesis.  

PubMed

The loss of INI1 (SMARCB1) expression, caused by SMARCB1 (INI1, SNF5L4, BAF47) inactivation, frequently occurs in epithelioid sarcoma (ES) and could aid in confirming the diagnosis. Except for INI1, the expression of switch in mating type/sucrose nonfermentation complex members in ES has never been examined. In this study, the expression of key subunits of this complex-INI1, BRG1 (SMARCA4), BRM (SNF2L2, SMARCA2), PBRM1 (hPB1, BAF180), and BAF155 (SMARCC1)-was analyzed in 23 ES cases: 15 conventional and 8 proximal type. All of the cases were reviewed and reclassified by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining for cytokeratin AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, CD34, vimentin, and INI1 expression. Of the 23 ES cases, 19 (82.6%) showed a loss of PBRM1, and 18 (78.3%), a loss of INI1. In most cases (17, 73.9%), loss of INI1 and PBRM1 expression was observed. The pattern of PBRM1 expression was similar to that of INI1, that is, not correlated with changes in cellular morphology. The concurrent loss of BRM, PBRM1, and INI1expression was detected in 2 cases with pure rhabdoid tumor features. The frequent observation of concurrent loss of INI1 and PBRM1 suggests that certain switch in mating type/sucrose nonfermentation complex components might act synergistically in the pathogenesis of ES by unknown mechanisms and that these components could provide new targets for therapy. The usefulness of PBRM1 as a biomarker of ES and its mechanism in ES require further investigation. Loss of BRM in ES with pure rhabdoid features suggests that BRM might be involved in the underlying mechanisms of this type of ES. PMID:25200863

Li, Li; Fan, Xiang-Shan; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Rao, Qiu; Liu, Biao; Yu, Bo; Shi, Qun-Li; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

2014-11-01

255

Institutional Member Directory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listings of institutional members of the American Society for Engineering Education, including addresses and names of representatives, are provided under seven headings: Engineering College Members, Engineering College Affiliate Members, Technical College Members, Technical College Affiliate Members, Industrial Members, Government Members, and…

Engineering Education, 1974

1974-01-01

256

Underwater behavioral study of Ganges river dolphins by using echolocation clicks recorded by 6hydrophone array system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeting the 9 Ganges river dolphins inhabiting the Narora area in Ganges river system, the first recordings using an compact acoustic observation system, which consists of a high frequency 6-hydorophone cross array connected with a PC on land-base by a wireless LAN system have been carried out during 17 to 21 February 2008. The system also uses the prototype of

Harumi Sugimatsu; Tamaki Ura; Junichi Kojima; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera

2008-01-01

257

Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

2011-01-01

258

Brotherhood or Brothers in the "Hood"? Debunking the "Educated Gang" Thesis as Black Fraternity and Sorority Slander  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…

Hughey, Matthew W.

2008-01-01

259

Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

Rios, Victor M.

2010-01-01

260

t the turn of the 21st century, youth gangs have again be-come an object of societal anxiety, occupying a special place among  

E-print Network

t the turn of the 21st century, youth gangs have again be- come an object of societal anxiety everything turns grey. Media coverage of fights between gangs is uneven and cyclical, but particularly, and no distinction is made between youth gangs and criminal groups. As is often the case for trivial news

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.  

PubMed

To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade. PMID:24463984

Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

2014-10-01

262

Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

2012-02-01

263

Layered Deposits on the floor of Ganges Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 29 March 2002) The Science The Story These layered deposits are located on the floor of a large canyon called Ganges Chasma which is a part of the Valles Marineris. Dramatic layering can be seen throughout the deposit. Different styles of erosion are manifest in these different layers and at different locations within the layered material. For example, the southern portion of these deposits have a pronounced fluting, whereas in other areas the same layers are more intact. Relatively dark dunes and sand sheets can be observed surrounding the relatively brighter layered material in the upper right and lower portions of the image. Darker material also appears to mantle select areas of the layered deposits. The formation of the dunes is influenced by topography; this influence is best illustrated in the upper left of the image where a small hillock has interfered with the local wind flow. Impact craters of all sizes are noticeably absent in this image, indicating a relatively young age for this surface. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top. The Story If this wonderfully textured landform were on Earth, it would have to be designated as a 'national park,' much like the popular canyon parklands of the American Southwest. Look for the oblong plateau at the center right of this image, and see how the terrain descends from it on all sides. The southerly canyon wall (bottom third of the image) displays a visually beautiful canyon slope, with descending erosional flutes that cut pathways through the differently hued rock and mineral layers. While the northern side of the plateau might not look as dramatic, don't miss the dark-colored sand dunes that lie at the base of the canyon. Why did they form in just that place? To find out, look for the small hillock in the top left of the image that has interfered with the wind's flow, causing the ripply dunes to form. With so many interesting and physically stunning features, this spot will no doubt attract eager Mars tourists some day far in the future.

2002-01-01

264

Exposure to partner, family, and community violence: gang-affiliated Latina women and risk of unintended pregnancy.  

PubMed

While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the U.S.A. overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and relationship violence exposure may lead to unintended pregnancy. Interviews of 20 young adult Latinas with known gang involvement in Los Angeles County were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for key themes related to violence exposure and reproductive health. Limited access to reproductive health care compounded by male partner sexual and pregnancy coercion, as well as physical and sexual violence, emerged in the interviews. Exposures to interparental domestic violence, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and gang violence were prominent and closely associated with unhealthy and abusive intimate relationships. Adverse childhood experiences and exposure to partner, family, and community violence impact the reproductive lives and choices of young Latina women in gangs. These findings may guide targeted pregnancy prevention efforts among urban gang-affiliated Latinas as well as encourage the integration of sexual violence prevention and reproductive health promotion within gang violence intervention programs. PMID:22160445

Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

2012-02-01

265

Condensing Effect of Palmitic Acid on DPPC in Mixed Langmuir Gang Ma and Heather C. Allen*  

E-print Network

Condensing Effect of Palmitic Acid on DPPC in Mixed Langmuir Monolayers Gang Ma and Heather C in the liquid-expanded and condensed phases is explored. A condensing effect of PA on DPPC is observed with VSFG ordering of DPPC chains and causes DPPC to transition from the expanded phase into the condensed phase

266

Paradoxical Outcomes in an Educational Drama about Gang Rape: Ethical Responsibilities of Practitioners and Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, "Backyard Games", about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed…

Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

2005-01-01

267

Principals' Leadership Behaviors in Gang-Impacted High Schools and Their Effects on Pupil Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…

Schwartz, Audrey J.

268

Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2013-01-01

269

DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important? Andrew James Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang  

E-print Network

DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important? Andrew James Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang 91125 ABSTRACT We study the packaging of DNA into a bacteriophage capsid using computer simulation, specifically focusing on the potential impact of twist on the final packaged conformation. We perform two

Straight, Aaron

270

Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey. OJDP Fact Sheet No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on survey results, it is estimated that, in 2002, youth gangs were active in more than 2,300 cities with a population of 2,500 or more and in more than 550 jurisdictions served by county law enforcement agencies. These results are comparable to those from recent NYGC surveys and provide preliminary evidence that the overall number of…

Egley, Arlen; Major, Aline K.

2004-01-01

271

An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

2013-01-01

272

Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present river chemistry data for a network of rivers draining the western and central Nepal Himalaya. Our sampling locations cover the system from the sources of rivers in Tibet to the Gangetic plain. Water samples were collected throughout the year, including the monsoon season, for rivers in Nepal and for the Ganges and Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Rivers draining the

Albert Galy; Christian France-Lanord

1999-01-01

273

Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

2012-01-01

274

"American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

De Genova, Nicholas

2008-01-01

275

Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

2010-01-01

276

Spin Gunn Effect Yunong Qi, Zhi-Gang Yu,* and Michael E. Flatte  

E-print Network

Spin Gunn Effect Yunong Qi, Zhi-Gang Yu,* and Michael E. Flatte´ Optical Science and Technology-doped GaAs and InP at room temperature is unstable at high electric fields to the dynamic formation of spin-polarized current pulses. Spin-polarized current is spontaneously generated because the conductivity of a spin

Flatte, Michael E.

277

Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen  

E-print Network

Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen Department) The origin of light is a unsolved mystery in nature. Recently, it was suggested that light may originate from magnetic/electric dipoles in 2D and 3D lattices. We show that our models contain an artificial light

Wen, Xiao-Gang

278

Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 1890 the legendary outlaws of the 1870s and 1880s were mostly dead or in prison. When Luther Perkins erected his new bank building in Coffeyville, Kansas, a bank robbery was the farthest thing from his mind. But the Dalton cousins, former Coffeyville residents, were interested in the bank because they wanted to outdo the James gang by using the…

Hunter, Kathleen

279

Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Zhen-Gang Wang,  

E-print Network

Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Tao Jiang, Zhen-Gang Wang, California ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a contagious human pathogen causing liver diseases-termini. INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pararetrovirus responsible for up to 80% of all cases

Wu, Jianzhong

280

The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

2011-01-01

281

Gangs and Coups D' Streets in the New World Disorder: Protean Insurgents in Postmodern War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutation of protean “street gangs” to insurgents illustrates that insurgents need not be ideologically oriented, and need not be traditional revolutionary fighters emerging from the mountains and jungles to take down or control a government. Rather, they may have their own specific commercial money-making motives, and can emerge out of the favelas, callampas, villas miserias, and pueblas jovenes (city

Max G. Manwaring

2006-01-01

282

Determination of transfer time for sediments in alluvial plains using 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria: The case of the Ganges river system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to deriving the transfer time of sediments within alluvial plains by using the variation of the U-series nuclides in sediments collected along rivers is presented in this article and discussed in the light of new data from samples from different locations within the Ganges watershed and its outlet. These data indicate that the upstream-downstream variation of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in the sediments, with different variation trends for suspended and coarse-grained sediments, is probably a general feature of all Himalayan rivers flowing across the Indo-Gangetic plain. The data therefore confirm the occurrence of very different transfer times within the plain, depending on the sediments granulometry, with much shorter transfer time for the fine-grained (a few ky or less) than for the coarse-grained sediments (100 ky or more). A new solving approach, using a parallel stochastic Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (p-QPSO), has been developed for identifying the unknown parameters of the model necessary for the determination of the transfer time. The data of sediments collected at the Ganges outlet show significant variations of the 234U/230Th activity ratios for the fine-grained sediment end-member collected in 2004 and 2008. Such variations indicate that the fine-grained sediments transit quickly (a year or less) within the plain. The highly variable activity ratios might be the result of quickly changing weathering intensities. Conversely, the U-Th variations observed for the 2004 and 2008 bedload from the Ganges basin cannot result from a short sedimentary transfer time. They probably result from the dredge sampling procedure, which might be influenced by local placer effects controlling the abundance of U and Th carrying minerals. Dredging may not allow the sampling of a representative bedload, hence it may cause an artificial mineralogical and, therefore, an U-Th variability for bedload sediments collected at different periods. At this stage, the transfer time uncertainty induced by this variability is difficult to assess.

Chabaux, François; Blaes, Estelle; Granet, Mathieu; Roupert, Raphaël di Chiara; Stille, Peter

2012-11-01

283

The Asian factor: Methodological barriers to the study of Asian gangs and organized crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines methodological barriers that confront the study of Asian criminal gangs and organized crime. Researchers\\u000a need to address definitional issues, appreciate the pluralistic nature of Asian communities, incorporate region as a unit\\u000a of analysis, enhance the reliability of interviewees’ responses, and recognize the impact of news media on the public perception\\u000a of Asian crime. A research agenda is

John Huey-Long Song

1996-01-01

284

“Are we a family or a business?” History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 1987, in pool halls and city parks, high school football games, storefront churches, youth centers, and other sites where police presence was minimal, high-ranking leaders from Chicago’s largest AfricanAmerican street gang ‘‘Nations’’ began meeting to discuss the latest period of change in their respective associations. Adorned in jewelry and expensive designer clothes, and transported in luxury cars, the leaders

Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh; Steven D. Levitt

2000-01-01

285

Annual behavioral changes of the Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica) based on the three long-term monitoring seasons using 6hydrophone array system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) belongs to small toothed whale (dolphin) family and inhabits mainly the Ganges river system in India. Like other dolphin species, it uses bio-sonar clicks for echolocation. For understanding the Ganges river dolphin's acoustic behavior over a long-time span, the annual long-term real-time monitoring for 4-6 months in the dry season using 6-hydrophone array system

Harumi Sugimatsu; Junichi Kojima; Tamaki Ura; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera; Vivek Sheel Sagar

2011-01-01

286

Mini-rsberetning, Datalogisk Institut, 2009 Det er med stor glde, at jeg endnu en gang kan konstatere, at det forlbne r har vret yderst succesfuldt  

E-print Network

1 Mini-årsberetning, Datalogisk Institut, 2009 Det er med stor glæde, at jeg endnu en gang kan områder. På trods af sit relativt beskedne antal faste videnskabelige medarbejdere er instituttet gang på gang i stand til at markere sig helt i top på alle de tre områder, som vi beskæftiger os med: forskning

287

Rich Pickings Near Large Communal Roosts Favor ‘Gang’ Foraging by Juvenile Common Ravens, Corvus corax  

PubMed Central

Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as ‘information centers’ regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in ‘gangs’ and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. PMID:19240813

Dall, Sasha R. X.; Wright, Jonathan

2009-01-01

288

Protracted storage of biospheric carbon in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of carbon stored in continental reservoirs such as soils, sediments and the biosphere greatly exceeds the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. As such, small variations in the residence time of organic carbon in these reservoirs can produce large variations in the atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. One such reservoir is the Ganges-Brahmaputra system draining the Himalayas, which represents one of the largest sources of terrestrial biospheric carbon to the ocean. Here, we examine the radiocarbon content of river sediments collected from the Ganges-Brahmaputra drainage basin to determine the residence time of organic carbon in this reservoir. We show that the average age of biospheric organic carbon in the drainage basin ranges from 0.5 to 17 thousand years. The radiocarbon age of plant-derived fatty acids--a proxy for labile terrestrial vegetation--ranges from just 0.05 to 1.3 thousand years. We propose that the bulk ages can be explained by the existence of a refractory, slowly cycling component of the organic carbon pool that is mixed with a younger labile pool. We estimate that this refractory component has an average age of over 15,000 years, and represents up to 20% of total biospheric carbon exported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra system. We suggest that global warming might destabilize this ancient pool of carbon, if warming stimulates microbial decomposition of organic carbon reserves.

Galy, Valier; Eglinton, Timothy

2011-12-01

289

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

SciTech Connect

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-07-01

290

User Working Group Members  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... takmeng.wong@nasa.gov Amy Braverman Member Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) amy.braverman@jpl.nasa.gov Duli ... charles.ichoku@nasa.gov Brian Kahn Member Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) brian.h.kahn@jpl.nasa.gov ...

2014-04-29

291

Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu  

E-print Network

Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang,2 and Jian-Gang Zhu1,3 1 Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Laughlin, David E.

292

Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

Rodriguez, Hector

2009-01-01

293

Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

2009-01-01

294

Headward growth of chasmata by volatile outbursts, collapse, and drainage: Evidence from ganges chaos, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nature and significance of collapse processes in Capri, Eos, and Ganges Chasmata remain poorly understood. Using Ganges Chasma as a type locality, these chasmata are interpreted to be the result of clustering and assimilation of multiple chaotic terrains, which primarily formed by localized depressurization-induced or thermally-triggered dissociation of buried gas clathrate hydrates and explosive eruption of gas-saturated ground water. Such crustal destabilization could have been triggered by (1) deep fracture propagation from the Martian surface, (2) magmatic intrusions and associated heating and inflation-induced terrain fracturing, and/or (3) climatic thaw and thinning/weakening of the permafrost over the clathrate and gas-rich groundwater zones. Volume increases associated with release of gases contributed to the xpulsion of groundwater and fluidized sediments at the surface, thereby carving the higher outflow channels peripheral to the chasmata and the lower outflow channel floors of the chasmata and outflow channels. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Kargel, J.; Crown, D.A.; Bleamaster, L. F., III; Tanaka, K.L.; Baker, V.; Miyamoto, H.; Dohm, J.M.; Sasaki, S.; Komatsu, G.

2006-01-01

295

Collapsable seal member  

DOEpatents

A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

Sherrell, Dennis L. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01

296

Collapsable seal member  

DOEpatents

A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

Sherrell, D.L.

1983-12-08

297

PSI Member Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

298

Size-Dependent Endocytosis of Nanoparticles By Sulin Zhang,* Ju Li, George Lykotrafitis, Gang Bao, and Subra Suresh  

E-print Network

Size-Dependent Endocytosis of Nanoparticles By Sulin Zhang,* Ju Li, George Lykotrafitis, Gang Bao-mediated endocytosis of ligand- coated NPs. We identify an optimal NP radius at which the cellular uptake reaches NP radius for endocytosis is on the order of 25­30 nm, which is in good agreement with prior

Suresh, Subra

299

Understanding the Psychosocial Characteristics of Gang-Involved Youths in a System of Care: Individual, Family, and System Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 64 gang-involved youth found that they represent all ethnic and gender groups; experience multiple child and family risk factors; present mental health, substance abuse, and academic problems; and often score within clinical ranges on behavioral and emotional indices. Non-Latina females present more internalizing and externalizing…

Wood, Michelle; Furlong, Michael J.; Rosenblatt, Jennifer A.; Robertson, Laurel M.; Scozzari, Frank; Sosna, Todd

1997-01-01

300

Use of Ridge Points in Partial Fingerprint Gang Fang, Sargur N. Srihari, Harish Srinivasan and Prasad Phatak  

E-print Network

1 Use of Ridge Points in Partial Fingerprint Matching Gang Fang, Sargur N. Srihari, Harish Srinivasan and Prasad Phatak Abstract Automatic fingerprint identification systems utilize algorithms which extract minutiae information from the input fingerprint­ which are ridge endings and ridge bifurcations

301

Colossal Magnetoresistance in Perovskite Oxides II Gang Xiao, Chairman Giant magnetoresistance induced by spin-correlation scattering  

E-print Network

Colossal Magnetoresistance in Perovskite Oxides II Gang Xiao, Chairman Giant magnetoresistance magnetoresistance effect in ferromagnetically ordered thin film and bulk based on the Hund's rule coupling between value, which is in agreement with the experiments. The giant magnetoresistance effect in thin film

Gong, Xingao

302

Influence of aerosol loading, water vapor and surface topography trends on the regional hydrology of the Indo-Ganges basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite based measurements show high concentrations of aerosols (aerosol optical depth) over the Indo-Ganges basin. However, little is known about the vertical structure and distribution of the aerosols in this region. In addition the direct (microphysical) and indirect (radiative) influence of aerosols on the regional water vapor characteristics and cloud formation over different land cover and surface elevations remains uncertain. Previous studies have shown that carbonaceous aerosol can absorb incoming solar radiation, warming the aerosol layer and hence reduce the solar radiation reaching the surface. This in turn reduces the surface temperature, heat and moisture fluxes and increases the stability of the boundary layer resulting in slower regional hydrological cycle. However, on a microphysical scale the aerosols, as cloud condensation nuclei, tend to enhance the cloud formation, although the resulting cloud droplets are slower to coalesce and to form into precipitation. This study utilizes a combination of ground based measurements collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment's (GVAX) and satellite based measurements collected by remote sensors (MODIS, CALIPSO) to carefully evaluate the potential effects of aerosol on the regional hydrology of the Ganges Valley. The study investigates how aerosol and water vapor properties (spatial and vertical distribution, aerosol speciation, etc.) differ between the Ganges valley, lowlands, and neighboring mountainous region and whether this difference enhances or suppresses the regional convective initiation and precipitation.

Manoharan, V.; Cadeddu, M. P.

2012-12-01

303

Core-Stateless Proportional Fair Queuing for AF Traffic Gang Cheng, Kai Xu, Ye Tian, and Nirwan Ansari  

E-print Network

Core-Stateless Proportional Fair Queuing for AF Traffic Gang Cheng, Kai Xu, Ye Tian, and Nirwan Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA Abstract-- Proportional fair queuing is to ensure that a flow passing through the network only consumes a fair share of the network resource that is proportional to its

Ansari, Nirwan

304

Experimental determination of synthetic NdPO 4 monazite end-member solubility in water from 21°C to 300°C: implications for rare earth element mobility in crustal fluids 1 1 Associate editor: D. J. Wesolowski  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of synthetic NdPO4 monazite end-member has been determined experimentally from 21 to 300°C in aqueous solutions at pH = 2, and at 21°C and pH = 2 for GdPO4. Measurements were performed in batch reactors, with regular solution sampling for pH measurement, rare earths and phosphorous analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled with a desolvation

Franck Poitrasson; Eric Oelkers; Jacques Schott; Jean-Marc Montel

2004-01-01

305

EAB MEMBERS Elias Anagnostou  

E-print Network

EAB MEMBERS Elias Anagnostou Dr. Elias L. Anagnostou is an associate technical fellow projects in the area of structural and computational mechanics. Elias is currently the technical lead defense requirement. Elias received a bachelor's degree in Aerospace Engineering from Embry

Shepard, Kenneth

306

Chain Gang  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

307

Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

2009-06-01

308

Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the upstrean Hing-she station raise vivestok Sing-She stations are that ammonia on a upward trend, BOD5 no significant change in trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, river pollution index (RPI) a slight downward trend. Dong-gang River Basin , but the progress of sewer construction in slow. To reduce pollation in this river effort shoul be made regulatory reform on livestock waste control and acceleration of sewer construction. Keywords: quantile regression analysis, BOD5, RPI

Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

2013-12-01

309

Underwater behavioral study of the Ganges river dolphins based on the first long-term real-time monitoring using the integrated observation system with multiple acoustic arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

For targeting 13 Ganges river dolphins which includes calves from Karnavas to Narora, the world's first long-term real-time monitoring using the integrated observation system that can record the high frequency bio-sonar clicks from the Ganges river dolphins to estimate their 3-D location had been conducted continuously for nearly 6 months from 21st November 2008 to 28th April 2009. The dolphins'

Harumi Sugimatsu; Junichi Kojima; Tamaki Ura; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera; Vivek Sheel Sagar; Bushra Khan

2009-01-01

310

Stress in Service Members.  

PubMed

Military service differs from civilian jobs in the stressors that service members experience, including frequent deployments (eg, to an area of combat operations), obedience, regimentation, subordination of self to the group, integrity, and flexibility. The military culture emphasizes teamwork and peer support. In some cases, service members cannot adapt to military life, become overwhelmed by stress, or cannot overcome a traumatic experience. Clinicians should conduct a thorough evaluation guided by an understanding of the military culture. Every effort should be made to identify the stress and the maladaptive response and provide early clinical interventions to prevent progression. PMID:25455065

Lande, R Gregory

2014-12-01

311

Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).  

PubMed

Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of monsoonal rainfall variations that derive from orbital insolation and/or glacial forcing. PMID:17919684

Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

2007-11-01

312

Interior Layered Deposits on Mars: Insights from elevation, image- and spectral data of Ganges Mensa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) are exposed at various locations on Mars. They differ from their surroundings by their higher albedo, morphology, and fine layering. Their origin (sedimentary or volcanic) is well discussed [e.g. 1-3] but Fe-oxides and hydrated minerals such as sulfates [4-6] have been detected on ILD surfaces suggesting an aquatic environment. Here we present some features of Ganges Mensa. We looked at HRSC elevation data [7], THEMIS brightness-temperature and CRISM data to understand differences in morphology and composition. Ganges Mensa observations This ILD shows sub-horizontal layering and mesa morphology (flat top and steep slopes). Its stairstepped morphology is shown on Fig. 3 and does not appear in ILDs occurring in the eastern chaotic terrains (Iani, Aureum, Aram, and Arsinoes Chaos) but in other ILDs in Valles Marineris (e.g. Hebes). Ganges Mensa features fresh-eroded light-toned layers appearing competent, forming steep scarps and having high surface temperatures as well as thermal inertia. The dark material corresponds to accumulations of wind-transported matter that covers flatter slopes and shows lower brightness-temperatures. Analyses of CRISM and image data (HRSC, MOC, HiRISE) indicate that there are differences in texture and mineralogical composition as well. CRISM observations show that the lower sequence of the ILD (consisting of many layers) has a strong kieserite signature as observed by [8]. Exposed windblown dark material on its surface has no olivine, pyroxene, or ferric oxide spectral features. This unit comprises an approximate thickness of ~1.6 km out of 3.5 km for the whole ILD and is very rough and coarse looking. There, the surface temperatures (Fig. 2) as well as thermal inertia values are much higher which is in agreement with [8]. A transition zone characterized by a discrete layer at an elevation of about -1.9 km marks the beginning of the upper unit (Fig. 1-3). In the upper unit, weak polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) features are observed in the light-toned material while the dark dunes on top and in grooves show clinopyroxene (HCP). The mineralogy might correlate with the steepness of the slopes observed by [8,10] for kieserite being exposed in steeper parts and polyhydrated sulfates in less steep parts. As the ILD is composed of alternating steep and less steep parts, less steep parts may possibly exhibit polyhydrated sulfates that are covered by windblown material. We observe a higher thermal inertia in the lower, fresh eroded kieserite unit (400-600 SI) than in the upper unit that shows polyhydrated sulfate features (300- 500 SI) which is not coincident to observations in West Candor Chasma ILD [11] but may be due to weak PHS signal or hydration state of PHS. The same is observed comparing kieserite exposed on steep exposures and PHS [12] in Capri Chasma. ILDs observed in other regions ILDs have various morphologies. They often appear as mounds or hills. Massive cap rock at their top and layering in lower parts is also very common. Material enclosing chaotic structures, terrace-like appearances, and knobs are visible. Varying surfaces (knobby, rough, fractured, grooved, cap rock) are widespread as well as talus exhibited on steep slopes. Yardangs and flutes on their surface as well as dunes located in surface fractures indicate that the material is highly affected by wind erosion and therefore weakly consolidated. The contact between ILD and chaotic terrain often is covered by dusty and/or fine-grained material, but few MOC-images [9] show the stratigraphic position of ILDs superposing chaotic terrain, and indicating a younger age. Layering is observed at different elevations at MOCscale reaching from -4.6 km up to -1 km, but mostly between -4.5 km up to -3 km and is absent in upper parts that are mostly cap rock. The vertical thickness of layered material is high in Ganges Mensa and low in other regions of Ganges or the chaotic terrains, e.g. Arsinoes. We discriminate between less than 16 layers and less than 7 layers we counted at MOC-scale. Apparently, t

Sowe, M.; Roach, L. H.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Mustard, J. L.; Neukum, G.

2008-09-01

313

Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

2013-01-01

314

An integrated observation system with multiple acoustic arrays for underwater behavioral study of the Ganges river dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have been developing an acoustic observation system that can record the high frequency bio-sonar clicks of the Ganges river dolphins and can estimate their 3-D location in real-time. In order to expand the coverage of the acoustic measurement, a new integrated observation system, which consists of one main array system and the newly developed multiple small array system,

Junichi Kojima; Harumi Sugimatsu; Tamaki Ura; Rajendar Bahl; Sandeep Behera; Vivek Sheel Sagar

2011-01-01

315

The composition of suspended matter from Ganges–Brahmaputra sediment dispersal system during low sediment transport season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended matter supplied from the Ganges–Brahmaputra river system was sampled in waters of the adjacent shelf area in times of low suspended matter load (November\\/December 1997). The absolute amount of suspended matter ranges between >500 mg\\/l near the river mouth and Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the suspended matter show changes in its composition with distance from the source. Compositional

J Stummeyer; V Marchig; W Knabe

2002-01-01

316

Effect of hydrogen on Al2O3 Cu interfacial structure and adhesion Xiao-Gang Wang,1  

E-print Network

Effect of hydrogen on Al2O3 Ã?Cu interfacial structure and adhesion Xiao-Gang Wang,1 John R. Smith,1 out an ab initio investigation of the effect of hydrogen on the Al2O3 /Cu interface. H on the Al2O3 such as an Al2O3. Adhesion at these interfaces is critical for many of the aforementioned applications. Hydrogen

317

Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also provided, with ties to social studies, language arts, art, and mathematics. Chain Gang is an exceptionally useful resource for the motivated, experienced, capable, and confident science teacher. For teachers with less experience in chemistry, the book is ideal for training workshops and in-services. Teachers quickly develop the confidence to explore the activities if they are introduced to the book and led through a handful of experiments in a workshop setting. Our reliance on polymers in such diverse fields as packaging, transportation, health, and construction warrants some discussion of the science of long-chain molecules in K-12 science classrooms. Chain Gang provides plenty of opportunities, which teachers will be able to tailor to their own curriculum. With modest training, these teachers will be armed with activities to excite, intrigue, and motivate their students to consider the role of polymer chemistry in their lives.

Collard, David M.

1999-01-01

318

BPC3 Consortium Members  

Cancer.gov

To achieve the goals of the consortium, a Steering Committee coordinates the efforts within and across the participating cohorts and scientific disciplines. The Steering Committee includes the four principal investigators for the cooperative agreements that fund participation of the cohorts in the BCP3 Study, the principal investigators of the cohorts themselves (which are funded independent of this study), and NCI Program staff as Ex Officio members.

319

[Comment on] BOSP members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

Richman, Barbara T.

320

River avulsions in the presence of tectonic tilting, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bangladesh, the set of active rivers of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta overlie a landscape that is being continually modified by tectonics. The response of rivers to a surface being altered by tectonic tilting or other causes of spatially variable subsidence is generally understood to be a preferred path direction toward regions of higher subsidence. Quantifying the magnitude of the effect of variable subsidence on the timescale and path direction of channel avulsion remains, however, an open question. Recent experimental work has suggested an equilibrium-slope explanation for the timescale and conditions for avulsion, which provides a way forward on understanding how varied subsidence conditions would affect the avulsion process. Here we adapt this model for avulsion to the context of variable subsidence, developing a new framework to quantify its effect on channel avulsions. We find that variable subsidence results in two effects: differing timescales between avulsions on different parts of the delta, and differing frequencies of avulsion to these locations. Regions of higher subsidence both draw avulsions more frequently, and result in longer channel residence times in these locations. We also describe the effect of incision or aggradation due to sea level changes within this framework: incisional events lengthen avulsion timescales everywhere on the delta, while periods of sea-level rise drive the timescales back toward their minimum values. Finally, we apply this theory to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, where we use a map of regional variable subsidence that we derived from GPS and published stratigraphic data, to predict the variation in avulsion timescale and frequency for the Brahmaputra River due to this variable subsidence. We make estimates for two different tectonic history interpretations, and for the cases with or without the estimated incision from the most recent sea-level fall. Comparison between our predictions and our stratigraphy-derived estimates of avulsion timescale shows encouraging consistency. The work presented here represents the first quantitative, general framework for the influence of variable tectonics or subsidence on large-scale nodal avulsion timescale and path direction.

Reitz, M. D.; Steckler, M. S.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Williams, L. A.

2013-12-01

321

Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation-Downscaled from GCM predictors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia-the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of large rural populations linked to subsistence agriculture in the basins. Uncertainty analysis of the downscaled precipitation indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than the uncertainty in the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is suggested for comprehensive impact studies.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

2014-09-01

322

Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of large rural populations linked to subsistence agriculture in the basins. Uncertainty analysis of the downscaled precipitation indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than the uncertainty in the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is suggested for comprehensive impact studies.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

2014-01-01

323

Exploring the provenance of vegetation and environmental signatures encoded in vascular plant biomarkers carried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter carried by rivers and deposited in continental and marine sediments contains valuable information on past environmental conditions and their impact on the terrestrial biosphere. In order to use sedimentary records to reconstruct past environmental conditions on the continents, such as vegetation cover and type, or precipitation intensity, we need to understand the provenance of the organic signatures and how they are transferred, and potentially modified, by fluvial transport to the sedimentary reservoir. In particular, we need to understand how environmental conditions are imprinted in the composition of riverine particulate organic carbon. Here we investigate the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of vascular plant leaf wax biomarkers in the modern-day Ganges and Brahmaputra river complex, one of the largest fluvial system on Earth. The distribution of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in Ganges-Brahmaputra river sediments suggests that vascular plant inputs are consistently a significant component of the organic carbon pool. Molecular ?13C measurements reveal that C3 vegetation inputs delivered by the Himalayan rivers are partly oxidized and replaced by mixed C3/C4 vegetation input in the floodplain. This process appears to be rather non-selective in the Ganges basin, affecting both discrete particles of vegetation debris and OC associated with mineral phases. In contrast, in the Brahmaputra basin vegetation debris appears more susceptible to this replacement process. The hydrogen isotopic composition of long-chain (C24+) alkanoic acids, in combination with their stable C isotopic composition, provides constraints on the isotopic composition of the meteoric water used by the plants. Calculated compositions compare well with the depleted ?2H isotopic ratios of the heavy rains of the summer monsoon. Notably, in the Ganges basin, the isotopic compositions calculated at the base of the range and in the floodplain are identical, suggesting that H-isotopic compositions of long-chain alkanoic acids are a valuable proxy for the composition of summer monsoon precipitation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Using sedimentary records near the terminus of this river system, such measurements could provide insights into summer monsoon rainfall intensity in the past.

Galy, Valier; Eglinton, Timothy; France-Lanord, Christian; Sylva, Sean

2010-05-01

324

The Ganged Phased Array Radar Risk Mitigation System: Atmospheric Sciences Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology advances have resulted in rapid developments in unmanned aircraft systems. The widespread utilization of those systems, however, is limited by the diminished capability of these systems to "sense and avoid" other aircraft in uncontrolled air space. As a means for providing this capability, researchers at the UND John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences are developing a Ganged Phased Array Radar Risk Mitigation System (GPARS-RMS), the purpose of which is to provide information that enables aircraft (manned and unmanned) deconfliction. As part of the development of such a system, potential atmospheric sciences applications are being explored. Such applications will be able to potentially take advantage of not only remotely-sensed radar data streams from the GPARS-RMS, but also in situ tropospheric data collected on-board the unmanned aircraft. Possible applications include studies of boundary-layer flow structures, local- and meso-scale moisture balances, surface fluxes, cloud and precipitation microphysics, local scale plume dispersion, and the utility of four-dimensional assimilation of such very high resolution data for improvements in short-term (1-6 hour) local- and meso-scale numerical weather prediction. As part of the development of the GPARS-RMS, a system simulation environment is being developed. The utilization of weather information in this system will be described, as will initial tests of the applications of data from such a system in multiple-Doppler and data assimilation experiments.

Askelson, M. A.; Tilley, J. S.; Theisen, C. J.; Theisen, A. K.

2008-05-01

325

Model to assess the impacts of external drivers on the hydrology of the Ganges River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Ganges River Basin (GRB) is simulated by using a hydrological model - Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Climate data from the GCM, Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) was downscaled with PRECIS for the GRB under A1B Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) scenarios. The annual average precipitation will increase by 2.2% and 14.1% by 2030 and 2050, respectively, compared to the baseline period (1981-2010). Spatial distribution of the future precipitation shows that in the substantial areas of the middle part of the GRB, the annual precipitation in 2030 and 2050 will be reduced compared to the baseline period. Simulations indicate that in 2050 the total groundwater recharge would increase by 12%, while the increase of evapotranspiration will be about 10% compared to the baseline period. The water yield is also expected to increase in the future (up to 40% by 2050 compared to baseline), especially during the wetter months. The model setup is available for free from IWMI's modelling inventory.

Muthuwatta, L.; Sood, A.; Sharma, B.

2014-09-01

326

Construction and maintenance of the ganges-brahmaputra-meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.  

PubMed

We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise. PMID:25251271

Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

2015-01-01

327

Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, with 170 million people and a vast, low-lying coastal plain, is perceived to be at great risk of increased flooding and submergence from sea-level rise. However, human alteration of the landscape can create similar risks to sea-level rise. Here, we report that islands in southwest Bangladesh, enclosed by embankments in the 1960s, have lost 1.0-1.5 m of elevation, whereas the neighbouring Sundarban mangrove forest has remained comparatively stable. We attribute this elevation loss to interruption of sedimentation inside the embankments, combined with accelerated compaction, removal of forest biomass, and a regionally increased tidal range. One major consequence of this elevation loss occurred in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands failed during Cyclone Aila, leaving large areas of land tidally inundated for up to two years until embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape received tens of centimetres of tidally deposited sediment, equivalent to decades’ worth of normal sedimentation. Although many areas still lie well below mean high water and remain at risk of severe flooding, we conclude that elevation recovery may be possible through controlled embankment breaches.

Auerbach, L. W.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C. A.; Ahmed, K. R.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Small, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B. A.

2015-02-01

328

Land atmosphere feedbacks and their role in the water resources of the Ganges basin.  

PubMed

The northern Indian subcontinent has frequently been identified as a hotspot for land atmosphere interactions. It is also a region with the highest concentration of irrigated land and highest (and increasing) population density in the world. The available water in the region with which to grow food depends on the Asian monsoon, groundwater and melt from Himalayan snows. Any changes or disruptions to these sources of water could threaten the food supply. It is therefore essential to understand how the land surface, and in particular irrigated land, interacts with the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the interactions will occur on many scales. To an extent the magnitude and form of these will depend on the depth of the atmosphere which is affected. Thus at the local, or micro, scale it is the surface layer (some 10 s m deep) which is cooled and moistened by the evaporation of irrigated water, at the meso-scale the Planetary boundary layer (up to 1 or 2 km) will be modified - with possible atmospheric moistening, increased cloud and rain formation and at very large scales the whole dynamics of the south Asian Monsoon will be affected. This illustrates a strong interaction between the Asian monsoon and the regional topography. Of considerable significance is the finding in this paper that up to 60% of the evaporation from irrigated areas in the summer months is ultimately recycled to Himalayan rainfall and so feedbacks to river flows in the Ganges. PMID:23557782

Harding, R J; Blyth, E M; Tuinenburg, O A; Wiltshire, A

2013-12-01

329

The gang of four gene regulates growth and patterning of the developing Drosophila eye.  

PubMed

We report here the identification of a novel complementation group in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster named gang of four (gfr). Mutations in gfr disrupt patterns of cell differentiation in the eye and increase eye size through a proliferative mechanism that can be enhanced by a block in apoptosis. gfr mutant cells show several features of deregulated Ras/MAP kinase activity, including reduced expression of the Capicua growth suppressing transcription factor and synthetically lethality with alleles of the Jun N-terminal kinase phosphatase puckered. gfr alleles also upreguate Notch activity in the eye. Thus, gfr alleles appear to elicit growth and patterning phenotypes via effects on multiple signaling pathways. Moreover, the gfr alleles behave as gain-of-function lesions and overexpress the gene, bruno-3 (bru-3), which is located at the genomic region to which gfr lesions map. Genetic reduction of bru-3 suppresses phenotypes caused by gfr alleles, and like gfr alleles, overexpression of bru-3 depresses levels of Cic protein, indicating that overexpression of bru-3 is central to gfr mutant phenotypes. PMID:20473027

Beam, Carolyn K; Moberg, Kenneth

2010-01-01

330

Air pollution modeling over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal in the early post-monsoon season using the NASA GEOS-5 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges basin is characterized by a significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation. This has resulted in increased anthropogenic emissions and declining air quality. The NASA GEOS-5 model was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol components (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, desert dust, and sea-salt). The model includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. The obtained eight-year (2002 - 2009) MERRA-driven aerosol dataset (MERRAero) was applied to study AOT and its trends over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; lower cloud fraction compared to the monsoon season; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mm/month. In the early post-monsoon season (October), modeled data showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the north-west of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions due to higher population density, increased industrial output and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the north-west of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and north-west BoB, AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation, but mainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Air pollution modeling allowed us to determine aerosol species responsible for the increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB: aerosols were dominated by anthropogenic air pollution, such as sulfates and carbon aerosols. In October 2009, the vertically integrated aerosol mass flux over north-west BoB was maximal, while monthly mean wind was minimal. This indicates accumulating aerosol particles over north-west BoB. The wind convergence over north-west BoB was also maximal in October 2009. Therefore, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux is sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation.

Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

2014-05-01

331

Melt containment member  

DOEpatents

A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

2014-09-09

332

Prerelease member participation as potential predictors of post-release community members’ adoption behaviour: evidence from the motion picture industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web 2.0-based online communities have seen a growing popularity in recent years both in terms of the volume of academic research publications and practical implications. Earlier studies have investigated the consequences of member participation in online brand communities such as improving brand image, product recommendation behaviour, creating oppositional loyalty towards competitor brands, etc. As a development of this research, this

Pradeep Kumar Ponnamma Divakaran

2012-01-01

333

Hydrologic control of temporal variability in groundwater arsenic on the Ganges floodplain of Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated arsenic in groundwater affects some 100 million people in South Asia, yet mitigation efforts are hindered by persistent uncertainty about the proximal source of arsenic and mechanisms for its mobilization. At the core of this uncertainty are the relative roles of surficial organic clays vs. deeper aquifer matrix iron oxyhydroxides. Temporal variations in groundwater chemistry can serve to distinguish the contributions of these two sources, and such variation is especially pronounced in headwater areas of the Ganges floodplain immediately adjacent to the Himalayan foothills (e.g. the Terai of Nepal). Tubewells down to 50 m in the Terai commonly exhibit cyclical, temporally-correlated variation in dissolved arsenic, iron and other species. In Nawalparasi, the most arsenic-affected district, these wells tap thin (2 m) gray sand aquifers embedded in a thick (>50 m) sequence of organic clays. Monsoon recharge refreshes these aquifers, temporarily minimizing arsenic concentrations. Post-monsoon, average groundwater compositions exhibit increasing trends in water-rock interaction (higher TDS, with cation exchange to form increasingly Na-HCO3 waters), arsenic and iron. This cycle can be repeated during dry-season precipitation events as well, revealing direct correlation between trends in degree of clay interaction (sodium fraction of major cations) and arsenic concentrations. During the year, reversals in vertical head gradient yield reversals in arsenic temporal trend, and downward gradients in the dry season correlate with increases in arsenic. Collectively these observations strongly support a model of reductive mobilization of arsenic from adjacent clays into aquifers, tempered by repeated flushing during periods of appreciable rainfall.

Brikowski, T. H.; Neku, A.; Shrestha, S. D.; Smith, L. S.

2014-10-01

334

InSAR measurements of compaction and subsidence in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of the world's largest river deltas are sinking due to sediment loading, compaction, and tectonics but also recently because of groundwater extraction, hydrocarbon extraction, and reduced aggradation. Little is known, however, about the full spatial variability of subsidence rates in complex delta systems. This study reconstructs subsidence rates in the eastern portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), Bangladesh, covering more than 10,000 km2 at a high spatial resolution of 100 m. The map was produced using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) covering the period 2007 to 2011. Eighteen Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased-Array L-band SAR scenes were used to generate 30 interferograms calibrated with GPS. Interferograms were stacked to yield average subsidence rates over the study period. Small Baseline Subset-InSAR was then applied to validate the results against an additional GPS record from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Land subsidence of 0 to > 10 mm/yr is seen in Dhaka, with variability likely related to local variations in shallow subsurface sediment properties. Outside of the city, rates vary from 0 to > 18 mm/yr, with the lowest rates appearing primarily in Pleistocene Madhupur Clay and the highest rates in Holocene organic-rich muds. Results demonstrate that subsidence in this delta is primarily controlled by local stratigraphy, with rates varying by more than an order of magnitude depending on lithology. The ability of L-band InSAR to differentiate between stratigraphic units in this humid, vegetated subtropical river delta demonstrates the power of interferometry as a tool for studying the subsurface in deltaic environments.

Higgins, Stephanie A.; Overeem, Irina; Steckler, Michael S.; Syvitski, James P. M.; Seeber, Leonardo; Akhter, S. Humayun

2014-08-01

335

Changing Flow Patterns In The Ganges And Brahmaputra Basins: Evidence Of Regional Climate Warming In The Eastern Himalayas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin region of South Asia is home to over 500 million people. Water is intricately linked with the overall development framework of this region. Concerns about region wide climate warming and early signs of glacial retreat have raised questions about the long-term flow availability of these rivers. In addition, possible seasonal shifts in the regional streamflow patterns may lead to major changes in environmental impacts and water management and usage practices. We compare precipitation, streamflow, and related atmospheric changes for the upper Brahmaputra and the Ganges basin regions at monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal scales. We find that a strong warming signal is evident in the recorded discharge of the two rivers with seasonal flow values for both basins showing a significant shift over the last decade. Increasing trends have been observed in the Brahmaputra and Ganges low flows over the last decade. Monthly flow in the dry season has risen significantly, while monsoon flow volumes have decreased. While there has been no change in precipitation patterns in the region, investigation using temperature Reanalysis data show that winter temperatures in the high altitude regions are increasingly warmer thereby causing abnormal patterns of snow accumulation and depletion. Our findings are corroborated by remotely sensed snow cover patterns in corresponding years. While these hydroclimatic changes may provide short-term relief for dry season water scarcity, long-term viability of the available runoff remain questionable. It is thus imperative to understand the shifting flow patterns and associated impacts on water needs in the region.

Prashar, D. K.; Akanda, A. S.; Small, D. L.; Islam, S.

2010-12-01

336

The provenance of vegetation and environmental signatures encoded in vascular plant biomarkers carried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter carried by rivers and deposited in continental and marine sediments contains valuable information on past environmental conditions and their impact on the terrestrial biosphere. In order to use sedimentary records to reconstruct past environmental conditions on the continents, such as vegetation cover and type, or precipitation intensity, we need to understand the provenance of the organic signatures and how they are transferred, and potentially modified, by fluvial transport to the sedimentary reservoir. In particular, we need to understand how environmental conditions are imprinted in the composition of riverine particulate organic carbon. Here we investigate the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of vascular plant leaf wax biomarkers in the modern-day Ganges and Brahmaputra river complex, one of the largest fluvial systems on Earth. The distribution of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in Ganges-Brahmaputra river sediments suggests that vascular plant inputs are consistently a significant component of the organic carbon pool. Molecular ? 13C measurements reveal that C 3 vegetation inputs delivered by the Himalayan rivers are partly degraded and replaced by mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation input in the floodplain. The hydrogen isotopic composition of long-chain (C 24+) n-alkanoic acids, in combination with their stable C isotopic composition, provides constraints on the isotopic composition of the environmental water used by higher plants within the drainage basin. Calculated compositions compare well with the depleted ?D isotopic ratios of the river water during the summer monsoon, suggesting that H-isotopic compositions of long-chain alkanoic acids are a valuable proxy for the composition of summer monsoon moisture in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Detailed studies of the "isotopic anatomy" of modern river systems are critical for informed interpretation of marine sedimentary records in river-influenced continental margins.

Galy, Valier; Eglinton, Timothy; France-Lanord, Christian; Sylva, Sean

2011-04-01

337

Exploring the provenance of vegetation and environmental signatures encoded in vascular plant biomarkers carried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter carried by rivers and deposited in continental and marine sediments contains valuable information on past environmental conditions and their impact on the terrestrial biosphere. In order to use sedimentary records to reconstruct past environmental conditions on the continents, such as vegetation cover and type, or precipitation intensity, we need to understand the provenance of the organic signatures and how they are transferred, and potentially modified, by fluvial transport to the sedimentary reservoir. In particular, we need to understand how environmental conditions are imprinted in the composition of riverine particulate organic carbon. Here we investigate the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of vascular plant leaf wax biomarkers in the modern-day Ganges and Brahmaputra river complex, one of the largest fluvial system on Earth. Molecular stable C isotope ratio measurements reveal that C3 vegetation inputs delivered by the Himalayan rivers are partly degraded and replaced by mixed C3/C4 vegetation input in the floodplain. The hydrogen isotopic composition of long-chain n-alkanoic acids, in combination with their stable C isotopic composition, provides constraints on the isotopic composition of the meteoric water used by the plants. Calculated compositions compare well with the depleted D/H isotopic ratios of the heavy rains of the summer monsoon. Notably, in the Ganges basin, the isotopic compositions calculated at the base of the range and in the floodplain are identical, suggesting that H-isotopic compositions of long-chain n-alkanoic acids are a valuable proxy for the composition of summer monsoon precipitation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Using sedimentary records near the terminus of this river system, such measurements could provide insights into summer monsoon rainfall intensity in the past.

Galy, V.; Eglinton, T. I.; France-Lanord, C.; Sylva, S.

2010-12-01

338

Don't Judge a Man by the Color of his Rag: The Reality and Resistance of Gangsta Rap Among Los Angeles Gang Members  

E-print Network

. Out of everyone in the semi-circle discussion, Indugu and I established a connection. I later saw him again and thus, Indugu became my second tour guide. On Saturday May 18th I was invited to help Tremont feed the homeless at King Park on 39th... bench, I surveyed the people who gathered on this beautiful, sunny weekend. The park was filled with all ages, from little kids running in the grass and on the playground to older homeless individuals walking aimlessly around with bodies worn...

Davis, Mamie C.

2014-08-08

339

A Cross-National Comparison of Externalizing Behaviors among High-Risk Youth and Youth Gang Members in Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, and San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth interventions often focus on high-risk youth; however, little is known about the similarities and differences of these youth cross-nationally. This study examines externalizing behaviors of youth in Boston (n = 374) and San Salvador (n = 208) and compares several domains. Results reveal significant differences between populations; Salvadoran youth exhibited higher rates of violence and delinquency, marijuana use, and

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2011-01-01

340

MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM SOLANI SPECIES COMPLEX CAUSING INFECTIONS IN BOTH HUMANS AND PLANTS ARE THOSE MOST COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are increasingly implicated as the causative agents of human mycoses, particularly in the expanding immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patient populations. Best known as ubiquitous plant pathogens and saprotrophs, members of FSSC comprise ov...

341

A gang of thieves -- evolution of cooperative kleptoparasitism in the subfamily Argyrodinae (Araneae: Theridiidae)  

E-print Network

. This is because in group-living Argyrodes, group members are significantly more closely related than the individuals drawn randomly from the population in a small geographic scale. In Chapter 5, the phylogenetic analyses showed several independent origins of group...

Su, Yong-Chao

2012-08-31

342

Academy Member Annual Update Report 1Academy Member Update Report  

E-print Network

Academy Member Annual Update Report 1Academy Member Update Report The annual update report is an important activity associated with active membership in the Academy. These reports are due annually questions. A separate document includes the required report format and directions. Please email omerad

343

Distribution of nutrients, heavy metals, and PAHs affected by sediment dredging in the Wujin'gang River basin flowing into Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu.  

PubMed

This paper's survey of the pollution of the Wujin'gang River is important because it is one of the main rivers flowing into Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in eastern China. Trace metals (TMs) in this paper are described according to their pollution index (P i). Cluster analysis and correlation analysis are utilized for group sites and to assess co-contamination. Toxicity effect analysis was conducted using individual sediment quality guideline quotients (SQGQs) and mean SQGQs. The results showed that sediment from the Wujin'gang River basin was affected by nutrients, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are an essential contamination source for both Meiliang Bay and Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu. The discharge of TMs has significant correlations to total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP); however, no significant correlations were observed between the content of PAHs and TMs. Toxicity effect results show that sediment in the Wujin'gang River basin threatens sediment-dwelling organisms. The harmful effect was mainly caused by heavy metals especially Cd, Cr, Ni, and Cu. Sediment dredging is an effective way to control pollution from internal rivers especially for the pollution of TN and heavy metals in the Wujin'gang River basin. PMID:24037297

Zhang, Rongfei; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Liujun; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei; Xiao, Lin

2014-02-01

344

A Cost-Effective LSH Filter for Fast Pairwise Mining Gang Zhao, Yun Xiong, Longbing Cao, Dan Luo, Xuchun Su and Yangyong Zhu  

E-print Network

A Cost-Effective LSH Filter for Fast Pairwise Mining Gang Zhao, Yun Xiong, Longbing Cao, Dan Luo LSH- based method, namely Cost-effective LSH filter (Ce-LSH for short), for pairwise mining. Compared with previous LSH-type methods, it uses a lower fixed number of LSH functions and is thus more cost-effective

Cao, Longbing

345

Chern Semimetal and the Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in HgCr2Se4 Gang Xu, Hongming Weng, Zhijun Wang, Xi Dai, and Zhong Fang*  

E-print Network

Chern Semimetal and the Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in HgCr2Se4 Gang Xu, Hongming Weng, Zhijun normal insulating layers may exist, where the gap must be closed, resulting in a ``Chern semimetal that the band crossings appear at the Fermi level at stoichiometry. This Chern semimetal state, if found

Wang, Wei Hua

346

TANGO -a Collaborative Environment for the World-Wide Web Lukasz Beca, Gang Cheng, Geoffrey C. Fox, Tomasz Jurga, Konrad Olszewski, Marek Podgorny1  

E-print Network

TANGO - a Collaborative Environment for the World-Wide Web Lukasz Beca, Gang Cheng, Geoffrey C. Fox York 13244-4100, USA3 Abstract Geographical and logical growth of the World-Wide Web is accompanied, electronic mail, and gopher, to mention a few. However it was the World-Wide Web technology that intro- duced

347

A Cross-Service Travel Engine for Trip Planning Gang Chen #1, Chen Liu 2, Meiyu Lu 3, Beng Chin Ooi 4, Shanshan Ying 5  

E-print Network

{liuchen, lumeiyu, ooibc, shanshan, atung, zhangdo, zmeihui}@comp.nus.edu.sg ABSTRACT The online travel of the online travel services and resources. First, most of the travel sites are domain-closed and only provideA Cross-Service Travel Engine for Trip Planning Gang Chen #1, Chen Liu 2, Meiyu Lu 3, Beng Chin Ooi

Ooi, Beng Chin

348

Superconducting Phases in Potassium-Intercalated Iron Selenides Tianping Ying, Xiaolong Chen,* Gang Wang,* Shifeng Jin, Xiaofang Lai, Tingting Zhou, Han Zhang,  

E-print Network

Superconducting Phases in Potassium-Intercalated Iron Selenides Tianping Ying, Xiaolong Chen,* Gang two pure SC phases, KxFe2Se2(NH3)y (x 0.3 and 0.6), determined mainly by potassium concentration.84(1) Ã?. With higher potassium doping, the 44 K phase can be converted into the 30 K phase. NH3 has little

Wang, Wei Hua

349

Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

2007-01-01

350

On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

Vander Horst, Anthony

2012-01-01

351

Why the Higgs mechanism is NOT spontaneous symmetry The "Xiao-Gang Wen argument" for why gauge symmetries cannot be spontaneously bro-  

E-print Network

Why the Higgs mechanism is NOT spontaneous symmetry breaking The "Xiao-Gang Wen argument" for why energy. So now that we have established that the Higgs mechanism does not, and cannot, correspond of this Hamiltonian in detail, but here we will just want to focus on the "Higgs" phase, which occurs when g

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

352

Association Members' Meeting Participation Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding meeting participation behaviors of association members is the key to a well-attended meeting, which is a common goal of both associations and host destinations. However, little research has contributed to theoretical development in this area, and the lack of a theoretical framework may negatively influence the validity of research. This study attempts to explain association members' meeting participation behaviors

Myong Jae Lee; Ki-Joon Back

2007-01-01

353

42 CFR 93.214 - Institutional member.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Institutional member. Institutional member or members means a person who is...institution. Institutional members may include, but are not...faculty, teaching and support staff, researchers, research coordinators, clinical...

2010-10-01

354

Structural members, method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for fabricating a structural member such as truss from flexible sheet material in compacted form are disclosed. A number of generally tubular columns are progressively formed from the sheet material and deployed generally parallel to one another. Adjacent pairs of the columns are interconnected by respective side members, each of which is comprised of a strip of the sheet material. The sheet material is fastened together by self-attaching fasteners integrally formed from the sheet material of the columns and side members themselves.

Kinzler, J. A. (inventor)

1980-01-01

355

In the Balance: Natural v. Embanked Landscapes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural river deltas are defined by a balance of net aggradational processes that construct the delta platform, and marine processes that redistribute sediments and facilitate platform evolution. The future of deltas worldwide will be determined by this balance of sedimentation, subsidence and sea-level rise, in addition to human-caused perturbations. Among the world's delta systems the Ganges-Brahmaputra is perceived to be at great risk to degradation and submergence under multiple climate and sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. In particular, the lower delta plain in southwest Bangladesh is isolated from fluvial processes, yet still receives up to 1 cm of sediment accretion annually as sediments discharged at the river mouth are reworked by tides and deposited onto the lower delta plain. In the Sundarbans, a 10,000 km2 block of pristine mangrove forest in the region, this tidally supported sedimentation has been effective in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with SLR that is augmented by local subsidence and shallow compaction. Adjacent to the Sundarbans, however, human modification has significantly impacted the landscape through embankment construction that occurred in the 1960s to increase arable land for rice production and famine relief. As a consequence, the embankments have locally inhibited sediment delivery to the landscape, decoupling these interacting systems. In the ensuing five decades the land has continued to subside and compact, and in the absence of sediment accretion has experienced a net elevation loss of more than 1 m since embankment construction. The acute effects of this elevation offset were felt in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands breached during Cyclone Aila. We are studying Polder 32, a 60 km2 island that was land tidally inundated for two years until its embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape rebounded with tens of centimeters of tidally deposited sediment, accounting for decades-worth of normal sedimentation, but only partly restoring the elevation lost over the previous five decades. This work implements field measurements and a conceptual model of the lower delta plain to establish a budget for observed elevation differences among local, relative water levels and the natural and human-altered landscapes. We demonstrate that embanked regions of the lower delta are more vulnerable than pristine areas to changes in sea level caused by impeded sediment delivery as a result of decoupling the tidal channel-landscape system. The elevation disparity that has developed in the past 50 years is equivalent to ~2 cm/yr of RSL rise. This rate is more than twice the upper end of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections for future sea-level rise, making these poldered landscapes a very useful, albeit troubling, analog for studying the impact of increased SLR in coming decades.

Wallace Auerbach, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C.; Ahmed, K.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Nooner, S. L.

2013-12-01

356

Evolution of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 'Gang of Four' Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of eight NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'snapshots' shows the evolution of the P-Q complex, also called the 'gang of four' region, of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9.

The eight individual frames chronicle changes in the comet during the 12 months before colliding with Jupiter. The sequence shows that the relative separations of the various cometary fragments, thought to range in size from about 500 meters to almost 4 km (2.5 miles) across, changed dramatically over this period. The apparent separation of Q1 and Q2 was only about 1100 kilometers (680 miles) on 1 July 1993 and increased to 28,000 kilometers (17,400 miles) by 20 July 1994.

The P-Q complex demonstrates that further fragmentation occurred after the breakup of the parent body in July 1992. Fragments Q1 and Q2 were probably together at some point in a single body. However, it is not clear how P1 and P2, and the P and Q objects are related.

Between 24 January and 30 March 1994, the P2 nucleus broke-up into two separate fragments, one of which disappeared by late June. (It might be present in the mid-May image.) The P1 nucleus had a 'streaked' appearance on 24 January 1994 and then became a barely discernible 'puff' through mid-May. It was not detected in subsequent observations.

Throughout the period, most nuclei were within a 4000 kilometer-wide (2500 miles) spherical cloud of dust, called a coma. However, shortly before impact, the coma around each nucleus became highly elongated along the comet's travel path due to 'stretching' by Jupiter's rapidly increasing gravity.

This stretching is dramatic in the image of the Q-complex taken on 20 July 1994, just 10 hours before collision. Despite the coma's changes, HST images show that the core of each nucleus always remained concentrated. This shows that the nuclei were probably not catastrophically fragmenting, at least not up to 10 hours before impact.

The first HST image was taken on 1 July 1993 with the Planetary Camera before the December 1993 HST servicing mission. All other images were taken with the WFPC-2. (The image taken on 17 May 1994 was taken in 'wide-field' mode and has a lower resolution than the other WFPC-2 images). The images were taken in visible light. The different shades of red are a false-color representation of the different intensities of light reflecting off the comet's dust. Each frame covers a region 90,000 by 30,000 kilometers (56,000 by 18,600 miles).

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

357

Understanding the roles of NHS trust board members.  

PubMed

The establishment of NHS trust boards on a business format was a recent innovation resulting from the NHS reforms. In order to realize benefits for patients, it is essential that boards operate effectively. Explores within the framework of corporate governance, the practical implications of board member roles. Drawing on experience of strategy formulation at board level, analyses and clarifies the roles, and presents recommendations to increase board effectiveness. PMID:10162758

Deffenbaugh, J

1996-01-01

358

Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra river flow. Second goal is to project the behavior of future river discharge forced by the increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Three more rivers, the Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers are considered. It is meaningful to people living within the watershed, which would experience flooding or drought in the next 100-years. The original precipitation output from the third phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP3) project has large inter-model variability, which limits the ability to quantify the regional precipitation or runoff trends. With a basic statistical Quantile-to-Quantile (Q-Q) technique, a mapping index was built to link each modeled precipitation averaged over river catchment and observational discharge measured close to the mouth. Using the climatological annual cycle to choose the "good" models, the observational river discharges are well reproduced from the 20th century run (20C3M) model results. Furthermore, with the same indices, the future 21st century river discharge of the Yangtze, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Blue Nile are simulated under different SRES scenarios. The Murray-Darling River basin does not have the similar seasonal cycle of discharge with modeled precipitations. So we choose to build the link between satellite imaged and modeled precipitations and use it to simulate the future precipitation. The Yangtze, Ganges, Brahmaputra River mean wet season discharges are projected to increase up to 15-25% at the end of the 21st century under the most abundant GHGs scenarios (SRESA1B and SRESA2). The risks of flooding also reach to a high level throughout the time. Inter-model deviations increase dramatically under all scenarios except for the fixed-2000 level concentration (COMMIT). With large uncertainty, the Blue Nile River discharge and Murray-Darling River basin annual precipitation do not suggest a sign of change on multi-model mean.

Jian, Jun

2007-12-01

359

Comparing land use change and climate change as drivers of hydrological change in the Upper Ganges basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying how land use changes and climate change affect hydrological components is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. The Upper Ganges river basin (India) experiences almost every year monsoon flooding (for instance: summer 2013 floods over northern India). Studies have shown that there is evidence of strong coupling between the land surface (soil moisture) and atmosphere (precipitation) in North India which means that regional climate variations and changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of land-atmosphere interactions. This study aims to quantify how land use changes and climate change affect the hydrological response of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin. High-resolution historic land cover maps for northern India were developed, based on satellite imagery, for the years from 1984 to 2010. Future scenarios of land cover were produced for year 2035 using Markov chain analysis. Climate change scenarios were derived from downscaled CIMP5 data from 16 participating models. The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was dynamically coupled with the crop model InfoCrop to allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The coupled system was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data and run under different future land cover and climate change scenarios, to obtain hydrological projections for the UG basin. We investigate the impact of seasonal and inter-annual land use changes as well as the impact of climate change by calculating annual variations in hydrological components (stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture) during the simulation period. Significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes arise under future land cover and climate change scenarios pointing towards a severe increase in high extremes of flow. The changes in all examined hydrological components are greater in the combined land use and climate change scenario compared to land use change and climate change scenarios individually. This work helps prioritizing adaptation strategies and regional land-use planning to improve Northern India's water resources.

Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

2014-05-01

360

Holocene Transgression on the Bengal Shelf and Built up of the Submarine Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Prodelta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta is characterized by a low lying and strongly subsiding coastal zone and is therefore very sensitive to sea level variations affecting drainage capacity by enhancing flooding potential during monsoon as well as impact of storm surges on the coast during pre- and post-monsoon. Mean Sea Level changes could additionally alter the balance between the huge sedimentary input delivered by the rivers to the Bengal Shelf and the high subsidence rate due to plate subduction. Predictability of these issues will be studied in an appropriate time scale to detect interaction of coastal development and sea level changes. During the SO-188-2 Expedition to the Bengal Shelf in July 2006 in cooperation between Bremen University and the BGR, Hannover, a detailed seismostratigraphic data set of the sedimentary deposits was acquired and acoustic facies associated with the Holocene sea level variations were determined. The continental shelf offshore the G-B-M Delta have been investigated with high-resolution multichannel seismic, Parasound and bathymetric surveys, ground truthed with a vibrocoring system to analyze the sedimentation and transport processes. The Holocene Transgression could be reconstructed by identification of seismic units, discontinuities and erosive surfaces preserved in the almost unaltered composite sequences. Data suggest that the sea level rise flooded the low-stand deltaic plain from west to east where a wide estuary system developed; relict Ganges delta's distributaries channels are filled with distal sediments rather than eroded. Since the onset of the modern high-stand delta and the formation of the topset-foreset-bottomset submarine system, the prodelta front has been actively prograding. The internal structure of the clinoforms reveals shelf wide episodes of mass depositions identified by transparent units in the Parasound data and internal unconformities in the seismic data. Volumes, distribution and frequency of these units, which might represent a main sediment transport modality of the prodelta system, will be presented together with sedimentological parameters.

Palamenghi, L.; Bergmann, K.; Schwenk, T.; Reinhard, L.; Spiess, V.; Kudrass, H.

2007-12-01

361

High fluxes of radium and barium from the mouth of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River during low river discharge suggest a large groundwater source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual flux of sediment from the Ganges-Brahmaputra River is among the highest in the world. The desorption of226Ra and Ba from this sediment produces a major point source of226Ra and Ba input to the ocean. Highest226Ra and Ba fluxes are expected to occur during high river flow (June-September) when most of the sediment is discharged. Surprisingly, during low discharge

Willard S. Moore

1997-01-01

362

Ganges and Indus river basin land use\\/land cover (LULC) and irrigated area mapping using continuous streams of MODIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overarching goal of this study was to map irrigated areas in the Ganges and Indus river basins using near-continuous time-series (8-day), 500-m resolution, 7-band MODIS land data for 2001–2002. A multitemporal analysis was conducted, based on a mega file of 294 wavebands, made from 42 MODIS images each of 7 bands. Complementary field data were gathered from 196 locations.

Prasad S. Thenkabail; Mitchell Schull; Hugh Turral

2005-01-01

363

Definitions 4-H members will  

E-print Network

, such as children's clothing, but it should include enough variety so the designer will not be eliminated dueDefinitions Objectives 4-H members will: · Learn definitions of terms used in designing. DESIGN TERMS Before we go into the individual fundamentals of construction for all design, it would help

364

MR JORDAN KENNY Student Member  

E-print Network

MR JORDAN KENNY Student Member Students' Union President J ordan Kenny was born in Bristol. He of Bath. Jordan recently graduated from the University with a BA (Hons) in Sport and Social Science. Whilst at the University, Jordan undertook a considerable number of roles encompassing a range of areas

Burton, Geoffrey R.

365

To See or Not to See: Investigating Detectability of Ganges River Dolphins Using a Combined Visual-Acoustic Survey  

PubMed Central

Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring. PMID:24805782

Richman, Nadia I.; Gibbons, James M.; Turvey, Samuel T.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D.; Jones, Julia P. G.

2014-01-01

366

Influence of hydrologic and anthropogenic factors on the abundance variability of enteropathogens in the Ganges estuary, a cholera endemic region.  

PubMed

This study deals with the influence of water physico-chemical properties, tides, rainfall and fecal pollution on the abundance of enteropathogens in a main distributary of the Ganges, in the endemic cholera belt of West Bengal. Between January and June 2011, water and sediments were sampled from two sites of the Hooghly River by Kolkata and Diamond Harbour. Counts of cultivable Vibrio (CVC, from~10(2) to~10(5)CFU/L) and total bacteria (TBC, from~10(5) to~10(9)CFU/L) increased with water temperature (17°C to 37°C). A combination of variations in tidal height, salinity and turbidity had a distinct influence on CVC, TBC and coliform counts. At Diamond Harbour, a salinity increase from 0.6 to 7.9 was accompanied by a 1000-fold amplification of initial CVC~10(2)CFU/L, whereas higher prevalence of coliforms in Kolkata was related to greater disposal of untreated sewage into the river. Turbidity-dependent variation of CVC was noteworthy, particularly at Diamond Harbour, where CVC in intertidal surface sediments showed an analogous trend as in surface waters, suggesting bentho-pelagic coupling of Vibrio dynamics. Besides the influence of salinity variation with tidal cycles, sediment re-suspension from tidal flats can play a role on Vibrio abundance in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24291141

Batabyal, Prasenjit; Einsporn, Marc H; Mookerjee, Subham; Palit, Anup; Neogi, Sucharit B; Nair, Gopinath B; Lara, Rubén J

2014-02-15

367

Community Members as Recruiters of Human Subjects: Ethical Considerations  

PubMed Central

Few studies have considered in detail the ethical issues surrounding research in which investigators ask community members to engage in research subject recruitment within their own communities. Peer-driven recruitment (PDR) and its variants are useful for accessing and including certain populations in research, but also have the potential to undermine the ethical and scientific integrity of community-based research. This paper examines the ethical implications of utilizing community members as recruiters of human subjects in the context of PDR, as well as the authors' experience with a variant of PDR in a research project in South Africa. The importance of situating PDR in a comprehensive community engagement process that is responsive to the constraints of science and local needs and interests is emphasized. The paper will have relevance to bioethicists, health researchers, and research regulators concerned about the appropriate use of peer-driven recruitment strategies in health research. PMID:20229402

Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

2011-01-01

368

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing  

E-print Network

Software Fault Interactions and Implications for Software Testing D. Richard Kuhn, Senior Member. These results have important implications for testing. If all faults in a system can be triggered that all faults in a system are triggered by a combination of n or fewer parameters, then testing all n

Perkins, Richard A.

369

Variations in vitrinite reflectance values for the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation, southeastern Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado; implications for burial history and potential hydrocarbon generation. The Frying Pan Member of the Maroon Formation; a lower Permian( ) basin-margin dune field in northwestern Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Most of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation in the southeastern Piceance basin is thermally mature enough to have produced hydrocarbons by thermal generation, but only part of the Mesaverde is thermally mature enough to have expelled significant amounts of natural gas. The Early Permian( ) Frying pan Member of the Maroon Formation consists of quartz rich, very fine to fine-grained sandstone deposited in eolian dune and interdune environments. The Frying pan Member (formerly called the sandstone of the Frying pan River) is removed from the State Bridge Formation and assigned to the Maroon Formation.

Nuccio, V.F.; Johnson, R.C.; Johnson, S.Y.

1989-01-01

370

Distribution of suspended sediment in the coastal sea off the Ganges Brahmaputra River mouth: observation from TM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing technique was applied to estimate suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and to understand transportation, distribution and deposition of suspended sediment in the estuary and throughout the coastal sea, off the Ganges-Brahmaputra River mouth. During low river discharge period, zone of turbidity maximum is inferred in the estuary near the shore. SSC map shows that maximum SSC reaches 1050 mg/l in this period. Magnitude of SSC is mainly owing to resuspension of the bottom surface sediments induced by tidal currents flowing over shallow water depths. The influence of depth on resuspension is farther revealed from the distribution and magnitude of SSC along the head of Swatch of No Ground (SNG) submarine canyon. During high river discharge period, huge river outflow pushed the salt wedge and flashes away the suspended sediments in the coastal sea off the river mouth. Zone of turbidity maximum is inferred in the coastal water approximately within 5-10 m depth of water, where the maximum SSC reaches 1700 mg/l. In this period, huge fluvial input of the suspended sediments including the resuspended bottom sediments and the particles remaining in suspension for longer period of time since their initial entry control mainly the magnitude of SSC. In the estuary near the shore, seasonal variation in the magnitude of SSC is not evident. In the coastal sea (>5 m water depth), seasonal influence in the magnitude of SSC could be concluded from the discrepancy between SSC values of two different seasons. Transportation and deposition of suspended sediments also experiences seasonal variations. At present, suspended sediments are being accumulated on the shallow shelf (between 5 and 10 m water depth) in low discharge period and on the mid-shelf (between 10 and 75 m water depth) during high discharge period. An empirical (exponential) relationship was found between gradual settle down of suspended sediments in the coastal sea and its lateral distance from the turbidity maximum.

Islam, Mohammad Rezwanul; Begum, Syeda Fahliza; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Katsuro

2002-05-01

371

Effects of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes on the hydrology of the Upper Ganges basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades India has undergone substantial environmental change. The expansion of agricultural land area to meet the demand of a rapidly increasing population and the increasing intensification of groundwater extractions have led to an alarming drop in the water table levels. The recent floods over northern India have raised concerns about how the regional climate variations and human induced changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of climate-surface-groundwater interactions. Earlier work by the authors developed high-resolution land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery, for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. These maps were used to drive the distributed version of the land surface model JULES in order to investigate the impact of inter-annual land cover changes in the hydrology of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin in India. However, JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Since 60% of the study area is occupied by agriculture, the model was improved with routines that allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The parametrization was done for the two main crops of the UG basin (wheat and rice), allowing for 2 cropping seasons per year. The impact of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes was investigated by calculating variations in hydrological components such as stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The results show that the seasonal cycle is changing a lot when crop growth is taken into account, whereas annual fluxes do not change much. The dynamic coupling of land-surface schemes and crop models is an essential step toward the analysis of future changes of water resources in India caused by climate change, land use change, and potential interactions between both. This is a prerequisite for constructing decision support tools for regional land-use planning and management.

Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

2013-12-01

372

Find a Dentist: ADA Member Directory  

MedlinePLUS

... Advertise Media Visit MouthHealthy Kids View Mobile Site Find an ADA Member Dentist Enter your Address Enter ... Now MouthHealthy > Find-A-Dentist Email Print Share Find an ADA Member Dentist in your area Enter ...

373

29 CFR 452.92 - Unemployed members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Right To Vote § 452.92 Unemployed members. Members who are otherwise...

2010-07-01

374

7 CFR 959.31 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 959.31 Alternate members. An alternate member of the...

2012-01-01

375

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2011-01-01

376

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2014-01-01

377

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2013-01-01

378

7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

2012-01-01

379

Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra, and 1934 Nepal earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze previously published geodetic data and intensity values for the M\\u000a \\u000a s\\u000a = 8.1 Shillong (1897), M\\u000a \\u000a s\\u000a = 7.8 Kangra (1905), and M\\u000a \\u000a s\\u000a = 8.2 Nepal\\/Bihar (1934) earthquakes to investigate the rupture zones of these earthquakes as well as the amplification of\\u000a ground motions throughout the Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. For each earthquake we subtract the

Susan E. Hough; Bilham Roger

2008-01-01

380

Distribution and Mobilization of Arsenic in the Ganges plain sedimentary deposits of South-western Bangladesh; implications from field and laboratory observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of arsenic concentration depending on sediment size and its depositional age in a variety of sediments extracted from four As contaminated sites of the southwestern Bangladesh were studied to elucidate the aquifer geological parameters that controls the vertical As distribution and mobilization in the sediment-water interface. It was found that sediment size, reactive surface area, relative depositional age and presence of other carrier minerals having higher affinity to adsorb As, may greatly dominate the arsenic accumulation. Sorption of As onto sediment surfaces was found to vary based on the variation of the particle diameters (2 to 250 ?m), which eventually reflects the role of geological materials in controlling the As distribution in various depositional layers. Medium sands commonly found in the deeper aquifer (~150m), being older in age (> 7000 yrs BP) and having relatively larger diameter (?~250 ?m) were found to contain relatively low amount of As (0.8 ?g/g) whereas higher As (5 to 25 ?g/g) was identified noticeably in the recently deposited and reasonably younger (100 to 1000 yrs BP) sediment particles including clay and finer sands that commonly have moderately smaller diameter (?~2 to 90 ?m). These observations were supported strongly by the findings obtained from the laboratory batch adsorption tests conducted with those sediments. Presence of As was also observed to be greatly dependent on the availability of its carrier minerals particularly Fe and Al oxide/hydroxide along the aquifer depths. Clay particles with relatively moderate Fe and Al oxide minerals was found to adsorb as much as 70 ?g/g As whereas medium sand with less Fe and Al oxide minerals were noticed to capture only 4 ?g/g of As in the batch adsorption test. In laboratory leaching test, significant amount of As (12 ?g/g) coupled with Fe (4.8 mg/g) were found to be leached out from the shallower brown clay by using sodium bicarbonate (pH~9) as the leaching agent. This implies that bicarbonate may play a key role in triggering the desorption of As in the upper shallower aquifers that explains the high As pollution there, whereas insignificant As that was desorbed from the deeper medium sand suggests that the As mobilization is not an usual phenomena in the later one.

Rahman, M.; Mano, A.; Udo, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Han, Y.

2011-12-01

381

Isotopic tracing of the dissolved U fluxes of Himalayan rivers: implications for present and past U budgets of the Ganges-Brahmaputra system  

Microsoft Academic Search

U activity ratios have been measured in the dissolved loads of selected rivers from the Himalayan range, in Central Nepal, and from the Bangladesh, as well as in some rain waters. A few European and Asian rivers have also been analyzed for their U activity ratios. The data confirm the negligible effect of rainwater on the budget of dissolved U

François Chabaux; Jean Riotte; Norbert Clauer; Christian France-Lanord

2001-01-01

382

One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. PMID:24417554

Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

2014-05-01

383

Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.  

PubMed

The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe?>?Mn?>?Cr?>?Zn?>?Ni?>?Cu?>?Co?>?Pb?>?Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC), which apparently revealed that heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cd are influenced by the dynamic nature of flood plain deposits. Agricultural practice and domestic sewage are also influenced on the heavy metal content in the study area. PMID:24818595

Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

2014-09-01

384

Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions between physical drivers, environmental pressures and the human responses to stresses and the resultant impacts on ecosystems. We argue that since the availability of land exerts a fundamental control on the nature and quality of ecosystem services (e.g., agriculture, flood regulation, etc. versus fisheries), an understanding of delta morphodynamic processes is central to the ecosystem services framework. We present an overview of the historical (~last two centuries) morphodynamic evolution of the GBM delta and demonstrate the effects that these changes have had on trade-offs in the nature of ecosystem services that are accessed by the inhabitants of the GBM delta system.

Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

2013-12-01

385

Similarities and differences in perspectives on interdisciplinary collaboration among hospice team members.  

PubMed

This study surveyed 4 core hospice professionals (physicians, nurses, social workers, and chaplains) on their perceived level of interdisciplinary collaboration, the influences of interdisciplinary collaboration, and job satisfaction to determine potential similarities and differences based on profession and various demographic characteristics of the members or member hospices. Analysis found that there are overall no differences based on demographic characteristics. Differences between professions, while few, were largely in the area of perceptions on relationships between members of the hospice team. Specifically, social workers appear to perceive themselves as less connected to the other members of the interdisciplinary team, an area theorized to influence interdisciplinary collaboration. Difference between professions was also found in job satisfaction. Implications for hospice practice and interdisciplinary education are discussed. PMID:24113193

Kobayashi, Rie; McAllister, Carolyn A

2014-12-01

386

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2012-01-01

387

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2011-01-01

388

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2010-01-01

389

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2013-01-01

390

7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate...

2014-01-01

391

Member Organisation Forum European Peer Review Guide  

E-print Network

Member Organisation Forum European Peer Review Guide Integrating Policies and Practices, non-governmental organisation, the members of which are 78 national funding agencies, research in Strasbourg with offices in Brussels and Ostend, has assembled a host of organisations that span all

Economou, Tassos

392

How oversight improves member-maintained communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities need regular maintenance activities such as moderation and data input, tasks that typically fall to community owners. Communities that allow all members to participate in maintenance tasks have the potential to be more robust and valuable. A key challenge in creating member-maintained communities is building interfaces, algorithms, and social structures that encourage people to provide high-quality contributions. We

Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Sara B. Kiesler; Loren G. Terveen; John Riedl

2005-01-01

393

INSURANCE AFFIDAVIT TO: UMaine Sport Club Members  

E-print Network

INSURANCE AFFIDAVIT TO: UMaine Sport Club Members Prior to participation in Sport Clubs, each sport clubs member is expected to demonstrate that he or she is currently covered by an insurance plan which statements which indicate that you have the proper insurance coverage. Student Name (please print): Sport

Thomas, Andrew

394

Members of the 500 Club, which supports  

E-print Network

Alvin Stander* 1940 M. M. Thompson* 1941 James E. Ball* Henry W. Jolly, Jr.* Fred A. Marx Simon V. Ward Libeau J. Berthelot Lynn E. Foret Alan D. Lacoste John Wesley Magee Alfred A. Mansour Michael D. Manuel Members Ralph J. Bourgeois ('85) Deepesh Rubin Patel ('00) Double Members Dr. John and Senator Betty

395

Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

396

Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

2010-01-01

397

U-series disequilibria in suspended river sediments and implication for sediment transfer time in alluvial plains: The case of the Himalayan rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

238U- 234U- 230Th radioactive disequilibria were analyzed in suspended sediments (collected at different depths) from the Ganges River and one of its main tributaries: the Narayani-Gandak River. Results associated with bedload sediment data suggest that uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria in river sediments of the Ganges basin vary with grain size and sampling location. The range of observed U-series disequilibria is explained by a mixing model between a coarse-grained sediment end-member, represented by bedload and bank sediments, and a fine-grained end-member that both originate from Himalaya but undergo different transfer histories within the plain. The coarse-grained sediment end-member transits slowly (i.e. >several 100's ky) in the plain whereas the fine-grained sediment end-member is transferred much faster (<20-25 ky), as indicated by the absence of significant variations in Th isotope composition of the fine-grained sediment end-members. These results show that U-series isotopes can be used to quantify the various transfer times of river sediments of different sizes and infer that there can be an order of magnitude of difference, or more, between the transfer time of suspended and bedload sediments. This underlines that a good knowledge of the proportion of suspended vs. bedload sediments transported in the river is required to accurately assess how fast erosion products are transferred in a catchment and how fast a catchment is likely to respond to external forcing factors.

Granet, M.; Chabaux, F.; Stille, P.; Dosseto, A.; France-Lanord, C.; Blaes, E.

2010-05-01

398

Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) < Pedon 2 < Pedon 1, reflected e. g. in increasing Fed/Fet ratios, decreasing molar ratios of (Ca+K+Na)/Al, and decreasing pH. However, it needs to be considered that lapilli are more readily weatherable than gneiss fragments. The profile morphology of the paleosol, characterized by reddish-brown color (7.5YR), strong angular blocky structure and well-expressed illuvial clay coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar environment for the time of the deposition of the pyroclastics (18.9 ka BP) in the toe slope profile. The character of the steppe was probably more open at this time, but the presence of at least few scattered trees over the steppe is evidenced by a charred tree trunk that was found in the profile. During Holocene, vegetation consisted mainly of deciduous forest, until anthropogenic influence increased from around 1850 AD on. Reference: Steblich, M., Mingram, J., Han, J., Liu, Y. (2009): Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 56-70.

Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

2014-05-01

399

Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in south Asia is generally considered a tide-dominated system, but much of the subaerial delta plain is geomorphically similar to river-dominated systems such as the Mississippi River delta, with a well-developed distributary network separated by low-lying, organic-rich interdistributary basins. By contrast, the lower GBMD is dominated by tidal processes and comprises a 100-km wide coastal plain with dense, interconnected tidal channels that are amalgamated to the seaward edge of the river-dominated portion of the delta. These distinct river- and tide-dominated geomorphic regions are simultaneously sustained by the enormous sediment load of the GBM rivers and its efficient dispersal via the distributary channel network and onshore advection by tides. Together these processes have resulted in the ability of the GBMD to keep pace with sea-level rise throughout the Holocene, with comparatively little shoreline transgression. However, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) highlight low-lying regions of the delta that are located at the interface of the river- and tide-dominated portions of the delta, where the transport energy of small distributaries and the upper tidal zone go to zero. As a result, these are the most sediment-starved regions of the delta and those most at risk to flooding by the summer monsoon and storm surges. Compounding the slow rates of sedimentation and high local organic content, these regions have been strongly affected by the construction of embankments (polders) that artificially de-water the soils and accelerate organic decomposition during the dry season, and further starve the land surface of sediment. Here, we present an integrated conceptual model for the geomorphic evolution of the GBMD that incorporates river- and tide-dominated regions in conjunction with channel-avulsion processes and delta-lobe construction. Each of these is also overprinted by tectonic deformation and human-landscape modifications. A key goal of this model is to explain the wide-scale distribution of coarse-grained river-borne sediment (predominantly sand) that forms the underlying architecture of the GBMD, with only localized preservation of fine-grained (silt and clay) deposits. Finally, analysis of the channel networks in the tidal delta plain reveal that constructed embankments have significantly decreased the density of naturally functioning tidal channels, inducing locally rapid bank migration and affiliated changes in sinuosity. These rapid landscape changes suggest that there has been a resultant change in hydrodynamics of the tidal delta plain following widespread construction of the embankments. With concern to assess landscape vulnerabilities to environmental change and renewed efforts to rehabilitate and stabilize the embankments, this information is needed to support the successful outcome of coastal defense initiatives.

Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

2013-12-01

400

7 CFR 932.130 - Public member and alternate public member eligibility requirements and nomination procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...willingness to attend subcommittee and committee activities regularly and to familiarize themselves with the background and economics of the olive industry. (3) The public member and alternate public member must be residents of California. (b)...

2013-01-01

401

Listening to the Voices of Family Members, Teachers, and Community Members  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the interrelationships between and among family members and community members who work with middle level children, and middle level teachers from the perspectives of the practitioners.

Musser, P. M.

2004-01-01

402

FBI DRUGFIRE program: the development and deployment of an automated firearms identification system to support serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FBI DRUGFIRE Program entails the continuing phased development and deployment of a scalable automated firearms identification system. The first phase of this system, a networked, database-driven firearms evidence imaging system, has been operational for approximately one year and has demonstrated its effectiveness in facilitating the sharing and linking of firearms evidence collected in serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations. However, there is a pressing need for development of enhancements which will more fully automate the system so that it is capable of processing very large volumes of firearms evidence. These enhancements would provide automated image analysis and pattern matching functionalities. Existing `spin off' technologies need to be integrated into the present DRUGFIRE system to automate the 3-D mensuration, registration, feature extraction, and matching of the microtopographical surface features imprinted on the primers of fired casings during firing.

Sibert, Robert W.

1994-03-01

403

TWO UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE FACULTY MEMBERS AND A BOARD MEMBER NAMED TO THE  

E-print Network

TWO UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE FACULTY MEMBERS AND A BOARD MEMBER NAMED TO THE DAILY RECORD'S LIST OF INFLUENTIAL MARYLANDERS Wednesday, February 13, 2013 Drs. Fraser and Rodriguez, as well as Board Member Emeritus Peter Angelos, Recognized The University of Maryland School of Medicine's Claire

Weber, David J.

404

Reception for 25- and 50-Year Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU leadership and staff had the pleasure of hosting a 12 December 2013 reception to honor those celebrating their 25th and 50th years of AGU membership. Fifty-two members with more than 1500 years of collective AGU membership were in attendance and were awarded gold and silver lapel pins commemorating their many years of involvement with AGU. Members who were unable to attend will receive their pins in the mail shortly. Having the opportunity to meet with members and hear firsthand about their accomplishments was inspirational for the staff and affirmed how gratifying it is to work with such an incredible group of people.

Burman, Robert

2014-02-01

405

Wall between older and younger vessel members.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wall between older (right) and younger (left) vessel members. Microtubules accumulate near the secondary wall in younger cell. Membrane-bound vesicles appear as blebs on plasmalemma. Primary wall of older cell are partly hydrolyzed.

Esau, Katherine; Thorsch, Jennifer

2004-03-09

406

Side wall between differentiating vessel members.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Side wall between differentiating vessel members. Secondary wall deposition not yet evident. In the older cell (below), microtubules concentrate near young helical thickenings and are absent along the primary wall.

Esau, Katherine; Thorsch, Jennifer

2004-03-09

407

To: BREA Executive Committee CC: Committee members  

E-print Network

: Wednesday. 11 May 2005 In attendance: Graham Campbell, Dave Cox, Alyce Daly, Renee Flack, Jules Godel, Carol members. It was reported that Kurt Fuchel is residing at the Senior Assisted Living facility in East

408

Conducting a multi family member interview study.  

PubMed

Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. PMID:24410452

Reczek, Corinne

2014-06-01

409

12 CFR 267.3 - Members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vacancies on the Council. (b) Resignation. Any member may resign at...notice to the Board. Any such resignation shall take effect upon its acceptance...who are not regular full-time employees of the United States shall...

2010-01-01

410

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

2001-03-22

411

29 CFR 452.90 - Visiting members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Right To Vote § 452.90 Visiting members. A decision about the voting...

2010-07-01

412

7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.29 Alternate members....

2013-01-01

413

7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 945.29 Alternate members....

2011-01-01

414

7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 930.28 Alternate members....

2010-01-01

415

Research on quantificational performance evaluation of staff members in institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, more and more institutions pay more attention to performance evaluation of staff members. Full-circle appraisal is suitable for performance evaluation of staff members in institutions because of its merits. For the indicators of performance assessment of staff members are mainly qualitative, institutions often fail to assess staff members' performance objectivity and make some staff members feel unfair. Taking

He Xiang; Tang Guo

2010-01-01

416

Robust and Secure Image Hashing Ashwin Swaminathan, Student Member, IEEE, Yinian Mao, Student Member, IEEE, and Min Wu, Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

Robust and Secure Image Hashing Ashwin Swaminathan, Student Member, IEEE, Yinian Mao, Student the robustness of image hashing as a hypothesis testing problem and evaluate the performance under various image for image hashing. We then examine the security versus robustness trade-off and show that the proposed

Wu, Min

417

Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

1983-11-01

418

2013MEMBER FACT SHEET.docx UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER  

E-print Network

2013MEMBER FACT SHEET.docx UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER PARENTS COUNCIL OF THE COLLEGE MEMBER FACT SHEET for additional information. #12;2013MEMBER FACT SHEET.docx AREAS OF INVOLVEMENT Parents are invited to become

Mahon, Bradford Z.

419

42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119 ...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Qualified Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A...

2010-10-01

420

Economic implications of assisted reproductive techniques: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Approximately one in six couples experiences problems with their fertility at some point in their reproductive lives. The economic implications of the use of assisted reproductive techniques require consideration. Herein, the health economics research in this area are critically appraised. METHODS: Multiple strategies were used to identify relevant studies. Each title and abstract was independently reviewed by two members

L. Garceau; J. Henderson; L. J. Davis; S. Petrou; L. R. Henderson; E. McVeigh; D. H. Barlow; L. L. Davidson

2002-01-01

421

Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

2009-01-01

422

Gibbs Construction in Steganography Toms Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

1 Gibbs Construction in Steganography Tomás Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE Abstract--We make a connection between steganography de- sign by minimizing embedding- duces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers to the problem of finding local potentials

Fridrich, Jessica

423

Compressed Sensing MRI Michael Lustig, Student Member, IEEE, David L. Donoho Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

1 Compressed Sensing MRI Michael Lustig, Student Member, IEEE, David L. Donoho Member, IEEE Juan M. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an essential medical imaging tool with an inherently slow data acquisition process. Applying CS to MRI offers potentially significant scan time reductions, with benefits

Donoho, David

424

Multiscale Density Estimation R. M. Willett, Student Member, IEEE, and R. D. Nowak, Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

1 Multiscale Density Estimation R. M. Willett, Student Member, IEEE, and R. D. Nowak, Member, IEEE July 4, 2003 Abstract The nonparametric density estimation method proposed in this paper is computationally fast, capable of detect- ing density discontinuities and singularities at a very high resolution

Nowak, Robert

425

Curved Glide-Reflection Symmetry Detection Seungkyu Lee, Member, IEEE, and Yanxi Liu, Senior Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

Curved Glide-Reflection Symmetry Detection Seungkyu Lee, Member, IEEE, and Yanxi Liu, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--We generalize the concept of bilateral reflection symmetry to curved glide-reflection symmetry in 2D euclidean space, such that classic reflection symmetry becomes one of its six special cases

426

The Impulse Memory Controller Lixin Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Zhen Fang, Student Member, IEEE,  

E-print Network

The Impulse Memory Controller Lixin Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Zhen Fang, Student Member, IEEE control how their data is accessed and cached, which can improve cache and bus utilization. The Impulse resides at the memory controller. As a result, Impulse can be adopted in conventional systems without

McKee, Sally A.

427

Evolutionary responses of native plants to novel community members.  

PubMed

Both ecological and evolutionary processes can influence community assembly and stability, and native community members may respond both ecologically and evolutionarily as additional species enter established communities. Biological invasions provide a unique opportunity to examine these responses of native community members to novel species additions. Here, I use reciprocal transplant experiments among naturally invaded and uninvaded environments, along with experimental removals of exotic species, to determine whether exotic plant competitors and exotic insect herbivores evoke evolutionary changes in native plants. Specifically, I address whether the common native plant species Lotus wrangelianus has responded evolutionarily to a series of biological invasions by adapting to the presence of the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis. Despite differences in selection regimes between invaded and uninvaded environments and the presence of genetic variation for traits relevant to the novel competitive and plant-herbivore interactions, these experiments failed to reveal evidence that Lotus has responded evolutionarily to the double invasion of Medicago followed by H. brunneipennis. However, when herbivory from H. brunneipennis was experimentally reduced, Lotus plants from source populations invaded by Medicago outperformed plants from uninvaded source populations when transplanted into heavily invaded destination environments. Therefore, Lotus showed evidence of adaptation to Medicago invasion but not to the newer invasion of an exotic shared herbivore. The presence of this exotic insect herbivore alters the outcome of evolutionary responses in this system and counteracts adaptation by the native Lotus to invasion by the exotic plant Medicago. This result has broad implications for the conservation of native communities. While native species may be able to adapt to the presence of one or a few exotics, a multitude of invasions may limit the ability of natives to respond evolutionarily to the novel and frequently changing selection pressures that arise with subsequent invasions. PMID:16568631

Lau, Jennifer A

2006-01-01

428

Performance Of Mooring System Tension Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of mooring lines encompasses a broad spectrum of service requirements (water depths, sea states, tensile loadings, and useful service lives) and a wide variety of candidate mooring members (chain, wire rope, synthetic fiber rope, electromechanical cables, or combinations of these elements). For some systems, a suitable mooring line may have a breaking strength of only a few hundred

P. Gibson

1983-01-01

429

Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited to…

Hebdon, Heather

2007-01-01

430

Directory: AIAW Member Institutions, 1973-1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) includes listings of (a) officers, (b) regions, (c) AIAW member institutions, and (d) sports in which intercollegiate programs and financial aid for women are offered. The appendix contains a schedule of AIAW national championships for 1974-75 and listings of (a) the…

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

431

Directory of Member Institutions, 1976. Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory describes the various types of programs offered by organizations and educational institutions which are members of the Association for World Education. Focusing on all forms of postsecondary educational organizations, membership consists of adult education centers, colleges, units of large university research centers, and other…

Karpen, Leah R., Ed.

432

Newark Regional Business Partnership Member Update  

E-print Network

affected by superstorm Sandy are invited to participate in the State of New Jersey Business Action Center Chamber Walk to Washington Affected by Sandy? Rutgers Institute for Ethical Leadership Honors Newark Chris Christie. Click here for more information or to register. Affected by Sandy? NRBP members who were

Lin, Xiaodong

433

Members of the 500 Club, which supports  

E-print Network

1939 Alvin Stander* 1940 M. M. Thompson* 1941 James E. Ball* Henry W. Jolly, Jr.* Fred A. Marx Simon V 1975 Libeau J. Berthelot Lynn E. Foret Alan D. Lacoste John Wesley Magee Alfred A. Mansour Michael D since June 2012 Steven A. Guarisco ('86) James A. Paulson ('83) Double Members Dr. John and Senator

434

A Helping Hand for Young Faculty Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the academic year just under way, many junior faculty members in search of much-needed advice and guidance have begun to make critical connections with senior colleagues. Departmental pairings are the most standard form of faculty mentoring, as is the practice of newly minted professors' tapping colleagues on their own to answer questions…

June, Audrey Williams

2008-01-01

435

Boron--epoxy tubular structure members  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials fabricate thin-walled tubular members which have same load-carrying capabilities as aluminum, titanium, or other metals, but are lighter. Interface between stepped end fitting and tube lends itself to attachments by primary as well as secondary bonding. Interlaminar shear and hoop stress buildup in attachment at end fitting is avoided.

Shakespeare, W. B. J.; Nelson, P. T.; Lindkvist, E. C.

1973-01-01

436

Member News Nano News Press Releases  

E-print Network

NanoNEWS Member News Nano News Press Releases Nano Global News Nano Reports Nano Conferences", Exploring Matter with Synchrotron Light" and "Exploring Matter with Neutrons" by ordering from here. Nano. Send your Press R Judith.LightFeather@TNTG.org 14 Oct 2006 Researchers develop bistable nano switch

Espinosa, Horacio D.

437

American Physical Society Member Subscription Copy  

E-print Network

HYSICAL EVIEW ETTERS P R L American Physical Society Member Subscription Copy Library or Other, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA 2 Department of Food Science and Technology,5] and interfacial tension [6] affect the partial coalescence process, the details of the charge transfer process

Ristenpart, William

438

HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF HSS BRACING MEMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study hysteretic behaviors of Hollow Structural Section (HSS) bracing members having different width-thickness ratios (w\\/t ratio) are investigated. For this purpose, an experimental study was carried out using 7 specimens under quasi static symmetric reversed cyclic loading in tension and compression. Loading pattern was determined based on the results of a nonlinear dynamic time history analysis of a

SANG WHAN HAN; DOUGLAS FOUTCH

2006-01-01

439

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2010-01-01

440

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2013-01-01

441

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2014-01-01

442

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2011-01-01

443

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2012-01-01

444

Physical Fitness of University Faculty Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity, aerobic fitness, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in 27 male and 21 female university faculty members. Results of t-tests indicate that the males had significantly greater values for physical activity index, systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness (V02 max), and…

Williford, H. N.; Barksdale, J. M.

445

(Original Signature of Member) 109TH CONGRESS  

E-print Network

, by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his inven- tion of the cyclotron of Member) 109TH CONGRESS 2D SESSION H. RES. ll Recognizing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as one on lllllllllllllll RESOLUTION Recognizing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as one of the world's premier science

Knowles, David William

446

Texas 4-H Member Achievement Plan  

E-print Network

The Member Achievement Plan (M.A.P.) provides 4-Hers with forms and journal pages to help them plan their 4-H projects, set goals and evaluate their accomplishments. Using this will help teach record-keeping skills. It is part of the new "For...

Lepley, Toby

2000-08-07

447

4-H Sporting Dog Project Member Guide  

E-print Network

4-H Sporting Dog Project Member Guide 4-H 368 September 2011 4-H Sporting Dog Education and Shooting Sports Program Positive youth development is the primary goal of the 4-H Sporting Dog education program. The program helps young people learn the sport of hunting with dogs by doing activities

Tullos, Desiree

448

Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

2007-01-01

449

Jurisdiction Members Contact Info Key Staffers  

E-print Network

· Frank James "Jim" Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-WI), Vice Chairman · Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) · Dana Rohrabacher (R (Democrats): · Richard M. "Dick" Obermann, Chief of Staff, richard.obermann@mail.house.gov · Shimere Williams, Professional Staff Member, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, shimere.williams@mail.house.gov #12;· Ben

450

Publication Characteristics of Members of the AAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For each of the 4995 persons listed in the 1989 American Astronomical Society Membership Directory, we noted their total 1984-88 publications as listed in the Author Index of Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts. The members are subdivided as retired (mean of 0.61 paper/yr), foreign (3.89), Full (3.34), Division Affiliates (1.76), Associate (1.48), and Junior (0.79) members. For Full members the frequencies of various publication rates are listed; the median is 2.28 papers/yr. The Full members are subdivided by affiliations, namely private institutions (mean of 4.71 papers/yr), university (3.89), government-funded (3.46), commercial company (1.81), and unknown affiliations (0.84). We looked up the listed publications for four high producers who each average 25.7 papers/yr. We found that 55% of those are preprints, abstracts, conference papers, and other secondary material. Furthermore, they average 4.2 authors per original research paper. If we divide each original research paper by the number of authors, these four average only the equivalent of 4.0 single-author research papers/yr. A sample of moderate producers also have 53% of their publications as abstracts, conference papers, etc., and they average 4.2 authors per original research paper. We conclude that the average Full AAS member produces the equivalent of 1/2 single-author original-research paper/yr and 23% of them produce more than 1 such paper/yr.

Abt, Helmut A.

1990-10-01

451

Assessing empathy in Salvadoran high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults: a Spanish validation of the basic empathy scale.  

PubMed

Empathy is considered a key construct in the empirical study of high-risk adolescent and young adult delinquency, crime, and violence. This study examined the psychometric properties and criterion-related validity of a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES), which is an important measure designed to capture both affective and cognitive empathy that has been validated in multiple languages but not in Spanish. The study's sample consisted of 208 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents and young adults in the Greater San Salvador Metropolitan Area. The original BES was reduced from its 20-item design to a more culturally appropriate 7-item design. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity analysis indicate that the adapted BES is a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of empathy for high-risk Salvadoran adolescents and young adults. Consistent with previous findings, females reported lower levels of empathy than males and delinquent/violent respondents reported lower levels of empathy than their nonoffender counterparts. PMID:22859664

Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, René; Vaughn, Michael G

2013-11-01

452

Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

2012-01-01

453

Radial-Velocity Monitoring of Members and Candidate Members of the TW Hydrae Association  

E-print Network

We present our spectroscopic measurements of the radial velocity, effective temperature, and projected rotational velocity of several of the known members of the TW Hya association, as well as measurements for candidate members selected on the basis of their X-ray or kinematic properties. A number of our targets turn out to be binaries, but most are non-members. The radial velocities for some of the other candidates support the conclusion that they are kinematically associated with the group, although further observations are required to show that they are indeed pre-main sequence objects.

Guillermo Torres; Ralph Neuhaeuser; David W. Latham

2001-05-08

454

Alignment Jigs For Bonding End Fittings To Truss Members  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of alignment jigs hold fittings during adhesive bonding of fittings to ends of truss members. For each member, jigs hold two end fittings collinear while member allowed to move slightly, within dimensional tolerances, during injection and curing of adhesive. Once adhesive cured, fittings remain collinear even though member not necessarily perfectly straight between them.

Sword, Lee F.

1996-01-01

455

Identifying New Members of Nearby Moving Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group has assembled a sample of 14,000 stars of spectral types B9-M9 with measured UVW Galactic space velocities and lying within 125 pc of Earth. We have identified candidate members of three nearby young (less than 100 Myr) moving groups. For stars of spectral types G5 and later, we have used the Kast spectrometer on the Shane 3m telescope at Lick Observatory to measure lithium abundance in order to determine stellar ages. With the data we have obtained from this run, we will be able to establish whether our candidates are bona fide members of the moving groups in question. I will be presenting the preliminary results from this survey, including spectra of the ~50 stars observed thus far. These nearby young stars will make excellent targets for direct imaging followup surveys, since any giant planets around young stars will still be warm, and will therefore be bright enough to detect with instruments like GPI.

Holmbeck, Erika; Vican, Laura

2014-06-01

456

Orientating Nonpharmacist Faculty Members to Pharmacy Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate a faculty development program intended to orient nonpharmacist faculty members to pharmacy practice. Design. A multifaceted program was implemented in 2012 that included 4 shadowing experiences in which faculty members visited acute care, ambulatory care, hospital, and community pharmacy settings under the guidance of licensed preceptors. Itineraries for each visit were based on objective lists of anticipated practice experiences that define the role of the pharmacist in each setting. Assessment. The 4 shadowing experiences culminated with reflection and completion of a survey to assess the impact of the program. All of the faculty participants agreed that the experience improved their conceptual understanding of contemporary pharmacy practice and the role of the pharmacist in the healthcare setting. The experience also improved faculty comfort with creating practice-relevant classroom activities. Conclusions. A shadowing experience is an effective way of orienting nonpharmacist faculty members to the practice of pharmacy. This program inspired the creation of an experience to introduce pharmacy practice faculty to pharmaceutical science faculty research initiatives. PMID:24954946

Calderon, Bianca; Sheridan, Leah; Sucher, Brandon

2014-01-01

457

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF MEMBER-BY-MEMBER MODELS AND DAMAGE INDICES FOR INFILLED FRAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the inelastic analysis of infilled frames. It aims to appraise the effectiveness of existing member-by-member models and damage indices in representing seismic response and sustained damage. Results from pseudo-dynamic and cyclic tests on one-storey one-bay half-size-scale specimens are the basis for this evaluation. The frame is modelled with linear beam elements and hysteretic end springs, and

FELICE COLANGELO

2003-01-01

458

Support groups for parents of children with emotional disorders: A comparison of members and non-members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involving more than 800 parents whose children have emotional disorders focuses on comparisons between parents who are members of support groups and those who are not. While no difference was found between members and non-members on most demographic variables, members reported needing and using more information and services and found each more difficult to locate than nonmembers. Thirty-one

Nancy M. Koroloff; Barbara J. Friesen

1991-01-01

459

Young Member Places Seventh in Noted U.S. Student Science Competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A student member of AGU is one of the top 10 winners of a science contest for pre-college age students which is sponsored annually by Intel Corporation. The contest results were announced on March 11 at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. Carolyn Tewksbury, 17, was a finalist in the 2003 Intel Science Talent Search competition. She took seventh place in the contest for her project, titled ``Collapse of the Pasom-mana Tessera Region, Venus: Implications for the Evolution of Crustal Plateaus.''

460

Do sororities promote members' health? A study of memorable messages regarding weight and appearance.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between sorority communication practices and members' body images through the lens of organizational socialization and identification. Specifically, we analyzed 210 sorority members' memorable messages concerning weight and physical appearance using an inductive coding method. While many of the messages examined were affirming or complimentary in nature, the results of the analysis suggest that these types of messages may positively as well as negatively influence members' body images, behaviors regarding physical appearance, and social identities. These findings contribute to scholarly and practical understandings of the influences on college women's body image and health and the potentially powerful role that organizations play in shaping members' attitudes and actions concerning their eating, exercise, and other aspects of their appearance. Implications for future health communication research in other organizational contexts outside of sororities are also discussed. Additionally, the findings of the current study indicate the broad utility of a memorable messages approach and suggest the need for further examination of the ways in which differing organizational dynamics may demonstrate divergence from traditional sources of memorable messages. PMID:24945636

Reno, Jenna E; McNamee, Lacy G

2015-04-01

461

Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae), has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8-7 mya) was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12-11 Ma) Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos). The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint. PMID:23155439

Abella, Juan; Alba, David M; Robles, Josep M; Valenciano, Alberto; Rotgers, Cheyenn; Carmona, Raül; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

2012-01-01

462

Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the Oldest Member of the Giant Panda Clade  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae), has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8–7 mya) was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12–11 Ma) Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos). The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint. PMID:23155439

Abella, Juan; Alba, David M.; Robles, Josep M.; Valenciano, Alberto; Rotgers, Cheyenn; Carmona, Raül; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

2012-01-01

463

Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

2013-12-01

464

Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

2004-07-01

465

Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

2012-07-01

466

Method of recertifying a loaded bearing member  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described of recertifying a loaded bearing member using ultrasound testing to compensate for different equipment configurations and temperature conditions. The standard frequency F1 of a reference block is determined via an ultrasonic tone burst generated by a first pulsed phased locked loop (P2L2) equipment configuration. Once a lock point number S is determined for F1, the reference frequency F1a of the reference block is determined at this lock point number via a second P2L2 equipment configuration to permit an equipment offset compensation factor Fo1=((F1-F1a)/F1)(1000000) to be determined. Next, a reference frequency F2 of the unloaded bearing member is determined using a second P2L2 equipment configuration and is then compensated for equipment offset errors via the relationship F2+F2(Fo1)/1000000. A lock point number b is also determined for F2. A resonant frequency F3 is determined for the reference block using a third P2L2 equipment configuration to determine a second offset compensation factor F02=((F1-F3)/F1) 1000000. Next the resonant frequency F4 of the loaded bearing member is measured at lock point number b via the third P2L2 equipment configuration and the bolt load determined by the relationship (-1000000)CI(((F2-F4)/F2)-Fo2), wherein CI is a factor correlating measured frequency shift to the applied load. Temperature compensation is also performed at each point in the process.

Allison, Sidney G. (inventor)

1992-01-01

467

Member vibration effects on LSS behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper evaluates the sensitivity of modal characteristics of large deployable lattice-type space structures to joint boundary conditions. The evaluation of joint rotational boundary conditions is accomplished by a review of modal strain energy among elements of the analytic dynamic model. This review shows that space structure designs having no bending energy in lattice members in the low frequency range are insensitive to joint rotational boundary conditions in that frequency range. Evaluation of joint translation boundary conditions is accomplished by the 'modal freeplay method' which is described in this paper. The modal freeplay method relates modal frequency to joint translational freeplay and to amplitude of applied forces.

White, Charles W.

1987-01-01

468

AGU member running to fill congressional seat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

Crum, Emily

469

Implications of different climate protection regimes for the EU27 and its member states through 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a broadly accepted fact that a clear reduction of global GHG emissions is required to limit the increase of global warming to a tolerable level. A key issue in this context is the optimal breakdown of reduction targets among different world regions or even countries. Using the European Commission-funded PLANETS project, cost-optimal global burden sharing to reach global

Markus Blesl; Tom Kober; Ralf Kuder; David Bruchof

2012-01-01

470

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

1996-01-01

471

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

1996-10-22

472

Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

Williams, Ray E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

473

Method for electrically isolating an electrically conductive member from another such member  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for electrically isolating a first electrically conductive member from another such member by means of an electrically insulating medium. In accordance with the invention, the insulating medium is provided in the form of MgO which contains a dopant selected from lithium, copper, cobalt, sodium, silver, gold and hydrogen. The dopant is present in the MgO in an amount effective to suppress dielectric breakdown of the MgO, even at elevated temperatures and in the presence of electrical fields.

Tsang, K.L.; Chen, Y.

1984-02-09

474

7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

2013-01-01

475

7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

2014-01-01

476

7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

2010-01-01

477

7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

2012-01-01

478

7 CFR 927.28 - Alternates for members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating...serve. In the event that a member of the Fresh Pear Committee or the Processed Pear Committee and both that member's alternates...

2011-01-01

479

26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

2011-04-01

480

26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

2014-04-01

481

26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

2012-04-01

482

26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

2010-04-01

483

26 CFR 56.4911-5 - Communications with members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...even though those expenditures would be grass roots expenditures if the communication...directly encourage the member to engage in grass roots lobbying (whether individually or...Communications (directed only to members) that are grass roots lobbying communications....

2013-04-01

484

5 CFR 842.209 - Members of Congress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842...Members of Congress. (a) A Member, except one separated by resignation or expulsion, is entitled to an annuity— (1)...

2010-01-01

485

16 CFR 703.4 - Qualification of members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INFORMAL DISPUTE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES Minimum Requirements of the Mechanism § 703.4 Qualification of members. (a) No member deciding a dispute shall be: (1) A party to the...

2010-01-01

486

50 CFR 600.245 - Council member compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...significant private effort that substantially disrupts the daily routine to the extent that a work day is lost to the member. “Homework” time in preparation for formal Council meetings is not compensable. (b) Non-government Council members receive...

2013-10-01

487

50 CFR 600.245 - Council member compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...significant private effort that substantially disrupts the daily routine to the extent that a work day is lost to the member. “Homework” time in preparation for formal Council meetings is not compensable. (b) Non-government Council members receive...

2010-10-01

488

50 CFR 600.245 - Council member compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...significant private effort that substantially disrupts the daily routine to the extent that a work day is lost to the member. “Homework” time in preparation for formal Council meetings is not compensable. (b) Non-government Council members receive...

2012-10-01

489

50 CFR 600.245 - Council member compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...significant private effort that substantially disrupts the daily routine to the extent that a work day is lost to the member. “Homework” time in preparation for formal Council meetings is not compensable. (b) Non-government Council members receive...

2011-10-01

490

Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member.  

PubMed

Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits. PMID:1476349

Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A

1992-01-01

491

Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and Albert Einstein stayed in the famous city for periods of time. The Czech capital also played host to the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, first in 1967 and, more recently, in August 2006. Astronomy in the Czech Republic is shared between the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences and several leading universities, in Prague, Brno and Opava, among others. The Astronomical Institute operates the Ondrejov Observatory, with a 2-m optical telescope and a 10-m radio telescope. Czech astronomers are very active in many fields of this science, such as solar and stellar physics, and the study of interstellar matter, galaxies and planetary systems. Created in 1962, ESO, which quite fittingly means 'ace' in the Czech language, provides state-of-the-art research facilities to European astronomers and astrophysicists. ESO's activities cover a wide spectrum including the design and construction of world-class ground-based observational facilities for the member-state scientists, large telescope projects, design of innovative scientific instruments, developing new and advanced technologies, furthering European co-operation and carrying out European educational programmes. Whilst the Headquarters are located in Garching near Munich, Germany, ESO operates three observational sites in the Chilean Atacama desert. The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is located on Paranal, a 2 600m high mountain south of Antofagasta. At La Silla, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at 2 400m altitude, ESO operates several medium-sized optical telescopes. The third site is the 5 000m high Llano de Chajnantor, near San Pedro de Atacama. Here a new submillimetre telescope (APEX) is in operation, and a giant array of 12-m submillimetre antennas (ALMA) is under development. Over 1 600 proposals are made each year for the use of the ESO telescopes.

2006-12-01

492

Modelling crash propensity of carshare members.  

PubMed

Carshare systems are considered a promising solution for sustainable development of cities. To promote carsharing it is imperative to make them cost effective, which includes reduction in costs associated to crashes and insurance. To achieve this goal, it is important to characterize carshare users involved in crashes and understand factors that can explain at-fault and not-at fault drivers. This study utilizes data from GoGet carshare users in Sydney, Australia. Based on this study it was found that carshare users who utilize cars less frequently, own one or more cars, have less number of accidents in the past ten years, have chosen a higher insurance excess and have had a license for a longer period of time are less likely to be involved in a crash. However, if a crash occurs, carshare users not needing a car on the weekend, driving less than 1000km in the last year, rarely using a car and having an Australian license increases the likelihood to be at-fault. Since the dataset contained information about all members as well as not-at-fault drivers, it provided a unique opportunity to explore some aspects of quasi-induced exposure. The results indicate systematic differences in the distribution between the not-at-fault drivers and the carshare members based on the kilometres driven last year, main mode of travel, car ownership status and how often the car is needed. Finally, based on this study it is recommended that creating an incentive structure based on training and experience (based on kilometres driven), possibly tagged to the insurance excess could improve safety, and reduce costs associated to crashes for carshare systems. PMID:24727292

Dixit, Vinayak; Rashidi, Taha Hossein

2014-09-01

493

Homophily among Peer Groups Members' Perceived Self-Regulated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is one of the first examining whether peer group members hold similar levels of self-regulated learning. The study specifically addresses the potential homophily among group members' regulative abilities (metacognition, environment regulation, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking) and whether group members'…

Jones, Martin H.; Alexander, Joyce M.; Estell, David B.

2010-01-01

494

12 CFR 1261.6 - Determination of member votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of votes that each member of the Bank may cast for each directorship that is to be filled...election, each member shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of Bank stock...the number of votes that any member may cast for any one directorship shall...

2012-01-01

495

12 CFR 1261.5 - Determination of member votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of votes that each member of the Bank may cast for each directorship that is to be filled...election, each member shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of Bank stock...the number of votes that any member may cast for any one directorship shall...

2010-01-01

496

12 CFR 1261.6 - Determination of member votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of votes that each member of the Bank may cast for each directorship that is to be filled...election, each member shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of Bank stock...the number of votes that any member may cast for any one directorship shall...

2013-01-01

497

12 CFR 1261.6 - Determination of member votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of votes that each member of the Bank may cast for each directorship that is to be filled...election, each member shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of Bank stock...the number of votes that any member may cast for any one directorship shall...

2014-01-01

498

12 CFR 1261.6 - Determination of member votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of votes that each member of the Bank may cast for each directorship that is to be filled...election, each member shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of Bank stock...the number of votes that any member may cast for any one directorship shall...

2011-01-01

499

Division of Human Resources DEATH OF A FAMILY MEMBER  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources DEATH OF A FAMILY MEMBER Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Death of administrative leave to cover absences due to the death of a family member. Family member is defined as the spouse, domestic partner*, grandparents, parents, step parents, brothers, sisters, children

Meyers, Steven D.

500

Motivation Effect of Total Rewards on University Seminar Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the motivation effect of total rewards upon colleges and universities' seminar members by using a questionnaire designed for seminar members. And the data collected from the questionnaire is under correlation analysis and regression analysis by SPSS. The work environment variable has positive effect on seminar member outward manifestation with a standardized regression coefficient of 0.350 (p p

Shujun Tang; Liuzhan Jia; Jingjing Shui

2011-01-01