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1

Examining gang violence through the lives and eyes of young male gang members: implications for educational leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gang violence through the lives and eyes of young male gang members. Throughout the conduction of this study; surveys were given and interviews were conducted to explore the phenomenon of gang violence as well as its implications for educational leaders. Variables were discussed in order to discover their influence on gang participation, activity, and violence. The variables

Jamal S Edwards

2011-01-01

2

A Phenomenological Study with Youth Gang Members: Results and Implications for School Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a phenomenological model, examines eight male adolescents' perceptions of their gang membership. Interviews revealed such themes as self-esteem, a sense of belonging, and protection. Outlines implications for school counselors when working with gang members individually, in groups, with families, or during school interventions. (RJM)|

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Honda, Marianne R.

1997-01-01

3

CONDOM ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED VULNERABILITY, AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORS OF YOUNG LATINO MALE URBAN STREET GANG MEMBERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION  

PubMed Central

We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18–26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members.

Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.

2010-01-01

4

Condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability, and sexual risk behaviors of young Latino male urban street gang members: implications for HIV prevention.  

PubMed

We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18-26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members. PMID:19824836

Brooks, Ronald A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N; Barkley, Thomas W

2009-10-01

5

Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona. Although we find positive linear associations between gang member concentrations and

Charles M. Katz; Stephen M. Schnebly

2011-01-01

6

“Slinging dope”: The role of gangs and gang members in drug sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two competing views about the role of gangs and gang members in drug sales. The first argues that street gangs are well-organized purveyors of illegal drugs who reinvest the profits from drug sales into the gang. A second approach rejects this notion. Its proponents claim that drug sales by gangs are seldom well-organized and that gang members often

Scott H. Decker; Barrik Van Winkle

1994-01-01

7

Comparing the Effects of Treatment on Female Juvenile Gang and Non-Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research indicates that males comprise the greatest proportion of gang members. Since the 1990s, however, there has been an increasing interest in female gangs and gang members. The current study builds on this research interest by examining differences between female gang members and non-gang members who participated in a juvenile probation program designed to identify and intervene with youth

Pamela J. Schram; Larry K. Gaines

2008-01-01

8

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2012-10-01

9

Responding to gangs Comparing gang member, police, and task force perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of four groups of actors—members of a gang task force, police officers, gang members, and nongang youth—involved in the St. Louis gang problem response were compared. The two groups of youths regarded gangs as a significantly more serious problem than did either of the adult groups. Youths were significantly more likely to view gangs as instrumentally delinquent, while the

Scott H. Decker; G. David Curry

2000-01-01

10

Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

11

Gang Members on the Move. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Youth Gang Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information from the National Survey on Gang Migration and other literature provides a look at the relationship between gang migration and proliferation. "Gang migration" refers to the movement of gang members from one city to another. Whether such movement has played a major role in the proliferation has been the focus of several studies,…

Maxson, Cheryl L.

12

Exploring anti?gang advertisements: Focus group discussions with gang members and at?risk youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highly debated issue concerning the use of advertising to discourage gang membership, the responses of the gang members and at?risk youth for whom the ads are intended have been overlooked. This study explores the usefulness of anti?gang advertising by seeking the opinion of young people living in a gang environment. Participants verbally responded to seven anti?gang ads created

Gage Chapel; Kristin M. Peterson; Roy Joseph

1999-01-01

13

DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS.  

PubMed

Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

Pih, Kay Kei-Ho; DE LA Rosa, Mario; Rugh, Douglas; Mao, Kuoray

2008-08-01

14

Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

2012-01-01

15

SITUATIONS OF VIOLENCE IN THE LIVES OF GIRL GANG MEMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women and violence has become a topic of increasing concern. Women's involvement in perpetrating violence, especially girl gang members, also has raised national concern. The participation of young women in gangs and gang violence has caused public con- sternation as they are perceived to be violating traditional notions of femininity. In spite of this increased concern and burgeoning lit- erature,

Geoffrey Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler

2001-01-01

16

Gang involvement: psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth.  

PubMed

Research has noted the existence of a loose and dynamic gang structure. However, the psychological processes that underpin gang membership have only begun to be addressed. This study examined gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth across measures of criminal activity, the importance they attach to status, their levels of moral disengagement, their perceptions of out-group threat, and their attitudes toward authority. Of the 798 high school students who participated in this study, 59 were identified as gang members, 75 as peripheral youth, and 664 as nongang youth. Gang members and peripheral youth were more delinquent than nongang youth overall; however, gang members committed more minor offenses than nongang youth and peripheral youth committed more violent offenses than nongang youth. Gang members were more anti-authority than nongang youth, and both gang and peripheral youth valued social status more than nongang youth. Gang members were also more likely to blame their victims for their actions and use euphemisms to sanitize their behavior than nongang youth, whereas peripheral youth were more likely than nongang youth to displace responsibility onto their superiors. These findings are discussed as they highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the cognitive processes that relate to gang involvement. PMID:20718002

Alleyne, Emma; Wood, Jane L

17

Female gang members: a profile of aggression and victimization.  

PubMed

Most research on gang membership has concentrated on the male population. When female gang membership is examined, it is usually in reference to the young women as sex objects or to their secondary roles in the gang. Minimal work has been done to examine the etiology of female gang membership. This article presents themes of female gang membership that emerged from in-depth structured interviews with 15 young women in a residential treatment facility. Demographic material, family structure, initiation rites, and criminal behaviors are examined. In addition, specific implications for social work practice and research are explored. PMID:8936081

Molidor, C E

1996-05-01

18

Psychopathy among Mexican American Gang Members: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-risk Mexican American males were assessed for levels of psychopathy. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Screening Version was compared in a random sample of gang members with a matched community sample of violent non-gang members and samples of forensic and psychiatric patients and undergraduate students. Analysis involved t-test, chi- square, and Cronbach’s alpha statistics. More than half of the gang sample were

Avelardo Valdez; Charles D. Kaplan; Edward Codina

2000-01-01

19

A Profile of Juvenile Street Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to fill the need for empirically derived information to determine the most salient factors which differentiate street gang youths from youths in comparable neighborhoods who remain independent of the street gang. (Author)|

Friedman, C. Jack; And Others

1975-01-01

20

Pride and prejudice in high school gang members.  

PubMed

This study compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and their self-professed role models. A total of 78 Caucasian (65 nongang and 13 gang members) and 77 African-American students (41 nongang and 36 gang members) participated. Results indicated that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to their nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial stereotyping toward racial outgroups; gang members were not more racially prejudiced compared to other students. The role model data revealed that overall, gang members could name fewer role models than did their nongang peers. African-American students who were not gang members were much more likely to mention a parent or teacher as a role model. A regression analysis indicated that the absence of parental or teacher roles models was the best predictor of gang membership. These results are conceptualized within the framework provided by social identity theory. PMID:8085481

Wang, A Y

1994-01-01

21

Treatment of gang members can reduce recidivism and institutional misconduct.  

PubMed

Gang violence creates serious safety and security concerns in the community and prisons. Treated gang and nongang members recidivated significantly less in a 24-month follow-up than their untreated matched controls. Treatment consisted of high intensity cognitive-behavioral programs that follow the risk, need, and responsivity principles (Andrews & Bonta, 2003). The treated gang members who recidivated violently after treatment received significantly shorter sentences (i.e. they committed less serious offences) than their untreated matched controls. Untreated gang members had significantly higher rates of major (but not minor) institutional offences than the other three groups. Correctional treatment that follows the risk, need and responsivity principles appears able to reduce recidivism and major institutional misconduct. Effective correctional treatment should be considered as one of the approaches in the management and rehabilitation of incarcerated gang members. PMID:16729210

Di Placido, Chantal; Simon, Terri L; Witte, Treena D; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

2006-02-01

22

The Path and Promise of Fatherhood for Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in

Molly Moloney; Kathleen MacKenzie; Geoffrey Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler

2009-01-01

23

Psychopathy Among Mexican American Gang Members: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

High-risk Mexican American males were assessed for levels of psychopathy. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Screening Version was compared in a random sample of gang members with a matched community sample of violent non-gang members and samples of forensic and psychiatric patients and undergraduate students. Analysis involved t-test, chi-square, and Cronbach’s alpha statistics. More than half of the gang sample were categorized as low, 44% as moderate, and only 4% as high on psychopathy. The gang members had higher scores on the total, affective, and behavioral scores than the non–gang members. High scores on adolescent antisocial behavior, poor behavioral controls, and lack of remorse were found in both samples. Gang members scored twice as high as non-gang members on lack of empathy. Both samples were lower on psychopathy than the forensics and higher than psychiatric patients and undergraduates. The results provide grounds for early intervention efforts for this high-risk population.

Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Codina, Edward

2010-01-01

24

Psychopathy Among Mexican American Gang Members: A Comparative Study.  

PubMed

High-risk Mexican American males were assessed for levels of psychopathy. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version was compared in a random sample of gang members with a matched community sample of violent non-gang members and samples of forensic and psychiatric patients and undergraduate students. Analysis involved t-test, chi-square, and Cronbach's alpha statistics. More than half of the gang sample were categorized as low, 44% as moderate, and only 4% as high on psychopathy. The gang members had higher scores on the total, affective, and behavioral scores than the non-gang members. High scores on adolescent antisocial behavior, poor behavioral controls, and lack of remorse were found in both samples. Gang members scored twice as high as non-gang members on lack of empathy. Both samples were lower on psychopathy than the forensics and higher than psychiatric patients and undergraduates. The results provide grounds for early intervention efforts for this high-risk population. PMID:21516257

Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Codina, Edward

2000-02-01

25

The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

2002-01-01

26

Situations of violence in the lives of girl gang members.  

PubMed

Women and violence has become a topic of increasing concern. Women's involvement in perpetrating violence, especially girl gang members, also has raised national concern. The participation of young women in gangs and gang violence has caused public consternation as they are perceived to be violating traditional notions of femininity. In spite of this increased concern and burgeoning literature, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of the role of young women in gangs, the nature and extent of female gang members' victimization, and the extent of their involvement in perpetrating violence. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of violence in the lives of female gang members. The analysis draws from the qualitative and quantitative data of an ongoing comparative study on ethnic youth gangs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The analysis is organized around the situations of violence these young women face from early childhood within the family setting to their current status within the gang and on the streets. PMID:11813785

Hunt, G; Joe-Laidler, K

2001-06-01

27

Facilitating Between Gang Members and Police  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confrontations between youths and the police are increasingly frequent in the United States as police lead the effort to reduce youth gangs, crime, and violence. As a result, police-youth relations are characterized by hostility, mistrust, misunderstandings and stereotypes. This article outlines a ten-stage dialogue process to improve relations between police and gang-related youths in a suburb near Washington, D.C. In

Nike Carstarphen; Ilana Shapiro

1997-01-01

28

Do perceptions of neighborhood disorganization predict crime or victimization? An examination of gang member versus non-gang member jail inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of perceptions of social disorganization on crime perpetration and victimization among a sample of incarcerated adult gang and non-gang members. Using survey data from 2,414 jail inmates, results suggest that gang members are significantly more likely than non-gang members to be both perpetrators and victims of property and personal crimes. Results also indicate substantive similarities

Kathleen A. Fox; Ronald L. Akers

2010-01-01

29

Ethical dilemmas in the treatment of adolescent gang members.  

PubMed

Therapists treating adolescent gang members face unique ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas arise from clinical issues that inevitably emerge in the treatment of this population. Clinical issues related to the adolescent gang member having great difficulty trusting, having experienced and observed much violence, and usually having participated in criminal activities are central to the treatment process. In this article I discuss the ethical problems that subsequently emerge: maintaining confidentiality, discharging one's duty to warn or protect, and imposing one's personal values. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:11655354

Kearney, Edmund M

1998-01-01

30

"Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers,…

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

31

Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…

Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

2012-01-01

32

HIV Testing, Perceived Vulnerability and Correlates of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors of Latino and African American Young Male Gang Members  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examined HIV testing behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and correlates of sexual risk behaviors of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members ages 18–26 years old. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviors: had sex with someone they just met (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had an STD (AOR = 4.67), or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR= 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members.

Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.

2011-01-01

33

HIV testing, perceived vulnerability and correlates of HIV sexual risk behaviours of Latino and African American young male gang members.  

PubMed

This study examined HIV testing behaviours, perceived vulnerability to HIV and correlates of sexual risk behaviours of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members aged 18-26 years. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviours: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had a sexually transmitted infection (STI; AOR = 4.67) or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR = 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members. PMID:21364062

Brooks, R A; Lee, S-J; Stover, G N; Barkley, T W

2011-01-01

34

An Analysis of Risk Domains Associated with Drug Transitions of Active Latino Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol and illicit drug abuse is a serious problem among male Latino gang members. Research indicates that gang members increase their drug use while they are members, and use more drugs after they leave the gangs. This manuscript reports on data reflecting the influences of individual, familial, peer, and community factors on the number of drug use transitions that Latino

Mario De La Rosa; Douglas Rugh; Christopher Rice

2006-01-01

35

The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the stability of belonging to a gang in early adolescence, the behaviour profiles, family characteristics, and friendships of nongang and gang members. The subjects in the present study were originally part of a larger sample of boys. One hundred and forty-two boys who had a complete data set at ages 11, 12, 13, and 14 were selected

Wendy M. Craig; Frank Vitaro; laude Gagnon; Richard E. Tremblay

2002-01-01

36

Gang Members on the Move. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Yout...

C. L. Maxson

1998-01-01

37

THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS.  

PubMed

While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one's family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

Moloney, Molly; Mackenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

2009-01-01

38

Brief report: Do delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang

Anjana Madan; Sylvie Mrug; Michael Windle

2011-01-01

39

"GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY": DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS.  

PubMed

This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members'drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend "protection" to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J

2004-02-01

40

Alcohol and Violence in the Lives of Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life within a gang includes two endemic features: violence and alcohol. Yet, to date, most researchers studying gang behavior have focused on violence and its relationship to illicit drugs, largely neglecting the importance of alcohol in gang life. Because alcohol is an integral and regular part of socializing within gang life, drinking works as a social lubricant, or social glue,

Geoffrey P. Hunt; Karen Joe Laidler

41

Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

2006-01-01

42

Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results From the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in comparison with their urinalysis outcomes. A substantial body of

Vincent J. Webb; Charles M. Katz; Scott H. Decker

2006-01-01

43

The Drugs-Violence Nexus Among Mexican-American Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history \\/intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10

Avelardo Valdez; Charles D. Kaplan; Alice Cepeda

2006-01-01

44

Human Services Students' Attitudes toward Working with an Inner-City Gang Member: The Case of Alphonse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the attitudes of 91 human service counseling students toward working with an inner-city gang member. Results reveal qualitative differences in students' self-perceived ability to work with this client. Presents implications for human service education and training. (MKA)|

Ancis, Julie R.; Burke, Mary C.

1997-01-01

45

Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.  

PubMed

Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.'' PMID:19864259

Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

2009-10-27

46

Violence By Gang Members, 1993-2003. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Crime Data Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), victims perceived perpetrators to be gang members in about 6% of violent victimizations between 1998 and 2003. On average for each year, gang members committed about 373,000 of the 6.6 million v...

E. Harrell

2005-01-01

47

Girls' TalkThe Social Representation of Aggression by Female Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyzes taperecorded accounts of fights given by female members of New York street gangs to fellow members. While such data may not be veridical, they can reveal much about the way aggression is socially represented to peers which in turn is likely to be constrained by gang norms about the propriety of aggressive behavior. Frequency data indicate

ANNE CAMPBELL

1984-01-01

48

An analysis of risk domains associated with drug transitions of active Latino gang members.  

PubMed

Alcohol and illicit drug abuse is a serious problem among male Latino gang members. Research indicates that gang members increase their drug use while they are members, and use more drugs after they leave the gangs. This manuscript reports on data reflecting the influences of individual, familial, peer, and community factors on the number of drug use transitions that Latino gang members undergo during their drug using careers. Data from this study were collected from interviews conducted with seventy-six active Latino gang members. The study's results indicate that age at the time of interview and lower age of drug onset were associated with a greater number of drug use transitions. Positive family attitudes toward deviance, friend drug use, school truancy, conflict with parents, and living in neighborhoods with a high level of crime were also found to be associated with increased drug use transitions. PMID:17088228

De La Rosa, Mario; Rugh, Douglas; Rice, Christopher

2006-01-01

49

The family relations, peer relations, and criminal activities of Caucasian and Hispanic-American gang members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile gang members present serious problems to society, yet few empirical studies have examined their criminal activity, family relations, and peer relations in comparison with other highly antisocial youths. In a 2 (Gang Membership) × 2 (Ethnicity: Hispanic-American vs. Caucasian) design, 131 incarcerated male juvenile offenders were administered a battery assessing criminal activity, family relations, and peer relations. Results demonstrated

Jean-Marie Lyon; Scott Henggeler; James A. Hall

1992-01-01

50

Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

2010-01-01

51

Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

2011-01-01

52

The Drugs-Violence Nexus Among Mexican-American Gang Members  

PubMed Central

This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history/intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant’s last fight. Gang member participant’s ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member’s risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxicatiion levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs.

Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

2010-01-01

53

The drugs-violence nexus among Mexican-American gang members.  

PubMed

This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history /intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant's last fight. Gang member participant's ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member's risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxication levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450

Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Cepeda, Alice

2006-06-01

54

Gallo's BodyDecoration and Damnation in the Life of a Chicano Gang Member  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent body marking both reinforces and challenges existing social divisions. Looking at the life of a Chicano tattoo artist, this article presents an analysis of tattoo as self-damnation. For gang members and prisoners, layers of tattoos evince personal experience and social history alike. While they are tools of empowerment, individuality, and livelihood, tattoos also represent oppression and exclusion from the

Susan A. Phillips

2001-01-01

55

Understanding Latino Family Attitudes in Relation to Latino Gang Members' Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a content analysis of ethnographic interviews from long-term Latino gang members whose families have recently immigrated to the United States. Positive relationships within the family, parental support, a consistent and constructive parental discipline style and adult supervision tend to be related negatively to adolescents' deviant behaviors and their association with deviant peers. An expected positive relationship between

Mario De La Rosa; Christopher Rice; Douglas Rugh

2007-01-01

56

Internal and External Developmental Assets Among African American Male Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The presence of individual and ecological assets for positive development was assessed through data derived from individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males living in the same communities but involved in community-based organizations (CBOs) aimed at…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

2004-01-01

57

An ethnonursing culture care study of the meanings, expressions, and lifeways experiences of selected urban African American adolescent gang members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to discover universal and diverse care meanings and expressions of the urban African American adolescent gang culture within a qualitative paradigm. The domain of inquiry was “the expressions, meanings, and cultural lifeways of selected African American adolescent gang members and their daily and nightly experiences within their environmental context. ^ Leininger's Culture Care Diversity

Edith J Morris

2004-01-01

58

Predictors of violence and delinquency among high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low future orientation, low empathy, educational difficulty, school expulsion, delinquent peers, gang membership, and low social support were found to be significant risk factors for violence and delinquency among a sample (N = 174) of high risk youth and youth gang members in San Salvador, El Salvador.

René Olate; Christopher Salas-Wright; Michael G. Vaughn

2012-01-01

59

A tale of two cities: Gangs as organized crime groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the extent to which street gangs are becoming organized crime groups. Active gang members were asked about gang structure and organization, gang activities, and relationships between their gang and other groups. Gang members were interviewed in an emerging gang city, San Diego, and an established gang city, Chicago. Members of one African-American and one Hispanic gang were

Scott H. Decker; Tim Bynum; Deborah Weisel

1998-01-01

60

Gangs and Rosaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because some known gang members were wearing rosaries as gang symbols, a Texas school district told two students--who were not gang members--that they could not wear rosaries outside their shirts. A federal district court ruled (Chalifoux v. New Caney Independent School District) that the district's entire gang-apparel policy was void because of…

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

1998-01-01

61

“Deterrability” Among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable Than Other Juvenile Offenders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not negated by past offending experience, morality,

Cheryl L. Maxson; Kristy N. Matsuda; Karen Hennigan

2011-01-01

62

"Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are…

Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

2011-01-01

63

Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began…

Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

64

Liquid Soldiers: Fluidity and Gang Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates relational gang dynamics through qualitative in-depth interviewing with former gang members. Assumed gang process such as violent initiation rituals required for entrance and violent episodes when leaving a gang are called into question by the narratives of former gang members. Furthermore, the lines of inclusion for gangs are not clear, especially in regards to affiliates and associates,

Christian L. Bolden

2012-01-01

65

Adolescent Male and Female Gang Members’ Experiences with Violent Victimization, Dating Violence, and Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial amount of scholarship has been devoted to examining the relationship between gang membership and criminal offending.\\u000a This research has produced a wealth of qualitative and quantitative studies indicating that gang membership increases the\\u000a likelihood of criminal offending for both males and females. Less research, however, has examined the relationship between\\u000a gang membership and violent victimization. The present study

Angela R. Gover; Wesley G. Jennings; Richard Tewksbury

2009-01-01

66

Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

2004-01-01

67

Substance Abuse Among Puerto Rican and Dominican Gang Members in a Small City Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joining a gang increases an adolescent's risk for substance abuse. To better understand the contextual development of drug use behavior, this retrospective ethnographic study describes a sample of 76 young small-city mainland Puerto-Rican and Dominican males who joined gangs when they were younger. Data is presented and discussed on the drug abuse behavior including their drug using progression and the

Mario R. De La Rosa; Douglas Rugh; Patria Rojas

2005-01-01

68

Collective and normative features of gang violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang members engage in a considerable amount of violence. Based on a three-year field study of active gang members in St. Louis, this paper examines five activities in which gang members use violence. Retaliatory gang violence is highlighted for its role in generating additional violence and contributing to the growth of gangs. We pay particular attention to the normative aspects

Scott H. Decker

1996-01-01

69

Age, Social Context, and Street Gang Membership: Are "Youth" Gangs Becoming "Adult" Gangs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To investigate the extent to which street gangs in Los Angeles (California) are comprised of youth or adults, self-report data from 435 gang members are examined. Findings do not generally support the idea of the aging gang member. Gangs consist primarily of adolescents, regardless of racial and socioeconomic differences. (SLD)|

Lasley, James R.

1992-01-01

70

Gangs and Girls in the 'Hood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Answers to commonly asked questions about female gang members. Girls typically join gangs at age 14 to 15. If given alternatives, females will often leave gangs sooner than males. Female gang members are respected, and see themselves as strong, committed soldiers. Includes "Myths about Females in Gangs" and suggestions for additional readings.…

Garland, Richard

1996-01-01

71

Youth Gangs and Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the association between drug sales and violence has been a central focus of gang research since the 1980s, the issue of drug use within gangs has been given much less attention. This is especially true in the case of marijuana. This lack of interest is surprising given the extent to which gang members use marijuana. Other than alcohol, marijuana

Kathleen Mackenzie; Geoffrey Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler

2006-01-01

72

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

73

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

74

Gang and Non-Gang Youth: Differences in Explanatory Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparently common assumption about juvenile gangs is that they are composed of individuals who are substantially different from other youth that are not gang members. Little empirical evidence exists to support such an assumption. This can, in part, be attributed to the fact that most knowledge about gangs has been derived from data gathered by police gang units or

Finn-Aage Esbensen; David Huizinga; Anne W. Weiher

1993-01-01

75

Gangs. Substance Abuse Resource Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. cities have seen a proliferation of youth gangs in recent years. Since 1980, the number of cities with gang problems increased from an estimated 286 jurisdictions with more than 2,000 gangs and nearly 100,000 gang members to about 4,800 jurisdictions...

2000-01-01

76

Resource Brief: Gangs. Inquiry Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…

Johnston, Howard

2013-01-01

77

Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

US Government Accountability Office, 2009

2009-01-01

78

"It's like we're just renting over here": The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai'i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai'i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K

2009-03-30

79

System and method for identifying members of a gang or security threat group  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

System and method for monitoring activity of detainees comprising identifying a detainee who is affiliated with a gang, searching one or more databases for information associated with the detainee, and correlating the information to identify individuals who may be affiliated with the gang. The databases may include call record databases, and the information associated with the detainee may include individuals called by the detainee, individuals who visit the detainee, telephone numbers called by the detainee, and sources of funding for the detainee's calls voice and/or facial biometric identifiers. An alert may be triggered when the detainee calls a specified individual or telephone number.

Viola; John J. (Frisco, TX); Sidler; James S. (Lubbock, TX); Keiser; Luke (Frisco, TX)

2010-09-28

80

Modern-Day Youth Gangs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drawing on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys, the authors of this bulletin compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions...

J. C. Howell A. Egley D. K. Gleason

2002-01-01

81

A Comparison between Mexican American Youth Who Are in Gangs and Those Who Are Not  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study compares the differences between 43 Mexican American gang members and 43 Mexican American adolescents who are not members of a gang on several demographic, educational, familial, cultural, and psychological variables. Differences were analyzed using "t" tests and chi-square analyses. discussion focuses on implications for…

Tapia, Hugo A.; Kinnier, Richard T.; MacKinnon, David P.

2009-01-01

82

The Origins of Navajo Youth Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extended interviews with 50 Navajo men, aged 21 to 45, provided information on peer relationships and gang formation among male Navajo youth in the 1960s through the 1980s. Results suggest that gangs are an extreme example of traditional hell-raising among young Navajo men and that most gang members "age out" of their gangs. Suggestions for gang

Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Levy, Jerrold E.

1999-01-01

83

Cholas, Mexican-American girls, and gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on interviews with twenty-one present and former female gang members, this study focuses on Mexican-American gang girls as they operate within the Mexican-American gang milieu in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California. The violence demanded of gang members is described within the context of the gang subculture. Gang structure, activities, attachment to the group and internalization of

Mary G. Harris

1994-01-01

84

Youth gang membership and serious violent victimization: the importance of lifestyles and routine activities.  

PubMed

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their nongang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at increased risk of victimization, although the reasons for this relationship have not fully been explored. The current study uses data from a multisite study of youth to explore whether the gang membership-victimization link is mediated by lifestyles and routine activities. In other words, is gang members' involvement in delinquent lifestyles and routine activities a viable explanation for their increased risk of serious violent victimization? Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:18319365

Taylor, Terrance J; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-03-04

85

Recruitment to a Youth Gang.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among Black adolescents in Chicago, Illinois, gang recruiting was more prevalent in depressed communities and was targeted primarily at veteran delinquents. Gang members exhibited higher interpersonal self-confidence but lower societal self-confidence than gang recruits, and members appeared to be less attached to school and have less parental…

Johnstone, John W. C.

1983-01-01

86

[Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs].  

PubMed

Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized. PMID:21739067

Guzmán-Facundo, Francisco Rafael; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge; Lopez-García, Karla Selene; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Esparza-Almanza, Santiaga Enriqueta

2011-06-01

87

Facilitating Violence: A Comparison of Gang-Motivated, Gang-Affiliated, and Nongang Youth Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that gangs facilitate violent offending by members,but the mechanisms by which that facilitation occurs remain unclear. Gangsmay promote violence indirectly by facilitating members' access to riskysituations such as drug markets or directly through gang functions such asturf defense. We explore alternative modes of facilitation in a comparisonof gang-affiliated homicides (which involve gang members but do not

Richard Rosenfeld; Timothy M. Bray; Arlen Egley

1999-01-01

88

The Value of Comparisons in Street Gang Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article calls for greater attention to the use of comparative studies in street gang research. Five examples of good but noncomparative studies are reviewed to make the case. Then, a number of opportunities for comparative research are reviewed: gang member comparisons, gang members versus non-gang youth, cross-gang comparisons, comparisons across locations, historical comparisons, and methodological comparisons. For each type,

Malcolm W. Klein

2005-01-01

89

Constructing Gangs: The Social Definition Of Youth Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite previous research, there remains no consensus on definitions of who is a gang member, what is a gang, and what is gang activity. This paper examines these issues based on results of a survey administered to two groups involved in responding to gangs—members of a gang task force and officers of an urban police department—and a group of juvenile

Scott Decker; Kimberly Kempf-Leonard

1991-01-01

90

Social Dynamics of Gang Involvement: A Mathematical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gangs have played a significant role in the social and political history of the United States, and continue to impact the country today, as gang violence and participation rates continue to grow. In this paper, we explore the dynamics of gang involvement between at-risk individuals, gang members, and reformed gang members using an SIR-type model. We investigate the effect that

Emily Smith; Sowmya Srinivasan; Joshua Austin; Fabio Sanchez

2012-01-01

91

Safeguarding Schools against Gang Warfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gang activities are often part of a complex web of drugs, abuse, and high regard for violent and criminal behavior. This article discusses the spread of street gangs and describes innovative intervention and prevention programs, such as Chicago's counseling/support project using ex-gang members. Experts' tips are also provided. (MLH)|

Tursman, Cindy

1989-01-01

92

Gangs and delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the meaning of police estimates of gang membership, by reviewing the characteristics of youth labeled as gang members in one western state, Hawaii, during 1991. Arrest patterns of these youth do not support the notion that they constitute a seriously violent subset of criminals. Indeed, nearly a third had not been arrested in the previous three years;

Meda Chesney-Lind; Anna Rockhill; Nancy Marker; Howard Reyes

1994-01-01

93

Gangs in Central America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 110th Congress maintains a keen interest in the effects of crime and gang violence in Central America and its spillover effects on the United States. Since February 2005, more than 1,758 alleged members of the violent Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang hav...

C. R. Seelke

2008-01-01

94

Surf and turf wars online--growing implications of Internet gang violence.  

PubMed

To examine use of the Internet by gangs and its affect on youth, i-SAFE Inc. collected information from more than 100,000 students and 137 gang associates from an urban population. Although individuals who associate with a gang have distinguishable discrepancies in the amount of time spent online, they have similar online behavior as compared with those who are not involved with gangs. Additional research is necessary to develop a substantive link between gangs online and the school and community culture. PMID:18047950

King, Jonathan E; Walpole, Carolyn E; Lamon, Kristi

2007-12-01

95

Asian GangsRecent Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some recent research findings about Asian gang members. Some of the noteworthy findings are (a) the Asian gang problem is small in comparison with the overall national gang problem; (b) in terms of human developmental or lifespan variables, social variables, and psychological variables, there really is little that can be said to be unique about Asian gang

GEORGE W. KNOX; THOMAS F. McCURRIE

1997-01-01

96

Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.  

PubMed

The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed. PMID:19477786

Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

2008-01-23

97

Juvenile Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is concerned with the issue of youth gangs. A brief introduction provides examples of gang violence and notes that juvenile gangs are not just a problem in large metropolitan areas, but are being established in communities nationwide. Following this introduction is a series of questions and answers about gangs. Questions focus on what…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

98

The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

2007-01-01

99

Gang-related crime: the social, psychological and behavioral correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the behavioral, social and psychological factors associated with gang-related crime. By comparing group crime committed by non-gang youth and gang members, this study sought to identify the kinds of criminal activity gang members engage in and identify the specific characteristics that differentiate gang-related crime from other group crimes. We found that gangs map out their territory with

Emma Alleyne; Jane L. Wood

2012-01-01

100

Cholo to ‘Me’: From Peripherality to Practicing Student Success for a Chicano Former Gang Member  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many situationally marginalized Mexican-descent students today, hopelessness is fueled by a bleak life situation that is reflected in their school performance. Success in school remains elusive because they are not or have not had the opportunity to become members of a community that contributes to their sense of agency, possibility and hope in life or educational pursuits. From a

Reynaldo Reyes

2006-01-01

101

Cholo to "Me": From Peripherality to Practicing Student Success for a Chicano Former Gang Member  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For many situationally marginalized Mexican-descent students today, hopelessness is fueled by a bleak life situation that is reflected in their school performance. Success in school remains elusive because they are not or have not had the opportunity to become members of a community that contributes to their sense of agency, possibility and hope…

Reyes, Reynaldo, III

2006-01-01

102

Internal and External Developmental Assets Among African American Male Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of individual and ecological assets for positive development was assessed through data derived from individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangsand50 African American adolescent males living in the same communities but involved in community-based organizations (CBOs) aimed at promoting positive youth development.The CBO youth had higher levels of both domains of assets.

Carl S. Taylor; Richard M. Lerner; Alexander von Eye; Deborah L. Bobek; Elizabeth M. Dowling; Pamela M. Anderson

2004-01-01

103

Ganging Up on Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To fight gang activity, an Ohio school system took the lead in forming a coalition consisting of representatives from 25 community groups and agencies. Actions have included providing school-based intervention and training at the high school, and establishing an intelligence link between the schools and local law enforcement. (MLF)|

Green, Reginald Leon; Miller, Roger L.

1996-01-01

104

Violence and Social Organization in Female Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Challenges recent portrayals of the demonic character of female gang members by examining the life histories and social organizations of several different female gangs. Interviews with 65 female gang members from seven groups show that these young women experience potential and actual violence in different violence prone situations. (SLD)|

Laidler, Karen A. Joe; Hunt, Geoffrey

1997-01-01

105

Gender dynamics in youth gangs: A comparison of males' and females' accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on interviews with 58 gang members in St. Louis, this paper compares males' and females' perspectives on the gender dynamics in street gangs. Feminist scholars have long criticized traditional gang scholarship for its reliance on male gang members to gain information about young women. We suggest that it is useful to revisit what male gang members say about gender

Jody Miller; Rod K. Brunson

2000-01-01

106

Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-01-01

107

Gang membership, violence, and psychiatric morbidity.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Gang members engage in many high-risk activities associated with psychiatric morbidity, particularly violence-related ones. The authors investigated associations between gang membership, violent behavior, psychiatric morbidity, and use of mental health services. METHOD The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 4,664 men 18-34 years of age in Great Britain using random location sampling. The survey oversampled men from areas with high levels of violence and gang activities. Participants completed questionnaires covering gang membership, violence, use of mental health services, and psychiatric diagnoses measured using standardized screening instruments. RESULTS Violent men and gang members had higher prevalences of mental disorders and use of psychiatric services than nonviolent men, but a lower prevalence of depression. Violent ruminative thinking, violent victimization, and fear of further victimization accounted for the high levels of psychosis and anxiety disorders in gang members, and with service use in gang members and other violent men. Associations with antisocial personality disorder, substance misuse, and suicide attempts were explained by factors other than violence. CONCLUSIONS Gang members show inordinately high levels of psychiatric morbidity, placing a heavy burden on mental health services. Traumatization and fear of further violence, exceptionally prevalent in gang members, are associated with service use. Gang membership should be routinely assessed in individuals presenting to health care services in areas with high levels of violence and gang activity. Health care professionals may have an important role in promoting desistence from gang activity. PMID:23846827

Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone; Keers, Robert; Bebbington, Paul; Destavola, Bianca L; Kallis, Constantinos; Yang, Min; Reiss, David; Jenkins, Rachel; Donnelly, Peter

2013-09-01

108

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored the differences between the criminal behavior of youth gang members and non-gang, but similarly at-risk, youths. The research revealed that criminal behavior committed by gang members is extensive and significantly exceeds that committ...

C. R. Huff

1998-01-01

109

Gangs a Suburban Problem Too! "Taking the Gang Threat Seriously."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gangs are no longer the exclusive problem of large metropolitan areas. Suburban schools and communities are now vulnerable, and the problem is spreading. To combat the problem, it is essential to overcome denial in the school and community. The case study of Chris, a junior high school student, exemplifies suburban youth gang members.…

Stabile, Michael J.

110

Adolescent gangs in the hospital.  

PubMed

Gang formation is common among adolescents, and the sociological dynamics of this phenomenon have been studied in depth. However, gang formation on mental health treatment units has not been extensively addressed. In this setting, gang members may disrupt treatment, threaten the safety of patients and staff, and leave the facility without receiving effective treatment. This impact motivated the authors to look beyond psychoanalytic and sociological models for an explanation of this phenomenon. After reviewing the literature and describing gang formation in a hospital, they apply a paradigm of moral development theory and suggest therapeutic interventions. PMID:2912515

Berland, D I; Homlish, J S; Blotcky, M J

1989-01-01

111

National Youth Gang Survey, 1998. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This summary provides results from the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, administered to a representative sample of city and county police and sheriff's departments nationwide. Results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs decreased from 51 percent in 1997 to 48 percent in 1998. About 780,200 gang members were…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

112

Youth Gang Drug Trafficking. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the results of the 1996 National Youth Gang Survey of law enforcement agencies, this Bulletin analyzes the participation of youth gang members in drug sales and the role of gangs in drug distribution. Although the authors found widespread drug traff...

J. C. Howell D. K. Gleason

1999-01-01

113

Unemployment and gang crime: can prosperity backfire?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study how unemployment affects gang crime. We examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that a substitution\\u000a effect between petty crime and severe crime is at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private\\u000a knowledge. Thus, the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime

Panu Poutvaara; Mikael Priks

2011-01-01

114

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs  

PubMed Central

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention.

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

2010-01-01

115

Gender and Victimization Risk among Young Women in Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has documented the enhancement effects of gang involvement for criminal offending, but little attention has been given to victimization. This article examines how gang involvement shapes young women's risks of victimization. Based on interviews with active gang members, the author suggests that (1) gang participation exposes youths to victimization risk and (2) it does so in gendered ways. Young

JODY MILLER

1998-01-01

116

Gang Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

During childhood and adolescence, the formation of groups or gangs is a normal part of the growing process. Playmates, school friends, Boy and Girl Scout troops are each examples of the natural inclination to form group attachments that provide a stable social outlet. However, gangs, as we now know them, are part of the pathological process brought on by the

1995-01-01

117

Gang Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

:During childhood and adolescence, the formation of groups or gangs is a normal part of the growing process. Playmates, school friends, Boy and Girl Scout troops are each examples of the natural inclination to form group attachments that provide a stable social outlet. However, gangs, as we now know them, are part of the pathological process brought on by the

Robert T. Sigler

1995-01-01

118

Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

2008-01-01

119

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and victimization); "Delinquency and…

Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

120

Mineralogy of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers: Implications for River Switching and Late Quaternary Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary sediments of the Bengal basin contain a history of river switching and climate change as revealed from sand- and clay-size mineralogy of boreholes and modern river-bed grabs. Epidote to garnet ratios (E\\/G) in sand fraction sediments are diagnostic of source, with high (> 1) E\\/G indicating Brahmaputra provenance and low (< 1) E\\/G indicating Ganges provenance. In the

D. C. Heroy; S. A. Kuehl; S. L. Goodbred

2001-01-01

121

Gangs and America's Schools: "Spitting the Lit"--Fact or Fad?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School board members, administrators, and teachers must remember that the wearing of "gang" clothing or the appearance of "gang" graffiti does not always translate into gang activity and crime. In reality, the so-called national spread of gang problems may be just another teenage fad. School personnel should treat gangs as a symptom of underlying…

Clay, Douglas A.; Aquila, Frank D.

1994-01-01

122

Gang-related homicides in Los Angeles County.  

PubMed

The incidence of gang homicides in Los Angeles County has increased faster than that of non-gang homicides in the past decade. This study compares characteristics of gang homicide victims with those of non-gang homicide victims for the year 1987. In 1186 cases, gang members were more likely to be young Black men who died of gunshot wounds. Gang homicide victims were more likely to die of firearm injuries in the early evening, and were more likely to die in a relatively small area of Los Angeles County. Drive-by shooting was highly associated with gang homicide. PMID:8355004

Rogers, C

1993-07-01

123

Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent VictimizationThe Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their nongang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at increased risk of victimization, although the

Terrance J. Taylor; Adrienne Freng; Finn-Aage Esbensen; Dana Peterson

2008-01-01

124

Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed. PMID:23525778

Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

2013-03-22

125

Gang violence.  

PubMed

During childhood and adolescence, the formation of groups or gangs is a normal part of the growing process. Playmates, school friends, Boy and Girl Scout troops are each examples of the natural inclination to form group attachments that provide a stable social outlet. However, gangs, as we now know them, are part of the pathological process brought on by the inability to disassociate from adolescent groupings, and more frightening, the result of infiltration by criminal elements, such as drug dealers, who exert violent influence on impressionable youngsters, particularly in major urban areas. The transition of gangs from innocent to deadly is due in large part to society's failure to respond to the environment that causes their pathology. In order to reverse the process, society must engage in programs that reinforce the gang or group experience as a positive one by incorporating adult supervision and mentoring as essential elements. PMID:7795033

Sigler, R T

1995-01-01

126

Coping with Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide to coping with street gangs is aimed at the young person who may be considering gang membership or who is afraid of gang violence. Understanding gangs leads to the ability to cope with the problems they pose. Part I explores "What Gangs Are," explaining characteristics of gangs and why young people join them. It is essential that…

Webb, Margot

127

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs A Situational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situa- tional factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immi- grant youth involvement in these types of violent

Avelardo Valdez; Alice Cepeda; Charles Kaplan

2010-01-01

128

RESPECT: Gang Mediation at Albuquerque, New Mexico's Washington Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents conflict resolution and mediation techniques used to resolve conflicts among rival gangs at Washington Middle School, an inner-city school in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Discusses formal mediation techniques and mediation for both male and female gang members. Focuses on preserving self-respect and dignity for gang members in all conflict…

Tabish, Kenneth R.; Orell, Linda Henry

1996-01-01

129

Gang Membership and Acculturation: ARSMA-II and Choloization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choloization, a staple in gang research on Latinos, asserts that gang members are less acculturated than non-gang members. However, the concept has not been subjected to a quantitative analysis. Using a sample of Latino incarcerated youths from Los Angeles County (N = 370), the veracity of the concept of choloization using the ARSMA-II Acculturation Scale is examined. It was hypothesized

D. A. Lopez; Patricia O'Donnell Brummett

2003-01-01

130

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending in a sample of youth offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending were examined in case files of 390 youth offenders aged between 16 and 18 years. Results indicated that youth offenders who were gang members and those who were not gang members but exposed to friends in gangs had a significantly higher likelihood of violent offending compared with a reference group of youth offenders who

Rebecca P. Ang; Vivien S. Huan; Sok Hoon Chua; Si Huan Lim

2011-01-01

131

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending in a sample of youth offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending were examined in case files of 390 youth offenders aged between 16 and 18 years. Results indicated that youth offenders who were gang members and those who were not gang members but exposed to friends in gangs had a significantly higher likelihood of violent offending compared with a reference group of youth offenders who

Rebecca P. Ang; Vivien S. Huan; Sok Hoon Chua; Si Huan Lim

2012-01-01

132

Familiar Correlates of Gang Membership: An Exploratory Study of Mexican-American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences between the families of youths who are gang members versus youths not in gangs were investigated. Data were collected from thirty mothers using a semi-structured interview. Results indicated that family related variables distinguish the families of gang members from the control families. Specifically, youths in gangs are more likely to come from families which put less emphasis on

Peter Adler; Carlos Ovando; Dennis Hocevar

1984-01-01

133

Minimizing gang violence in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Street gang members are frequently injured, and the violence of their subculture may follow them from the streets into the emergency department. We present four cases in which in-hospital gang violence occurred or was prevented. To decrease the risk of injury from gang-related violence within the hospital, we offer guidelines for patient care and health care provider safety. Emphasis is on education, awareness, and early hospital security involvement. PMID:1416318

Hutson, H R; Anglin, D; Mallon, W

1992-10-01

134

MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET  

PubMed Central

This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities.

Valdez, Avelardo

2010-01-01

135

The Folk Devil Reacts: Gangs and Moral Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analyses of moral panics and gangs have emphasized the impact of media images as well as the public, police, and legislative response in relation to the immediate threat posed by gangs and gang members. What is absent from the current moral panic literature is the effect that a moral panic may have on the group (or individual) to whom

Jenna L. Cyr

2003-01-01

136

On Alert! Gang Prevention. School In-Service Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides guidelines for gang awareness and prevention in the California school system. It is based on the belief that inservice training programs help school staff recognize early signs of gang activity, a necessary step to intervention. Following the introduction, chapter 1 offers descriptive information on gangs and their members,…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

137

Working Together To Erase Gangs in Our Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A common misconception about gangs is that they resemble past images of motorcycle riders. Society is now faced with what are called "hybrid" gangs whose members are usually 14 to 16 years of age, who dress conservatively, who display subtle gang identifiers, and who are motivated by a combination of profit and poor family life. This booklet…

National Consortium on Alternatives for Youth at Risk, Inc., Sarasota, FL.

138

Gang Membership and Adherence to the “Code of the Street”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang members have been found to engage in more delinquent behaviors than comparable nongang youth. Few empirical attempts have been made to identify the group processes associated with the gang experience that lead to such noteworthy behavioral outcomes. While not developed to explain gang behavior, Elijah Anderson’s “code of the street” framework may prove insightful. Utilizing data from a diverse

Kristy N. Matsuda; Chris Melde; Terrance J. Taylor; Adrienne Freng; Finn-Aage Esbensen

2012-01-01

139

Gang Interventions in JailsA National Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This national-level study surveys the perceptions of 134 jail administrators in 39 states about the prevalence of gang members in their facilities. Consistent with previous empirical work, approximately 13% of jail populations are thought to be gang involved, and although there are no regional differences in these estimates, small jails report having fewer gang-involved inmates. When asked about the problems

Rick Ruddell; Scott H. Decker; Arlen Egley

2006-01-01

140

“Where You From!”Gang Identity as Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates how young people in an inner-city ecology invoke the relevance of gangs by demanding, “Where you from!” Such a challenge creates a lively venue for performing identity and emotional manipulation for both the instigator who offers the challenge and the respondent. Rather than conceptualizing young people as gang members and gangs as a static group, this analysis

Robert Garot

2007-01-01

141

Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

2007-01-01

142

Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public atten- tion during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses data from a multi-site study of youth

Terrance J. Taylor; D. Peterson; F.-A. Esbensen; A. Freng

2007-01-01

143

The Girls in the Gang. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines the role of female gangs and the part women play in those that are predominantly male and provides an account of how these people came to accept casual killings, fire bombings, and the warfare and violence of the streets. It focuses on female gang members by setting out their stories as biographies and accounts of relationships…

Campbell, Anne

144

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs: A Situational Analysis.  

PubMed

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

2009-09-01

145

Differential Patterns of Gang Involvement among Hispanic and Black Adolescent Males: Promise for Prevention? Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination of the incidence of eight activities believed to be associated with gang membership indicates different patterns of gang involvement for urban Black and Hispanic males. The following activities are examined: (1) perceived advantage in gang membership; (2) hanging out where gang members hang out; (3) having friends identified as…

Curry, G. David; Spergel, Irving A.

146

Youth gangs, delinquency and drug use: a test of the selection, facilitation, and enhancement hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c) selection and facilitation work interactively (enhancement hypothesis). The aim of this study was to

Uberto Gatti; Richard E. Tremblay; Frank Vitaro; Pierre McDuff

2005-01-01

147

Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

148

Self-definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant disagreement among researchers as to the appropriate concep- tual and operational definitions of gang membership. One of the key issues involves the validity of allowing respondents to identify themselves as gang members. This re- search examines the construct validity of gang membership by examining the relation- ship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquent involvement.

BETH BJERREGAARD

2002-01-01

149

Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

2005-01-01

150

Gang talk and gang talkers: A critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed a proliferation of interest in the phenomenon of the gang both in the UK and across Europe. Such concern has been driven forward by growing reports of gang activity reported in the media, circulated by populist politicians as well as by academic researchers convinced the European gang has been ignored for too long. This anxiety has

Simon Hallsworth; Tara Young

2008-01-01

151

D-TAG: erasing the tag of gang membership.  

PubMed

Gangs are noted for establishing their territory, flaunting gang affiliation, intimidating nonmembers, and documenting their "services performed." These examples are a few reasons for the practice of "tagging," the labeling of an area, person, or object with gang-related graffiti or markings, such as tattoos. This article describes a school nurse's response to gang "tagging" and her efforts to assist former gang members who request removal of their tattoos, to get them removed-in essence to D-TAG themselves from their gang affiliation. D-TAG is a volunteer rehabilitation program utilizing family and community interaction to support gang tattoo removal and direct activities away from gang affiliations toward alternative educational programs and life styles. PMID:9146217

Gurke, B; Armstrong, M L

1997-04-01

152

Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals

Alice Cepeda; Avelardo Valdez

2003-01-01

153

Gang Violence in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very existence and purpose of street gangs is predicated on having an external threat or enemy. It is also recognized that gangs form allies as well as rivals with other gangs. The fact that gangs are embedded in an intricate structure of both positive (ally) and negative (rivalry) relationships has rarely been explored in terms of understanding the levels

Kiminori Nakamura; Alfred Blumstein

154

MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community's drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang's organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

Valdez, Avelardo

2005-10-01

155

Reducing Selection Bias in the Use of Focus Groups to Investigate Hidden Populations: The Case of Mexican-American Gang Members from South Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of selection bias in the recruitment of focus group participants. Selection bias is a methodological concern because it hinders the generalizability, representativeness, and comparability of focus group findings. Data for this paper was based on 24 focus groups conducted as part of a study on Mexican-American gangs. Discussed are specific strategies that minimize bias in

Avelardo Valdez; Charles D. Kaplan

1998-01-01

156

Gender and Gang Membership: A Contrast of Rural and Urban Youth on Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…

Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

2003-01-01

157

Troubles in Smurftown: Youth Gangs and Moral Visions on Guam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined youth gang problem in U.S. Guam. Found that changes in island traditionalism and culture wrought by modern society and modern Western individualism can isolate some youth. Concluded that gang members must be viewed as members of a culture that proposes moral visions and prescribes group behaviors for its membership. (Author/SD)|

Schmitz, Stephen; Christopher, John Chambers

1997-01-01

158

Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street gangs have been of primary concern to the public, policy makers, and criminologists for well over a century. There\\u000a is a very good reason for such concern: gang members contribute disproportionately to the overall level of crime, especially\\u000a violent and serious offenses (Battin-Pearson, Thornberry, Hawkins, & Krohn, 1998; Curry, 2000; Curry, Ball, & Decker, 1996;\\u000a Hill, Hawkins, Catalano, Maguin,

Marvin D. Krohn; Terence P. Thornberry

159

Urban Street Gang Enforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

160

Gangs in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book comprised of theories and findings from researchers concerning youth gangs in the United States, is organized into the following five parts: (1) Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Gang and the Community; (2) Defining and Measuring Gang Violence; (3) Diffusion, Diversity, and Drugs; (4) Assessing the Changing Knowledge…

Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

161

Gangs and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the…

Arthur, Richard; Erickson, Edsel

162

The Gang Intervention Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss…

Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

163

Gang Identifiers and Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails.…

Cantrell, Mary Lynn

1992-01-01

164

Ganges Mensa and other light-toned outcrops in Ganges Chasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ganges Mensa is the single large mesa within Ganges Chasma, standing over 4 km above the chasma floor. It displays a variety of lithologies in its layered stack. Its lower flanks consist of light-toned rock units which show a very low crater retention age. Observations of the mensa show that this low crater retention age indicates a susceptibility to erosion instead of a truly young age. There is good evidence that Ganges Mensa was once much larger, but has shrunk considerably in size due to erosion of this basal unit. Strewn about Ganges Chasma there are a number of smaller mounds of light-toned material that have very similar morphologies and OMEGA data indicate that some of them have a kieserite spectral signature, similar to the kieserite signature displayed by the light-toned units at the base of Ganges Mensa. This study examines these mounds and the relationships between them and Ganges Mensa, including the implications of the kieserite spectral signature. All of these data continue to contribute to discriminating between various origin hypotheses for Ganges Mensa and the light-toned units within Ganges Chasma.

Beyer, R. A.

2006-12-01

165

Moving beyond the gang-drug-violence connection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members’ lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members’ lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members’ lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future.

Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P.

2013-01-01

166

Youth Gangs: A Spreading Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews statistics on youth gangs and gang violence. Discusses the socioeconomic and psychological causes of gangs and gang membership. Describes "Making the Right Connection," a gang prevention program in inner-city Catholic schools in Los Angeles, utilizing a curriculum focusing on self-esteem, personal responsibility, value formation, conflict…

Martinet, Ken

1993-01-01

167

National Youth Gang Survey (1997). Summary: National Youth Gang Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States and the growth of youth gang violence have heightened the awareness of the youth gang problem among public policymakers, law enforcement agencies, and social scientists. To measure the e...

1999-01-01

168

Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Youth Gang Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980 has fueled the public's fear and magnified possible misconceptions about youth gangs. To address the mounting concern about youth gangs, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Yout...

J. C. Howell S. H. Decker

1999-01-01

169

The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

Duran, Robert J.

2009-01-01

170

Street Gangs and the Schools: A Blueprint for Intervention. Fastback 321.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools cannot approach the problem of street gangs with the same strategies as law enforcement agencies, but rather must create a nurturing environment for all students, where success in school and life becomes the only attractive option for gang members. Street gangs represent the racial, cultural, and economic diversity of American society.…

Riley, Kevin W.

171

The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

Duran, Robert J.

2009-01-01

172

Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Positive individual and social behaviors were assessed among male gang members and males involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. Correlations of attribute scores were more often significant for the gang than for the nongang youth. Approximately one-quarter of the gang youth had total positive…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Pamela M.

2003-01-01

173

Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs

Huff, C. Ronald

174

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

2002-01-01

175

Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2010-01-01

176

Sureños gangs and Mexican cartel use of social networking sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narco use of the Internet, specifically social networking sites by Sureños gang and Mexican cartel members, is a rich yet underexplored area of research in open venues because of its sensitive nature. This essay provides overviews of Sureños gang and Mexican cartel use of the Internet by means of viewing and analyzing primary Internet sources linked to purported narcotics groups

Sarah Womer; Robert J. Bunker

2010-01-01

177

Gangs in Central America (Updated March 27, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 110th Congress maintains a keen interest in the effects of crime and gang violence in Central America and its spillover effects on the United States. Since February 2005, more than 1,758 alleged members of the violent Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang hav...

C. R. Seelke

2008-01-01

178

The Effect of Gang Perpetrated Crime on the Likelihood of Non-Lethal Victim Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies consistently find that gang members are involved in a disproportionately high rate of violence. The association between\\u000a gangs and violence is largely based on the legal definition of violence, however. The current study moves beyond the legal\\u000a definition of gang violence by examining the relationship between non-lethal gang involved incidents and the likelihood of\\u000a victim injury, using pooled data

Chris Melde; Callie Marie Rennison

2008-01-01

179

THE MEANING OF FAMILY AND HOME FOR YOUNG PASIFIKA PEOPLE INVOLVED IN GANGS IN THE SUBURBS OF SOUTH AUCKLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses in-depth interviews conducted with 26 Pasifika1 youth gang members from two South Auckland suburbs to explore how these youth perceive family and home in the context of their role as a gang member. The voices of these youth, obtained in a series of focus group interviews organised according to their gang affiliation, provide us with the opportunity

Camille Nakhid

180

A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.  

PubMed

We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios. PMID:22273322

Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

2012-01-01

181

Youth gangs and drugs: the case of marijuana.  

PubMed

While the association between drug sales and violence has been a central focus of gang research since the 1980s, the issue of drug use within gangs has been given much less attention. This is especially true in the case of marijuana. This lack of interest is surprising given the extent to which gang members use marijuana. Other than alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used substance in gang life. In examining the culture and role of marijuana in the lives of gang members, we highlight the integration and normalization of recreational drug use within their day-to-day activities and cultural practices. In doing so, we emphasize the similarity of the role of marijuana in gangs to its role in other youth groups. Data for this paper are drawn from the results of an on-going qualitative study of street gangs in the San Francisco Bay Area, in which 383 male gang members from three different ethnic groupings were interviewed. PMID:16537330

MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

2005-01-01

182

Pathways to Risk among Inner-City African-American Adolescent Females: The Influence of Gang Membership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the influence of gang membership on rates of participation in sexual activity, substance use, and violence among African American adolescent girls. Found that gang members had higher participation rates in all three risk behaviors. (JPB)|

Harper, Gary W.; Robinson, W. LaVome

1999-01-01

183

Influence of Gang Membership on Negative Affect, Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior Among Homeless African American Male Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial\\/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members,

Gary W. Harper; Jonathan Davidson; Sybil G. Hosek

2008-01-01

184

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

185

Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the

Scott Decker; David Pyrooz

2011-01-01

186

Gangs. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

187

Gangs. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

188

Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

SciTech Connect

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

2011-08-01

189

Vietnamese Youth Gangs in Honolulu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theories of the connection between immigrant youth and gangs have not been sufficient in explaining why some are not in gangs. Therefore, this study examines Vietnamese youth gangs in Honolulu and the factors contributing to Vietnamese delinquency and youth gang participation. Twenty-six interviews were conducted with agency, school, police, Vietnamese adults, and Vietnamese youth. Results suggest that though the

Nghi Dong Thai

2003-01-01

190

Street Gang Violence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels and descriptors of violence among European street gangs are summarized from studies reported primarily under the aegis of the Eurogang Program initiated in 1997 and continuing still. European gang violence is placed in the context of its American counterpart, of European non-gang youth violence, and of the definitional and structural components of the Eurogang Program. European gangs in over

Malcolm W. Klein; Frank M. Weerman; Terence P. Thornberry

2006-01-01

191

Gang membership and violent victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant gang research supports an enhancement effect of membership on delinquency; that is, while delinquent youths may be attracted to gangs, it is also true that gang membership increases delinquency among youths and that while delinquency levels decrease after gang membership, they do not decrease to nongang levels. In this paper, we build on this research, examining the relationship between

Dana Peterson; Terrance J. Taylor; Finn-Aage Esbensen

2004-01-01

192

Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey  

MedlinePLUS

... studies show limited gang member control of drug trafficking distribution and its associated violence, particularly homicide (McDaniel, ... and Delinquency Prevention Washington, DC 20531 Official Business Penalty for Private Use $300 PRESORTED STANDARD POSTAGE & FEES ...

193

Gangs in Central America. Updated 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 110th Congress has maintained a keen interest in the effects of crime and gang violence in Central America and its spillover effects on the United States. Since February 2005, more than 2,000 alleged members of the violent Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gan...

C. R. Seelke

2008-01-01

194

Estimating the Effect of Gang Membership on Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency: A Counterfactual Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated non-gang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching (PSM) was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) reaffirmed these conclusions.

Barnes, J.C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Miller, J. Mitchell

2011-01-01

195

National Gang Threat Assessment, 2011: Emerging Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) prepared the 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment (NGTA ) to examine emerging gang trends and threats posed by criminal gangs to communities throughout the United States. The 2011 NGTA enhances and builds on th...

2011-01-01

196

Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2003-01-01

197

The organisation of London's street gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a grossly neglected area of the street gang literature: the nature and extent of gang organisation. Based upon fieldwork with gangs in London, UK, this article illustrates how recreation, crime, and enterprise are not specific gang ‘types’, but rather represent sequential stages in the evolutionary cycle of gangs. This article demonstrates not only how gangs typically begin

J. A. Densley

2012-01-01

198

The organisation of London's street gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a grossly neglected area of the street gang literature: the nature and extent of gang organisation. Based upon fieldwork with gangs in London, UK, this article illustrates how recreation, crime, and enterprise are not specific gang ‘types’, but rather represent sequential stages in the evolutionary cycle of gangs. This article demonstrates not only how gangs typically begin

J. A. Densley

2011-01-01

199

An evaluation of Operation Roundup : An experiment in the control of gangs to reduce crime, fear of crime and improve police community relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research findings on Operation Roundup, a project initiated by the Santa Ana Police Department in Santa Ana, California. The covert police operation was designed to curtail gang activity in a specific neighborhood by securing indictments and arresting 130 violent gang members belonging to the notorious Sixth Street gang. A purposive sample of community members, selected from the

Ronald E. Vogel; Sam Torres

1998-01-01

200

Respectability And AutonomyThe Articulation and Meaning of Sexuality among the Girls in the Gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores two different discourses of sexuality among female gang members. Homegirls have long been associated with stereotypes about their sexuality-they are usually portrayed as either too sexual or not (hetero)sexual enough. Yet, in spite of these stereotypes, we know little about how female gang members themselves talk and think about sexuality. In this article, using data from the

Amy Schalet; Geoffrey Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler

2003-01-01

201

Crime Victimization among Gang and Nongang Prison Inmates: Examining Perceptions of Social Disorganization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines whether the relationship between gang membership and crime victimization exists among a sample of prison inmates, and if perceptions of social disorganization influences this relationship. More specifically, we examine whether (1) gang members are more likely to be victimized compared to nongang members, (2) perceptions of social disorganization are associated with victimization, and (3) accounting for

Kathleen A. Fox; Katrina A. Rufino; Glen A. Kercher

2012-01-01

202

Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

2006-01-01

203

From Gangs to the Academy: Scholars Emerge by Reaching Back through Critical Ethnography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how one college professor incorporated the voices of marginalized students into her course, "Race, Culture, and Class." Ex-gang member students were invited to participate in an ethnographic research project in which they interviewed gang members from their communities and shared findings with their more privileged classmates. The…

Gordon, June A.

2002-01-01

204

Gang awareness for healthcare professionals.  

PubMed

All healthcare facilities--not just urban ones--need to train their staff and be equipped to handle gangs and gang-related crime and violence, says the author. This article discusses the various aspects of the ongoing training program in gang awareness for Durham Regional Hospital's Security Department--including types of gangs, their mindsets and what motivates them, and how to identify them as well as their graffiti, colors, hand signals, and tattoos. PMID:10557439

Hall-McGee, P

1999-01-01

205

Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

2004-01-01

206

National Gang Threat Assessment, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Once found principally in large cities, violent street gangs now affect public safety, community image, and quality of life in communities of all sizes in urban, suburban, and rural areas. No region of the United States is untouched by gangs. Gangs affect...

2005-01-01

207

Analysing youth gangs in Glasgow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs remain a considerable police and public health challenge. Knife crime is a significant cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Glasgow. Examples of gang fighting in Glasgow can be traced back to the 1700s, but the phenomena escalated in the 1840s following mass migration, rapid population expansion and the emergence of territorialism.By examining the intra and inter gang

W Linden

2010-01-01

208

WOMEN IN OUTLAW MOTORCYCLE GANGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on participant observation and interviews with outlaw bikers and their female associates over the course of 17 years. It describes the place of women in motorcycle gangs and the motivations and backgrounds of women affiliated with outlaw biker clubs. Biker women are compared to street gang girls in terms of their gang participation and relationships with

COLUMBUS B. HOPPER; JOHNNY MOORE

1990-01-01

209

Legitimated OppressionInner-City Mexican American Experiences with Police Gang Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the gang suppression model and how it becomes practiced in the profiling and interactions between police and inner-city Mexican Americans. I conducted this research formally over five years in two southwestern cities—Denver, Colorado, and Ogden, Utah—and informally for fourteen years by the researcher's experience as an ex-gang member. I suggest that stereotyping Mexican American communities as gang

Robert J. Durán

2009-01-01

210

Estimating the effect of gang membership on nonviolent and violent delinquency: a counterfactual analysis.  

PubMed

This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated nongang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001

Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Miller, J Mitchell

211

Youth Gangs and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

2007-01-01

212

Victory Junction Gang Camp  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

Shell, Ryan

2007-01-01

213

California Prison Gang Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs,…

Cummins, Eric

214

An analysis of the self-control and criminal versatility of gang and dating violence offenders.  

PubMed

How versatile are gang and dating violence offenders? Current gang research highlights the versatility of gang members, yet the versatility of intimate violence offenders is often unexamined. Gottfredson and Hirschi, A General Theory of Crime (1990), support the idea of versatile rather than specialized offenders and suggests that low self-control is associated with a host of criminal and noncriminal risk-taking activities. Using data from a self-report sample of 1139 youths in grades 9 through 11, we investigated both the versatility of gang and dating violence offenders and theoretical variables associated with each. We find disproportionate offending by dating and gang violence offenders in a variety of crimes, as well as considerable overlap in the independent variables associated with both types of violence. Low levels of self-control and exposure to general and crime-specific criminal opportunities are significantly associated with engaging in dating and gang violence. PMID:15109120

Chapple, Constance L; Hope, Trina L

2003-12-01

215

Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin describes the nature of modern youth gangs, in particular, hybrid gangs. Hybrid gang culture is characterized by mixed racial and ethnic participation within a single gang, participation in multiple gangs by a single individual, vague rules ...

D. Starbuck J. C. Howell D. J. Lindquist

2001-01-01

216

Northeast Gang Information System: Description of the System and Lessons Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1996, police across the country were growing alarmed over a marked increase in violence, drug trafficking, and related crimes traceable to youth gangs. Much of the crime growth seemed to follow gangs migration into new areas for fresh members and marke...

L. Pitts

1999-01-01

217

“As Soon as I Get Out Ima Cop Dem Jordans”: The Afterlife of the Corporate Gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudhir Venkatesh and Steven Levitt's influential 2000 article transformed the way social scientists study gangs by showing the context in which Chicago gang members built an organization modeled on a corporation. But if this research helped to demonstrate that the underground economy is a logical response to the inner city's isolation from the rest of the country, it also makes

Laurence Ralph

2010-01-01

218

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having higher overall needs and risks,

Terri-Lynne Scott; Rick Ruddell

2011-01-01

219

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

2011-01-01

220

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

2011-01-01

221

Adolescent Interactions With Gangs, Family, and NeighborhoodsAn Ethnographic Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative article explores the experiences of two Mexican American families. Both families live in impoverished urban neighborhoods where violence and gang activity are common. Both families have adolescent sons, with varying degrees of interactions with gangs. In-depth interviews with the two adolescent males, enhanced with other family member interviews, are central to this investigation. The purpose of this article

WENDY REIBOLDT

2001-01-01

222

Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph explains the linkage of contemporary criminal street gangs (that is, the gang phenomenon or third generation gangs) to insurgency in terms of the instability it wreaks upon governments and the concomitant challenge to state sovereignty. Alt...

M. G. Manwaring

2005-01-01

223

Individual and Ecological Assets and Thriving among African American Adolescent Male Gang and Community-Based Organization Members: A Report From Wave 3 of the "Overcoming the Odds" Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third wave of the Overcoming the Odds longitudinal study involves data about individual and ecological developmental assets and thriving among African American male adolescents in inner-city Detroit gangs (N = 43) or in youth development, community-based organizations (CBO; N = 50). Both groups had comparable levels of either low or high…

Taylor, Carl S.; Smith, Pamela R.; Taylor, Virgil A.; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Anderson, Pamela M.; Banik, Rumeli; Almerigi, Jason B.

2005-01-01

224

Youth Gangs and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have begun to document the changing organizational forms of youth gangs in the United States. The emergence\\/re-emergence of these gangs, often accompanied by increased violence and involvement in drug use and\\/or trafficking, poses major public policy issues. However, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject, and very few studies have been based on interviews with gang

C. Ronald Huff

1989-01-01

225

Ganges River Delta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image of the Ganges River Delta in Bangladesh was acquired by the Landsat- 7 satellite on February 28, 2000. It's a false-color composite image made using green, blue and near infrared wavelengths, provided by the USGS, EROS Data Center. The Ganges River forms an impressive and extensive area of distributaries where it empties into the Bay of Bengal after moving across India. This delta is referred to as the Sunderbans and is home to approximately 120 million people. It's routinely flooded during cyclones and monsoonal rains. Because its inhabitant are so poor and the delta is so densely populated, even when flood and storm warnings are issued, each year thousands of people lose their lives as a result of floods. Note the sediment (milky blue color) flowing from the delta into the Bay of Bengal.

Observatory, Nasa E.; Day, Earth S.

226

Legitimating drug use: A note on the impact of gang membership and drug sales on the use of illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good deal is known about gang members' involvement as sellers of drugs. We know little, however, about the extent to which gang members are involved in the drug market as users, and about the role that involvement in drug sales plays in the use of drugs. This paper presents data from an 11-city survey of arrestees that includes a

Scott H. Decker

2000-01-01

227

Gang Violence and Control. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Gang Violence and Control in the Los Angeles and San Francisco Areas with a View to What Might Be Done by the Federal Government (Westwood, California, February 7, 1983 and San Francisco, California, February 9, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These hearings open with introductory statements detailing the nature of the gang violence problem and legal precedents for federal intervention. Proceedings from the Los Angeles hearings include testimony by a county supervisor, disrict attorneys, a former gang member, the executive director of the Community Youth Gang Services, and the director…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

228

The Global Impact of Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American study of gangs can no longer start and stop with local conditions but today must also be rooted in a global context. Studying gangs is important because of unprecedented world urbanization, the retreat of the state under the pressure of neoliberal policies, the strengthening of cultural resistance identities, including fundamentalist religion, nationalism, and hip-hop culture, the valorization of

John M. Hagedorn

2005-01-01

229

Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.  

PubMed

This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl's relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment. PMID:21218177

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2003-01-01

230

Breaking the Code: Austin's Gang Enigma. Austin Police Department Gang Suppression Unit Resource Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource handbook provides facts about gangs in Austin (Texas) and suggests ways parents and the community can work to reduce the city's gang problem. Criminal street gangs are becoming one of the most serious crime problems in Texas today, with 38 major cities reporting the presence of gangs. Texas gangs are defined as social, delinquent,…

Austin Police Dept., TX.

231

Youth Gang Homicides: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review aims to help fill the information void regarding youth gang homicide by summarizing data and results of empirical studies. Information on the topic is summarized in five areas. First, the growth in youth gang homicides is assessed. Second, distinguishing characteristics of gang homicides are reviewed. Third, studies of the relationship between youth gang homicides and drug trafficking

James C. Howell

1999-01-01

232

Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

233

Police gang intelligence infiltrates a small city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that the spread of gangs into small cities is rarely due to a deliberate, drug-motivated gang migration. Still, outside police accounts of such a gang migration adversely affected the small city of Bloomington, Indiana. Tracing newspaper reports, as well as analyzing other secondary data, I find that an infiltration of outside police ideas about migrating and dangerous gangs

Diane Schaefer

2002-01-01

234

Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

235

Pathways to Risk Among Inner-City African-American Adolescent Females: The Influence of Gang Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential rates of participation in three categories of risk behaviors (i.e., sexual activity, substance use, violence) were explored, comparing gang members to nonmembers, within a sample of 1,143 inner-city African American adolescent females. The relationship between gang membership and risk behavior also was examined, by exploring the association between a variety of microsystemic influences (e.g., gang, family, school) and participation

Gary W. Harper; W. LaVome Robinson

1999-01-01

236

Gangs in New York's Chinatown. Monograph No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to examine the phenomenon of gangs among Chinese youths in New York, interviews were conducted with members of the Chinatown community and with persons working in this community. In this document the texts of the author's discussions with eight individuals are presented. A social worker who works with delinquent Chinese youth and a…

Sung, Betty Lee

237

Peace in the Streets: Breaking the Cycle of Gang Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book describes the experiences of an inexperienced young teacher who, with the support of parents and teenagers in a Los Angeles (California) neighborhood, created a one-room schoolhouse and began to teach 30 gang members, ranging in age from 13 to nearly 20. He had no teaching credentials or college degree and the school had a tiny budget,…

Hernandez, Arturo

238

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

239

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

240

THE NATURE OF GANG VIOLENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban street gang violence and its images—shattering, pervasive, seemingly random, death-wielding, and unremorseful—have captured the public's attention and risen to prominence on local policy agendas. In fairness, the gang subculture encompasses many aspects, some of which are positive (Vigil, 1988; Sanchez-Jankowski, 1991), other than the gangster glamour and raw violence played across the media for public consumption; yet it is

Gerry Riposa; Carolyn Dersch

1995-01-01

241

Street Gangs and Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an evaluation of an intervention aimed at youth at risk for joining street gangs. In a quasi-experimental design, targeted youth were assigned to one of two levels of treatment (classroom sessions or a combination of classroom sessions and structured after-school activities) or to a no-treatment control group. To ascertain gang membership following the intervention, the youths' names

DAVID W. THOMPSON; LEONARD A. JASON

1988-01-01

242

Gang change and evolutionary theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most street gangs are temporary and disorganized, some have institutionalized, and a number of these show signs of evolving\\u000a into more serious criminal enterprises, becoming more networked, technologically savvy and internationalized, less visible,\\u000a more predatory and sometimes more violent. The boundaries that researchers have drawn between gangs and other types of criminal\\u000a groups, particularly organized crime, are becoming blurred.

Julie Ayling

2011-01-01

243

Street Gang Crime in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

revenge, while another may be associated with expansion of a drug business into new territory. Consequently, street gangs and the crimes in which they engage can- not be viewed as monolithic in nature. This Research in Brief describes these and other patterns of street gang-related vio- lence in a major U.S. city-Chicago. All available information, including Chicago police records of

R. Block; Carolyn Rebecca Block

1993-01-01

244

Adolescent gang participation: Psychological perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

An issue concerning societal welfare that receives much exposure in the media is the existence of gangs and their effects\\u000a on children. There is a perception that the level of youth related violence is going up while the age of gang participation\\u000a is going down. Multiple sources (e.g., statistics from the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of

Hohn Hitchcock

2001-01-01

245

Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund prog...

2009-01-01

246

African American Street Gangs: A Quest for Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the phenomenon of African American street gangs. It examines the scope of the gang problem, gives a historical review of gangs in America, and examines gang activity and membership for African American youth. Some of the causes for gang formation are delineated, and comprehensive programs for addressing the gang problem are proposed.

Jerome L. Blakemore; Glenda M. Blakemore

1998-01-01

247

The Little Village Project: a community approach to the gang problem.  

PubMed

Based on substantial preliminary evidence, a four-year Gang Violence Reduction Project has demonstrated its effectiveness in terms of process and outcome. An innovative approach in the prevention and control of a serious gang violence problem was based on key interrelated strategies of community mobilization, social intervention, suppression, opportunities provision, organizational development, and targeting. A team of community youth workers, tactical police officers, adult probation officers, and representatives of a neighborhood organization operated under the aegis of the Chicago Police Department. Of special interest was the interrelated practice roles of police tactical officers and community youth workers, many of whom were former gang members. PMID:9311304

Spergel, I A; Grossman, S F

1997-09-01

248

Gangs in Central America. November 26, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress has maintained an interest in the effects of gang violence in Central America, and on the expanding activities of transnational gangs with ties to that region operating in the United States. Since FY2008, Congress has appropriated significant amo...

C. R. Seelke

2012-01-01

249

Do the Himalaya Export Air Pollutants from the Ganges Basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges Basin in South Asia ranks close to Eastern China in both population and air pollutant emissions. During the winter-spring dry season it often experiences a similar "atmospheric brown cloud" haze layer of aerosols and trace gases. Global model results, however, have suggested that the Ganges Basin's contribution to long distance pollution transport is significantly less than that of Eastern China. The assumption is that, for much of the dry season, the Ganges Basin experiences a large-scale inversion that suppresses vertical mixing of pollutants into the jet stream aloft. Yet both observations at high-altitude stations (such as the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid station located at 5079 meters above sea level near Everest Base Camp) and vertically resolved satellite data show significant pollution levels at high altitudes over the Himalaya, which line the northern edge of the Ganges Basin. Using the WRF model at resolutions as high as 1 km, along with photography over the Himalaya, we present several mechanisms by which pollutants from the boundary layer over the Ganges Basin can be transported vertically by Himalaya meteorology to heights where they can mix into the jetstream and be exported long distances. These mechanisms are closely tied to the shape of the topography and operate at scales of less than a few kilometers while global model grid spacing typically exceeds 100 km. We attempt to sum up the total contribution to pollutant export by the entire Himalaya region, and discuss the implications for both air quality over the Ganges Basin and global atmospheric chemistry and climate.

Panday, A.; Fiore, A.; Horowitz, L.; Levy, H.

2009-04-01

250

American Based Biker Gangs: International Organized Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many American based motorcycle clubs have evolved into biker gangs involved in organized crime nationally and internationally.\\u000a Using the information contained on the national websites of seven biker gangs—Hells Angels, Outlaws, Bandidos, Mongols, Warlocks,\\u000a Sons of Silence and the Vagos, this article provides a listing of the gangs by chapter in the United States and internationally.\\u000a These gangs have exported

Tom Barker

251

YOUTH GANGS AND THEIR FAMILIES: EFFECT OF GANG MEMBERSHIP ON FAMILY'S SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a quasi-experimental design and self report methodology, this paper examines the effects of youth gang membership on families’ subjective well-being. Two groups of families consisting of 57 families with children in gangs or at risk of being in gangs and 57families with children not involved in gangs and not identified as at-risk of joining gangs are compared to (1)

Suman Kakar

1998-01-01

252

Changing Chicano Gangs: Acculturation, Generational Change, Evolution of Deviance or Emerging Underclass?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I will focus on changes between the 1950s and 1970s. Our data are drawn from a sample of men and women (157 persons in all) who were members of two major East Los Angeles gangs during their adolescence. Few researchers have considered gangs as long-lasting or quasi-institutionalized groups, but when we consider the differences between the two

Joan Moore

1988-01-01

253

Pre-emptive Strike: How Australia is Tackling Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past three years, new laws have been introduced in four Australian states designed to prevent criminal conspiracies\\u000a by outlaw motorcycle gang (OMG) members and to disrupt the criminal activities of these gangs. The Australian laws push the\\u000a boundaries previously set in similar laws in other jurisdictions, in that controls can be imposed because of membership of\\u000a an organization

Julie Ayling

254

National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The youth gang problem in the United States has become an important public policy issue in recent years, largely because of the growth of youth gang violence and the apparent proliferation of youth gangs throughout the United States. In order to measure t...

1999-01-01

255

Social Movement Theory Typology of Gang Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis uses social movement theory to describe the formation of street gangs and to account for their high levels of violence. By understanding street gangs as a social movement that contributes to the gang cycle, my hope is that communities and law ...

J. E. Long

2010-01-01

256

Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs

Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

2005-01-01

257

The Street Gang Identification Manual. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is a comprehensive guide to identifiers of gang activities and memberships. The "People" and "Folks" concepts it uses represent the two main divisions of street gang affiliation. Gangs that belong to the "People" nation use the left side as an identifier, use a five-pointed star as an emblem, and claim affiliation with the "Latin…

Petrone, Frank M.

258

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang

Howell, James C.

259

Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end goal of this project was to provide useful data on how street gang crime patterns (by amount and type of offense) relate to common patterns of street gang structure, thus providing focused, data-based guidelines for gang intervention and control. ...

M. W. Klein C. L. Maxson

2001-01-01

260

The Many Ways of Knowing: Multi-Method, Comparative Research to Enhance Our Understanding of and Responses to Youth Street Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the ways we know what we know? What are the various sources of information, how do we interpret them, and how do\\u000a their sometimes disparate stories fit together? My goal in this chapter is to highlight what I see as needs in future youth\\u000a gang research, in the areas of both the nature of youth gangs\\/gang members and

Dana Peterson

261

Gang's All Here: The Globalization of Gang Activity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

US-style gangs are becoming more common worldwide because of globalization, and such development reveals a tight connection with a number of factors. First is the US policy of deporting immigrants convicted of crimes back to their home countries, includin...

J. M. Vittori

2006-01-01

262

Steering Students Clear of Gangs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young adolescents yearn to belongâespecially when they are new to a community and don't speak the language. Communication and awareness among administrators, teachers, parents, and students are keys to ensuring students have the strength to say "no" to gang involvement and "yes" to continuing their education.

Kluttz, Tess; Brewer, Amy; Clifford, Scott; Turano, Daniela

2010-10-01

263

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Jobs that do not require all processors in the system can bepacked together for gang scheduling. We examine accounting traces fromseveral parallel computers to show that indeed many jobs have small sizesand can be packed together. We then formulate a number of such packingalgorithms, and evaluate their effectiveness using simulations based onour workload study. The results are that two

Dror G. Feitelson

1996-01-01

264

Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

265

Discouraging Gangs in Schools: A Prescription for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication identifies five levels of gang activity in middle and high schools and presents corresponding strategies for dealing with troublesome situations. The five levels of involvement include: (1) no known gang activity; (2) limited gang activity; (3) emerging gang activity; (4) community in crisis; and (5) gang-controlled community. A…

Foster, Linda G.

1994-01-01

266

Elucidating the treatment needs of gang-affiliated youth offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Gang affiliation is strongly associated with youth crime. Although gang prevention, intervention and suppression programmes have been used to reduce affiliation and manage youth gang-related activities, the effectiveness of these approaches is questionable. Further, comprehensive programmes supporting disengagement from gangs that also address the actual criminal behaviours of gang-affiliated youth are rare. Arguably, these are necessary if the

Chi Meng Chu; Michael Daffern; Stuart D. M. Thomas; Jia Ying Lim

2011-01-01

267

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

2012-10-16

268

History of Street Gangs in the United States. National Gang Center Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first active gangs in Western civilization were reported by Pike, a widely respected chronicler of British crime. He documented the existence of gangs of highway robbers in England during the 17th century, and he speculates that similar gangs might we...

J. C. Howell J. P. Moore

2010-01-01

269

Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

270

Handbook on Gangs in Schools: Strategies To Reduce Gang-Related Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook shares some practical and conceptual knowledge about gangs in schools and suggests some strategies for coping with gang problems in schools. A radical approach is proposed which advocates assimilating gangs into the fabric of daily school life. The strategies were derived from two formal studies conducted from 1982 to 1990 on Los…

Lal, Shirley R.; And Others

271

Gangs in Nigeria: an updated examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes gangs in Nigeria, providing an updated examination of their current strategies and activities. The premise\\u000a of this analysis partly draws on Social Identity Theory, with respect to gang affiliation. Particularly explored are (1) gang\\u000a cultism as a common phenomenon on college campuses in Nigeria (through their malicious, secret, fraternity-like activities)\\u000a and (2) the role of Islam in

Jonathan Matusitz; Michael Repass

2009-01-01

272

THE URBAN STREET GANG AFTER 1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract This review discusses research on the urban street gang after the 1960s, the period in which,social scientists began,to conceptualize,the gang,outside of the social-problems framework. Street-gang research has changed,dramatically in the past three decades in accordance with general shifts in sociological research, including developments in gender studies, economic sociology, and race and ethnic relations. This review addresses these major

Brenda C. Coughlin; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

2003-01-01

273

Taking Over the School: Student Gangs as a Strategy for Dealing with Homophobic Bullying in an Urban Public School District  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the African American lesbian gang, DTO (Dykes Taking Over), as an example of a student-initiated strategy for dealing with homophobic bullying in an urban American school district. A series of alleged incidents of same-sex sexual harassment by gang members on heterosexual students illustrate how lesbian\\/bisexual threat was used by these women to re-establish a power differential after

Dominique Johnson

2008-01-01

274

Girl Members of Deviant Youth Groups, Offending Behaviour and Victimisation: Results from the ISRD2 in Italy and Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a lot of research has been conducted on the delinquency of boys who are members of gangs, only a few quantitative\\u000a studies have analysed the involvement of girl gang members in delinquency and its link with victimisation. In this study,\\u000a the prevalence rates of girls who are members of gangs in Italy and in Switzerland are shown. We compared

Sandrine Haymoz; Uberto Gatti

2010-01-01

275

Gang and moniker identification by graffiti matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying criminal gangs and monikers is one of the most important tasks for graffiti analysis in low enforcement. In current practice, this is typically performed manually by the law enforcement officers, which is not only time-consuming but also results in limited identification performance. In this paper, we present a system that is able to automatically identify the gang or the

Wei Tong; Jung-Eun Lee; Rong Jin; Anil K. Jain

2011-01-01

276

Crimes of the Big Four motorcycle gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motorcycle clubs (MCs) can be divided into conventional and deviant clubs. The most deviant clubs are those known as 1 percent or outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs). The Big Four OMGs are the Hells Angels MC, the Outlaws MC, the Bandidos MC, and the Pagans MC. The first three, although American based, have international chapters and are the largest motorcycle gangs

Thomas Barker; Kelly M. Human

2009-01-01

277

National Youth Gang Survey, 1997. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The largest and most comprehensive national gang survey to date, the 1997 National Youth Gang Survey, contacted nearly 5,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. To allow for both comparative and trend analysis, the 1997 survey used the same sample as the 1996 survey. Survey results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

278

Latino High School Students’ Perceptions of Gangs and Crews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with them. Sixty three percent reported that gangs were

Edward M. Lopez; Alison Wishard; Ronald Gallimore; Wendy Rivera

2006-01-01

279

An Economic Analysis Of A Drug-Selling Gang'S Finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a unique data set detailing the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang to analyze gang economics. On average, earnings in the gang are somewhat above the legitimate labor market alternative. The enormous risks of drug selling, however, more than offset this small wage premium. Compensation within the gang is highly skewed, and the prospect of future riches,

Steven D. Levitt; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

2000-01-01

280

The protective influence of gangs: Can schools compensate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gangs have risen to the level of a broad social problem, yet, to date, research has neglected the influence of school factors on gang membership. Although gang involvement leads to many negative outcomes, such as incarceration, drug and alcohol use, injury, and death, gangs may also serve a protective influence to those who join them. For this reason, it is

Jill D. Sharkey; Zhanna Shekhtmeyster; Lizbeth Chavez-Lopez; Elizabeth Norris; Laura Sass

2011-01-01

281

Spirituality as a Protective Factor Against Female Gang Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzed the relationship between spirituality and gang membership. Spirituality can mediate the effect of negative characteristics within an individual's life including gang membership. For this study, incarcerated females were asked to self report gang membership and level of spirituality and religiosity to determine if spirituality served as a protective factor against gang membership.

Elizabeth S. Marsal

2009-01-01

282

The Perception of Gangs as a Problem in Nonmetropolitan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of gangs in nonmetropolitan areas is a phenomenon that has been neither well documented nor well accounted for. Ibis study utilizes telephone interviews with 216 nonmetopolitan police agencies that had previously reported gangs in their jurisdictions. The interviews focused on how respondents from these agencies defined gangs and gang-related problems and also focused on local strategies for responding

Ralph A. Weisheit; L. Edward Wells

2001-01-01

283

Governmental Accounting versus National Accounts: Implications of different accounting bases on EU member-States Central Government deficit\\/surplus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to assess the implications on the European Union (EU) member-States Central Government deficit\\/surplus of different accounting basis adopted in Governmental Accounting (GA – microeconomic perspective) and National Accounting (NA – macroeconomic perspective). It analyses the cash to accrual basis adjustments to be made to General Government Sector (GGS) data, when converting from Governmental

Maria Antónia Jorge de Jesus; Susana Margarida Jorge

2012-01-01

284

Issues in the Production and Dissemination of Gang Statistics: an Ethnographic Study of a Large Midwestern Police Gang Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a great deal of public debate concerning matters related to gang data, there has been little research investigating the process by which these data are collected and disseminated. This article uses a multimethodological approach to explore the issues in the production and dissemination of gang statistics in one midwestern gang unit. Unlike previous research examining gang

Charles M. Katz

2003-01-01

285

Policing Minority Street Corner Gangs in Singapore: A View from the Street  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the evolution and manifestation of the Social Disciplinary model of policing in Singapore, a model which eschews concern for both legal and factual guilt, concentrating instead on the task of subjugating sections of society who are viewed as 'anti-police'. We argue that understanding the experiences of minority gang members as recipients of such policing has to be

N. Ganapathy; Lian Kwen Fee

2002-01-01

286

Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextA functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA

Kevin M. Beaver; Matt DeLisi; Michael G. Vaughn; J. C. Barnes

2010-01-01

287

Geometry Analysis Numerics Graphics (GANG) Pre-print series 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry Analysis Numerics Graphics (GANG), an interdisciplinary differential geometry research team at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, has posted pre-prints from its team members. Although this page is not new (the pre-prints were posted during 1999-2000), a variety of research results can be found here. The abstracts are in HTML format, and the full text must be downloaded in .ps format. Examples of article titles from the most recent pre-print series (5): "From microscopic interactions to macroscopic laws of cluster evolution," "New constant mean curvature trinoids," and "Periodic discrete conformal maps."

288

Pathways to risk among inner-city African-American adolescent females: the influence of gang membership.  

PubMed

Differential rates of participation in three categories of risk behaviors (i.e., sexual activity, substance use, violence) were explored, comparing gang members to nonmembers, within a sample of 1,143 inner-city African American adolescent females. The relationship between gang membership and risk behavior also was examined, by exploring the association between a variety of microsystemic influences (e.g., gang, family, school) and participation in risk behaviors. MANOVA analyses indicated that gang members, relative to nonmembers, reported higher rates of participation in each of the three categories of risk behaviors. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that gang membership was the variable with the most consistent predictive ability, across all categories of risk, as it entered early in all equations and remained in all three final models after controlling for other statistically significant contextual variables. Findings suggest that intervention efforts aimed at reducing adolescent females' participation in sexual activity, substance use, and violence should consider the influence of gang membership on the participation in these behaviors. PMID:10492881

Harper, G W; Robinson, W L

1999-06-01

289

Living with psychiatric patients: Implications for the mental health of family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatment policy has resulted in large numbers of ex-hospitalized psychiatric patients residing with family members in the community. However, little is known about the emotional consequences for family members. This paper focusses on the relationship between level of chronic strain, as indexed by 'objective' and 'subjective' family burden, and extent of psychological distress among family members of ex-hospitalized psychiatric

Samuel Noh; R. Jay Turner

1987-01-01

290

Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

1991-12-01

291

The Chola life course: Chicana heroin users and the barrio Gang.  

PubMed

The theoretical argument of the paper is as follows: Traditional values may deter many Latinas from drug use, but they operate to ostracize adolescent girls from cholo (street) families. Those girls may be propelled into drug-using youth gangs or similar peer groups, where they are further channeled to the more deviant subcliques. This pivotal experience initiates a drug-oriented adult lifestyle. Gender norms mean that the typical male career path to and from the gang is different. Data bearing on this argument are presented, and research and intervention implications are explored. PMID:7960308

Moore, J

1994-07-01

292

Individual and familial characteristics of youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore.  

PubMed

Thirty-six youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore were compared with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Of note were the findings that gang youths reported a relative absence of parental abuse and indifference, and experienced less open communication and higher levels of over-control with their mothers, but not fathers. These findings diverge from anticipated familial correlates of antisocial activity in youths and were discussed with reference to cultural factors and their implications on prevention and intervention. PMID:12887930

Kee, C; Sim, K; Teoh, J; Tian, C S; Ng, K H

2003-08-01

293

Fighting Iraq with Anti-Gang Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The insurgency and terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan have direct linkages to and similarities with organized crime and gangs. For example, cars that had been stolen in the United States were discovered in vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs...

J. A. McShea

2006-01-01

294

The Gang Member Label and Juvenile Justice Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeling theory studies have generally focused on the creation of secondary deviance through the process of internalizing the applied label. The combination of labeling theory studies focusing on secondary deviance and the belief that labeling theory was ‘dead’ as of the 1980s has created a dearth of research regarding the impact of labels on criminal or juvenile justice processing. The

Susan Teresa Quinn

2010-01-01

295

Epidemiological Criminology: Drug Use Among African American Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social

Mark M. Lanier; Robert P. Pack; Timothy A. Akers

2010-01-01

296

Gangs in Arizona, 2006. Statistical Analysis Center Publication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the summer of 2006 the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission surveyed law enforcement and prosecutors on issues regarding gangs and gang activity in Arizona. This study, done to fulfill the requirements set out in Arizona Revised Statute (ARS) (section m...

2007-01-01

297

Gang culture from the streets to the emergency department.  

PubMed

Gangs, gang activity, and the results of such activities, can have a special impact on hospitals, their employees, and others in the hospital community. In this article, the authors spell out in detail the extent of the gang culture to assist hospital professionals in understanding its many ramifications and guide them in taking actions to reduce the impact of gangs on hospital operations. PMID:18409448

Michelman, Bonnie; Patak, George

2008-01-01

298

An analysis of police responses to gangs in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to Chicago’s well?documented gang problem, the Chicago Police Department (CPD) established its first specialized gang unit in 1967. In the ensuing decades, the CPD reorganized its core gang unit several times and expanded its anti?gang response through numerous supporting restructuring efforts. The Chicago experience indicates that reorganization can positively and negatively influence the relative effectiveness of the police

Thomas J. Lemmer; Gad J. Bensinger; Arthur J. Lurigio

2008-01-01

299

Gang problems in nometropolitan areas: A longitudinal assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of youth gangs to nonmetropolitan counties in the 1990s has been widely cited but difficult to document empirically and interpret theoretically. Using merged data from the 1996, 1997, and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys, and matching the combined National Youth Gang Surveys with demographic data from the Departments of Commerce and Agriculture, we provide a comparative analysis of

L. Edward Wells; Ralph A. Weisheit

2001-01-01

300

Changes in a Gang Community: Conversation with David Jarmusz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents interview with David Jarmusz, a Chicago (Illinois) police officer who specializes in gang activity. Jarmusz describes the Chicago Police Department's gang units program and gang specialist detectives, discusses goals and objectives, activities of the program, and outcomes of the project. (NB)|

Cantrell, Mary Lynn

1992-01-01

301

Street Gangs: A Modeling Approach to Evaluating 'At Risk' Youth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Street gangs have plagued the United States for decades. One focus of current gang prevention efforts strives to reduce the number of new recruits to local street gangs. This research proposes the uses of modeling and decision analysis to aid in identifyi...

B. J. Loeffelholz

2008-01-01

302

MBAS AND MODERN STREET GANGS A BUSINESS STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the unregulated internal business practices of the contemporary street gang that are associated with instilling gang loyalty. Through this optic, one can better understand the key influences on gang loyalty. Subsequently, the author interprets whether or not the influences can be transferred into the modern business paradigm. Using observations through existing research and reporting, the author intends

Tim Nichols; Paul K. Bergey

303

The Social Outcomes of Street Gang Involvement. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined links between early adolescent exposure to entrepreneurial gang activity and later criminal justice, economic, and social outcomes, comparing the social and behavioral outcomes of young people with active gang involvement and their non-gang affiliated counterparts. Participants came from a concentrated poor, predominantly…

Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi

304

Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide. Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph provides guidelines for agencies and community groups to develop individualized responses to local gang problems. The manual contains a foundation for understanding the diverse nature of gangs, the problems they pose, and the harm they cause. Two models are presented for addressing gang-related problems. The problem-solving model…

Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC.

305

Gang of Four Congressional Intelligence Notifications, July 20, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the history of Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the Gang of Eight notification procedure. The 'Gang of Eight' procedure is statutorily based and provides that that the Chairmen and Ranking Memb...

A. Cumming

2009-01-01

306

Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Chicano Male Gang Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of gang violence poses a significant threat to the mental health of Chicano children. Although there has been considerable media attention given to the increase in gang violence, the mental health literature is sparse with clinical information on the assessment and treatment of Chicano gang-involved youth. The sparsity of information has been related to public apathy toward these

Jerald Belitz; Diana Valdez

1994-01-01

307

Designing Out Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. Research in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hottest spot for gang-on-gang homicide and assault in the city of Los Angeles had seen gang violence becoming a cycle of attacks followed by reprisals, followed by the inevitable counterattacks. Using a deceptively simple tactic, the Los Angeles Polic...

J. Lasley

1998-01-01

308

Prosecuting Gang Cases: What Local Prosecutors Need to Know.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Few things evoke fear in a community like the incursion of gang activity. Senseless violence, turf battles and ubiquitous graffiti signal the arrival of gangs. The law enforcement community also dreads the prospect of confronting gang-driven crime. They k...

2004-01-01

309

Subcultural Diversity and the Fear of Crime and Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear and gangs were two of the most important factors driving crime policy in the 1990s. Policy makers and the media blamed gangs for much of the violence occurring across the nation and for public fear. This article examines fear of crime and gangs in Orange County, California, as measured by a randomized survey of 1,223 respondents conducted in 1995

James W. Meeker

2000-01-01

310

Behavior, Human Capital and the Formation of Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYBehavior in dysfunctional social groups is often regarded by social scientists as irrational in nature. We focus on many features of behavior within the street gang, also noting the existence of other gang-like groups, and show how apparently irrational behavior can signal the possession of valuable human capital. We contend that gangs are formed around particular traits of direct value

Antony W. Dnes; Nuno Garoupa

2010-01-01

311

Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses: A Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end goal of this project was to provide useful data on how street gang crime patterns relate to common patterns of street gang structure, thus providing focused, databased guidelines for gang intervention and control. The intermediate stages of the pr...

M. W. Klein C. L. Maxson

2001-01-01

312

The development and implications of peer emotional support for student service members/veterans and civilian college students.  

PubMed

Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college. PMID:23421774

Whiteman, Shawn D; Barry, Adam E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Macdermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-02-18

313

Perceiving Outgroup Members as Unresponsive: Implications for Approach-Related Emotions, Intentions, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 studies, the authors investigated the determinants of anger and approach-related intentions and behavior toward outgroup members in interracial interactions. In Study 1, White and Black participants who were led to believe that their interracial interaction partner was not open to an upcoming interaction reported heightened anger and approach-related intentions concerning the interaction, including viewing their partner as hostile,

David A. Butz; E. Ashby Plant

2006-01-01

314

Differing member state approaches to the development of the EU Battlegroup Concept: implications for CSDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will analyse the challenges facing the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) through an evaluation of the impact that differing member state strategic cultures have on the EU Battlegroup Concept, highlighted through the examples of Germany and Poland. The concept was initiated to give the EU an increased rapid reaction capacity. However, as emphasised through the cases of

Laura Chappell

2009-01-01

315

Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-10-01

316

Gangs as contractors: the social organization of American Taiwanese youth gangs in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the organizational structure and operations of Taiwanese organized crime and youth gangs in Southern California.\\u000a In-depth interviews were used as the principle method of research. In contrast to transnational criminal conspiracy claims\\u000a and the La Cosa Nostra model of vertically integrated organizations, our findings suggest that these criminal groups consist of discrete local Taiwanese\\u000a youth gangs which

Kay Kei-ho Pih; Akihiko Hirose; KuoRay Mao

2010-01-01

317

Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

Deuchar, Ross

2009-01-01

318

Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

Deuchar, Ross

2009-01-01

319

LA's Gang-Busters--Lessons Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Regarded as the nation's gang violence capital, Los Angeles' politicians and law enforcement and school administrators are using knowledge from lost battles to win the war. Solutions include targeting younger children, teaching self-esteem and communication skills, as well as organizing group graffiti cleanups. (SI)|

Harper, Suzanne

1989-01-01

320

Youth Gangs in Schools. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drawing on a report published by the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice in 1998 and other literature, Youth Gangs in Schools analyzes findings from the School Crime Supplements (SCS) to the National Crime Victim Survey, describes characteristics of...

J. C. Howell J. P. Lynch

2000-01-01

321

Delinquent Subcultures: Sociological Interpretations of Gang Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group delinquency has been of theoretical in terest to American sociology for more than half a century. During that time, four major interpretations of the origins of gang delinquency and delinquent subcultures have emerged. The classical view developed by Thrasher focuses on the de velopment of spontaneous groups under conditions of weak social control and social disorganization. Two other views,

David J. Bordua

1961-01-01

322

National Youth Gang Survey, 1996. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1996 National Youth Gang Survey was the largest of its type ever conducted, and the results are representative of the United States as a whole. Almost 5,000 law enforcement agencies were surveyed, and more than 80% of the sample responded. Agencies in all large cities, and a random sample of smaller cities were included, as were suburban…

Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

323

Violence risk and gang affiliation in youth offenders: a recidivism study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are ubiquitous around the world and have been problematic for the social and criminal justice agencies. Despite widespread public concern, there has been relatively scarce empirical scrutiny of youth gangs internationally and little outside of America and Europe. In particular, the activities of youth gangs, the function of gang membership, the criminogenic needs of gang-affiliated youth, and the

Chi Meng Chu; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas; Jia Ying Lim

2010-01-01

324

Central American maras: from youth street gangs to transnational protection rackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the empirical research on Central American street gangs, called maras, has been published only in Spanish. Reviewing that literature, the American scholarship on gangs, and my own research on Central American gangs from the mid-1990s, this article depicts the processes through which the maras (Mara Salvatrucha and the Eighteenth Street Gang) evolved from youth street gangs in the

José Miguel Cruz

2010-01-01

325

Paleomagnetism of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation: Implications for Jurassic apparent polar wander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paleomagnetism of the approximately 147 Ma (Tithonian) Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation was analyzed to obtain a Late Jurassic paleomagnetic pole for North America. A total of 200 samples were collected from 25 sedimentary horizons (sites) at Norwood Hill in southwest Colorado. At Montezuma Creek in southeast Utah, 184 samples were collected from 26 sites. Detailed thermal demagnetization (up to nine temperature steps between 600 C and 680 C) and principal component analysis were required to confidently isolate characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions carried by hematite. Demagnetization behavior for many horizons is erratic and does not allow isolation of a high unblocking-temperature ChRM. Data selection criteria required sample ChRM directions to be defined by three or more thermal demagnetization steps and maximum angular deviations of sample ChRM directions to be less than or equal to 20 deg. Eight sites from the Norwood Hill location and 10 sites from the Montezuma Creek location passed these criteria. The 18 site-mean virtual geomagnetic poles yield a paleomagnetic pole position from the Brushy Basin Member of 68.3 deg N, 156.2 deg E (A(sub 95) = 4.8 deg, K = 53). This pole position is within 2 deg of the paleomagnetic pole which Steiner and Helsley (1975a) reported for the 'upper' Morrison Formation at Norwood Hill, Colorado. A second paleomagnetic pole was calculated after excluding sites with site-mean alpha(sub 95) is greater than 20 deg and sites with fewer than three samples that passed the above selection criteria. This additional editing did not significantly change the paleomagnetic pole position at the 95% confidence level. Along with other paleomagnetic poles from the continental interior the paleomagnetic data from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation are interpreted to indicate that the Late Jurassic part of the North American apparent polar wander path progresses from a late Middle Jurassic (approximately 160 Ma) position at approximately 60 deg N, 135 deg E toward the mid-Cretaceous pole position at 72 deg N, 191 deg E.

Bazard, David R.; Butler, Robert F.

1994-04-01

326

Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.  

PubMed

Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently. PMID:22278158

2012-01-27

327

Go with the Gang, ASEAN!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the unexplored trade potentials and the economic impacts of bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) between AS ASEAN-5 member countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and the seven-candidate FTA partners (Australia, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States.) By using the gravity model and the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, this study suggests the

Sasatra Sudsawasd; Prasopchoke Mongsawad

2007-01-01

328

Gang Enforcement Problems and Strategies: National Survey Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federally-sponsored surveys of 149 police departments and 118 prosecutors' offices of jurisdictions greater than 250,000; and 73 prosecutors' offices of jurisdictions of 50,000 to 250,000 residents examined the problems and needs of law enforcement agencies, and the strategies they use in combating gangs. Findings show that the vast majority of police and prosecutors consider gangs and gang-related violence to be

Claire M. Johnson; Barbara A. Webster; Edward F. Connors; Diana J. Saenz

329

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicingschemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknownimpact on the future: should a job be scheduled,risking that it will block other larger jobs later,or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipationof future arrivals? This dilemma is solvedby using gang scheduling, because then the impact ofeach decision is limited to its time slice,

Dror G. Feitelson; Morris A. Jette

1997-01-01

330

The Wall Gang: a study of interpersonal process and deviance among twenty-three middle-class youths.  

PubMed

This paper reports the findings of a nonparticipant observational study of a "gang" of late-adolescent, middle-class youths in a Southern California beach community over an 11-year period. The significance of family background, interpersonal relationships in the home, and socialization processes were explored in relation to such factors as the use of drugs, sexual experiences, and other "deviant" behavior. The author also interviewed and interacted with other youths in the community of the same age range and similar socioeconomic background who were not members of the "gang." Case narration is supplemented by demographic data. The "gang" approximated Lewis Yablonsky's description of a "near-group." The youths were from above-average economic background, but 21 of the 23 "members" were from broken homes, frequently with multiple divorces and remarriages. The youths expressed attitudes of disgust with adult society and doubted the concern of their parents, particularly fathers and stepfathers, for their well-being. The youths sought out both "mother-figures" on whom they could be dependent for financial support as well as "father-figures" who would teach them to become independent. These "gang members" had erratic school and employment patterns. The types of drugs used by "nongang" youths, who had more stable family backgrounds, did not differ appreciably from those used by the "gang." The former group was distinguished in their use of drugs and alcohol by lower frequency and less tendency to use drugs in order to reduce anxiety or to facilitate their relations with the opposite sex. PMID:6507144

Lowney, J

1984-01-01

331

A possible structural model of members of the CPF family of cuticular proteins implicating binding to components other than chitin.  

PubMed

The physical properties of cuticle are determined by the structure of its two major components, cuticular proteins (CPs) and chitin, and, also, by their interactions. A common consensus region (extended R&R Consensus) found in the majority of cuticular proteins, the CPRs, binds to chitin. Previous work established that beta-pleated sheet predominates in the Consensus region and we proposed that it is responsible for the formation of helicoidal cuticle. Remote sequence similarity between CPRs and a lipocalin, bovine plasma retinol binding protein (RBP), led us to suggest an antiparallel beta-sheet half-barrel structure as the basic folding motif of the R&R Consensus. There are several other families of cuticular proteins. One of the best defined is CPF. Its four members in Anopheles gambiae are expressed during the early stages of either pharate pupal or pharate adult development, suggesting that the proteins contribute to the outer regions of the cuticle, the epi- and/or exo-cuticle. These proteins did not bind to chitin in the same assay used successfully for CPRs. Although CPFs are distinct in sequence from CPRs, the same lipocalin could also be used to derive homology models for one A. gambiae and one Drosophila melanogaster CPF. For the CPFs, the basic folding motif predicted is an eight-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet, full-barrel structure. Possible implications of this structure are discussed and docking experiments were carried out with one possible Drosophila ligand, 7(Z),11(Z)-heptacosadiene. PMID:20417215

Papandreou, Nikos C; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Willis, Judith H; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

2010-04-28

332

Ganges Cone: A Wide Angle Seismic Reflection and Refraction Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic wide angle reflection and refraction survey on the Ganges Cone sediments has indicated an overall layered sediment sequence. Surface layers have indicated depositional features associated withubmarine river channels. Structural highs suggest that the 90øE Ridge continues farther north of the present topographic relief, buried under the Ganges Cone sediments. Nine distinct values of velocities have been found throughout

Bhoopal R. Naini; Robert Leyden

1973-01-01

333

Gang youth, substance use patterns, and drug normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16–25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while evidence does suggest that illicit drug use

Bill Sanders

2012-01-01

334

Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

Sanders, Bill

2012-01-01

335

Predicting early adolescent gang involvement from middle school adaptation.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations in 6th grade were used to predict multiple measures of gang involvement by 8th grade. The multiple measures of gang involvement included self-, peer, teacher, and counselor reports. Unexpectedly, self-report measures of gang involvement did not correlate highly with peer and school staff reports. The results, however, were similar for other and self-report measures of gang involvement. Mean level analyses revealed statistically reliable differences in 8th-grade gang involvement as a function of the youth gender and ethnicity. Structural equation prediction models revealed that peer nominations of rejection, acceptance, academic failure, and antisocial behavior were predictive of gang involvement for most youth. These findings suggest that the youth level of problem behavior and the school ecology (e.g., peer rejection, school failure) require attention in the design of interventions to prevent the formation of gangs among high-risk young adolescents. PMID:15677281

Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Yasui, Miwa

2005-03-01

336

Gangs and healthcare security: preparation and education are the keys.  

PubMed

The threat of gang violence spilling over into hospital emergency rooms has become a reality in communities of all sizes, the author reports. The keys to a successful campaign against gang violence in a hospital setting, he says, are training and education of security and clinical staffs, cooperation with law enforcement, and proper reporting procedures and protocols. PMID:22970625

Moore, Charles D

2012-01-01

337

Pachuco Gangs in Houston--A Postwar Phenomenon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Combined with the overabundance of free time caused by unemployment, pachuco gangs in Chicano neighborhoods became very active during the 1940s. Houston had its own pachuco gangs that not only had feuds with each other but also clashed with Houston police. (NQ)|

Cano, Luis Rey

1979-01-01

338

The American Street Gang. Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is known about gangs is reviewed and the information is brought up to date. The book covers reported changes in the structure and crime patterns of gangs, their age, ethnic, and gender characteristics, and their spread into almost all corners of the United States. The early chapters consider four issues that are major concerns in…

Klein, Malcolm W.

339

Street gangs: save yourself while saving a life.  

PubMed

Until the root causes of gang violence--poverty, unemployment, stressed families and lack of education--are addressed on a national level, the number of victims will continue to mount. By having a basic understanding of gang violence and its manifestations, you can try to ensure your own safety while saving lives. PMID:10135647

Eckstein, M; Hutson, H R

1994-07-01

340

Legal and Ethical Problems of Street Gang Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new technique in the control of juvenile delinquency, street gang work raises a singularly knotty problem involving legal and ethical considerations. Since successful street work is based on the trust and confidence established between the worker and his gang boys, the worker often has knowledge of their of fenses. Disclosure of such information to the police impairs the

Solomon Kobrin

1964-01-01

341

Youth Violence: Gangs on Main Street, USA. Issues in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report profiles the issue of youth violence: the history of its appearance in U.S. culture, the recent escalation of gang activity in U.S. communities, and the strategies put forth in smaller cities to meet this challenge. The report notes that there has been an explosion of gang violence in the United States that has been fostered by a…

Hamner, Carole J.

342

Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency, and substance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to respond to gaps in our knowledge about patterns of female gang participation and its causes and consequences. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a panel study that overrepresents adolescents at high risk for delinquency, are used to compare gang participation and delinquent involvement of female and male adolescents. We then examine the

Beth Bjerregaard; Carolyn Smith

1993-01-01

343

Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

2011-01-01

344

Asian Gangs and Asian Organized Crime In Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this paper has been to conduct a preliminary examination into the existence of, and the extent of activity of Asian street gangs and Asian organized Crime in the city of Chicago. Information was acquired through field study, personal interviews, direct observation, official reports, and government documents. The author has defined and distinguished between criminal gangs and

Robert L. Davidson

1996-01-01

345

Responding to Gangs in the School Setting. National Gang Center Bulletin No. 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gangs are present in many schools in the United States. The National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse XV: Teens and Parents, released in August 2010 by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, reported that: Forty-five percent ...

E. F. Jones M. Arciaga W. Sakamoto

2010-01-01

346

Youth gangs and incarcerated delinquents: Exploring the ties between gang membership, delinquency, and social learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the conceptual and empirical ties between membership in youth gangs, youthful misconduct, and Akers's social learning theory. The adolescent population studied, however, is unique: it consists of adjudicated and incarcerated delinquents. The data for the study were obtained by conducting a census of all youths in the custody of the New Mexico Youth Authority in January 1991;

L. Thomas Winfree Jr; G. Larry Mays; Teresa Vigil-Bäckström

1994-01-01

347

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

348

U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of…

Tapia, Mike

2011-01-01

349

Police Handling of Youth Gangs. Reports of the National Juvenile Justice Assessment Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the organizational structure and activities of youth gangs have been studied, little research has focused on law enforcement strategies to handle youth gang behavior. To examine how police handle youth gangs and law violation and to identify effective prevention and control strategies, the police gang control and youth personnel…

Needle, Jerome A.; Stapleton, Wm Vaughan

350

A New Breed of Youth Gang Is On the Prowl and a Bigger Threat Than Ever.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an in-depth discussion of issue of gang violence and effects on schools. In past two decades street gangs have become a problem, not just in large urban centers, but also in smaller urban areas and suburbs. Outlines seven ways to work at preventing gang activities in schools. Urges school boards to play greater role in fighting gang

Stover, Del

1986-01-01

351

Racialized Identitites and the Formation of Black Gangs in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the history of Black gangs in Los Angeles, California and iden- tifies the factors that were most significant in the formation of these gangs during two waves of gang formation in the post-World War II period. The results of this analysis suggest that the racialization of Black youths played a major factor in both waves of gang

Alejandro Alonso

2004-01-01

352

Alliances, Conflicts, and Contradictions in Montreal’s Street Gang Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes an analytical framework for examining the network of street gangs in Montreal. The objectives are twofold. One aim is to describe the core features of Montreal gangs. The second aim is to examine the structure of social relations between these gangs. These analyses allow us to assess whether the city’s gang landscape is structured around popularized rivalries

Karine Descormiers; Carlo Morselli

2011-01-01

353

Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2002-01-01

354

Ethnic heterogeneity in the activity and structure of a Black street gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite acknowledgment of ‘hybrid’ street gangs in the literature, there is little systematic research into ethnic heterogeneity within gangs. This research aims at moving beyond the broad categorization of the Black street gang. For this purpose, we examine an all-Black London-based gang in detail, using fieldwork and police arrest data, and investigate the role of ethnic heterogeneity for the workings

Thomas U. Grund; James A. Densley

2012-01-01

355

A Comparative Study of Youth Gangs in China and the United States: Definition, Offending, and Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the research on youth gangs in the United States has been around for generations, relatively little research on Chinese youth gangs has been published in Western journals. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of the gang involvement of school-age youth in China and to explore whether or not some of the correlates associated with gang

Vincent J. Webb; Ling Ren; Jihong “Solomon” Zhao; Ni “Phil” He; Ineke Haen Marshall

2011-01-01

356

2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

357

U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

Tapia, Mike

2011-01-01

358

IS THE PATTERN OF ASIAN GANG AFFILIATION DIFFERENT? A MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been some arguments as to whether the pattern of Asian gang affiliation is different from those of other ethnic gangs. This study attempted to explore factors that influence gang affiliation among Asian-American high school students. The social developmental model, a newly integrated approach, was adopted because it has been used to test white, African-American and Hispanic gang groups.

Zheng Wang

1996-01-01

359

Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

Jette, M.A.

1998-03-01

360

Diagenetic Evolution and Subsequent Implications on Reservoir Qualities, Khartam Member, Permo-Triassic Khuff Formation, Central Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Permian-Triassic Khuff reservoirs in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 15-20 % of the world's gas reserves. The exposed Permian-Triassic outcropping strata of Khuff Formation in central Saudi Arabia provide excellently analog to the subsurface Khuff reservoir. Generally, diagenesis has enormous implications on carbonate reservoir qualities. This study aims to delineate the major diagenetic features and subsequently to determine their implications on critical reservoir quality of Khartam Member, Khuff Formation. A total of three boreholes data were used to accomplish the objective of this paper. Petrographical and poro-perm results were integrated to delineate the prominent diagenetic features and hence to subdivide the vertical sequence of the reservoir into diagenetic zones. As a result, seven diagenetic zones were clearly defined. Zone1, dominantly consist of extensively dolomitized mudstone. It is believed that, the dolomitization has enhanced the total porosity and permeability of this zone to about 10pu and 0.5mD respectively. Zone2 composed of moderately dissolved oolitic grainstone. Dissolution has resulted in a relative increase in the total porosity and permeability to about 10pu and 0.6mD respectively. Zone3 is a thinly laminate to massive mudstone with very low porosity and permeability of about 4pu and 0.1mD. Thinly localized dolomitization events were observed in this Zone, this might give an explanation to the relatively fair porosity. Zone4 composed of oolitic grainstone. Two major diagenetic features were observed in this Zone, extensive grain dissolution and calcitic cements. The extensive grain dissolution was intensively enhanced the total porosity and permeability to about 25pu and 146mD (very high porosity and permeability). However the calcitic cements were locally blocked the intergranular porosity but it has a minor influence on porosity and permeability. Zone5 composes of skeletal massive mudstone, with fair porosity and permeability of about 5pu and 0.09mD respectively. Zone 6, composes of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. Prominent grains dissolution was observed in this zone, this has intensively enhanced the porosity and permeability to about 19pu and 1mD respectively. Zone7 composed of massive skeletal wakestone with a relatively good porosity and fair permeability of about 14pu and 1mD respectively. Micro-fractures were characteristic diagenetic features of this zone, and this might give an explanation to the relatively good porosity and fair permeability. Generally, dolomitization was the prominent diagenetic feature of the muddy Zones, whereas grains dissolution were the dominant diagenetic feature of the grainy zones. It is very clear that diagenetic evolution of Khartam Member has played a major role in enhancing total porosities and permeability and hence improving reservoir quality.

Adam, Ammar; Abdullatif, Osman

2013-04-01

361

GANG INVOLVEMENT AND DELINQUENCY IN A MIDDLE SCHOOL POPUI,ATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between self-reported gang involvement and self-reported delinquency has been confirmed in a number of studies. However, there have been fewer studies of the relationship between self-reported gang in- volvement and officially recorded delinquency. This article examines varia- tion in self-reported gang involvement, operationalized as three distinct categories--no involvement, gang involvement but not membership, and gang membership--and its relation

G. DAVID CURRY; SCOTT H. DECKER; ARLEN EGLEY

2002-01-01

362

Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

Richards, Maurice V.

2010-01-01

363

Cultural Explanations for Vietnamese Youth Involvement in Street Gangs Public Safety: Gangs and Delinquency Research Project 95-JD-FX-0014.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to provide recommendations toward the development of effective community-based programs to prevent gang membership and related delinquency. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between gang involvement and deli...

D. R. Kent G. T. Felkenes

1998-01-01

364

The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian…

Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-01-01

365

Gang Suppression Through Saturation Patrol, Aggressive Curfew, and Truancy Enforcement: A Quasi-Experimental Test of the Dallas Anti-Gang Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the Dallas Police Department began an anti-gang initiative that was designed to reduce gang violence. Five defined target areas that were home to seven of the city's most violent gangs received overtime-funded officers to implement several different enforcement strategies. The strategies included saturation patrol and aggressive curfew and truancy enforcement. Control areas were selected, and preintervention and postintervention

Eric J. Fritsch; Tory J. Caeti; Robert W. Taylor

1999-01-01

366

Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs' centers of activity influence the agents' motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

2011-10-01

367

Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)|

Hernandez, Arturo

2001-01-01

368

Gang of Four Congressional Intelligence Notifications, January 29, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gang of Four intelligence notifications generally are oral briefings of certain particularly sensitive non-covert action intelligence activities, including principally, but not exclusively, intelligence collection programs, that the Intelligence Community...

A. Cumming

2010-01-01

369

GANG MEMBERSHIP AND CRIMINAL PROCESSING: A TEST OF THE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data on 370 criminal defendants processed in an urban court, we ex- amine whether gang membership constitutes a master status that influ- ences both charging and sentencing decisions. We first review various formal efforts to confront the \\

370

An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a unique data set detailing the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang on a monthly basis over a four-year period in the recent past. The data, originally compiled by the gang leader to aid in managing the organization, contain detailed information on both the sources of revenues (e.g. drug sales, extortion) and expenditrues (e.g. costs of drugs

Steven D. Levitt; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

1998-01-01

371

North American transnational youth gangs: Breaking the chain of violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs are nothing new. They appeared in New York City and Philadelphia at the end of the American Revolution. Their\\u000a numbers and violence correspond to peak levels of immigration and population shifts that occurred in the early 1800s, 1920s,\\u000a 1960s, and late 1990s. Entrenched in American culture, gangs are romanticized in movies while rap artists copy their dress\\u000a and

Stephen Johnson; David B. Muhlhausen

2005-01-01

372

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In this paper we explore the performance of various aspectsof gang scheduling designs. We developed an event-driven simulator of avanilla gang scheduler that relies on the Distributed Hierarchical Control(DHC) structure. We also developed three variations of the vanilla gangscheduler that rely on a push-down heuristic and on two job-migrationschemes to decrease response times by reducing processor idle time. Weevaluated

Fang Wang; Marios C. Papaefthymiou; Mark S. Squillante

1997-01-01

373

Hidden behind the gunfire: young women's experiences of gang-related violence.  

PubMed

This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women. PMID:22926187

Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

2012-06-01

374

Characteristics of IS401, a New Member of the IS3 Family Implicated in Plasmid Rearrangements in 'Pseudomonas cepacia' (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have determined the nucleotide sequence of IS401, an insertion sequence implicated in rearrangements of a 170-kb cryptic plasmid from Pseudomonas cepacia. The author's analysis focused on a 4066-bp plasmid fragment containing adjacent copies o...

A. M. Byrne T. G. Lessie

1994-01-01

375

Carbonate facies of the Upper Triassic Ojo Huelos Member, San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group), southern New Mexico: Paleoclimatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Triassic (Adamanian LVF) Ojo Huelos Member of the San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group) is a distinctive, carbonate-rich unit that occurs in the lower Chinle section of central New Mexico. The member consists mainly of micritic lime mudstones, ostracodal wackestones to grainstones, peloidal grainstones and distinctive pisolitic rudstones, interbedded with fine-grained siliciclastic mudstones. Most limestones exhibit some evidence of pedogenic brecciation and root penetration, and porous fabrics similar to those of modern limestone tufas occur locally. The interbedded mudstones are typically lenticular and commonly display a blocky ped fabric in which subequant peds are separated by sparry calcite veins. Fossils from the Ojo Huelos Member are freshwater (darwinulid) ostracodes, various freshwater fishes and aquatic/amphibious tetrapods-metoposaurs and phytosaurs. We interpret the carbonate facies as the deposits of carbonate lakes, ponds and wetlands that were partly spring-fed, whereas the interbedded and surrounding mudstones were alluvial in origin. The groundwater and overland hydrology of the region was likely controlled by the relative proximity to an upland recharge area in the Mogollon Highlands to the south, but sedimentary fabrics record strong overprinting by desiccation and pedogenic reworking. Consequently, we interpret the Ojo Huelos Member as recording a climate that varied from subhumid to semi-arid, which caused episodic falls in the hydrologic base-level. This resulted in landscape degradation, exemplified by significant pedogenic and erosional reworking of the carbonate sediments and fluvial incision.

Tanner, Lawrence H.; Lucas, Spencer G.

2012-10-01

376

Heterodimerization and functional interaction between EGF receptor family members: a new signaling paradigm with implications for breast cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGF receptor (EGFR) and HER2 are members of a growth factor receptor family. Overexpression of either protein in advanced breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis. EGF stimulates growth by binding to EGFR, activating the receptor's intracellular tyrosine kinase. The initial consequence is phosphorylation of specific tyrosine-containing sequences in the receptor's carboxyl terminus. These phosphotyrosines serve as high affinity recognition

H. Shelton Earp; Thomas L. Dawson; Xiong Li; Hong Yu

1995-01-01

377

Likelihood of Collaboration Between Central American Transnational Gangs and Terrorist Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on the growing threat of transnational criminal gangs spreading throughout Central America and the United States (U.S.). More specifically, the thesis addresses the Mara Salvatrucha (MS- 13) gang, examining how it emerged as a formidab...

J. C. Poveda

2007-01-01

378

Youth Gangs and Schools: The Need for Intervention and Prevention Strategies. Occasional Paper #1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper offers an analysis of urban youth gangs and intervention and prevention strategies for schools, and describes an example of a Cleveland (Ohio) school-wide response. After reviewing the scope of the problem and recent attention to gangs and youth violence, the paper looks at why youth join gangs and lists 12 conditions. Another section…

Trump, Kenneth S.

379

In Gangs We Trust: A Close-Up of the New Induction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how the needs children are trying to meet through gang involvement are the same ones that societies meet with rites of passage. Although gang rituals are antisocial, the needs they meet for youth are healthy. Offers several strategies that can be used when working with youth involved in gangs. Urges educators to help youth develop…

Blankstein, Alan Meredith; Sandoval, Gilbert "Sandy"

1998-01-01

380

Police perceptions of the severity of local gang problems: An analysis of noncriminal predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of municipal police departments in nine states are used to examine the effects of gang and city traits on police perceptions of the severity of the gang problem in their jurisdiction. The study is a preliminary and heuristic inquiry into some of the factors that color police perceptions of gangs. The data are especially relevant

James F. Quinn; William Downs

1993-01-01

381

Community-Based Gang Prevention and Intervention: An Evaluation of the Neutral Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an assessment of the Neutral Zone, a community-based gang prevention and intervention program developed in Mountlake Terrace and now operating in several other Washington communities. The Neutral Zone offers youths at risk of joining a gang or already gang-affiliated an attractive and safe alternative for productively spending their time. An evaluation suggests that this late evening program

Quint C. Thurman; Andrew L. Giacomazzi; Michael D. Reisig; David G. Mueller

1996-01-01

382

Handling Gang Violence in Schools: Some Costly Legal Errors and How To Avoid Them.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Administrators risk serious legal challenges when failing to recognize and respond to gang activity; enhance staff knowledge of gang identification/management techniques; establish policies and procedures; report suspected activities to police; pursue conflict mediation; include gang issues in class discussions; follow up on threats; or develop a…

Essex, Nathan L.

1999-01-01

383

Gangs: Straight Talk, Straight Up. A Practical Guide for Teachers, Parents, and the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written about youth gangs with the aim of educating teachers and administrators, parents, and others who work with youth. The main emphasis is on gang identifiers and positive behavior management strategies and crisis intervention techniques that can be used in schools and the home. Section 1, "Youth Gangs Past and Present," provides…

Jensen, Mary M.; Yerington, Philip C.

384

A Systemic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Looks at the organization of street gangs and suggests that some of the same concepts used to describe family systems may be applied to them. States that the complex organization of gangs forms a web of interconnectedness, and that in order to provide effective intervention plans, gangs must be viewed from a systematic and holistic perspective.…

Turner, William L.; Ruble, Nikki M.

2000-01-01

385

Gangs: A Handbook for Teachers and Counselors Working with Immigrant Students. Publication No. GC-123.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook provides information about gangs for education professionals working with immigrants. As the introduction makes clear, gangs are one of the many problems that newly arrived immigrants face in their neighborhoods and at school in the United States. Following the introduction, the first section describes the types of gangs including…

Ponce, Ernest, Comp.

386

Streets and Schools: How Educators Can Help Chicano Marginalized Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gangs socialize Chicano youths, who then exhibit behaviors that interfere with learning. Educators are not well informed about gang culture to intervene. Three Los Angeles programs provide examples of ways schools can stop exacerbating the problem and successfully reach youth in gangs. (SK)|

Vigil, James Diego

1999-01-01

387

Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang

Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

2007-01-01

388

Gangs: A Handbook for Teachers and Counselors Working with Immigrant Students. Publication No. GC-123.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides information about gangs for education professionals working with immigrants. As the introduction makes clear, gangs are one of the many problems that newly arrived immigrants face in their neighborhoods and at school in the United States. Following the introduction, the first section describes the types of gangs including…

Ponce, Ernest, Comp.

389

An integrated mobile system for gang graffiti image acquisition and recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we describe a system that allows first responders to collect and browse images of gang graffiti for the purpose of identifying and tracking gang activity. This system is implemented both as an application for Android hand-held devices and as a web-based interface. ^ Our system includes the acquisition of gang graffiti images and associated metadata. The data

Albert Parra Pozo

2011-01-01

390

Gang-related cyber and computer crimes: Legal aspects and practical points of consideration in investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang-related criminal activity has become increasingly more sophisticated, taking advantage of technological advancements that have occurred during the past few decades. Among these advances, criminal gangs have begun to use the internet as an effective tool through which criminal activity can be conducted. Investigators must be adept and competent at locating and collecting gang-related evidence from the internet and from

Robert D. Hanser

2011-01-01

391

People and Folks. Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority gangs of the 1980s are examined as groups of juveniles and young adults and as a fraction of the forming underclass. Gangs today no longer disappear as their ethnic groups rises socially. Instead, gangs are becoming institutionalized in the central cities. This discussion of prior research in Los Angeles (California) and more recent…

Hagedorn, John M.; Macon, Perry

392

Delinquent Gangs and Adolescent Victimization RevisitedA Propensity Score Matching Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents in delinquent gangs are at risk for multiple forms of antisocial behavior and related negative outcomes, including victimization. Theoretical attempts to explain the delinquency-gang nexus include selection, facilitation, and enhancement models, but each has limitations in terms of selection biases. To redress this, the current study used propensity score matching (PSM) to evaluate the effects of gang membership on

Matt DeLisi; J. C. Barnes; Kevin M. Beaver; Chris L. Gibson

2009-01-01

393

Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event  

SciTech Connect

During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis.

Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

1992-08-01

394

Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a…

Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

2009-01-01

395

Who needs enemies with friends like these? The importance of place for young people living in known gang areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination of fieldwork observations and focus group

Robert Ralphs; Juanjo Medina; Judith Aldridge

2009-01-01

396

Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments  

SciTech Connect

Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

Jette, M.A.

1997-11-01

397

Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.  

PubMed

The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community. PMID:20830865

Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

398

Gang membership and subsequent engagement into a drug free therapeutic community.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang involvement (21%) were younger and less educated than those without prior gang involvement. Although gang involved residents were more likely to achieve a high work role status in the program they scored lower on multiple indicators of engagement in treatment including acceptance of Daytop philosophy and TC clinical progress. PMID:19266711

Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

2007-06-01

399

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

400

The Gang Truce: A Movement for Social Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses an interview format with Michael Zinzun to discuss the work of the Coalition against Police Abuse, organized in Los Angeles (California), to come up with solutions to police abuse. The Coalition was instrumental in forging a truce between two large gangs in southern California, and this effort, and efforts to broaden the truce into a…

Zinzun, Michael

1997-01-01

401

Street encounters: betrayal and belonging in youth gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropologist Julia Sauma argues that in understanding what draws young people to gangs, UK practitioners could learn from Brazilian outreach workers and their efforts to relate to the lives of street children caught in the drug trade in Rio de Janeiro. Copyright (c) 2008 The Author. Journal compilation (c) 2008 ippr.

Julia Sauma

2008-01-01

402

A Former Street Gang Leader Reinterviewed Eight Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports a followup interview with a former street gang leader first interviewed eight years before. Restates his earlier endorsement of the economic or differential opportunity model of crime causation. Maintains that the advantages of work are not evident to most urban youths and improved employment opportunities are needed. (Author/JAC)|

Weisfeld, Glenn E.; Feldman, Roger

1982-01-01

403

Proceedings from the transnational street gang\\/organization seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

They came from all over. Researchers from Barcelona, Genova, Milan, Santo Domingo, Quito, and New York City descended on John Jay College of Criminal Justice to discuss the emerging socio-cultural phenomenon of transnational youth gangs developing into street organizations, similar to those documented by the author in the late 1990s in New York City (see Brotherton and Barrios, 2004). The

David Brotherton

2007-01-01

404

Who Can You Believe? Complexities of International Street Gang Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article stresses considerations in carrying out comparative street gang research, with comparative here meaning cross-national research. The discussion rests heavily on three comparative enterprises: the International Self-Report Delinquency Program, the Eurogang Research Program, and the STAGE proposal from the University of Manchester. All three have involved collaborative efforts of a large number of international scholars over a combined 40

Malcolm W. Klein

2011-01-01

405

Representations of Gangs and Delinquency: Wild in the Streets?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the coverage of juvenile crime in the Hawaiian press. Analyses of a master list of 649 newspaper articles for a 10-year period show a wide disparity between the output of articles and actual youth crime trends. The media also tended to focus on gang activity in its coverage of youth crime. (SLD)|

Perrone, Paul A.; Chesney-Lind, Meda

1997-01-01

406

Street Gangs Are Big Business--And Growing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights findings from a study by Irving Spergel of gang activity in 45 cities. Ronald Stephen, executive director of the National School Safety Center, cites an increase in drug-marketing and violence and advises educators to be aware of what is going on, establish rapport with community groups, and enlist the support of students. (MLF)|

Harrington-Lueker, Donna

1990-01-01

407

Gangs and Victimization at School. Education Policy Issues: Statistical Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue brief looks at the relationship between gang presence in schools and students' reports of victimization and fear. There is limited data about the causes of either juvenile street violence or school-related crime. Data collected in 1989 and 1993 reveal: (1) minority students living in urban areas are not the only ones who attend schools…

Ralph, John H.; And Others

408

A Former Street Gang Leader Reinterviewed Eight Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

A former street gang leader restates his earlier endorsement of the economic, or differential opportunity, model of crime causation. He also maintains that most of his former associates continued in crime because of adherence to the lower-class values of toughness, autonomy, and easy money. He himself abandoned crime and has become moderately successful as an independent businessman. He believes that

Glenn E. Weisfeld; Roger Feldman

1982-01-01

409

The silicon isotopic composition of the Ganges and its tributaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon isotopic composition (?Si30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 ?M. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between ?Si30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low ?Si30 (e.g., 40 ?M, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high ?Si30 component (e.g., 240 ?M, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 ?M while ?Si30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of ?Si30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher ?Si30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.

Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.

2013-11-01

410

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

411

Molecular heterogeneity in the choroid plexus epithelium: the 22-member ?-protocadherin family is differentially expressed, apically localized, and implicated in CSF regulation  

PubMed Central

The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium develops from the ependyma that lines the ventricular system, and plays a critical role in the development and function of the brain. In addition to being the primary site of CSF production, the CP maintains the blood-CSF barrier via apical tight junctions between epithelial cells. Here we show that the 22-member ?-Protocadherin (?-Pcdh) family of cell adhesion molecules, which we have implicated previously in synaptogenesis and neuronal survival, is highly expressed by both CP epithelial and ependymal cells, in which ?-Pcdh protein localization is, surprisingly, tightly restricted to the apical membrane. Multi-label immunostaining demonstrates that ?-Pcdhs are excluded from tight junctions, basolateral adherens junctions, and apical cilia tufts. RT-PCR analysis indicates that, as a whole, the CP expresses most members of the Pcdh-? gene family. Immunostaining using novel monoclonal antibodies specific for single ?-Pcdh proteins shows that individual epithelial cells differ in their apically-localized ?-Pcdh repertoire. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-? locus in the choroid plexus and ependyma leads to significant reductions in ventricular volume, without obvious disruptions of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Together, these results suggest an unsuspected role for the ?-Pcdhs in CSF production and demonstrate a surprising molecular heterogeneity in the CP epithelium.

Lobas, Mark A.; Helsper, Lindsey; Vernon, Claire G.; Schreiner, Dietmar; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Weiner, Joshua A.

2011-01-01

412

Cooperation between c-Met and focal adhesion kinase family members in medulloblastoma and implications for therapy  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated the involvement of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met in medulloblastoma malignancy. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2, are key players in the progression of different cancers. However, their role in medulloblastoma malignancy is not well understood. In this study, using a protein array approach, we found that c-Met phosphorylates FAK and Pyk2 in medulloblastoma cells. We therefore studied the interactions between c-Met and FAK/Pyk2 and their implications for medulloblastoma therapy. We found that c-Met activates FAK and Pyk2 in several medulloblastoma cell lines. We also found that FAK and Pyk2 mediate the malignant effects of c-Met on medulloblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that combined c-Met and FAK inhibitions would have additive effects on the inhibition of medulloblastoma malignancy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects on medulloblastoma malignancy parameters of single or combined treatments of medulloblastoma cells with c-Met and FAK small molecule kinase inhibitors. We found a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of both inhibitors on medulloblastoma cell migration and cell invasion as compared to single inhibitions (p<0.05). Additionally, oral gavage treatment with c-Met inhibitor of mice bearing medullobastoma xenografts significantly reduced in vivo tumor growth. Therefore, combining c-Met inhibitors with FAK inhibitors constitutes a new potential strategy for medulloblastoma therapy. Altogether, our study describes a role for FAK and Pyk2 in medulloblastoma malignancy, uncovers new interactions between c-Met and FAK/Pyk2, and proposes for the first time combining anti-c-Met and anti-FAK inhibitors as a new strategy for medulloblastoma therapy.

Guessous, Fadila; Yang, Yanzhi; Johnson, Elizabeth; Marcinkiewicz, Lukasz; Smith, Matthew; Zhang, Ying; Kofman, Alexander; Schiff, David; Christensen, James; Abounader, Roger

2011-01-01

413

Gang Activity and Overall Levels of Crime: A New Mapping Tool for Defining Areas of Gang Activity Using Police Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, a new method for defining gang activity areas based uponpolice records is illustrated using the Chicago Police Department's1996 incident files. This method is based upon standard geographictechniques and uses a uniform grid that divides the city into 150-msquares. It is shown that this technique may be useful both in describinggang activity areas and in describing the spatial

Richard Block

2000-01-01

414

Supporting members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All dues-paid members contributing an additional $80 or more in any single year earn recognition as Individual Supporting Members for that year. Among the present Supporting Members, there are 24 Life Supporting Members. To have achieved this special recognition, they have contributed $1500 or more thus far during the AGU-GIFT program. As a benefit (or dividend) they have no further dues obligations.

415

Supporting members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All dues-paid members contributing an additional $80 or more in any single year earn recognition as Individual Supporting Members for that year. Among the present Individual Supporting Members, I there are 21 Life Supporting Members. To have achieved this special recognition, they have contributed $1500 or more thus far during the AGU-GIFT program. As a benefit (or dividend) they have no further dues obligations.

416

The fate of evaporated water from the Ganges basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research studies river basin moisture recycling rates in order to determine the atmospheric part of the water cycle and the influence of the land surface there on. For river basins in India (Ganges and Indus), the fraction of evaporation that falls again as precipitation in the same river basin (the moisture recycling) is determined. Furthermore, the seasonal variance of moisture recycling and the fraction of precipitation that originates from evaporation from the same river basin is quantified. Using a quasi-isentropic moisture tracking scheme, evaporation from land surfaces in India is tracked through the atmosphere until precipitation brings it back to the land surface. This scheme is forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data from 1990 to 2009. With the information about the atmospheric paths of water vapor, the distance between evaporation and precipitation location is determined. To get an approximation of the influence of land use on the atmospheric moisture budget, the atmospheric paths of water vapor from two bordering areas with different evaporative regimes are compared. Results show a strong annual cycle in the recycling ratio. For the Ganges basin, the recycling ranges from 5% during the winter months (November-March) to 60% during the June-July-August season. The comparison of two focus areas in the Ganges basin with a difference in March-August evaporation shows that during the premonsoon months (March-May), up to 70% of the evaporation difference between the two areas recycles within the Ganges basin. Analysis of the soil moisture nudging terms in ERA-Interim compared to independent irrigation data strongly suggest this evaporation difference can be attributed to large-scale irrigation. The importance of basin moisture recycling for precipitation shows an annual cycle as well. An annual average of 4.5% of Ganges precipitation originates from water evaporating in the Ganges basin. During the dry winter monsoon, any precipitation originates from sources outside the basin. During March-April-May and October-November, 10% of the precipitation originates from evaporation within the basin. During the summer monsoon season, the large influx of moisture from the Indian Ocean dominates the precipitation, and recycling is 5% of precipitation.

Tuinenburg, O. A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kabat, P.

2012-01-01

417

Individual and familial characteristics of youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore were compared with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent–adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Of note were the findings that gang youths reported a relative absence of parental abuse and indifference, and experienced less

C Kee; K Sim; J Teoh; C. S Tian; K. H Ng

2003-01-01

418

Implementation of Gang-Scheduling on Workstation Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to determine how efficientlywe can implement an adequate parallel programmingenvironment on a workstation cluster withoutmodifying the existing operating system. We haveimplemented a runtime environment for parallel programsand gang-scheduling on a workstation cluster.In this paper, we report the techniques used to implementgang-scheduling on a workstation cluster and theproblems we faced. The most important technique is"network

Atsushi Hori; Hiroshi Tezuka; Yutaka Ishikawa; Noriyuki Soda; Hiroki Konaka; Munenori Maeda

1996-01-01

419

Man-made climatic changes in the Ganges basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate data pertaining to the Ganges basin in Bangladesh were analysed to find any climatic changes in the wake of the upstream water diversion by the Farakka Barrage. Whereas the diversions have been continuing from at least 30 international rivers upstream of Bangladesh, the diversion from the Ganges is the best known and has a wider coverage than all other diversions. The diversion reduced the Ganges' discharge through the delta by about 60% from a pre-diversion average value of 1932 m3 s-1, decreased water availability in flood plains, ponds, canals, and ditches by about 50%, dropped the groundwater table, and caused changes in surface features. It took about 5 years of diversions beyond the test run year of 1975 for the environment to react to set 1981 as the baseline year. During the post-baseline era: (1) heating degree days and cooling degree days were respectively 1.33 and 1.44 times more than their counterparts during the pre-baseline era; (2) the summertime and wintertime average temperatures were respectively 1 °C more and 0.5 °C less than the corresponding values during the pre-baseline era; (3) the mode 32 °C of summertime maximum temperatures was 1 °C higher and occurred 414 times more, and the mode 25 °C of wintertime temperature was 1 °C less and occurred 17 times less than the corresponding quantities during the pre-baseline era; (4) the average value of maximum relative humidity has increased by more than 2% and that of minimum relative humidity has dropped by the same amount; (5) the mode 95% and 70% of maximum and minimum relative humidity values have occurred 1322 times and 84 times more respectively than their pre-baseline counterparts; and (6) the frequency for 100 mm or more rainfall and the monthly average rainfalls have dropped by about 50% and 30% respectively. The solution to the climatic changes lies in the restoration of the virgin Ganges flow, dredging of the Ganges and its distributaries to remove shoals and siltation, and re-excavation of canals for water discharge to depleted surface water bodies to re-establish the lost wetland ecosystems. The findings are useful for climate modellers to predict the climatic changes due to changes in surface features, for policy makers of governments of riparian countries constructing dams/barrages on international rivers for unilateral diversion of water, and for donor agencies who finance such projects.

Adel, Miah M.

2002-06-01

420

Analysis of Energy Reduction on Dynamic Voltage Scaling-Enabled Systems Lin Yuan student member, IEEEand Gang Qu member, IEEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a technique that varies the supply voltage and clock frequency, based on the com- putation load, to provide desired performance with the minimal amount of energy consumption. It has been demonstrated as one of the most effective low power system design techniques, particularly for real time embedded systems. Most existing work are on two different

Lin Yuan; A. Motivation

421

The creation of specialized police gang units : A macro-level analysis of contingency, social threat and resource dependency explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specialized police gang units are a rapidly emerging form of concentrated social control. Prior research, however, into the creation of specialized gang units suffers from a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings. These shortcomings make it difficult to understand which of several potential explanations can best account for the establishment of specialized police gang units. Three perspectives are examined that

Charles M. Katz; Edward R. Maguire; Dennis W. Roncek

2002-01-01

422

Gangs of Chicago: Perceptions of Crime and its Effect on the Recreation Behavior of Latino Residents in Urban Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of safety is an important factor affecting the leisure behavior of Latinos residing in urban neighborhoods. Yet research on how fear of crime and fear of gangs in particular affect leisure of ethnic and racial minorities is underdeveloped. The objectives of this study are to examine how gangs operate in recreation spaces in Latino neighborhoods, how gangs affect the

Monika Stodolska; Juan Carlos Acevedo; Kimberly J. Shinew

2009-01-01

423

From the street to the prison, from the prison to the street: understanding and responding to prison gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a range of issues associated with gangs in incarcerated settings. We begin by examining the similarities and differences between street and prison gangs, and differentiating them from other types of criminal groups. Next, we focus on the emergence and growth of gangs in prison, including patterns and theoretical explanations. Importantly, we draw theoretical linkages between differing perspectives

David Pyrooz; Scott Decker; Mark Fleisher

2011-01-01

424

Joining and Leaving GangsSelection and Facilitation Effects on Self-Reported Antisocial Behaviour in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang membership is repeatedly reported to be one of the strongest predictors of antisocial behaviour. However, whether this association primarily reflects a selection effect or whether it primarily is related to a facilitation of antisocial behaviour within the gang has scarcely been an object of empirical study. This paper examines how antisocial behaviour and gang membership are associated among adolescents

Mons Bendixen; Inger M. Endresen; Dan Olweus

2006-01-01

425

A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

Chiprany, David Thomas

2011-01-01

426

76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary of Defense to include clauses...provisions of 46 U.S.C. 8106 and...issued under 46 U.S.C. chapter 73...Management and Budget under the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. chapter 35...Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

2011-10-04

427

75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...vessels. The Defense Authorization...applicable to U.S.-flag vessels...Management and Budget review under...should cite 5 U.S.C. 610 (DFARS...Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501...Secretary of Defense (DoD)...

2010-10-25

428

Taking Back the Streets ICE and Local Law Enforcement Target Immigrant Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

mmigration law enforcement has been a key ingredient contributing to the success of criminal gang suppres- sion efforts in many jurisdictions across the United States. Since 2005, the Bureau of Immigration and Cus - toms Enforcement (ICE) has arrested more than 8,000 gangsters from more than 700 different gangs as part of a special initiative known as Operation Community Shield.

Jessica M. Vaughan; Jon D. Feere

429

Small Town Insurgency: The Struggle for Information Dominance to Reduce Gang Violence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 2006, the gang related homicide rate in Salinas, California has quadrupled. As of 2009 the homicide rate associated with gang activity far exceeds those of much larger cities such as San Francisco, San Jose, and even Los Angeles, California. This re...

C. W. O'Gwin J. S. Vickers L. H. Arnold

2010-01-01

430

Them and us: A comparison of the cultural context of American gangs and British subcultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine and compare two distinct forms of social deviance which have emerged in two western societies. The United States has been the home of the street gang while Great Britain since World War II has produced several waves of national subculture. We examine the history, geography, educational experience, structure and implicit ideologies of gangs and subcultures in relation to

Anne Campbell; Steven Muncer

1989-01-01

431

Northeast Gang Information System (NEGIS): Participant Survey. Police Executive Research Forum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NEGIS is meant to act as a demonstration for a planned National Gang Information Network that will enable local, state, and federal law enforcement personnel across the country to share and exchange gang-related intelligence. The distributed, shared-syste...

L. Pitts

2000-01-01

432

Gang Units in Large Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2007. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2007, 365 of the nation's large police departments and sheriffs' offices had specialized gang units, employing more than 4,300 sworn officers dedicated to addressing gang-related activities. Thirty-five percent (35%) of these units were established bet...

L. Langton

2010-01-01

433

Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

434

Chicano youth gangs and crime: the creation of a moral panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Chicano gangs, crime, the police, and the Chicano community is complex. Neither the ‘problem’ of youth gangs nor the specialized police units created to cope with this problem arises in a social vacuum. Rather, both emerge from a particular historical structuring of social, economic, and political relations. This paper investigates how and why a ‘moral panic’ arose

Marjorie S. Zatz

1987-01-01

435

Youth Gangs Aren't Just a Big-City Problem Anymore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Innercity students who enter a suburban school system often find themselves at a significant disadvantage, both academically and socially, and seek acceptance by flaunting gang symbols. Identifies 10 strategies for addressing the problems of gang influence in suburban schools, including involving transfer students and providing career counseling.…

Moriarty, Anthony; Fleming, Thomas W.

1990-01-01

436

Job relocation: a method to enhance the performance of gang scheduling on clusters of PCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation and reallocation are very important issues affecting the performance of gang scheduling. Currently most gang scheduling systems adopt regular allocation policies. For many existing clusters of PCs, however, processors are interconnected via a fast Ethernet or a crossbar switch network and the location of processors is not a significant factor when communication costs are considered. Adopting regular allocation

B. B. Zhou

2003-01-01

437

Reasons and Remedies for Gangs and Delinquency among School Age Children. Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the common characteristics associated with juveniles who become involved in gang activities are identified. Programs that attempt to alleviate the situations that lead to gang involvement and programs that deal with juvenile delinquents are discussed. The history of the juvenile justice system is also traced. Characteristics that can…

Sloan, David L.

438

Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

2011-01-01

439

Street gang theory and research: Where are we now and where do we go from here?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an upsurge of attention paid to street gangs as scholars and criminal justice officials strive to understand and counteract the effects of gang membership. Yet, despite a wealth of theoretical frameworks and empirical findings, even fundamental issues such as an agreed definition continue to elude us. We consider some of the most influential theoretical frameworks and

Jane Wood; Emma Alleyne

2010-01-01

440

Street Gangs and Aggregate Homicides: An Analysis of Effects During the 1990s Violent Crime Peak  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the body of research examining why city-level violence rates peaked in 1993. Taking homicide data from that year, we introduce an indicator for active street gangs along with indicators derived from common structural explanations of homicide rates. We assess whether gang presence is empirically associated with homicide variation across 154 U.S. central cities. Consistent with conceptual

S. E. Costanza; Ronald Helms

2012-01-01

441

'Sleep Occupies No Space': The Use of Public Space by Street Gangs in Kinshasa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with issues of territoriality, public space, the microphysics of power and street gang life in the current urban context of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In this city, a growing number of street children invade the public places. They team up in gangs and scour the streets in search of a location to settle

Kristien Geenen

2009-01-01

442

Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

2003-01-01

443

Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

Rodriguez, Luis J.

444

The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

2010-01-01

445

Gang Violence and Latino Youth in Chicano Literature: The Loss of Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature analysis examines the representation of violence in Chicano literature, in particular, gang violence. The violent culture of gangs in the Chicano community is an essential aspect of the works of Luis Rodriguez, Mona Ruiz, Yxta Maya Murray, and Alejandro Morales. By examining the lives of the protagonists in a selection of works by these authors, this analysis aims

Maria C. Lara

2005-01-01

446

Gangs, 'Coups D' Streets,' and the New War in Central America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new kind of war is being waged in Central America and elsewhere around the world today. The main protagonists are what have come to be called first, second, and third generation street gangs. In this war, gangs are not sending conventional military unit...

M. Manwaring

2005-01-01

447

Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

2010-01-01

448

Young people’s views on how to tackle gang violence in “post- conflict” Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes gang culture in post-conflict Guatemala, and makes the case for including the views of young people in responding to the issue. Participatory research with young people from two low-income communi- ties in Guatemala City revealed that gang violence was in fact a most critical issue in their lives, and a number of recommendations were generated. These young

Ailsa Winton

2004-01-01

449

"Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief discusses the use of traffic barriers to block automobile access to streets as a way to reduce gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles, California, that had experienced a high level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults. The program, Operation Cul de Sac (OCDS), was evaluated as a…

Lasley, James

450

Influences on the Mexican American Youth Gang Discourse on Local Television News  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the production of the Mexican American youth gang story for local television news from a Gramscian perspective. It argues that the production of these stories is the result of a social process and therefore is socially constructed within a context in which power is used to influence the discourse about Mexican American youth gangs. Such discourse is

Raúl Tovares

2000-01-01

451

A Partially Ordered Scale of Influence in Violent Group Behavior: An Example From Gang Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined how decisions, actions, and orders combine to act as influence strategies that occur throughout different stages in gang rape. Thirty-nine gang rape cases, yielding 120 offenders, were coded according to each individual's level of involvement at each stage in terms of decisions, actions, and orders. The various combinations of these were examined using a multidimensional scaling

LOUISE E. PORTER; LAURENCE J. ALISON

2001-01-01

452

Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

2010-01-01

453

Delinquency and Substance Use among Gang-Involved Youth: The Moderating Role of Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency,

Chanequa J. Walker-Barnes; Craig A. Mason

2004-01-01

454

Geogenic distribution and baseline concentration of heavy metals in sediments of the Ganges River, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a better understanding of heavy metal distribution in large river sediments is a major concern in the exogenic cycling of elements through fluvial processes and in assessing the effects of anthropogenic influences. From the Asian continent, the Ganges River contributes a significant amount of sediments to the world's ocean. Freshly deposited sediments of the Ganges River were

Munendra Singh; German Müller; I. B Singh

2003-01-01

455

Delinquency and substance use among gang-involved youth: the moderating role of parenting practices.  

PubMed

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency, and substance use). Three of the four parenting variables (behavioral control, psychological control, parent-adolescent conflict, and warmth) are found to moderate the relationship between gang involvement and problem behavior, with the most consistent effects found for behavioral control and warmth. These findings indicate that intervention efforts aimed at reducing the impact of gang involvement on adolescent development should consider factors that may decrease the deleterious behavioral outcomes associated with youth gangs. PMID:15663209

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J; Mason, Craig A

2004-12-01

456

The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.  

PubMed

Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health. PMID:22273341

Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

2012-02-01

457

Elastomeric member  

DOEpatents

An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

Hoppie, L.O.

1985-07-30

458

Trace metals trend analysis in river Ganges in Kanpur  

SciTech Connect

Kanpur, one of the largest industrial cities located on the bank of the river Ganges, discharges large quantities of industrial effluents into it. Heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn) were monitored monthly from July 1986 to June 1989. Samples were collected at locations where the river entered Kanpur and left Kanpur. Time-series analysis was carried out using a moving average model to estimate the trend values free from auto-correlation. The two independent and identically distributed deseasonalized series for up-stream and down-stream were compared by the analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) to find out the space and time effect of different metal levels in the Ganges water. The measured and trend values were completely in accordance with the observed pattern. A significant temporary effect for iron and zinc was observed. Significant site-related effects were observed from chromium due to the presence of a large number of industrial establishments, particularly tanneries, electroplating and metal processing industries. A time-of-year-related effect on the levels of nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were observed. These differences may be attributed to drought and other natural events.

Garg, N.; Mathur, N.; Modak, D.P.; Singh, K.P.; Murthy, R.C.; Ahmed, S.; Chandra, S.V.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Luchnow (India))

1992-01-01

459

Sedimentary and structural history of the basal member of the Abiquiu Formation: Implications for Cenozoic landscape evolution of the northern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural, stratigraphic, and sedimentalogic data from the the basal member of the Oligocene-lower Miocene Abiquiu Formation provides information on the late Cenozoic deformation history and landscape evolution of north-central New Mexico. The study area lies along the western margin of the Rio Grande rift. The basal member of the Abiquiu Formation lies unconformably on Mesozoic strata and locally the Cenozoic

P. Huff; M. A. Murphy; E. Blankenship; R. Hicks

2007-01-01

460

State and Nonstate Associated Gangs: Credible 'Midwives of New Social Orders'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph introduces a misunderstood aspect of 'wars among the people.' The author addresses the interesting subject of the multifaceted nature and predominant role of gangs operating as state and nonstate proxies in the modern unbalanced global secu...

M. G. Manwaring

2009-01-01

461

Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.  

PubMed

Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. PMID:22998539

Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

2012-09-17

462

Street Gangs and Drug Sales in Two Suburban Cities. Research in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The degree to which street gang involvement in drug distribution presents special and substantial difficulties to law enforcement is a matter of some debate in police and academic circles. Most of the literature emanating from law enforcement sources sugg...

C. L. Maxson

1995-01-01

463

Attorney General's Report to Congress on the Growth of Violent Street Gangs in Suburban Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Report to Congress on the growth of violent street gangs in suburban areas was requested by the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, in reference to Commerce, Justice, Science, and related Agencies Appropriations Bill 2008 (H. ...

2008-01-01

464

The police and social threat: Urban transition, youth gangs, and social control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of U.S. cities of 25,000 or more, this paper describes the impact of urban decline from 1970–1980 and the magnitude of youth gang problems on municipal fiscal commitment to policing. After statistical controls are imposed for the city's crime rate, revenues and demographic characteristics, the results indicate that urban transition and recognition of youth gang problems

Pamela Irving Jackson

1992-01-01

465

Affiliation to Youth Gangs During Adolescence: The Interaction Between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely\\u000a to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in\\u000a the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested\\u000a whether a combination of individual

Véronique Dupéré; Éric Lacourse; J. Douglas Willms; Frank Vitaro; Richard E. Tremblay

2007-01-01

466

Self-control, differential association, and gang membership: A theoretical and empirical extension of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data gathered from a sample of two hundred jail inmates housed in a large California city, this research extends the still nascent literature on the self-control\\/gang membership association. The article begins by first articulating more comprehensively than earlier research Gottfredson and Hirschi's theoretical justification for expecting a self-control\\/gang membership link. Next, an examination is undertaken of the relative independent

Jason Kissner; David C. Pyrooz

2009-01-01

467

Implications of the Precambrian Non-stromatolitic Carbonate Succession Making up the Third Member of Mesoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang Formation in Yanshan Area of North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particular non-stromatolitic carbonate succession making up the third member of the Mesoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang Formation might demonstrate that a stromatolite decline of the Mesoproterozoic occurring at ca. 1 450 Ma besides other three events of the Proterozoic, respectively, occurred at ca. 2 000 Ma, ca. 1 000 Ma, and ca. 675 Ma. The forming duration of this non-stromatolitic carbonate succession

Mingxiang Mei

2007-01-01

468

Implications of High\\/Low-Context Communication for Target Audience Member Interpretation of Messages in the Nimechill Abstinence Campaign in Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings

Julie Gathoni Muraya; Ann Neville Miller; Leonard Mjomba

2011-01-01

469

Reducing family members’ anxiety while waiting on the day of surgery: systematic review of studies and implications of HIPAA health information privacy rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To investigate changes that most surgical suites will need to make in the process of giving reports to family members on the day of surgery by the compliance date (April 14, 2003) of the privacy regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) of 1996.Design: Systematic review of the medical literature on ways in which providing

Franklin Dexter; Richard H. Epstein

2001-01-01

470

Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles  

PubMed Central

Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use.

Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

2011-01-01

471

Identification and characterization of a novel member of the radical AdoMet enzyme superfamily and implications for the biosynthesis of the Hmd hydrogenase active site cofactor.  

PubMed

The genetic context, phylogeny, and biochemistry of a gene flanking the H(2)-forming methylene-H(4)-methanopterin dehydrogenase gene (hmdA), here designated hmdB, indicate that it is a new member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme superfamily. In contrast to the characteristic CX(3)CX(2)C or CX(2)CX(4)C motif defining this family, HmdB contains a unique CX(5)CX(2)C motif. PMID:19897660

McGlynn, Shawn E; Boyd, Eric S; Shepard, Eric M; Lange, Rachel K; Gerlach, Robin; Broderick, Joan B; Peters, John W

2009-11-06

472

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Member of the Radical AdoMet Enzyme Superfamily and Implications for the Biosynthesis of the Hmd Hydrogenase Active Site Cofactor? †  

PubMed Central

The genetic context, phylogeny, and biochemistry of a gene flanking the H2-forming methylene-H4-methanopterin dehydrogenase gene (hmdA), here designated hmdB, indicate that it is a new member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme superfamily. In contrast to the characteristic CX3CX2C or CX2CX4C motif defining this family, HmdB contains a unique CX5CX2C motif.

McGlynn, Shawn E.; Boyd, Eric S.; Shepard, Eric M.; Lange, Rachel K.; Gerlach, Robin; Broderick, Joan B.; Peters, John W.

2010-01-01

473

Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: a public health approach  

PubMed Central

Background Gang violence accounted for 20% of homicides in large cities from 2002 to 2006. Preventing gang affiliation (ie, youth who either desire or have gang membership) might reduce subsequent gang activity. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors for gang affiliation; however, little information is available on protective factors. Aim To identify risk and protective factors to provide more direction for gang violence prevention strategies. Methods The author analysed cross-sectional survey data from 4131 youths in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12. Data were collected in 2004 from students in a high-risk, urban public school district. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between gang affiliation and alcohol and drug use, delinquency, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, peer victimisation, parental monitoring and positive reinforcement, adult, family and peer support, coping skills, and school connectedness. Analyses were controlled for sex, race/ethnicity and age. Results An estimated 7% of youths were gang affiliated. Adjusting for all factors, gang affiliation was positively associated with engaging in any delinquent behaviours (prevalence OR: 2.07; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.64), frequent alcohol use (OR: 2.62; 95% CI 1.85 to 3.72) and frequent drug use (OR: 1.95; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.29). Gang affiliation was negatively associated with moderate levels of parental monitoring (OR: 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and coping skills (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71). Conclusions The findings suggest the potential benefit of increasing parental monitoring and coping skills and reducing delinquency, alcohol use and drug use to prevent gang affiliation.

2012-01-01

474

Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.  

PubMed

Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents. PMID:19852186

Papachristos, Andrew V

2009-07-01

475

Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (SARIN et al., 1990; SACKETT et al. 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters < 12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its in teh Amazon mixing zone where MCKee et at. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative micxing. The contrasting behaviours for uranium in theses systems are due to the different locatons where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amzon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahamputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochimical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. We discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

Carroll, Jolynn; Moore, Willard S.

1993-11-01

476

Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone  

SciTech Connect

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

1993-11-01

477

Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

2011-01-01

478

Brotherhood or Brothers in the "Hood"? Debunking the "Educated Gang" Thesis as Black Fraternity and Sorority Slander  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…

Hughey, Matthew W.

2008-01-01

479

The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.  

PubMed

The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides. PMID:19247837

Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2009-02-27

480

Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational…

Rios, Victor M.

2010-01-01

481

Clockwise Rotation and Implications for Northward Drift of the Western Transverse Ranges from Paleomagnetism of the Piuma Member, Sespe Formation, near Malibu, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from mid-Tertiary sedimentary beds in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California reinforce the evidence for large-scale rotation of the western Transverse Ranges, originally postulated from observations of basement-structure trends and supported by paleodeclination data from Eocene and younger rocks. Previously published paleomagnetic data indicate that post-Oligocene rotation amounts to 70°-110° clockwise, affecting the Channel Islands, Santa Monica Mountains, and Santa Ynez Mountains. The Sespe Formation near Malibu consists of a lower member dominated by nonmarine sandstone and conglomerate and an upper section, the Piuma Member, which consists of gray-red sandstone and mudstone interbedded with minor tuff and limestone beds. The Piuma Member has a paleomagnetic pole at 36.7°N, 326.7°E (A95min=5.0°, A95max=9.6°), resulting from thermal demagnetization of 34 oriented cores covering beds from Oligocene to Early Miocene age. The data are consistent with significant clockwise rotation (68°±7°) of the region relative to stable North America. Rotation of the western Transverse Ranges is generally viewed as a consequence of Pacific-North American plate interactions after 28 Ma, when east-west subduction gave way to northwest transform motion in southern California. Inclinations from the Piuma study lead to a paleolatitude anomaly of 11°±7°, or a mean northward drift that exceeds generally accepted San Andreas fault displacement by a factor of three. However, analysis of magnetization-direction distributions from this study combined with J. Liddicoat's work at other Sespe Formation sites (total N=131) reveals that sedimentary inclination error, rather than northward drift, may be the primary contributor to the anomaly. Application of the Tauxe and Kent method, which tests the elliptical shape of a given field-direction dataset against a global geomagnetic field model (TK03.GAD), requires mean inclination flattening of approximately 15° to predict the 1.34:1 azimuthal elongation of the Sespe magnetization directions. Compaction may explain the inclination flattening in these sedimentary rocks, but the process does not adequately explain lower-than-expected inclinations found in previous studies of Miocene volcanic rocks of the western Transverse Ranges.

Hillhouse, J. W.

2007-12-01

482

Young Mother (in the) Hood: Gang Girls' Negotiation of New Identities.  

PubMed

This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and gang girls-both stigmatized identities. For many of the young women, motherhood entails a retreat from the street and a renewed emphasis on time spent in the home. While many receive (financial and childcare) support from their families, this also often means a diminution of the autonomy they experienced while more heavily involved in the gang. Issues of respect and respectability remain important for the young women, but the dimensions on which these are based change. PMID:21116461

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Joe-Laidler, Karen; McKenzie, Kathleen

2011-02-01

483

Local Ganging in the Central Calorimeter and Major Portions of the Endcap Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

This is the minority report on the decision to use local ganging in the central calorimeter and major portions of the end cap calorimeters. The method not chosen for the readout is distant ganging. This method requires that the signal from each pad be carried to the outer radial edge of the board. There the signals from successive boards are connected together in parallel(ganged). From there the signal is carried to the cryostat port. All of the procedures needed to effect this design are known at this time. The line connecting each pad to the outer edge of its board can be produced by routing the line onto the readout board when the pads are routed. The lines are designed to be .007 inches wide with .008 inch spacings between lines. Lines of these dimension have been produced at Fermi Lab with very little difficulty. Three lines each 50 feet long were cut with out a break or short on the first attempt using the Fermi Gerber router. The connection from the lead to ganging cable is made with lands at the outer edge of the board. The ganging cable is created by layering copper and mylar. The first surface is copper with spaces etched on it to create leads with the same spacing as the lands on the boards. the second layer is mylar. The third layer is a solid copper sheath. The fourth layer is mylar. This cable is held in contact with the lands by spring clips. This system was used to connect over 300 lines in series. The test piece was cold shocked in LN{sub 2} ten times without a failure in any connection. The ganging cable is then connected to a twisted pair cable. Several connectors are commercially available for this transition. All are extremely reliable.

Pitas, A.; /Fermilab

1986-02-03

484

Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

2012-02-01

485

Fluxes of Sr into the headwaters of the Ganges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himalayan weathering is recognized as an important agent in modifying sea water chemistry, but there are significant uncertainties in our understanding of Himalayan riverine fluxes. This paper examines causes of the variability, including that of the seasons, by analysis of downstream variations in Sr, 87Sr, and major ions in the mainstream, in relation to the composition of tributary streams from subcatchments with differing geologic substrates. Water samples were collected over four periods spanning the premonsoon, monsoon, and postmonsoon seasons. Uncertainties in the relative fluxes have been estimated, using Monte Carlo techniques, from the short-term variability of mainstream chemistry and the scatter of tributary compositions. The results show marked seasonal variations in the relative inputs related to high monsoon rainfall in the High and Lesser Himalaya, contrasting with the major contribution from glacial melt waters from the Tibetan Sedimentary Series (TSS) at times of low rainfall. Much of the spread in previously published estimates of the sources of Sr in Himalayan rivers may result from these seasonal variations in Sr fluxes. The annual fluxes of Sr into the headwaters of the Ganges are derived from the three main tectonic units in the proportions 35 ± 1% from the TSS, 27 ± 3% from the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS), and 38 ± 8% from the Lesser Himalaya. The particularly elevated 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios characteristic of the HHCS and the Lesser Himalaya enhance their influence on seawater Sr-isotope composition. The TSS contributes 13 ± 1%, the HHCS 30 ± 3%, and the Lesser Himalaya 57 ± 11% of the 87Sr flux in excess of the seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.709.

Bickle, Mike J.; Bunbury, Judith; Chapman, Hazel J.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Ahmad, Talat

2003-07-01

486

Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning. PMID:21480020

Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

2011-06-24

487

Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration  

SciTech Connect

The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

Lorenz, J.C.

1997-05-01

488

The 3D geometry of the Zechstein Z3 carbonate/anhydrite member: implications for the study of salt structures and hydro-carbon production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Permian Zechstein deposits of NW Europe contain a relatively brittle claystone, carbonate/dolomite, anhydrite member (stringer), fully enclosed within ductile halite/ potash-salts. The stringers can be productive for hydrocarbons and at the same time can form a drilling hazard when sub-salt targets are drilled. furthermore, the salt structures of Europe are considered for different kinds of geological storage. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale geometrical development and the early evolution of intra-salt brittle layers. The presence of a single stringer makes the stringer a simplified structural analogue of the producing stringers of the South Oman Salt Basin or other locations where multiple stringers are positioned in evaporites. Here, a description of the geometry of this brittle layer is presented, based on two seismic data sets from the Dutch subsurface. This study aims to give an overview of structures observed and to compare them with observations from salt mines, analogue and numerical models. This purely geometrical study has its application in deciphering salt tectonics. Structures observed include zones of increased thickness in the stringer that probably formed shortly after stringer deposition under the influence of early diagenesis, gravitational sliding and enhanced by locally increased sedimentation. This sliding is interpreted to have formed gaps in the stringer along zones of increased thickness, coeval with thrust- and fold-structures in the centre of the zone. Later, salt tectonic structures began to form in the evaporites. Overall the stringer folding is harmonic with repect to the shape of the top salt horizon, but different dis-harmonic fold-types (including steep isoclinal folds) and boudins formed as a result of the constrictional flow of salt towards the narrow stems of salt structures. This constrictional salt flow, rather then plane-strain deformation, resulted in very complex boudin and fold geometries. Stringer deformation was further complicated by the relatively stronger zones of increased thickness, but there are indications that the thicker zones also influence the locations of salt structures. There thus appears to be a feedback between the sedimentary and early diagenetic evolution of large salt deposits and their later tectonic development.

van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; de Keijzer, M.

2009-12-01

489

Exposure to partner, family, and community violence: gang-affiliated Latina women and risk of unintended pregnancy.  

PubMed

While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the U.S.A. overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and relationship violence exposure may lead to unintended pregnancy. Interviews of 20 young adult Latinas with known gang involvement in Los Angeles County were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for key themes related to violence exposure and reproductive health. Limited access to reproductive health care compounded by male partner sexual and pregnancy coercion, as well as physical and sexual violence, emerged in the interviews. Exposures to interparental domestic violence, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and gang violence were prominent and closely associated with unhealthy and abusive intimate relationships. Adverse childhood experiences and exposure to partner, family, and community violence impact the reproductive lives and choices of young Latina women in gangs. These findings may guide targeted pregnancy prevention efforts among urban gang-affiliated Latinas as well as encourage the integration of sexual violence prevention and reproductive health promotion within gang violence intervention programs. PMID:22160445

Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

2012-02-01

490

Gangs and Coups D' Streets in the New World Disorder: Protean Insurgents in Postmodern War  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutation of protean “street gangs” to insurgents illustrates that insurgents need not be ideologically oriented, and need not be traditional revolutionary fighters emerging from the mountains and jungles to take down or control a government. Rather, they may have their own specific commercial money-making motives, and can emerge out of the favelas, callampas, villas miserias, and pueblas jovenes (city

Max G. Manwaring

2006-01-01

491

The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

2011-01-01

492

Trends and persistence in precipitation in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basins occupy about 1.75 x 10 6 km2 of the Himalayan region. More than half a billion people in Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh are directly or indirectly dependent on the water resources of the GBM rivers. These river basins are characterized by diversified climatic patterns. Analyses of trends and persistence in precipitation

M. Q. MIRZA; R. A. WARRICK; N. J. ERICKSEN; G. J. KENNY

1999-01-01

493

Young mother (in the) hood: gang girls' negotiation of new identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and

Molly Moloney; Geoffrey P. Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler; Kathleen MacKenzie

2011-01-01

494

POLLUTION KNOWLEDGE AND URBAN WATER POLITICS IN THE GANGES RIVER BASIN (INDIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people rely upon the Ganges River as a source of water provision and a site of disposal for sewage, solid waste, agricultural runoff and industrial effluent. The river is also a goddess in the Hindu pantheon who is worshipped for her purificatory powers, despite water quality levels that fall far short of standards for use in bathing, washing,

Sya Buryn Kedzior

2011-01-01

495

Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present river chemistry data for a network of rivers draining the western and central Nepal Himalaya. Our sampling locations cover the system from the sources of rivers in Tibet to the Gangetic plain. Water samples were collected throughout the year, including the monsoon season, for rivers in Nepal and for the Ganges and Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Rivers draining the

Albert Galy; Christian France-Lanord

1999-01-01

496

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-07-04

497

The Effects of Civil Gang Injunctions on Reported Violent Crime: Evidence from Los Angeles County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cities have recently adopted civil injunctions as a means to reduce gang violence. To evaluate the effectiveness of such injunctions, I develop an extensive database of neighborhood-level reported crime counts from four police jurisdictions within Los Angeles County. I construct two different comparison samples of neighborhoods not covered by injunctions to control for underlying trends that could cause one

Jeffrey Grogger

2002-01-01

498

Outlaw motorcycle gangs’ attempted intimidation of Quebec’s police forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlaw motorcycle gangs have been increasingly attempting to intimidate police officers in Quebec. The database of Quebec’s Provincial Police and the interviews conducted in this research indicate that attempted intimidation usually takes the shape of ambiguous threats within the limits of the law and by engaging in legal proceedings against the police. The response of the police to attempted intimidation

Grégory Gomez del Prado

2011-01-01

499

"American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

De Genova, Nicholas

2008-01-01

500

Chicano Gangs: One Response to Mexican Urban Adaptation in the Los Angeles Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban adaptation among Mexican Americans resulting in the rise of youth street gangs is assessed in this article within a framework that examines the adaptation's ecological, economic, cultural, and psychological aspects. It is argued that difficulties in changing to Anglo-American patterns have been exacerbated by living and working conditions…

Vigil, James Diego

1983-01-01