Sample records for gang members implications

  1. “Slinging dope”: The role of gangs and gang members in drug sales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Decker; Barrik Van Winkle

    1994-01-01

    There are two competing views about the role of gangs and gang members in drug sales. The first argues that street gangs are well-organized purveyors of illegal drugs who reinvest the profits from drug sales into the gang. A second approach rejects this notion. Its proponents claim that drug sales by gangs are seldom well-organized and that gang members often

  2. Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

  3. Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Burch, James H., II

    1997-01-01

    Teams at several universities collaborated in studies of the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency program in three cities. This bulletin presents the findings from the Rochester (New York) Youth Development Study (RYDS) concerning the contributions of youth gang membership to delinquency. The RYDS started with a sample of 1,000 boys and girls in…

  4. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  5. The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

  6. "Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

  7. Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…

  8. THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2009-01-01

    While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

  9. “GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

  10. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

  11. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  12. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  13. The Drugs-Violence Nexus Among Mexican-American Gang Members

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history/intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant’s last fight. Gang member participant’s ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member’s risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxicatiion levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450

  14. Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

    This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

  15. Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2004-01-01

    Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

  16. Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

    There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

  17. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  18. Resource Brief: Gangs. Inquiry Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2013-01-01

    After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…

  19. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  20. Surf and turf wars online--growing implications of Internet gang violence.

    PubMed

    King, Jonathan E; Walpole, Carolyn E; Lamon, Kristi

    2007-12-01

    To examine use of the Internet by gangs and its affect on youth, i-SAFE Inc. collected information from more than 100,000 students and 137 gang associates from an urban population. Although individuals who associate with a gang have distinguishable discrepancies in the amount of time spent online, they have similar online behavior as compared with those who are not involved with gangs. Additional research is necessary to develop a substantive link between gangs online and the school and community culture. PMID:18047950

  1. Constructing Gangs: The Social Definition Of Youth Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Decker; Kimberly Kempf-Leonard

    1991-01-01

    Despite previous research, there remains no consensus on definitions of who is a gang member, what is a gang, and what is gang activity. This paper examines these issues based on results of a survey administered to two groups involved in responding to gangs—members of a gang task force and officers of an urban police department—and a group of juvenile

  2. Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egley, Jr., Arlen; O'Donnell, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,550…

  3. Cholo to "Me": From Peripherality to Practicing Student Success for a Chicano Former Gang Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Reynaldo, III

    2006-01-01

    For many situationally marginalized Mexican-descent students today, hopelessness is fueled by a bleak life situation that is reflected in their school performance. Success in school remains elusive because they are not or have not had the opportunity to become members of a community that contributes to their sense of agency, possibility and hope…

  4. Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

  5. Understanding the Black Box of Gang OrganizationImplications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Decker; Charles M. Katz; Vincent J. Webb

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests that gangs are not very well organized. However, the findings from the current research

  6. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

  7. Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

    This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and victimization); "Delinquency and…

  8. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed. PMID:23525778

  9. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood. PMID:24883000

  10. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

  11. The Girls in the Gang. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne

    This book examines the role of female gangs and the part women play in those that are predominantly male and provides an account of how these people came to accept casual killings, fire bombings, and the warfare and violence of the streets. It focuses on female gang members by setting out their stories as biographies and accounts of relationships…

  12. The Black Hole Gang

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The Black Hole Gang Web site is authored by fifth grade teacher Stephen Kramer and illustrated by Richard Torrey. The main page of the site contains pictures of the five members of the gang, which, when clicked, bring up another scene with the character in a room with various objects such as a rock collection, map, chemistry set, poster of Albert Einstein, telescope, and other science related items. Once an item is chosen, students read a brief description of it and can explore a variety of informational material and links relating to it. Although some of the pages only contain one link to an outside source, the design of the site is good at getting the attention of students and will hopefully spark an interest in them to continue learning.

  13. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs: A Situational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2009-09-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  14. Don't Judge a Man by the Color of his Rag: The Reality and Resistance of Gangsta Rap Among Los Angeles Gang Members

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mamie C.

    2014-08-08

    time periods (May of 2013 and December-January of 2013-2014), when I traveled to Los Angeles, California to examine the intricate connections between gang culture and its music. As a gang researcher and hip-hop fiend, I was troubled by the lack... and fellowship among the younger and older gangsters. With Tremont to my left, I initiated a conversation with those around about the early hip-hop scene in LA and its connection to the gang culture. At first, no one wanted to speak. They were close...

  15. Don't Judge a Man by the Color of his Rag: The Reality and Resistance of Gangsta Rap Among Los Angeles Gang Members 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Mamie C.

    2014-08-08

    time periods (May of 2013 and December-January of 2013-2014), when I traveled to Los Angeles, California to examine the intricate connections between gang culture and its music. As a gang researcher and hip-hop fiend, I was troubled by the lack... and fellowship among the younger and older gangsters. With Tremont to my left, I initiated a conversation with those around about the early hip-hop scene in LA and its connection to the gang culture. At first, no one wanted to speak. They were close...

  16. Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

  17. Ganges Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This false-color infrared image was taken by the camera system on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft over part of Ganges Chasma in Valles Marineris (approximately 13 degrees S, 318 degrees E). The infrared image has been draped over topography data obtained by Mars Global Surveyor. The color differences in this image show compositional variations in the rocks exposed in the wall and floor of Ganges (blue and purple) and in the dust and sand on the rim of the canyon (red and orange). The floor of Ganges is covered by rocks and sand composed of basaltic lava that are shown in blue. A layer that is rich in the mineral olivine can be seen as a band of purple in the walls on both sides of the canyon, and is exposed as an eroded layer surrounding a knob on the floor. Olivine is easily destroyed by liquid water, so its presence in these ancient rocks suggests that this region of Mars has been very dry for a very long time. The mosaic was constructed using infrared bands 5, 7, and 8, and covers an area approximately 150 kilometers (90 miles) on each side. This simulated view is toward the north.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

  19. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

  20. Ganges Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03285 Ganges Features

    This image shows part of Ganges Chasma. Several landslides occur at the top of the image, while dunes and canyon floor deposits are visible at the bottom of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.8N, Longitude 312.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Ganges Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06373 Ganges Chasma

    This image was collected December 8, 2002 during southern winter season. The local time at the image location was about 4:45 pm. The image shows an area of the floor of Ganges Chasma and shows dark dunes and brighter wind sculpted hills of unknown origin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.7N, Longitude 313.3E (46.7 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Gender and Gang Membership: A Contrast of Rural and Urban Youth on Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…

  3. Gang Research.Net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted and maintained by John Hagedorn, a professor of criminal justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago, this site provides information about the nature of gangs around the United States, with a particular emphasis on gangs in Chicago. The prime objective of the site is "to dispel stereotypes and present research, original documents, and helpful links." The site is divided into three main sections, including information on globalization, Chicago gangs, and gang research. There are several compelling primary documents on the site, including transcriptions of interviews and presentations from current and former gang leaders from Chicago. Also, there is a chronology detailing the history of one of the most infamous African-American gangs in Chicago, the Blackstone Rangers. The site will be of great interest to those studying the nature of gangs in the United States and particularly to those interested in the evolution of gangs in Chicago over the past century.

  4. Gangs in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book comprised of theories and findings from researchers concerning youth gangs in the United States, is organized into the following five parts: (1) Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Gang and the Community; (2) Defining and Measuring Gang Violence; (3) Diffusion, Diversity, and Drugs; (4) Assessing the Changing Knowledge…

  5. Gangs and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Richard; Erickson, Edsel

    This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the…

  6. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  7. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  8. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  9. Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larence, Eileen R.

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

  10. The Developmental Dynamics of Joining a Gang in Adolescence: Patterns and Predictors of Gang Membership

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Amanda B.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David; Howell, James C.; Kosterman, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant. PMID:24882999

  11. Youth Gangs: An Overview. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Youth Gang Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin provides an overview of the problems that youth gangs pose. It pinpoints the differences between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations and examines the risk factors that lead to youth gang membership. Some promising strategies being used to curb youth gang involvement are reviewed. The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980…

  12. Moving beyond the gang–drug–violence connection

    PubMed Central

    Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members’ lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members’ lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members’ lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future. PMID:24049247

  13. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  14. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

  15. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Positive individual and social behaviors were assessed among male gang members and males involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. Correlations of attribute scores were more often significant for the gang than for the nongang youth. Approximately one-quarter of the gang youth had total positive…

  16. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs

  17. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use. Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  18. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  19. Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…

  20. Estimating the Effect of Gang Membership on Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency: A Counterfactual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J.C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Miller, J. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated non-gang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching (PSM) was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001

  1. Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

  2. Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

  3. Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey. Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Howell, James C.; Harris, Meena

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation's gang problem and summarizes findings from the 2012 survey. Of the 2,538 survey recipients, 2,199 (87 percent) responded to the survey. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100…

  4. Youth Gangs and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  5. The Prosocial Gang: Implementing Aggression Replacement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    The phrase "prosocial gang" may seem a contradiction but such gangs do exist. This book describes a gang intervention program, Aggression Replacement Training (ART), which resulted in reduced arrest rates among violent gangs in a large urban area. The book opens with a list of prosocial gangs followed by an analysis of the development,…

  6. Ganges River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  7. Legitimating drug use: A note on the impact of gang membership and drug sales on the use of illicit drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Decker

    2000-01-01

    A good deal is known about gang members' involvement as sellers of drugs. We know little, however, about the extent to which gang members are involved in the drug market as users, and about the role that involvement in drug sales plays in the use of drugs. This paper presents data from an 11-city survey of arrestees that includes a

  8. Gang Violence and Control. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on Gang Violence and Control in the Los Angeles and San Francisco Areas with a View to What Might Be Done by the Federal Government (Westwood, California, February 7, 1983 and San Francisco, California, February 9, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    These hearings open with introductory statements detailing the nature of the gang violence problem and legal precedents for federal intervention. Proceedings from the Los Angeles hearings include testimony by a county supervisor, disrict attorneys, a former gang member, the executive director of the Community Youth Gang Services, and the director…

  9. Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

  10. Peace in the Streets: Breaking the Cycle of Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo

    This book describes the experiences of an inexperienced young teacher who, with the support of parents and teenagers in a Los Angeles (California) neighborhood, created a one-room schoolhouse and began to teach 30 gang members, ranging in age from 13 to nearly 20. He had no teaching credentials or college degree and the school had a tiny budget,…

  11. Pathways to Risk Among Inner-City African-American Adolescent Females: The Influence of Gang Membership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Harper; W. LaVome Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Differential rates of participation in three categories of risk behaviors (i.e., sexual activity, substance use, violence) were explored, comparing gang members to nonmembers, within a sample of 1,143 inner-city African American adolescent females. The relationship between gang membership and risk behavior also was examined, by exploring the association between a variety of microsystemic influences (e.g., gang, family, school) and participation

  12. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  15. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  16. Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

  17. Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. OJJDP Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang

  18. Prison gangs in South Africa: A description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lötter

    1988-01-01

    Very little has been reported on prison gangs outside the United States of America and, judging from the available literature, prison gangs may be mistaken for a particularly American phenomenon. However, the non-reporting of the phenomenon in other countries does not necessarily preclude its existence in those countries. Prison gangs occur in parts of the South African prison system, particularly

  19. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  20. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

    A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

  2. Steering Students Clear of Gangs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tess Kluttz

    Young adolescents yearn to belong—especially when they are new to a community and don't speak the language. Communication and awareness among administrators, teachers, parents, and students are keys to ensuring students have the strength to say "no" to gang involvement and "yes" to continuing their education.

  3. Highly efficient gang scheduling implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Hori; Hiroshi Tezuka; Yutaka Ishikawa

    1998-01-01

    A new and more highly efficient gang scheduling implementation technique is the basis for this paper. Network preemption,in which network interface contexts are saved and restored, has already been proposed to enable parallel applications to perform efficent user-level communication. This network preemption technique can be used to for detecting global state, such as deadlock, of a parallel program execution. A

  4. Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

  5. Dynamic expression of basic helix-loop-helix Olig family members: implication of Olig2 in neuron and oligodendrocyte differentiation and identification of a new member, Olig3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohide Takebayashi; Shosei Yoshida; Michiya Sugimori; Hidetaka Kosako; Ryo Kominami; Masato Nakafuku; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

    2000-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been shown to be essential for specification of various cell types. Here, we describe a novel bHLH family consisting of three members, two of which (Olig1, Olig2) are expressed in a nervous tissue-specific manner, whereas the third, Olig3 is found mainly in non-neural tissues. Olig1 and Olig2, which recently have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis,

  6. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  7. How community members and health professionals conceptualize medical emergencies: implications for primary care promotion.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Holley A; Tannebaum, Michael A; Cohen, Elizabeth L; Leslie, Travie; Williams, Nora; Haley, Leon L

    2012-12-01

    Access to continuous care through a primary care provider is associated with improved health outcomes, but many communities rely on emergency departments (EDs) for both emergent and non-emergent health problems. This article describes one portion of a community-based participatory research project and investigates the type of education that might be needed as part of a larger intervention to encourage use of a local primary care clinic. In this article we examine how people who live in a low-income urban community and the healthcare workers who serve them conceptualize 'emergency medical condition'. We conducted forum and focus group discussions with 52 community members and individual interviews with 32 healthcare workers. Our findings indicate that while community members share a common general definition of what constitutes a medical emergency, they also desire better guidelines for how to assess health problems as requiring emergency versus primary care. Pain, uncertainty and anxiety tend to influence their choice to use EDs rather than availability of primary care. Implications for increasing primary care use are discussed. PMID:22907536

  8. Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

  9. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  10. National Youth Gang Survey, 1997. OJJDP Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

    The largest and most comprehensive national gang survey to date, the 1997 National Youth Gang Survey, contacted nearly 5,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. To allow for both comparative and trend analysis, the 1997 survey used the same sample as the 1996 survey. Survey results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting…

  11. Gangs, My Town and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Norman; Erickson, Edsel

    The nature of youth gangs is explored, with suggestions for gang prevention and intervention. The emphasis is on organizing citizens, especially at the neighborhood level, to affect all community institutions. Suggestions are offered for citizens' groups to look at critical areas in schooling, incarceration, law enforcement, community programs,…

  12. An Economic Analysis Of A Drug-Selling Gang'S Finances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Levitt; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

    2000-01-01

    We use a unique data set detailing the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang to analyze gang economics. On average, earnings in the gang are somewhat above the legitimate labor market alternative. The enormous risks of drug selling, however, more than offset this small wage premium. Compensation within the gang is highly skewed, and the prospect of future riches,

  13. The Perception of Gangs as a Problem in Nonmetropolitan Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph A. Weisheit; L. Edward Wells

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of gangs in nonmetropolitan areas is a phenomenon that has been neither well documented nor well accounted for. Ibis study utilizes telephone interviews with 216 nonmetopolitan police agencies that had previously reported gangs in their jurisdictions. The interviews focused on how respondents from these agencies defined gangs and gang-related problems and also focused on local strategies for responding

  14. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  15. Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  16. Distributed Computational Electromagnetics Systems Gang Chengy

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Ken

    Distributed Computational Electromagnetics Systems Gang Chengy Kenneth A. Hawicky Gerald Mortensenz Geo rey C. Foxy Abstract We describe our development of a \\real world" electromagnetic application on distributed computing systems. A computational electromagnetics (CEM) simulation for radar cross- section

  17. Facies analysis of the Caballero Formation and the Andrecito Member of the Lake Valley Formation (Mississippian): implications for Waulsortian bioherm inception, Alamo Canyon area, Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Byrd, Thomas Martin

    1989-01-01

    of Committee) Micheal T. Lon ecker (Member) Robert . tanto J er) John H. ang (Head of Department) May 1989 izz ABSTRACT Facies Analysis of the Caballero Formation and the Andzecito Member of the Lake Valley Formation (Mississippian): Implications... slightly higher than the surrounding siliciclastic-rich, fine grained carbonates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank my advisor Dr. Wayne Ahr, and my committee members Dr. Robert Stanton and Dr. Micheal Longnecker. Dr. Ahr suggested this project...

  18. Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey

    MedlinePLUS

    ... agencies, a major ity reported that their gang intelligence is computerized (84 percent), distinguishes between categories of ... local law enforcement agencies; however, fewer contributed gang intelligence to a national, state wide, or regional database ...

  19. Hispanic and Anglo gang membership in two southwestern cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Thomas Winfree; Frances P Bernat; Finn-Aage Esbensen

    2001-01-01

    Delinquent gangs have attracted the attention of social scientists for most of the twentieth century. The current study presents a systematic comparison of the gang-related attitudes and behavior of youths living in cities of dramatically differing size but subjected to similar cultural forces. Specifically, we explored the attitudes and orientations of gang and nongang eighth grade students living in two

  20. The Social Outcomes of Street Gang Involvement. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi

    This study examined links between early adolescent exposure to entrepreneurial gang activity and later criminal justice, economic, and social outcomes, comparing the social and behavioral outcomes of young people with active gang involvement and their non-gang affiliated counterparts. Participants came from a concentrated poor, predominantly…

  1. Gang Migration of Virtual Machines using Cluster-wide Deduplication

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Kartik

    Gang Migration of Virtual Machines using Cluster-wide Deduplication Umesh Deshpande, Brandon}@binghamton.edu Abstract--Gang migration refers to the simultaneous live migration of multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) from failures. Gang migration generates a large volume of network traffic and can overload the core network

  2. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

  3. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Snowmelt contributions to discharge of the Ganges.

    PubMed

    Siderius, C; Biemans, H; Wiltshire, A; Rao, S; Franssen, W H P; Kumar, P; Gosain, A K; van Vliet, M T H; Collins, D N

    2013-12-01

    Himalayan headwaters supply large quantities of runoff derived from snowmelt and monsoon rainfall to the Ganges River. Actual snowmelt contribution to discharge in the Ganges remains conjectural under both present and future climatic conditions. As snowmelt is likely to be perturbed through climatic warming, four hydrological models, VIC, JULES, LPJmL and SWAT, appropriate for coupling with regional climate models, were used to provide a baseline estimate of snowmelt contribution to flow at seasonal and annual timescales. The models constrain estimates of snowmelt contributions to between 1% and 5% of overall basin runoff. Snowmelt is, however, significant in spring months, a period in which other sources of runoff are scarce. PMID:23791434

  5. Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene-based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with 13C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our 13C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry–in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The 13C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

  6. Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Acharyya; P. Chakraborty; S. Lahiri; B. C. Raymahashay; Saumyen Guha; Amitava Bhowmik

    1999-01-01

    The pollution by naturally occurring arsenic of alluvial Ganges aquifers, which are used for the public water supply in Bangladesh and West Bengal, has been discussed by Nickson et al.. We agree with their main conclusion that arsenic is released by reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, as was proposed earlier. Our observations indicate that arsenic- rich pyrite and other arsenic

  7. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  8. Are There Gangs in Schools?: It Depends upon Whom You Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…

  9. Caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in Alzheimer disease research: implications for recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Connell, C M; Shaw, B A; Holmes, S B; Foster, N L

    2001-01-01

    Current levels of participation in Alzheimer disease (AD) research are inadequate, particularly among nonwhites. This study was conducted to examine caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in AD research. Six focus group interviews were conducted with 38 white and 12 African-American caregivers of participants enrolled in clinical research projects. Both white and African-American families participated in research to help their care recipients and future generations, receive support from the clinical and research staff, and obtain feedback about patient status and research results. Among white caregivers, primary barriers to participation in research included the potential for no direct benefit, problems with the procedures and tests involved, lack of time and resources, and difficulty accepting the diagnosis. Among African-American caregivers, primary barriers included general skepticism about the research process and firmly established attitudes about medical treatment and help seeking that serve as disincentives to research participation. To maximize the perceived benefits of research participation, potential participants should have access to regular personal contact with staff, information about health status changes in the care recipient, and the short-term and long-term results of the research studies in which they are participants. In addition, researchers should be sensitive to the concerns that may serve as barriers to participation, particularly among African Americans. PMID:11522931

  10. A System ic Analysis of th e Dynam ics and Organ ization of Urban Street Gangs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIKKI M. RUBLE; WILLIAM L. TURNER

    2000-01-01

    Street gangs function as ongoing, open social systems in relation to their surrounding sociocultural context. Fundamentally, gangs are comparable to some family systems. In fact, most gangs do consider themselves to be \\

  11. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kotamarthi

    2010-01-01

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense.

  12. Reconfigurable Gang Scheduling Algorithm Lus Fabrcio Wanderley Ges1

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    Reconfigurable Gang Scheduling Algorithm Luís Fabrício Wanderley Góes1 , Carlos Augusto Paiva da the performance of a Reconfigurable Gang Scheduling Algorithm (RGSA) using simulation. The RGSA uses combinations and it reconfigures itself according to entry parameters such as: performance metrics (mean utilization, mean jobs

  13. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  14. Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1998-03-01

    Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

  15. 2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

    In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

  16. Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang Involvement among African American and Hispanic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Female minority students at an urban alternative high school completed interviews regarding perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement. Peer pressure was the largest influence on female gang involvement. Respondents believed girls might turn to gangs for protection from neighborhood crime, abusive families, and other gangs. Lack of…

  17. Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

  18. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  19. Integrating seepage heterogeneity with the use of ganged seepage meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  20. The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian…

  1. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  2. Protogenin, a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is implicated in the development of the mouse lower first molar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko F Takahashi; Tamotsu Kiyoshima; Ieyoshi Kobayashi; Ming Xie; Haruyoshi Yamaza; Hiroaki Fujiwara; Yukiko Ookuma; Kengo Nagata; Hiroko Wada; Takako Sakai; Yoshihiro Terada; Hidetaka Sakai

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protogenin (Prtg) has been identified as a gene which is highly expressed in the mouse mandible at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) by a cDNA subtraction method between mandibles at E10.5 and E12.0. Prtg is a new member of the deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) family, which is composed of DCC, Neogenin, Punc and Nope. Although these members play an

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  4. Carbonate facies of the Upper Triassic Ojo Huelos Member, San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group), southern New Mexico: Paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Lucas, Spencer G.

    2012-10-01

    The Upper Triassic (Adamanian LVF) Ojo Huelos Member of the San Pedro Arroyo Formation (Chinle Group) is a distinctive, carbonate-rich unit that occurs in the lower Chinle section of central New Mexico. The member consists mainly of micritic lime mudstones, ostracodal wackestones to grainstones, peloidal grainstones and distinctive pisolitic rudstones, interbedded with fine-grained siliciclastic mudstones. Most limestones exhibit some evidence of pedogenic brecciation and root penetration, and porous fabrics similar to those of modern limestone tufas occur locally. The interbedded mudstones are typically lenticular and commonly display a blocky ped fabric in which subequant peds are separated by sparry calcite veins. Fossils from the Ojo Huelos Member are freshwater (darwinulid) ostracodes, various freshwater fishes and aquatic/amphibious tetrapods-metoposaurs and phytosaurs. We interpret the carbonate facies as the deposits of carbonate lakes, ponds and wetlands that were partly spring-fed, whereas the interbedded and surrounding mudstones were alluvial in origin. The groundwater and overland hydrology of the region was likely controlled by the relative proximity to an upland recharge area in the Mogollon Highlands to the south, but sedimentary fabrics record strong overprinting by desiccation and pedogenic reworking. Consequently, we interpret the Ojo Huelos Member as recording a climate that varied from subhumid to semi-arid, which caused episodic falls in the hydrologic base-level. This resulted in landscape degradation, exemplified by significant pedogenic and erosional reworking of the carbonate sediments and fluvial incision.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF IS401, A NEW MEMBER OF THE IS3 FAMILY IMPLICATED IN PLASMID REARRANGEMENTS IN PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of IS401, an insertion sequence implicated in rearrangements of a 170-kb cryptic plasmid from Pseudomonas cepacia. ur analysis focused on a 4066-bp plasmid fragment containing adjacent copies of IS401 and of IS408, an element reported pr...

  6. Divergent Perceptions of Group Delinquency in a Midwestern Community: Racine's Gang Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Susan R.; Zevitz, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    Compares the perceptions of 534 adults and 458 secondary school students in Racine (Wisconsin) about gang activity in the community. Finds that adults perceive gangs as formalized, highly organized, structured groups, while youth perceive gangs as more informal, loosely organized, and amorphous groups. (FMW)

  7. Gang-related cyber and computer crimes: Legal aspects and practical points of consideration in investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hanser

    2011-01-01

    Gang-related criminal activity has become increasingly more sophisticated, taking advantage of technological advancements that have occurred during the past few decades. Among these advances, criminal gangs have begun to use the internet as an effective tool through which criminal activity can be conducted. Investigators must be adept and competent at locating and collecting gang-related evidence from the internet and from

  8. Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey. OJJDP Fact Sheet. FS-200601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.

    2006-01-01

    Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Adolescent Gang Membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KARL G. HILL; JAMES C. HOWELL; J. DAVID HAWKINS; SARA R. BATTIN-PEARSON

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents who join gangs are more frequently involved in serious delinquency com - pared with those who do not, yet few studies have conducted a prospective examina - tion of risk factors for gang membership. The present study uses longitudinal data to predict gang membership in adolescence from factors measured in childhood. Data were from the Seattle Social Development Project,

  10. Developmental Influences and Gang Awareness among African-American Inner City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Tom W.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 489 African American first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade students examined children's knowledge of gangs. Findings indicated that students are well aware of gang activities in their neighborhoods and can readily name the groups present in their inner-city environment. Students' awareness of gangs increases with age and may represent a…

  11. People and Folks. Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, John M.; Macon, Perry

    Minority gangs of the 1980s are examined as groups of juveniles and young adults and as a fraction of the forming underclass. Gangs today no longer disappear as their ethnic groups rises socially. Instead, gangs are becoming institutionalized in the central cities. This discussion of prior research in Los Angeles (California) and more recent…

  12. Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang

  13. Petrology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implications of Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA)); Ochs, S.

    1990-01-01

    Deposition was partly controlled by paleotopographic relief of underlying Permian strata. Triassic Black Dragon sediments filled lowlands on an erosion surface (unconformity) cut into the Permian White Rim Sandstone and Kaibab Limestone. The Black Dragon Member consists of four distinct facies containing a wide variety of sedimentary structures that characterize both fluvial and tidal environments. The facies are: (1) a Chert Pebble Conglomerate (CPC) facies, characterized by calcite-cemented channel-fills of nodular and banded chert pebbles; (2) an Interbedded Sandstone, Siltstone, and Shale (SSS) facies, containing oscillation ripples and flaser bedding; (3) a large-scale Trough Cross-Stratified Sandstone (TXS) facies, consisting of 6.6-13.1 ft (2-4 m) thick sets of fine- to medium-grained sandstone; and (4) an Oolitic and Algal Limestone (OAL) facies, with cross-stratified oolitic beds, fenestral fabric, and laminated algal rip-up clasts. The CPC facies and the TXS facies were deposited by braided streams when the shoreline lay west of the San Rafael Swell. Rivers drained off and eroded localized Permian highlands, located most likely within a 62 mi (100 km) distance to the south and southeast of the study area. The SSS facies which constitutes the bulk of the Black Dragon Member, and the OAL facies are inter- and supratidal deposits formed during relative sea level highstands, when the shoreline lay within or east of the San Rafael Swell. A decrease in continent-derived sand supply and a corresponding increase in carbonate production within the OAL facies characterizes the end of Black Dragon deposition and the gradation into the overlying Sinbad Limestone Member.

  14. Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

  15. Isotope geochemistry of Jeongok basalts, northernmost South Korea: Implications for the enriched mantle end-member component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun-Ok; Choi, Sung Hi; Yu, Yongjae

    2014-09-01

    South Korea separates two mantle source domains for Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in East Asia: depleted mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) mantle-enriched mantle type 1 (DMM-EM1) in the north and DMM-EM2 in the south. We determined geochemical compositions, including Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopes for the Jeongok trachybasalts (?0.51 to 0.15 Ma K-Ar ages) from northernmost South Korea, to better constrain the origin and distribution of the enriched mantle components. The Jeongok basalts exhibit light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns ([La/Yb]N = 9.2-11.6). The (La/Yb)N ratios are lower than that of typical oceanic island basalt (OIB). On a primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element plot, the Jeongok samples show OIB-like enrichment in highly incompatible elements. However, they are depleted in moderately incompatible elements (e.g., La, Nd, Zr, Hf, etc.) compared with the OIB and exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb. These anomalies are also prime characteristics of the Wudalianchi basalts, extreme EM1 end-member volcanics in northeast China. We have compared the geochemistry of the Jeongok basalts with those of available Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanic rocks from East Asia (from north to south, Wudalianchi, Mt. Baekdu and Baengnyeong for DMM-EM1, and Jeju for DMM-EM2). The mantle source for the Jeongok volcanics contains an EM1 component. The contribution of the EM1 component to East Asian volcanism increases toward the north, from Baengnyeong through Jeongok to Mt. Baekdu and finally to Wudalianchi. Modeling of trace element data suggests that the Jeongok basalts may have been generated by mixing of a Wudalianchi-like melt (EM1 end-member) and a melt that originated from a depleted mantle source, with some addition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Jeongok area. In Nd-Hf isotope space, the most enriched EM1-component-bearing Jeongok sample shows elevation of 176Hf/177Hf at a given 143Nd/144Nd compared with OIB. Recycled pelagic sediments may explain the EM1-end-member component of northeastern Asian volcanism, possibly from the mantle transition zone.

  16. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  17. Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community. PMID:20830865

  18. Intransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers Jeff Bilmes and Gang Ji

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -likelihood ratio and G @DB ¦PI4Q#R ! 7XYV`! 8 is the log prior odds. The strategy proceeds by evaluating 9aIntransitive Likelihood-Ratio Classifiers Jeff Bilmes and Gang Ji Department of Electrical In this work, we introduce an information-theoretic based correction term to the likelihood ratio

  19. Quantum Orders and Symmetric Spin Liquids Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-print Network

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    . Spin-charge separation in (doped) spin liquids 4 D. Organization 6 II. Projective construction of 2DQuantum Orders and Symmetric Spin Liquids Xiao-Gang Wen Department of Physics, Massachusetts, we construct hundreds of symmetric spin liquids, which have SU(2), U(1) or Z2 gauge structures at low

  20. Interagency Collaboration with High-Risk Gang Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.

    This article describes the results of a study on interagency collaboration required to make major systemic changes in order to address the needs of emotionally and behaviorally disturbed youth. Interviews were conducted with practitioners from a cross-section of agencies that worked with high-risk gang youth. The intent was to examine both the…

  1. Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

  2. Moving into Motherhood: Gang Girls and Controlled Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen; MacKenzie, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research challenges the popular characterization that young mothers are bad mothers. This article focuses on a group of girls and young women who were pregnant or mothers and who were engaged in a risky lifestyle through their heavy involvement in gangs, partying, and drinking. The authors examine the impact of the process of…

  3. Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

  4. Preparing organizations to qualify/certify training staff members: A case study with implications for continuing professional education

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.; Houghton, K.

    1992-11-01

    In keeping with LANL policy to apply the principles of performance-based training (PBT), the Laboratory Training Office conducted a job/task survey prior to developing the procedure for training staff qualification. Over one hundred Laboratory employees whose roles include training responded. While there is a significant amount of training conducted at the Laboratory, findings indicate a need for (a) increased, specific documentation of training and related activities; (b) greater understanding and application of PBT by laboratory training staff; (c) isolating and responding to the reasons training staff are reluctant to attend Laboratory-sponsored PBT and OJT training, even when the need for such training was recognized by respondents. Most training staff members have roles other than the training role. Nonetheless they perform several training functions. About half the training staff do not provide training which addresses PBT standards, especially in the areas of analysis (which directly impacts resource requirements), evaluation (which directly impacts quality), and documentation (which directly affects liability).

  5. Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable. PMID:22928103

  6. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2014-01-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  7. Concentration of organochlorines in Ganges River dolphins from Patna, Bihar.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anupma; Sinha, R K; Gopal, Krishna; Lata, Swarn

    2002-07-01

    Concentrations of DDT, HCH, aldrin and endosulfan were determined in river dolphins from the River Ganges, Patna. Among the organochlorines studied in the dolphins, DDT concentration was highest followed by HCH. This shows exposure of dolphins to these organochlorine pesticides. Presences of organochlorines to higher degree in tissues suggest that the river dolphins be at greater risk due to pesticidal contamination of the river system. PMID:12597572

  8. Temperature and precipitation projections over Bangladesh and the upstream Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna systems.

    PubMed

    Caesar, J; Janes, T; Lindsay, A; Bhaskaran, B

    2015-06-10

    South Asia is a region of complex atmospheric dynamics and therefore changes resulting from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, combined with existing vulnerability to extreme weather events such as flooding, could put the region at particular risk from climate change. However, current climate projections for the region show a range of uncertainty, particularly in terms of changes in the variability and extremes of precipitation. Focusing on Bangladesh and the region encompassing parts of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins, we aim to explore and quantify climate model uncertainty in climate change projections for the 21(st) century. We use results from a 17-member perturbed physics ensemble of projections from a global climate model which have been used to drive a higher resolution (25 km) regional climate model over the south Asia region from 1971 to 2099. The range of temperature and precipitation responses across the ensemble are assessed including representation of the annual cycle, trends, and changes in precipitation extremes. The 17 ensemble members consistently simulate increasing annual mean temperatures by 2100 compared with present day, ranging between 2.6 °C and 4.8 °C. Additionally, all ensemble members indicate increasing annual precipitation by 2100 of between around 8% and 28%, though with interdecadal variability which results in one ensemble member showing a slight decrease in precipitation in the mid-century period. The frequency of light precipitation events is projected to decrease in the future, but with an increase in the frequency of heavy events. Three members of the climate model ensemble, representing a range of projected climate outcomes, have been selected for use in further impacts modelling for the region. PMID:25898009

  9. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  10. Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

    Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

  11. Them and us: A comparison of the cultural context of American gangs and British subcultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Campbell; Steven Muncer

    1989-01-01

    We examine and compare two distinct forms of social deviance which have emerged in two western societies. The United States has been the home of the street gang while Great Britain since World War II has produced several waves of national subculture. We examine the history, geography, educational experience, structure and implicit ideologies of gangs and subcultures in relation to

  12. Some 200 women gang-raped near Congo UN base By MICHELLE FAUL

    E-print Network

    Some 200 women gang-raped near Congo UN base By MICHELLE FAUL The Associated Press and The Washington Post Monday, August 23, 2010; 5:17 PM JOHANNESBURG -- Rwandan and Congolese rebels gang-raped their brutal spree of raping and looting and withdrew of their own accord on Aug. 4. At U.N. headquarters

  13. Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2007-01-01

    Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

  14. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  15. Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age?=?14.62, SD?=?1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership. Aggr. Behav. 41:386-397, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25288165

  16. "Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, James

    This brief discusses the use of traffic barriers to block automobile access to streets as a way to reduce gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles, California, that had experienced a high level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults. The program, Operation Cul de Sac (OCDS), was evaluated as a…

  17. Gang Rape in Sydney: Crime, the Media, Politics, Race and Sentencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Warner

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, print, radio and television gave extensive coverage to a series of gang rapes in Bankstown and other suburbs of south-west Sydney. The coverage attacked the laxity and inefficiency of the criminal justice system and immigration policy. It fuelled public fears about increases in crime in particular areas and fear of “ethnic gangs” and racially-motivated crime. The

  18. A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiprany, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

  19. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...individuals who perform work on U.S.-flag vessels under DoD contracts for transportation...individuals who perform work on U.S.-flag vessels under DoD contracts for transportation...predominantly U.S. citizens aboard U.S.- flag vessels. For many years, foreign...

  20. Suspended sediment transport in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System, Bangladesh 

    E-print Network

    Rice, Stephanie Kimberly

    2009-05-15

    An examination of suspended sediment concentrations throughout the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System was conducted to assess the spatial variability of river sediment in the world’s largest sediment dispersal system. During the high-discharge monsoon...

  1. Data Partitioning for Reconfigurable Architectures with Distributed Block RAM Wenrui Gong Gang Wang Ryan Kastner

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Tim

    Data Partitioning for Reconfigurable Architectures with Distributed Block RAM Wenrui Gong Gang Wang {gong, wanggang, kastner}@ece.ucsb.edu Abstract Modern, high performance reconfigurable architectures Introduction Reconfigurable systems are a novel computing para- digm, which allow different tradeoffs between

  2. Evaluating a School-Based Gang-Prevention ProgramA Theoretical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Thomas Winfree; Finn-Aage Esbensen; D. Wayne Osgood

    1996-01-01

    Theory-based evaluations of gang intervention and prevention programs are rare. In this article we argue that the Gang Resistance Education and Training program, as developed by the Phoenix, Arizona, Police Department and the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, consists of pedagogical elements with strong conceptual and operational ties to two mainstream criminological theones, social learning theory and self-control

  3. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  4. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  5. Precious and base metal geochemistry and mineralogy of the Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for a multistage emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. W.; Holwell, D. A.; McDonald, I.

    2014-08-01

    The Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member within the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex is a mineralized, layered package of mafic cumulates developed to the south of the town of Mokopane, at a similar stratigraphic position to the Platreef. The concentration of platinum-group elements (PGE) in base metal sulfides (BMS) has been determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. These data, coupled with whole-rock PGE concentrations and a detailed account of the platinum-group mineralogy (PGM), provide an insight into the distribution of PGE and chalcophile elements within the GNPA member, during both primary magmatic and secondary hydrothermal alteration processes. Within the most unaltered sulfides (containing pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite only), the majority of IPGE, Rh, and some Pd occur in solid solution within pyrrhotite and pentlandite, with an associated Pt-As and Pd-Bi-Te dominated PGM assemblage. These observations in conjunction with the presence of good correlations between all bulk PGE and base metals throughout the GNPA member indicate the presence and subsequent fractionation of a single PGE-rich sulfide liquid, which has not been significantly altered. In places, the primary sulfides have been replaced to varying degrees by a low-temperature assemblage of pyrite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. These sulfides are associated with a PGM assemblage characterized by the presence of Pd antimonides and Pd arsenides, which are indicative of hydrothermal assemblages. The presence of appreciable quantities of IPGE, Pd and Rh within pyrite, and, to a lesser, extent millerite suggests these phases directly inherited PGE contents from the pyrrhotite and pentlandite that they replaced. The replacement of both the sulfides and PGM occurred in situ, thus preserving the originally strong spatial association between PGM and BMS, but altering the mineralogy. Precious metal geochemistry indicates that fluid redistribution of PGE is minimal with only Pd, Au, and Cu being partially remobilized and decoupled from BMS. This is also indicated by the lower concentrations of Pd evident in both pyrite and millerite compared with the pentlandite being replaced. The observations that the GNPA member was mineralized prior to intrusion of the Main Zone and that there was no local footwall control over the development of sulfide mineralization are inconsistent with genetic models involving the in situ development of a sulfide liquid through either depletion of an overlying magma column or in situ contamination of crustal S. We therefore believe that our observations are more compatible with a multistage emplacement model, where preformed PGE-rich sulfides were emplaced into the GNPA member. Such a model explains the development and distribution of a single sulfide liquid throughout the entire 400-800 m thick succession. It is therefore envisaged that the GNPA member formed in a similar manner to its nearest analogue the Platreef. Notable differences however in PGE tenors indicate that the ore-forming process may have differed slightly within the staging chambers that supplied the Platreef and GNPA member.

  6. Facies analysis of the Caballero Formation and the Andrecito Member of the Lake Valley Formation (Mississippian): implications for Waulsortian bioherm inception, Alamo Canyon area, Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    E-print Network

    Byrd, Thomas Martin

    1989-01-01

    Siphonodeila crenulata zone and the S. isosticha-Upper S. crenulata Zone of Sandberg (Sandberg, 1979; Lane et al, 1980); equivalents to faunal units IE and 1F of Lane (Lane and Ormiston, 1982) (Figure 9) . The lowermost Kinderhookian fauna are absent from...-Upper S. crenulata Zone (faunal unit 2), and the upper Andrecito to the Gnathodus typicus Zone (faunal unit 3). The Andrecito Member has a greater regional extent than the Caballero Formation. As far west as Silver City, it overlies the Devonian (Laudon...

  7. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution. PMID:25433377

  8. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides. PMID:19247837

  9. Brotherhood or Brothers in the "Hood"? Debunking the "Educated Gang" Thesis as Black Fraternity and Sorority Slander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…

  10. Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

    This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

  11. Uncertainty assessment in climate change simulation of Ganges basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Jisha; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of hydrological responses to the change in climate at river basin scale is very essential for the proper planning and management of water resources. For studying the changes in land surface hydrology with climate, various hydrological models coupled with climate models were developed. However, modeling of the regional hydroclimate involves uncertainty at multiple levels. Generally, GCMs, downscaling methods and parameterization are the main sources of uncertainty. The major challenge in hydrological modeling is the calibration of parameters which demands very accurate observed data. The inter comparison of various uncertainties can be done by modeling the uncertainties. If the major source of uncertainty in modeling is identified, the level of accuracy required in the model calibration can be studied. Our objective is to assess future hydrological scenario in the Ganges basin considering multiple GCMs, scenarios and parameter uncertainty model and to identify and compare different sources of uncertainties in assessing the hydrological impacts of climate change. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model which is a semi-distributed macro scale hydrological model is used for the present study. The model is run for a historic period 1979-2005 using the observed and reanalysis data and is evaluated using soil moisture data. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is carried out for the four calibration parameters in VIC and the model is run for future scenario using different GCMs and downscaling methods. The probability distribution of the output is used for modeling the uncertainties. The present analysis shows that accuracy in climate change simulations can be achieved by modeling the uncertainty, which will certainly improve the future regional hydroclimate projection. Keywords: uncertainty, Variable Infiltration Capacity model, Monte Carlo simulation

  12. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade. PMID:24463984

  13. Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

    2011-09-01

    Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning. PMID:21480020

  14. Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

  15. Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

  16. How minority members' perceptions of majority members' acculturation preferences shape minority members' own acculturation preferences: evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert

    2011-06-01

    Two survey studies were conducted in Chile with members of the indigenous minority group Mapuche (Ns = 566; 394). The aim was to find predictors of minority members' acculturation preferences, especially integration. It was hypothesized that minority members' preferences would depend on their perceptions of what majority members want. Specifically, it was predicted that a perception that majority members want minority members to maintain their original culture would be associated with a greater desire for culture maintenance among minority participants. Further, it was predicted that a perception that majority members want intergroup contact would be associated with a greater desire for contact among minority participants. Finally, it was predicted that a perception that majority members are in favour of both culture maintenance and contact (i.e., integration) would be associated with more support for integration among minority participants. Results bore out these predictions. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:21545455

  17. Concurrent loss of INI1, PBRM1, and BRM expression in epithelioid sarcoma: implications for the cocontributions of multiple SWI/SNF complex members to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Fan, Xiang-Shan; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Rao, Qiu; Liu, Biao; Yu, Bo; Shi, Qun-Li; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The loss of INI1 (SMARCB1) expression, caused by SMARCB1 (INI1, SNF5L4, BAF47) inactivation, frequently occurs in epithelioid sarcoma (ES) and could aid in confirming the diagnosis. Except for INI1, the expression of switch in mating type/sucrose nonfermentation complex members in ES has never been examined. In this study, the expression of key subunits of this complex-INI1, BRG1 (SMARCA4), BRM (SNF2L2, SMARCA2), PBRM1 (hPB1, BAF180), and BAF155 (SMARCC1)-was analyzed in 23 ES cases: 15 conventional and 8 proximal type. All of the cases were reviewed and reclassified by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining for cytokeratin AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, CD34, vimentin, and INI1 expression. Of the 23 ES cases, 19 (82.6%) showed a loss of PBRM1, and 18 (78.3%), a loss of INI1. In most cases (17, 73.9%), loss of INI1 and PBRM1 expression was observed. The pattern of PBRM1 expression was similar to that of INI1, that is, not correlated with changes in cellular morphology. The concurrent loss of BRM, PBRM1, and INI1expression was detected in 2 cases with pure rhabdoid tumor features. The frequent observation of concurrent loss of INI1 and PBRM1 suggests that certain switch in mating type/sucrose nonfermentation complex components might act synergistically in the pathogenesis of ES by unknown mechanisms and that these components could provide new targets for therapy. The usefulness of PBRM1 as a biomarker of ES and its mechanism in ES require further investigation. Loss of BRM in ES with pure rhabdoid features suggests that BRM might be involved in the underlying mechanisms of this type of ES. PMID:25200863

  18. Exposure to partner, family, and community violence: gang-affiliated Latina women and risk of unintended pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

    2012-02-01

    While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the U.S.A. overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and relationship violence exposure may lead to unintended pregnancy. Interviews of 20 young adult Latinas with known gang involvement in Los Angeles County were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for key themes related to violence exposure and reproductive health. Limited access to reproductive health care compounded by male partner sexual and pregnancy coercion, as well as physical and sexual violence, emerged in the interviews. Exposures to interparental domestic violence, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and gang violence were prominent and closely associated with unhealthy and abusive intimate relationships. Adverse childhood experiences and exposure to partner, family, and community violence impact the reproductive lives and choices of young Latina women in gangs. These findings may guide targeted pregnancy prevention efforts among urban gang-affiliated Latinas as well as encourage the integration of sexual violence prevention and reproductive health promotion within gang violence intervention programs. PMID:22160445

  19. SAR IMAGE SEGMENTATION VIA NON-LOCAL ACTIVE CONTOURS Gang Liu1,2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SAR IMAGE SEGMENTATION VIA NON-LOCAL ACTIVE CONTOURS Gang Liu1,2 , Zifeng Wang1 , Gui-Song Xia1 presents a method for SAR image segmentation by relying on active contour model with the non-local process- ing principle [1]. The idea is to partition a SAR image via computing the patch similarity in the SAR

  20. Trends and persistence in precipitation in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Q. MIRZA; R. A. WARRICK; N. J. ERICKSEN; G. J. KENNY

    1999-01-01

    The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basins occupy about 1.75 x 10 6 km2 of the Himalayan region. More than half a billion people in Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh are directly or indirectly dependent on the water resources of the GBM rivers. These river basins are characterized by diversified climatic patterns. Analyses of trends and persistence in precipitation

  1. The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats Gang Li*, Jinhong Wang*, Stephen J. Rossiter

    E-print Network

    Cotton, James

    The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats Gang Li*, Jinhong Wang*, Stephen J. Rossiter by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound- ment of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating

  2. Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kathleen

    By 1890 the legendary outlaws of the 1870s and 1880s were mostly dead or in prison. When Luther Perkins erected his new bank building in Coffeyville, Kansas, a bank robbery was the farthest thing from his mind. But the Dalton cousins, former Coffeyville residents, were interested in the bank because they wanted to outdo the James gang by using the…

  3. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  4. Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-01-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

  5. Semiflexible Polymer Confined to a Spherical Surface Andrew J. Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    Semiflexible Polymer Confined to a Spherical Surface Andrew J. Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang, persistence length lp, and sphere radius R.We predict two qualitatively different behaviors for a long polymerRevLett.91.166102 PACS numbers: 68.47.Pe, 05.20.­y, 36.20.Ey A polymer in a confined geometry

  6. Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    algorithms developed for DHC are optimal in the sense that asymptotically they achieve performance have been presented at conferences 18, 19]. Part of this work was done while at the IBM T. J. Watson], and the MasPar and DAP SIMD arrays. Gang scheduling has also been used in a production system on a BBN Butter

  7. Finding a least hop(s) path subject to multiple additive constraints Gang Cheng, Nirwan Ansari*

    E-print Network

    Ansari, Nirwan

    Finding a least hop(s) path subject to multiple additive constraints Gang Cheng, Nirwan Ansari referred to as the least hop(s) multiple additively constrained path (LHMACP) selection, which is NP of computing All Hops k-shortest Paths (AHKP) between a source and a destination. Through extensive analysis

  8. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  9. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

  10. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  11. Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

  12. Projective Construction of Non-Abelian Quantum Hall Liquids Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-print Network

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Projective Construction of Non-Abelian Quantum Hall Liquids Xiao-Gang Wen Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Using projective construction, a generalized parton construction, we construct many non-Abelian quantum Hall (QH) states, which include the Pfaffian

  13. Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Galy; Christian France-Lanord

    1999-01-01

    We present river chemistry data for a network of rivers draining the western and central Nepal Himalaya. Our sampling locations cover the system from the sources of rivers in Tibet to the Gangetic plain. Water samples were collected throughout the year, including the monsoon season, for rivers in Nepal and for the Ganges and Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Rivers draining the

  14. Thermal localization as a potential mechanism to rift cratons Gang Lu a,b,

    E-print Network

    Kaus, Boris

    directly adjacent to orogens or rifts (e.g. the east African Rift System, the Baikal RiftThermal localization as a potential mechanism to rift cratons Gang Lu a,b, , Boris J.P. Kaus b and/or high viscosity are insufficient to keep cratons stable. The forma- tion of continental rifts

  15. Suspended sediment transport in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System, Bangladesh

    E-print Network

    Rice, Stephanie Kimberly

    2009-05-15

    that the Ganges carries 262 million tons/year and the Brahmaputra carries 387 million tons/year. These calculations are lower than published values because of either interannual variability and/or sampling artifacts and assumptions in the homogeneity of flow...

  16. Paradoxical Outcomes in an Educational Drama about Gang Rape: Ethical Responsibilities of Practitioners and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, "Backyard Games", about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed…

  17. Paradoxical outcomes in an educational drama about gang rape: ethical responsibilities of practitioners and educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Gesser-Edelsburg

    2005-01-01

    Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, Backyard Games, about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed by Oded Kotler, at the

  18. Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Zhen-Gang Wang,

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Tao Jiang, Zhen-Gang Wang, California ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a contagious human pathogen causing liver diseases-termini. INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pararetrovirus responsible for up to 80% of all cases

  19. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  20. Gulabi Gang (2012) Enter the badlands of Bundelkhand in central India and you have entered a place of

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Gulabi Gang (2012) Enter the badlands of Bundelkhand in central India and you have entered a place. Often they encounter resistance, apathy and corruption, even ridicule. Sometimes whole villages connive

  1. Stratigraphic evolution of the late Holocene Ganges–Brahmaputra lower delta plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Allison; S. R. Khan; S. L. Goodbred; S. A. Kuehl

    2003-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh were examined for sedimentological character, clay mineralogy, elemental trends (C, N, S), and 14C geochronology to develop a model for the sedimentary sequence resulting from lower delta plain progradation in the late Holocene. A widespread facies succession from Muddy Sand to Interbedded Mud records progradation of shoal–island complexes and the transition from

  2. Friends, status symbols and weapons: the use of dogs by youth groups and youth gangs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Maher; Harriet Pierpoint

    2011-01-01

    Recent UK media reports and government responses evidence a rising concern over irresponsible dog ownership, particularly\\u000a the use of so-called status or weapon dogs. Youth criminal and antisocial behaviour using these dogs has been widely reported\\u000a in urban areas and associated with street-based youth groups, in particular, the growing phenomenon of UK youth gangs. This\\u000a article reports on the findings

  3. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Senthilkumar; K. Kannan; R. K. Sinha; S. Tanabe; J. P. Giesy

    1999-01-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and

  4. Rich pickings near large communal roosts favor 'gang' foraging by juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax.

    PubMed

    Dall, Sasha R X; Wright, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as 'information centers' regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in 'gangs' and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. PMID:19240813

  5. Rich Pickings Near Large Communal Roosts Favor ‘Gang’ Foraging by Juvenile Common Ravens, Corvus corax

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Wright, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as ‘information centers’ regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in ‘gangs’ and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. PMID:19240813

  6. Stratigraphic evolution of the late Holocene Ganges Brahmaputra lower delta plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. A.; Khan, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2003-02-01

    Sediment cores from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh were examined for sedimentological character, clay mineralogy, elemental trends (C, N, S), and 14C geochronology to develop a model for the sedimentary sequence resulting from lower delta plain progradation in the late Holocene. A widespread facies succession from Muddy Sand to Interbedded Mud records progradation of shoal-island complexes and the transition from subtidal to intertidal conditions. Mangrove-vegetated islands and peninsulas represent the final phase of progradation; a Mottled Mud that is deposited by penetration of turbid coastal water into the mangroves during high water events. Organic matter preservation is generally low (<1% TOC) in most of these well-drained deposits that are characterized by a permeable, silt-dominated granulometry. Clay mineralogy in the cores records the relative influence of smectite and kaolinite-rich Ganges sediments and illite and chlorite-rich Brahmaputra material. The lower delta plain west of the modern river mouths was deposited as a Ganges-dominated delta in three phases since 5000 cal years BP, with Brahmaputra influence confined to the Meghna estuary area and to the supratidal section of western delta deposits. Evolution of the lower delta plain in the late Holocene was influenced by regional subsidence patterns in the tectonically active Bengal Basin, which controlled distributary channel avulsion and migration, and the creation of accommodation space.

  7. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in some organs of the Ganges perch, Lates calcarifer, from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Estuary, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jabber, S A; Khan, Y S; Rahman, M S

    2001-12-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p' DDT, DDD, DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Lindane, Heptachlor and BHC) were analysed in the dry and wet seasons in four organs (muscle, liver, gut and egg samples) of Ganges Perch, Lates calcarifer, collected during October-November-December, 1996 and May-June-July, 1997 from the Ganges-Brahmaputtra-Meghna estuary. The residues were analysed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Among the four organs analysed, the residues were found in the order egg > gut > muscle > liver. The pesticide residues were found in the order sigmaDDT > Heptachlor > Dieldrin > Aldrin. Higher levels of residues were found during the dry season due to high lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation was observed between the pesticide residues (sigmaDDT and sigmaOCs) and lipid contents of fish, and the correlation was found to be linear. The concentrations of pesticide residues in muscle, liver and gut were below the FAO/WHO (1993) recommended permissible limit except in eggs. PMID:11827115

  8. Seasonal variation of glacial melt proportion in the headwaters of the Ganges River: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra; Hemingway, Jordon; Sengupta, Deep; Sinha, Rajiv; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Chakraborty, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    The effect of global warming on Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) glaciers is of global concern as they are the source of many large rivers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. Questions and concerns have been raised about the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, and how this will impact downstream water supplies, hydropower generation, irrigation, and food security issues. Of all the HKH glaciers, the Gangotri glacier located in the Uttarkashi district of the Garhwal Himalaya, India has received special attention as it is receding at an alarming rate of 30 m/year. The Gangotri glacier feeds the Ganges River, which drains nearly 1 million square kilometers of land surface in India and Bangladesh, and provides water security to half a billion people. Based on remote sensing data it has been estimated that the overall area of Gangotri glacier has shrunk by 6% between 1952 and 2006, and that the glacial terminus has receded by more than 850 m over the past 25 years. However, ground observation data aimed at studying the changing influence of the Gangotri glacier on the discharge of the Ganges River are still limited. Here we report preliminary observations of physical (temperature and conductivity) and chemical (major ion and trace element concentrations, pH, and dissolved oxygen) parameters of water samples near glaciated Ganges headwaters for the pre-monsoon (May), monsoon (August), and post monsoon (November) periods corresponding to 2014. We have characterized the seasonal ?18O and ?2H variability of the Ganges headwaters. The pre-monsoonal ?18O varied between -15.1o and -9.3o whereas the monsoonal ?18O varied between -14.9o and -5.7o. The pre-monsoon ?2H varied between -105.4o and -61.5o, whereas the monsoonal ?2H varied between -103.8o and -47.2o. Our isotope-mixing model predicts significant seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) variability of glacial melt contributions to the total discharge. Water chemistry data also shows large variations in chemical characteristics that are possibly related to variability in flow volume and different source area contributions.

  9. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p?=?0.02; OR 0.29, p?=?0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p?gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities. PMID:25649980

  10. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  11. Recent Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding modern fluvial processes is critical to understanding how depositional systems evolve and build stratigraphy. We use multitemporal, multiscale satellite remote sensing to complement field observations and subsurface measurements and understand the relationship between recent and prehistoric river channel dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta. MODIS imagery provides 250 m spatial and regular 16 day temporal resolution since 2000. Landsat imagery provides 30 m spatial and irregular 16+ day temporal resolution since 1982. Landsat coverage of the GB delta is sparse prior to 2000 but sufficiently dense post-2000 to allow for vicarious validation of changes observed in MODIS composites. We use Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, combined with Temporal Mixture Models (TMM) of vegetation phenology to map spatial distribution of temporal patterns of vegetation abundance post-2000 with MODIS composites. In addition to discrimination of indigenous vegetation and agriculture, the spatial distribution of temporal patterns at both seasonal and decadal time scales distinguishes progressive interannual changes in vegetation abundance related to the recent evolution of the river channels. Intermittent Landsat imagery provides sufficient spatial resolution to distinguish finer scale patterns of vegetation abundance, channel geometry and sediment moisture content. EOF analysis distinguishes seasonal from interannual changes in vegetation abundance and allows mapping of coherent decadal changes within the channel braid belt of the Brahmputra and the movement of the meanders in the Ganges. As expected, the migrating meanders of the Ganges produce larger, more spatially coherent changes than the more rapidly changing Brahmaputra. However, the structure of the Brahmaputra increase/decrease pattern appears to change near the hinge zone suggesting structural influence on interannual dynamics. Spatial scale of increase/decrease is larger below the hinge zone. These results, combined with drilling and seismic observations, suggest that subannual to decadal observations of land cover change may provide constraints for understanding the impact of these processes on geologic time scales.

  12. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-10

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such as the mangrove forests, with serious implications for people's livelihoods in the area. The socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality, altering nutrient fluxes being transported into the delta region. PMID:25736595

  13. Natural Selection in a Bangladeshi Population from the Cholera-Endemic Ganges River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Harris, Jason B.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Rahman, Atiqur; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Patterson, Nick; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Gupta, Sameer; Chowdhury, Fahima; Sheikh, Alaullah; Shin, Ok Sarah; Ellis, Crystal; Becker, Christine E.; Stuart, Lynda M.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Sabeti, Pardis C.; LaRocque, Regina C.

    2015-01-01

    As an ancient disease with high fatality, cholera has likely exerted strong selective pressure on affected human populations. We performed a genome-wide study of natural selection in a population from the Ganges River Delta, the historic geographic epicenter of cholera. We identified 305 candidate selected regions using the Composite of Multiple Signals (CMS) method. The regions were enriched for potassium channel genes involved in cyclic AMP-mediated chloride secretion and for components of the innate immune system involved in NF-?B signaling. We demonstrate that a number of these strongly selected genes are associated with cholera susceptibility in two separate cohorts. We further identify repeated examples of selection and association in an NF-kB / inflammasome-dependent pathway that is activated in vitro by Vibrio cholerae. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of cholera resistance in a population from the Ganges River Delta and present a promising approach for identifying genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases. PMID:23825302

  14. Perfluorinated compounds in surficial sediments of the Ganges River and adjacent Sundarban mangrove wetland, India.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Guerranti, Cristiana; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Rakshit, Dibyendu; Jonathan, M P; Godhantaraman, Nallamuthu

    2012-12-01

    This study reports the first evidence of the quantification of two dominant perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanesulfate (PFOS) and perfluorooctannoate (PFOA), in surface sediment samples (0-5 cm; n=13) from the Ganges (Hugli) River including Sundarban wetland, India using HPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFOA exhibited a wide range of concentrations from <0.5 to 14.09 ng/g dry wt, whereas the concentration of PFOS was always below the detection limit of <0.5 ng/g dry wt. A consistent enrichment of PFOA was recorded in all the five sites of Sundarban (mean value 11.61±1.86) whereas it was of moderate concentration or below the detection level in the seven sites along with the lower stretch of the Ganges (Hugli) River estuary (mean value 5.96 ng/g dry wt±5.36). Wastewater and untreated effluents are likely the major causes of accumulation of PFCs in sediments. The present paper could be used as baseline study to assess future monitoring programs of the ecosystem. PMID:23122626

  15. DIRECTIONAL EMISSION FROM ASYMMETRIC RESONANT Jens U. Nockel, A. Douglas Stone, Gang Chen, Helene L. Grossman and Richard

    E-print Network

    Nöckelm, Jens

    . In recent work [1, 2, 3], a new class of optical resonators has been proposed, comprised of convex) and are thus trapped by total internal reflection. The intrinsic width of these resonances then arises only dueDIRECTIONAL EMISSION FROM ASYMMETRIC RESONANT CAVITIES Jens U. N¨ockel, A. Douglas Stone, Gang Chen

  16. Multi-Quality Data Replication in Multimedia Databases Yi-Cheng Tu Jingfeng Yan Gang Shen Sunil Prabhakar

    E-print Network

    Tu, Yicheng

    Multi-Quality Data Replication in Multimedia Databases Yi-Cheng Tu Jingfeng Yan Gang Shen Sunil. The database can support multiple qualities by converting data from the original (high) quality to another for different applications. From the point of view of a video database, satisfying user quality specifications

  17. Comparing Gang Scheduling with Dynamic Space Sharing on Symmetric Multiprocessors Using Automatic Self-Allocating Threads (ASAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Severance; Richard J. Enbody

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the best way to handle a diverse mi x of multi-threaded and single-threaded jobs running on a single Symmetric Parallel Processing system. The traditional approaches to this problem are free schedulin g, gang scheduling, or space sharing. This paper examines a less common technique called dynamic space sharing. One approach to dynamic space sharing, Automatic Self Allocating

  18. Scanning probe lithography of self-assembled monolayers Guohua Yang, Nabil A. Amro, Gang-yu Liu*

    E-print Network

    Liu, Gang-yu

    Scanning probe lithography of self-assembled monolayers Guohua Yang, Nabil A. Amro, Gang-yu Liu probe lithography (SPL) methodologies have been performed using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au, nanofabrication, thiol, self-assembled monolayers 1. INTRODUCTION Micro- and nano-fabrication of self-assembled

  19. Power Aware Scheduling for Real-Time Systems with (m, k)-Guarantee Gang Quan, Linwei Niu, James P. Davis

    E-print Network

    Davis, James P.

    enabling technology in the design of real-time embedded systems for use in the pervasive computing ap service the real-time tasks executed on the embedded processor. These requirements can be capturedPower Aware Scheduling for Real-Time Systems with (m, k)-Guarantee Gang Quan, Linwei Niu, James P

  20. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  1. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  2. Drought Characteristics Based on the Retrieved Paleoprecipitation in Indus and Ganges River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davtalabsabet, R.; Wang, D.; Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.

    2014-12-01

    Indus and Ganges River basins (IGRB), which cover the major parts of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, are considered as the most important socio-economic regions in South Asia. IGRB support the food security of hundreds of millions people in South Asia. The food production in IGRB strictly relies on the magnitude and spatiotemporal pattern of monsoon precipitation. Due to severe drought during the last decades and food production failure in IGRB, several studies have focused on understanding the main drivers for south Asia monsoon failures and drought characteristics based on the historical data. However, the period of available historical data is not enough to address the full characteristic of drought under a changing climate. In this study, an inverse Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) model is developed to retrieve the paleoprecipitation back to 700 years in the region, taking the inputs of available soil water capacity, temperature, and previous reconstructed PDSI based on tree-ring analysis at 2.5 degree resolution. Based on the retrieved paleoprecipitation, drought frequency and intensity are quantified for two periods of 1300-1899 (the reconstruction period) and 1900-2010 (the instrumental period). Previous studies have shown that in IGRB, a severe drought occurs when the annual precipitation deficit, compared with the long-term average precipitation, is greater than 10%. Climatic drought frequency is calculated as the percentage of years with predefined severe droughts. Drought intensity is defined as the average precipitation deficit during all of the years identified as severe droughts. Results show that the drought frequency, as well as the spatial extent, has significantly increased from the reconstruction period to the instrumental period. The drought frequency in the Indus River basin is higher than that in the Ganges River basin. Several mega-droughts are identified during the reconstruction period.

  3. Complex Floor Deposits Within Western Ganges Chasma, Valles Marineris - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows a remarkable landscape of ridges and troughs that very closely resemble folded and warped sediments on Earth. This is the first time such warped beds have been seen on Mars, and neither their origin nor their occurrence within Ganges Chasma is understood. It is possible these are beds folded by a large landslide, but that would be very unusual. Alternatively, these may be folded sedimentary beds, similar to horizontal beds seen elsewhere in Ganges Chasma. However, what forces then folded these particular beds while leaving the others undeformed is unknown. Future imaging within this and the other Valles Marineris will be used to address such issues.

    Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  4. Experimental determination of synthetic NdPO 4 monazite end-member solubility in water from 21°C to 300°C: implications for rare earth element mobility in crustal fluids 1 1 Associate editor: D. J. Wesolowski

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck Poitrasson; Eric Oelkers; Jacques Schott; Jean-Marc Montel

    2004-01-01

    The solubility of synthetic NdPO4 monazite end-member has been determined experimentally from 21 to 300°C in aqueous solutions at pH = 2, and at 21°C and pH = 2 for GdPO4. Measurements were performed in batch reactors, with regular solution sampling for pH measurement, rare earths and phosphorous analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled with a desolvation

  5. Combustion Group Group members

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei

    Combustion Group Group members: Thierry Poinsot, Emilien Courtine, Luc Vervisch, Benjamin Farcy 2014 #12;Combustion Group Combustion Physics and Modeling Pollutants, Emissions, and Soot Formation Thermoacoustics and Combustion Dynamics Research focus § Examine mechanisms responsible for flame stabilization

  6. Combustion Group Group members

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei

    Combustion Group Group members: Thierry Poinsot, Emilien Courtine, Luc Vervisch, Benjamin Farcy § New combustion and energy-conversion concepts #12;Introduction Combustion research thrusts Combustion Dynamics and Flame-Stabilization Research objectives § Obtain fundamental understanding of combustion

  7. Interior Layered Deposits on Mars: Insights from elevation, image- and spectral data of Ganges Mensa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowe, M.; Roach, L. H.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Mustard, J. L.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) are exposed at various locations on Mars. They differ from their surroundings by their higher albedo, morphology, and fine layering. Their origin (sedimentary or volcanic) is well discussed [e.g. 1-3] but Fe-oxides and hydrated minerals such as sulfates [4-6] have been detected on ILD surfaces suggesting an aquatic environment. Here we present some features of Ganges Mensa. We looked at HRSC elevation data [7], THEMIS brightness-temperature and CRISM data to understand differences in morphology and composition. Ganges Mensa observations This ILD shows sub-horizontal layering and mesa morphology (flat top and steep slopes). Its stairstepped morphology is shown on Fig. 3 and does not appear in ILDs occurring in the eastern chaotic terrains (Iani, Aureum, Aram, and Arsinoes Chaos) but in other ILDs in Valles Marineris (e.g. Hebes). Ganges Mensa features fresh-eroded light-toned layers appearing competent, forming steep scarps and having high surface temperatures as well as thermal inertia. The dark material corresponds to accumulations of wind-transported matter that covers flatter slopes and shows lower brightness-temperatures. Analyses of CRISM and image data (HRSC, MOC, HiRISE) indicate that there are differences in texture and mineralogical composition as well. CRISM observations show that the lower sequence of the ILD (consisting of many layers) has a strong kieserite signature as observed by [8]. Exposed windblown dark material on its surface has no olivine, pyroxene, or ferric oxide spectral features. This unit comprises an approximate thickness of ~1.6 km out of 3.5 km for the whole ILD and is very rough and coarse looking. There, the surface temperatures (Fig. 2) as well as thermal inertia values are much higher which is in agreement with [8]. A transition zone characterized by a discrete layer at an elevation of about -1.9 km marks the beginning of the upper unit (Fig. 1-3). In the upper unit, weak polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) features are observed in the light-toned material while the dark dunes on top and in grooves show clinopyroxene (HCP). The mineralogy might correlate with the steepness of the slopes observed by [8,10] for kieserite being exposed in steeper parts and polyhydrated sulfates in less steep parts. As the ILD is composed of alternating steep and less steep parts, less steep parts may possibly exhibit polyhydrated sulfates that are covered by windblown material. We observe a higher thermal inertia in the lower, fresh eroded kieserite unit (400-600 SI) than in the upper unit that shows polyhydrated sulfate features (300- 500 SI) which is not coincident to observations in West Candor Chasma ILD [11] but may be due to weak PHS signal or hydration state of PHS. The same is observed comparing kieserite exposed on steep exposures and PHS [12] in Capri Chasma. ILDs observed in other regions ILDs have various morphologies. They often appear as mounds or hills. Massive cap rock at their top and layering in lower parts is also very common. Material enclosing chaotic structures, terrace-like appearances, and knobs are visible. Varying surfaces (knobby, rough, fractured, grooved, cap rock) are widespread as well as talus exhibited on steep slopes. Yardangs and flutes on their surface as well as dunes located in surface fractures indicate that the material is highly affected by wind erosion and therefore weakly consolidated. The contact between ILD and chaotic terrain often is covered by dusty and/or fine-grained material, but few MOC-images [9] show the stratigraphic position of ILDs superposing chaotic terrain, and indicating a younger age. Layering is observed at different elevations at MOCscale reaching from -4.6 km up to -1 km, but mostly between -4.5 km up to -3 km and is absent in upper parts that are mostly cap rock. The vertical thickness of layered material is high in Ganges Mensa and low in other regions of Ganges or the chaotic terrains, e.g. Arsinoes. We discriminate between less than 16 layers and less than 7 layers we counted at MOC-scale. Apparently, t

  8. Water quality management in the lower stretch of the river Ganges, east coast of India: an approach through environmental education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh Kumar Sarkar; Mahua Saha; Hideshige Takada; Asokkumar Bhattacharya; Pravakar Mishra; Badal Bhattacharya

    2007-01-01

    The lower tidal stretch of the river Ganges, known as Hugli (ca. 280km), flows southward before entering the Bay of Bengal forming a vast mangrove-enriched estuarine delta called Sunderbans. Hugli estuary is a typical example of tide-dominated sink for contaminants from multifarious sources. This major important river is subjected to anthropogenic stress due to the socio-economic importance of these areas

  9. Experimental determination of synthetic NdPO4 monazite end-member solubility in water from 21°C to 300°C: implications for rare earth element mobility in crustal fluids1 1Associate editor: D. J. Wesolowski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Oelkers, Eric; Schott, Jacques; Montel, Jean-Marc

    2004-05-01

    The solubility of synthetic NdPO 4 monazite end-member has been determined experimentally from 21 to 300°C in aqueous solutions at pH = 2, and at 21°C and pH = 2 for GdPO 4. Measurements were performed in batch reactors, with regular solution sampling for pH measurement, rare earths and phosphorous analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled with a desolvation system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to check that no reprecipitation of secondary phases occurred and that the mineral surfaces remained those of a monazite. Coupled with speciation calculations, measured solution compositions permitted the determination of NdPO 4 and GdPO 4 solubility products which are in general agreement with previous experimental determination on rhabdophane at 25°C, but showing that monazite is more than two orders of magnitude less soluble than inferred on the basis of previous thermodynamic estimates. The temperature evolution from 21 to 300°C of the equilibrium constant (K) of the NdPO 4 monazite end-member dissolution reaction given by: NdPO4( s) ? Nd3++ PO43- can be described by the equation: -log K= 7.621+ 0.04163T+ 1785/T where T is in Kelvins. Integration of this expression permitted the determination of the enthalpy, free energy and entropy of dissolution and formation of the NdPO 4 monazite end-member. Solubility-speciation calculations show that the presence of aqueous ligands, notably fluoride, carbonate or hydroxide in water strongly affect monazite solubility, depending on pH and temperature. These calculations also show that monazite will exhibit retrograde solubility only under acidic conditions from 70°C to 300°C and to a lesser extent in neutral aqueous solutions from 150°C to 300°C. Solubility-speciation calculations performed on natural seafloor vent hydrothermal fluids and on thermal springwaters from granitic areas at aquifer temperature show that these fluids are equilibrated with respect to monazite. Thus, our study suggests that monazite may play an active role on the control of REE concentrations in crustal waters. Finally, results of this experimental study suggest that a monazite-like nuclear waste form stored underground will show extremely low solubility when in contact with water, especially with granite-equilibrated groundwater. These results therefore confirm the excellent suitability of monazite as a nuclear ceramic.

  10. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here are consistent with a Pleistocene age for the structure. Subsidence of its foreland has created the seasonal inland sea in Sylhet and influences avulsions of the Brahmaputra. The 1897 M8.0 earthquake caused maximum intensities on the western part of the Shillong massif, suggesting a rupture of the western Dauki fault, leaving the eastern portion as a possible gap.

  11. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of large rural populations linked to subsistence agriculture in the basins. Uncertainty analysis of the downscaled precipitation indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than the uncertainty in the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is suggested for comprehensive impact studies.

  12. Decades of Change on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta; Rivers, Coastlines, Agriculture and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is formed by the convergence of two great rivers, superlative in both size and geologic activity. The GBD is home to > 150 million people with a mean population density of more than 1000 people/km2. The fertile soils, abundant water and favorable climate also make the delta one of the most agriculturally diverse and productive areas on Earth. We seek to better understand the coupled natural and anthropogenic dynamics of the delta through a number of cross-disciplinary field studies of the contributing geophysical, biophysical and anthropogenic processes. To provide a synoptic multitemporal perspective for these studies, we use a variety of remotely sensed observations collected over the delta since 1988. In this overview we provide a synthesis of recent results from studies of 4 interrelated processes; river channel migration, coastal erosion and deposition, co-evolution of agriculture and aquaculture, and economic development. In each study we use multi-sensor spatiotemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery spanning more than 2 decades to observe and quantify a variety of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites provide 16 day temporal and 250m spatial resolution of the entire delta from 2000 to present. This image time series captures not only agricultural phenology over the entire delta but also the development of aquaculture on the lower delta and interannual fluvial dynamics on both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI allow us to represent land cover as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrate, vegetation and dark surfaces (water and shadow) throughout the delta since 1988. Despite its irregular temporal sampling, Landsat's 30 m pixels better resolve both natural and anthropogenic land cover units and its longer time series extends retrospective analyses back to 1988. More recent sensors like Ikonos, Quickbird, GeoEye and WorldView provide vicarious validation with meter-scale imagery. Annual composites of night-light brightness from the OLS and VIIRS sensors provide a complementary measure of urban growth and economic development back to 1992. The coevolution of these systems are depicted in a series of multitemporal animations spanning the past 2+ decades.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).

    PubMed

    Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of monsoonal rainfall variations that derive from orbital insolation and/or glacial forcing. PMID:17919684

  14. Tetraethylorthosilicate reaction rates on SiO{sub 2} at 1000 K: Zero-order dependence on hydroxyl coverage and implications for reactions with three-membered siloxane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, M.E.; Moffat, H.K. [Chemical Processing Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601 (United States)] [Chemical Processing Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    We have determined key kinetic parameters for the reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) on SiO{sub 2}. This was accomplished under conditions (20{endash}500 mTorr at 1000 K) that pertain directly to TEOS-based chemical vapor deposition processes. TEOS reactions were carried out using deuterated silanols (SiOD) on the initial SiO{sub 2} surface. This allowed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements to distinguish the consumption of SiOD by TEOS from the concurrent formation of SiOH which results from TEOS decomposition at 1000 K. While SiOD consumption did exhibit a first-order dependence on SiOD coverage, TEOS decomposition exhibited a zero-order dependence on the total coverage of hydroxyl groups. This suggests that reactions with hydroxyl groups alone cannot account for all of the TEOS decomposition reactions at 1000 K. Since the low coverage of two-membered siloxane [(Si{endash}O){sub 2}] rings was consumed during the initial TEOS exposure, siloxane (Si{endash}O{endash}Si) bridges in three-membered siloxane [(Si{endash}O){sub 3}] rings may be the additional species responsible for the constant rate of TEOS decomposition. However, it is not conclusive that this type of site-specific mechanism controls the chemistry. The data may also be explained with a site-independent mechanism in which intramolecular decomposition of TEOS on the surface provides a common rate-determining step for subsequent consumption of hydroxyls and siloxane bridges on SiO{sub 2}. Regardless of the specific mechanism, our results predict that deposition rates will be insensitive to the relative coverages of siloxane bridges and hydroxyls on SiO{sub 2}. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the coverages of these species on SiO{sub 2} is not essential for modeling thermal TEOS decomposition rates. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  15. TEOS reaction rates on SiO{sub 2} at 1000K: Zero-order dependence on hydroxyl coverage and implications for reactions with three-membered siloxane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, M.E.; Moffat, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    We have determined key kinetic parameters for the reaction of TEOS (tetraethylorthosilicate) on SiO{sub 2}. This was accomplished under conditions (20 to 500 mTorr at 1000 K) that pertain directly to TEOS-based CVD (chemical vapor deposition) processes. TEOS reactions were carried out using deuterated silanols (SiOD) on the initial SiO{sub 2} surface. This allowed FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) measurements to distinguish the consumption of SiOD by TEOS from the concurrent formation of SiOH which results from TEOS decomposition at 1000 K. While SiOD consumption did exhibit a first-order dependence on SiOD coverage, SiOH formation exhibited a zero-order dependence on the total coverage of hydroxyl groups. This suggests that reactions with hydroxyl groups alone can not account for all of the TEOS decomposition reactions at 1000 K. Since the low coverage of two-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 2}) rings was consumed during the initial TEOS exposure, siloxane (Si-O-Si) bridges in three-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 3}) rings may be the additional species responsible for the constant rate of TEOS decomposition. However, it is not conclusive that this type of site-specific mechanism controls the chemistry. The data may also be explained with a site-independent mechanism in which intramolecular decomposition of TEOS on the surface provides a common rate-determining step for subsequent consumption of hydroxyls and siloxane bridges on SiO{sub 2}. Regardless of the specific mechanism, our results predict that deposition rates will be insensitive to the relative coverages of siloxane bridges and hydroxyls on SiO{sub 2}. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the coverages of these species on SiO{sub 2} is not essential for modeling thermal TEOS decomposition rates.

  16. HONORARY MEMBER Carlos Herrera

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    HONORARY MEMBER AWARD Carlos Herrera Honorary membership in the Eco- logical Society of America and animals. His studies are forcing evolutionary ecologists to evaluate more closely the most appropriate spa of new ecologists working on plant­animal interactions worldwide, with special impact in Europe, Central

  17. Mistakes Board Members Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

  18. Exploring the provenance of vegetation and environmental signatures encoded in vascular plant biomarkers carried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Valier; Eglinton, Timothy; France-Lanord, Christian; Sylva, Sean

    2010-05-01

    Organic matter carried by rivers and deposited in continental and marine sediments contains valuable information on past environmental conditions and their impact on the terrestrial biosphere. In order to use sedimentary records to reconstruct past environmental conditions on the continents, such as vegetation cover and type, or precipitation intensity, we need to understand the provenance of the organic signatures and how they are transferred, and potentially modified, by fluvial transport to the sedimentary reservoir. In particular, we need to understand how environmental conditions are imprinted in the composition of riverine particulate organic carbon. Here we investigate the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of vascular plant leaf wax biomarkers in the modern-day Ganges and Brahmaputra river complex, one of the largest fluvial system on Earth. The distribution of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids in Ganges-Brahmaputra river sediments suggests that vascular plant inputs are consistently a significant component of the organic carbon pool. Molecular ?13C measurements reveal that C3 vegetation inputs delivered by the Himalayan rivers are partly oxidized and replaced by mixed C3/C4 vegetation input in the floodplain. This process appears to be rather non-selective in the Ganges basin, affecting both discrete particles of vegetation debris and OC associated with mineral phases. In contrast, in the Brahmaputra basin vegetation debris appears more susceptible to this replacement process. The hydrogen isotopic composition of long-chain (C24+) alkanoic acids, in combination with their stable C isotopic composition, provides constraints on the isotopic composition of the meteoric water used by the plants. Calculated compositions compare well with the depleted ?2H isotopic ratios of the heavy rains of the summer monsoon. Notably, in the Ganges basin, the isotopic compositions calculated at the base of the range and in the floodplain are identical, suggesting that H-isotopic compositions of long-chain alkanoic acids are a valuable proxy for the composition of summer monsoon precipitation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Using sedimentary records near the terminus of this river system, such measurements could provide insights into summer monsoon rainfall intensity in the past.

  19. Alateen Members' and Non-Members' Understanding of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joseph A.; McCormick, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Alateen (n=49) and non-Alateen (n=52) members were compared on knowledge and understanding of alcoholism. Results indicated Alateen members understood alcoholism as family disease and alcoholism as treatable. Alateen members suggested educational curriculum with message of successful treatment for alcoholic, whereas non-Alateen members stressed…

  20. The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

  1. Construction and maintenance of the ganges-brahmaputra-meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise. PMID:25251271

  2. Communist China's foreign trade and its implication for Japan 

    E-print Network

    Hsieh, Leh-An

    1972-01-01

    COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGN TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis by LEH-AN HSIEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lg72... Major Subject: Economics COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGI'J TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis LEH-AN HSIEH Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member / Member Member (Member) ABSTRACT Communist China's Foreign Trade...

  3. AGU members receive Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Five AGU members were granted senior Fulbright awards for university teaching and advanced research abroad for 1981-1982, according to the U.S. International Communications Agency and the Board of Foreign Scholarships.Yvonne Herman-Rosenberg, associate professor of geology at the Washington State University in Pullman, will research Black Sea Quaternary benthoic foraminifera as indicators of sea-level fluctuations. The research will be conducted at the University of Bucharest in Romania from May through July, 1982.

  4. Evolution of Ganges-Brahmaputra western delta plain: Clues from sedimentology and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Sengupta, S.; McArthur, J. M.; Ravenscroft, P.; Bera, M. K.; Bhushan, Ravi; Samanta, A.; Agrawal, S.

    2009-12-01

    Sedimentology, carbon isotope and sequence stratigraphic analysis of subsurface sediments from western part of Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta plain shows that a Late Quaternary marine clay and fluvial channel-overbank sediments of MIS 5 and 3 highstands are traceable below the Holocene strata. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea-level lowering of >100 m produced a regional unconformity (type 1), represented by palaeosols and incised valley. C4 vegetation expanded on exposed lowstand surface in an ambient dry glacial climate. At ˜9 ka transgression inundated the lowstand surface pushing the coastline and mangrove front ˜100 km inland. Simultaneous intensification of monsoon and very high sediment discharge (˜4-8 times than modern) caused a rapid aggradation of both floodplain and estuarine valley fill deposits between 8 and 7 ka. The Hoogli River remaining along its present drainage possibly acted as the main conduit for transgression and sediment discharge that was subsequently abandoned. C3 vegetation dominated the delta plain during this time. From 7 ka onward progradation of delta plain started and continued till recent. This period experienced a mixed C3-C4 vegetation with localized mangroves in the mid-Holocene to dominant return of C4 vegetation in the late Holocene period. The study indicates that while the initiation of western part of GB delta occurred at least 1 ka earlier than the global mean delta formation age, the progradation started at ˜7 ka, at least 2 ka earlier than thought before. The terrestrial vegetation change was modulated by changes in depositional environment, specific ecological niches and climate rather than pCO 2.

  5. Streamflow model of the six-country transboundary Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K.; Lehmann, A.; Dennedy-Frank, P. J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Extremely large-scale river basin modelling remains a challenge for water resources planning in the developing world. Such planning is particularly difficult in the developing world because of the lack of data on both natural (climatological, hydrological) processes and complex anthropological influences. We simulate three enormous river basins located in south Asia. The Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna (GBM) River Basins cover an area of 1.75 million km2 associated with 6 different countries, including the Bengal delta, which is the most densely populated delta in the world with ~600 million people. We target this developing region to better understand the hydrological system and improve water management planning in these transboundary watersheds. This effort uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate streamflow in the GBM River Basins and assess the use of global climatological datasets for such large scale river modeling. We evaluate the utility of three global rainfall datasets to reproduce measured river discharge: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) from NASA, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, and the World Metrological Organization (WMO) reanalysis. We use global datasets for spatial information as well: 90m DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, 300m GlobCover land use maps, and 1000 km FAO soil map. We find that SWAT discharge estimates match the observed streamflow well (NSE=0.40-0.66, R2=0.60-0.70) when using meteorological estimates from the NCEP reanalysis. However, SWAT estimates diverge from observed discharge when using meteorological estimates from TRMM and the WMO reanalysis.

  6. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  7. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-05-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers. PMID:25774919

  8. Lay REC members: patient or public?

    PubMed

    Staley, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice. PMID:23536688

  9. Coastal Dynamics of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we quantify erosional and depositional processes in the coastal zone (including tidal flats and river channels) of the lower Ganges Brahmaputra delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated, Landsat TM, ETM+ & OLI collected since 1988 allows for spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of both natural and anthropogenic processes in the coastal zone on seasonal to interannual time scales. We quantify changes in the coastal zone using 106 cloud-free acquisitions in the area of the 3 Landsat scenes spanning the lower delta. Changes are quantified using multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series and high spatial resolution (2-4 m) imagery post-2000 to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. Because water levels on the lower delta change by several meters on time scales of hours (tides), months (discharge) and years (relative sea level rise), we use a network of 11 tide gauges to distinguish the effects of these changes in the coastal zone imaged by Landsat. Cross spectral analysis of this network of tide gauge records quantifies the dominant periods and relative magnitudes as well as phase of water level variations across these time scales. Tide gauge records are used to identify Landsat scenes acquired at similar water levels as well as the effects of water level on variations in tidal flats. Water level and water leaving radiance are used to map spatiotemporal variations in suspended sediment. Tri-temporal change maps of SVD fractions show progressive changes of coastlines throughout the study period. We find significant change in tidal flats in acquisitions from different tidal heights, alluding to the importance of tidal phase in coastal analyses. Erosion of forested coastlines is distributed along channels of all sizes, while deposition occurs primarily in more localized regions. Expansion of mangrove forest is observed in several larger areas of deposition. These results suggest that the balance between erosion and deposition is more complex than often assumed in studies of sea level rise on the GBD.

  10. Agricultural Land Cover Dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    We seek to understand spatiotemporal (ST) patterns of agricultural land cover dynamics on the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI imagery collected since 1988 allows for synoptic scale ST analyses of vegetation phenology. We use multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). This study analyses 61 cloud-free Landsat acquisitions across two geographic scenes to identify ST patterns of winter cropping and interconversion between agricultural fields and ponds used for aquaculture. We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series post-2000 and high spatial resolution imagery to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. We use temporal moment spaces (derived from temporal mean, standard deviation, and skewness) and temporal feature spaces (derived from spatial Principal Components) to characterize the full range of phenological patterns observed at 30 m scales throughout the lower delta. For each year with sufficient cloud-free coverage, we distinguish between areas with a high likelihood of use for aquaculture versus areas with a high likelihood of use for agriculture based on a combination of reflectance and phenology. From changes in these patterns we infer changes in land use on seasonal to interannual timescales. Many of the phenological patterns we observe occur on the scale of individual polders, suggesting decision making at community scales. While there appears to be considerable loss of agricultural land to aquaculture in many areas of the lower delta, we also observe intensification of dry season cropping in other areas. MODIS reveals frequent instances of both gradual and abrupt decreases in seasonal peak EVI as well as many localized instances of abrupt cessation of agriculture. In terms of area and magnitude, the single largest disturbance we observe immediately follows Cyclone Aila in 2009. We observe a band of phenological disruption on the polders along almost 400 km of the periphery of the Sundarbans.

  11. Subsidence and human influences in mega deltas: The case of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Nicholls, R J

    2015-09-15

    Relative sea/land level changes are fundamental to people living in deltas. Net subsidence is complex and attributed to tectonics, compaction, sedimentation and anthropogenic causes. It can have severe impacts and needs to be quantified and where possible (for subsidence due to anthropogenic causes) avoided. For the highly populated Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, a large range of net subsidence rates are described in the literature, yet the reasons behind this wide range of values are poorly understood. This paper documents and analyses rates of subsidence (for publications until 2014) and relates these findings to human influences (development). 205 point measurements of net subsidence were found, reported in 24 studies. Reported measurements were often repetitive in multiple journals, with some lacking detail as to precise location, cause and method, questioning reliability of the rate of subsidence. Rates differed by locality, methodology and period of measurement. Ten different measurement methods were recorded, with radio-carbon dating being the most common. Temporal and spatially, rates varied between -1.1mm/yr (i.e. uplift) and 43.8mm/yr. The overall mean reported rate was 5.6mm/yr, and the overall median 2.9mm/yr, with 7.3mm/yr representing one standard deviation. These rates were reduced if inaccurate or vague records were omitted. The highest rates were recorded in the Sylhet Plateau, Dhaka and Kolkata. Highest rates were recorded in the last 1000years, where the mean increased to 8.8mm/yr and a standard deviation of 7.5mm/yr. This could be partly due to shorter-term measurement records, or anthropogenic influence as multiple high rates are often found in urban settings. Continued development may cause rates to locally increase (e.g. due to groundwater abstraction and/or drainage). Improved monitoring is required over a wider area, to determine long-term trends, particularly as short-term records are highly variable. Focus in regions where wide spread development is occurring or is expected would be advantageous. PMID:25974280

  12. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and ?30Si, ?13C and ?18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem ?30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and ?30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, ?30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher ?30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the ?30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account for the loss of DSi from solution.

  13. “I'm not so into gangs anymore. I've started going to church now”: Coloured boys resisting gangster masculinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwynne Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Coloured working class boys in Wentworth, Durban have a bad reputation, as media reports show. Focusing on an ethnography of a group of Coloured working class boys aged between 14–17, this article argues that despite the prevalence of violent gang cultures in Wentworth, the boys show variable patterns of masculinity—not all violent. While violence is an everyday event for the

  14. Why the Higgs mechanism is NOT spontaneous symmetry The "Xiao-Gang Wen argument" for why gauge symmetries cannot be spontaneously bro-

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Why the Higgs mechanism is NOT spontaneous symmetry breaking The "Xiao-Gang Wen argument" for why energy. So now that we have established that the Higgs mechanism does not, and cannot, correspond of this Hamiltonian in detail, but here we will just want to focus on the "Higgs" phase, which occurs when g

  15. epiC: an Extensible and Scalable System for Processing Dawei Jiang , Gang Chen #, Beng Chin Ooi , Kian-Lee Tan , Sai Wu #

    E-print Network

    Ooi, Beng Chin

    epiC: an Extensible and Scalable System for Processing Big Data Dawei Jiang , Gang Chen #, Beng data and graph data. This paper presents epiC, an extensible system to tackle the Big Data's data variety challenge. epiC introduces a general Actor-like concurrent programming model, independent

  16. Progressive Surface Reconstruction from Images Using a Local Prior Gang Zeng 1 Sylvain Paris 2 Long Quan 1 Francois Sillion 3

    E-print Network

    Paris, Sylvain

    Progressive Surface Reconstruction from Images Using a Local Prior Gang Zeng 1 Sylvain Paris 2 Long This paper introduces a new method for surface recon­ struction from multiple calibrated images. The primary and reason the vis­ ibility of the object. Within each voxel, a detailed surface patch is optimally

  17. Superconducting Phases in Potassium-Intercalated Iron Selenides Tianping Ying, Xiaolong Chen,* Gang Wang,* Shifeng Jin, Xiaofang Lai, Tingting Zhou, Han Zhang,

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Superconducting Phases in Potassium-Intercalated Iron Selenides Tianping Ying, Xiaolong Chen,* Gang two pure SC phases, KxFe2Se2(NH3)y (x 0.3 and 0.6), determined mainly by potassium concentration.84(1) Å. With higher potassium doping, the 44 K phase can be converted into the 30 K phase. NH3 has little

  18. Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

  19. On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Horst, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

  20. Sandhouse Gang Meeting "Personal Perspectives on the Last 15 Years of

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Transportation Co., including general manager of intermodal operations, district superintendent, general of the California Shortline Railroad Association, currently serves as a member of the Safety Operations Management September 2010; managing director of Pacific Harbor Line, Inc.; and a director of Gulf Coast Switching Co

  1. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09...deposit made by such member and any capital stock, or membership of such member...deposit made by such member and any capital stock, or membership of such member in...

  2. Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra river flow. Second goal is to project the behavior of future river discharge forced by the increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Three more rivers, the Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers are considered. It is meaningful to people living within the watershed, which would experience flooding or drought in the next 100-years. The original precipitation output from the third phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP3) project has large inter-model variability, which limits the ability to quantify the regional precipitation or runoff trends. With a basic statistical Quantile-to-Quantile (Q-Q) technique, a mapping index was built to link each modeled precipitation averaged over river catchment and observational discharge measured close to the mouth. Using the climatological annual cycle to choose the "good" models, the observational river discharges are well reproduced from the 20th century run (20C3M) model results. Furthermore, with the same indices, the future 21st century river discharge of the Yangtze, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Blue Nile are simulated under different SRES scenarios. The Murray-Darling River basin does not have the similar seasonal cycle of discharge with modeled precipitations. So we choose to build the link between satellite imaged and modeled precipitations and use it to simulate the future precipitation. The Yangtze, Ganges, Brahmaputra River mean wet season discharges are projected to increase up to 15-25% at the end of the 21st century under the most abundant GHGs scenarios (SRESA1B and SRESA2). The risks of flooding also reach to a high level throughout the time. Inter-model deviations increase dramatically under all scenarios except for the fixed-2000 level concentration (COMMIT). With large uncertainty, the Blue Nile River discharge and Murray-Darling River basin annual precipitation do not suggest a sign of change on multi-model mean.

  3. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  4. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  5. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  6. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  7. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  8. Understanding the roles of NHS trust board members.

    PubMed

    Deffenbaugh, J

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of NHS trust boards on a business format was a recent innovation resulting from the NHS reforms. In order to realize benefits for patients, it is essential that boards operate effectively. Explores within the framework of corporate governance, the practical implications of board member roles. Drawing on experience of strategy formulation at board level, analyses and clarifies the roles, and presents recommendations to increase board effectiveness. PMID:10162758

  9. Become an AGU Supporting Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You can extend your commitment to the continuing vitality of geophysics by helping AGU to build funds that will provide for new initiatives and assist in funding some of the nonrevenue programs of AGU, such as the congressional science fellowship, minority student scholarships, and student travel grants. The AGU Development Committee is seeking gifts and contributions toward building the endowment of the Union: The vitality of AGU and the vitality of geophysics march hand in hand.Four categories of supporting membership are offered by the Union: Individual Supporting Member $80 per year Life Supporting Member $1,500 Sustaining Member $5,000 Benefactor $10,000

  10. AGU members elected to Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six AGU members are among the sixty new members and fifteen foreign associates elected on April 27 to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.AGU members elected were AGU Past-President G. Brent Dalrymple of USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.; Donald J . DePaolo, University of California, Berkeley; Ho-Kwang (David) Mao, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C.; Mario J . Molina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; and Alexandra Navrotsky, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. Elected as foreign associates were Nikolai V. Sobolev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, and Friedrich H. Busse, University of Bayreuth, Germany.

  11. Become an AGU Supporting Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You can extend your commitment to the continuing vitality .of geophysics by helping AGU to build funds that will provide for new initiatives and assist in funding some of the nonrevenue programs of AGU, such as the congressional science fellowship, minority student scholarships, and student travel grants. The AGU Development Committee is seeking gifts and contributions toward building the endowment of the Union: The vitality of AGU and the vitality of geophysics march hand in hand.Four categories of supporting membership are offered by the Union: Individual Supporting Member ($80 per year), Life Supporting Member ($1500), Sustaining Member ($5000), Benefactor ($10,000). Benefactors, Sustaining, and Life Supporting Members pay no further dues.

  12. Members may bring a guest

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    -members. First time NEWFA attendees may register as a guest at no charge. REGISTER NOW: On-line registration form, Assistant Director Marketing and NEWFA Boston College Center for Work & Family 617-552-2862 jennifer

  13. AGU Members Visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Holle, Kate

    2007-06-01

    More than 200 scientists and engineers from around the United States convened in Washington, D.C., on 1-2 May 2007 to participate in the annual Science Engineering and Technology (SET) Congressional Visits Day (CVD). The AGU Office of Public Affairs frequently helps to arrange for members' visits to their congressional delegations, but CVD is a unique event during which AGU members can team up with a larger group of scientists and engineers to promote federal funding of scientific research.

  14. JOUR NAL OF RE SEARCH IN CRIME AND DE LIN QUENCY Es bensen, Os good \\/ GANG RE SIS TANC E GANG RE SIS TANCE EDU CA TION AN D TRAIN ING (GREAT): RE SULTS FRO M THE NA TIONAL EVALUA TION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. WAYNE

    Although youth delin quent gangs have received con sid er able aca demic and media atten tion dur ing the past dec ade, there has been a pau city of research evalu at ing pre - ven tion and inter ven tion pro grams. In this arti cle, the authors report the results of the National Evalua tion of the

  15. Ganges and Indus river basin land use\\/land cover (LULC) and irrigated area mapping using continuous streams of MODIS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasad S. Thenkabail; Mitchell Schull; Hugh Turral

    2005-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to map irrigated areas in the Ganges and Indus river basins using near-continuous time-series (8-day), 500-m resolution, 7-band MODIS land data for 2001–2002. A multitemporal analysis was conducted, based on a mega file of 294 wavebands, made from 42 MODIS images each of 7 bands. Complementary field data were gathered from 196 locations.

  16. Heavy metals in sediments of the Yarlung Tsangbo and its connection with the arsenic problem in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Gao, Shaopeng; Sharma, Chhatra Mani

    2011-02-01

    The Yarlung Tsangbo (YT) is a large river running across southern Tibet and has significant effects on its lower reaches, the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin. In order to investigate the geochemical features of the YT, 18 surface sediment samples were collected; ten trace element concentrations were measured for bulk sediments and two fine grain size fractions. Meanwhile, basic physicochemical parameters and element concentrations of river water were also analyzed. Results indicated that the river water was alkaline (pH 8.42) and that dissolved oxygen was mainly controlled by river water temperature. Some elements (e.g., Zn and Ni) showed close negative relationship to mean grain size of the sediments. Concentrations of most heavy metals, except As of the YT bulk sediments, were similar to those of Upper Crustal Concentration and its lower reaches, indicating almost no anthropogenic impact. Arsenic of the YT sediments was derived fundamentally from the parent rocks of the YT Basin and was far higher than that of its lower reaches. This indicates that relatively small amounts of As from the study area were transported down to the Brahmaputra River under present, relatively dry climatic conditions. However, more YT sediments might have been transported to its low reaches during the Holocene due to the wet climate, giving high As concentration in Holocene sediments of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin. Thus, As transported by the YT may produce important influence on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin and contribute to its high As concentration in groundwater. PMID:20449635

  17. The effects of self-control, gang membership, and parental attachment/identification on police contacts among Latino and African American youths.

    PubMed

    Flexon, Jamie L; Greenleaf, Richard G; Lurigio, Arthur J

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the correlates of self-control and police contact in a sample of Chicago public high school students. The investigation examined the effects of parental attachment/identification, family structure, and peer association on self-control and the effects of parental attachment/identification, family structure, peer association, and self-control on police contact. Differences between African American and Latino youth on the predictors of the two dependent measures were tested in separate regression models. Weak parental attachment/identification and gang affiliation (peer association) predicted low self-control among all students. Among African American youth, only weak maternal attachment/identification predicted low self-control; both weak maternal attachment/identification and gang affiliation predicted low self-control among Latino youth. Gang affiliation predicted police stops (delinquency) among African Americans but not among Latinos. However, both African American and Latino students with lower self-control were more likely to be stopped by the police than those with higher self-control. PMID:21187300

  18. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Balance of Subsidence, Sea level and Sedimentation in a Tectonically-Active Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Reitz, M. D.; Paola, C.; Nooner, S. L.; DeWolf, S.; Ferguson, E. K.; Gale, J.; Hossain, S.; Howe, M.; Kim, W.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Sincavage, R.; Williams, L. A.; Wilson, C.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is vulnerable to a host of short and long-term natural hazards - widespread seasonal flooding, river erosion and channel avulsions, permanent land loss from sea level rise, natural groundwater arsenic, recurrent cyclones, landslides and huge earthquakes. These hazards derive from active fluvial processes related to the growth of the delta and the tectonics at the India-Burma-Tibet plate junctions. The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers drain 3/4 of the Himalayas and carry ~1 GT/y of sediment, 6-8% of the total world flux. In Bangladesh, these two great rivers combine with the Meghna River to form the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD). The seasonality of the rivers' water and sediment discharge is a major influence causing widespread flooding during the summer monsoon. The mass of the water is so great that it causes 5-6 cm of seasonal elastic deformation of the delta discerned by our GPS data. Over the longer-term, the rivers are also dynamic. Two centuries ago, the Brahmaputra River avulsed westward up to 100 km and has since captured other rivers. The primary mouth of the Ganges has shifted 100s of km eastward from the Hooghly River over the last 400y, finally joining the Brahmaputra in the 19th century. These avulsions are influenced by the tectonics of the delta. On the east side of Bangladesh, the >16 km thick GBMD is being overridden by the Burma Arc where the attempted subduction of such a thick sediment pile has created a huge accretionary prism. The foldbelt is up to 250-km wide and its front is buried beneath the delta. The main Himalayan thrust front is <100 km north, but adjacent to the GBMD is the Shillong Massif, a 300-km long, 2-km high block of uplifted Indian basement that is overthrusting and depressing GBMD sediments to the south. The overthrusting Shillong Massif may represent a forward jump of the Himalayan front to a new plate boundary. This area ruptured in a ~M8 1897 earthquake. Subsidence from the tectonics and differential loading also influences the river patterns and avulsion rates of the delta. We are beginning to unravel these interactions through sampling and numerical modeling. One advantage for geologic research in Bangladesh is that the rapid sediment accumulation preserves a detailed structural and stratigraphic archive. We have been tapping into these records using the combination of a local, low-cost drilling method, resistivity imaging and MCS seismics, while GPS, seismology and other geophysical methods are helping to unravel GBMD dynamics. Five transects of >130 wells are illuminating the Holocene shifts of the Brahmaputra River and subsidence patterns. Very high resolution MCS seismics on the rivers shows deformation by subsidence and compaction. Resistivity is further mapping surfaces warped by the anticlinal folds. GPS geodesy is quantifying the rates of overthrusting and differential subsidence across the delta. Optical fiber strain meters installed in well nests are constraining sediment compaction rates. Seismology is imaging the tectonics in and around Bangladesh, while structural geology maps the tectonic deformation exposed on the margins of the delta. Numerical modeling is beginning to integrate all these results. I will present an overview of the GBMD and our growing research into the dynamics of the delta. A comprehensive view of these processes and their interaction is critical for understanding human impact and the future evolution of the delta.

  19. Application-Bypass Reduction for Large-Scale Adam Wagner, Member, IEEE, Darius Buntinas, Member, IEEE, Ron Brightwell, Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

    with different processing capabilities, varying commu- nication latencies between nodes, unbalanced or asymmetric, Member, IEEE, Ron Brightwell, Member, IEEE, and Dhabaleswar K. Panda, Member, IEEE, Abstract-- Process synchronization between the processes involved in the communication and is therefore highly susceptible

  20. \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT H. DECKER

    1995-01-01

    There are two competing views about the role of gangs and gang mem- bers in drug sales. The first argues that street gangs are well-organized purveyors of illegal drugs who reinvest the profits from drug sales into the gang. A second approach rejects this notion. Its proponents claim that drug sales by gangs are seldom well-organized and that gang members

  1. : : Members

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    @ish.nikko-materials.co.jp S. Suwabe D.J. Rogers Yong Shen shenyong@notes.sae.com.hk K. Hono hono@nrim.go.jp J.P. Simmons T@swissinfo.org R.J. Rioja roberto.rioja@alcoa.com D.A. Steigerwald G.M. Ludtka Fe-Wen Ling L.A. Nesbit R.P. Krepski tanase@anl.gov Lin Wang linw@andrew.cmu.edu Anup G. Roy agroy_bd@yahoo.com Yingguo Peng Yingguo

  2. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09 Member property. ...similar payment or deposit made by such member and any capital stock, or membership of such member in the clearing organization...

  3. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...09 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.09 Member property. ...similar payment or deposit made by such member and any capital stock, or membership of such member in the clearing...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.332 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 1250.332 Section 1250.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...Egg Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.332 Alternate members. An alternate member of the...

  5. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates...STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and...

  6. Influence of hydrologic and anthropogenic factors on the abundance variability of enteropathogens in the Ganges estuary, a cholera endemic region.

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Prasenjit; Einsporn, Marc H; Mookerjee, Subham; Palit, Anup; Neogi, Sucharit B; Nair, Gopinath B; Lara, Rubén J

    2014-02-15

    This study deals with the influence of water physico-chemical properties, tides, rainfall and fecal pollution on the abundance of enteropathogens in a main distributary of the Ganges, in the endemic cholera belt of West Bengal. Between January and June 2011, water and sediments were sampled from two sites of the Hooghly River by Kolkata and Diamond Harbour. Counts of cultivable Vibrio (CVC, from~10(2) to~10(5)CFU/L) and total bacteria (TBC, from~10(5) to~10(9)CFU/L) increased with water temperature (17°C to 37°C). A combination of variations in tidal height, salinity and turbidity had a distinct influence on CVC, TBC and coliform counts. At Diamond Harbour, a salinity increase from 0.6 to 7.9 was accompanied by a 1000-fold amplification of initial CVC~10(2)CFU/L, whereas higher prevalence of coliforms in Kolkata was related to greater disposal of untreated sewage into the river. Turbidity-dependent variation of CVC was noteworthy, particularly at Diamond Harbour, where CVC in intertidal surface sediments showed an analogous trend as in surface waters, suggesting bentho-pelagic coupling of Vibrio dynamics. Besides the influence of salinity variation with tidal cycles, sediment re-suspension from tidal flats can play a role on Vibrio abundance in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24291141

  7. Definitions 4-H members will

    E-print Network

    for a design of a costume than for a design of a current fashion garment. The ingredients (elementsDefinitions Objectives 4-H members will: · Learn definitions of terms used in designing. DESIGN TERMS Before we go into the individual fundamentals of construction for all design, it would help

  8. What Community Members Can Do

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    . Another example was the 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado. The Oklahoma City bombing such as seeing or hearing about death and destruction after a building is bombed or a plane crashes. What to help children who experience trauma. Other Federal agencies also provide help. Community members play

  9. 29 CFR 401.15 - Member or member in good standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Member or member in good standing. 401.15 Section 401.15 Labor ...SUBCHAPTER § 401.15 Member or member in good standing. Member or member in good standing, when used in reference to a labor...

  10. UNIFIED DEFINITION OF SAFETY FACTORS FOR TRADITIONAL RC MEMBERS AND MEMBERS INCORPORATING FRP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lieping Ye; Peng Feng

    2007-01-01

    Due to the difference material mechanical properties of FRP with those of concrete and steel, the behaviours of members incorporated FRP are consequential different to the traditional RC members and steel members. The conventional safety theory and design method developed based on the behaviours of the traditional RC members and steel members are not suitable for the members incorporating FRP.

  11. Beyond Compliance: The Europeanization of Member States through Negative Integration and Legal Uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne K. Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    Europeanization – that is the domestic impact of European integration on member states – is rightly attracting increasing attention, given the extent to which European integration determines domestic policies. However, the debate on Europeanization focuses predominantly on the conditions for successful compliance with European secondary law. This note argues that this focus insufficiently captures the implications of member states being part of a multi-level

  12. Sealing member for orbital or rotary motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarich

    1980-01-01

    An orbital engine has a piston member journalled on a shaft within a housing to orbit therein upon rotation of the shaft. A plurality of vanes form with the housing and piston member a plurality of variable volume chambers. An annular sealing member is mounted in a recess in a radial face of the piston member and engages an opposed

  13. Providing support to family members.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Dowd, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Providing recognition and simple information can be powerful and reassure a family member who is anxious and worried about an ill relative. While "answers" concerning the procedure are often not available, providing information that is available--the locations of the rest rooms and coffee shop; approximately how long the procedure will take; where to wait; and the process involved in the radiological procedure, reading and getting the results--can give some feeling of control, and thus reduce feelings of powerlessness. Most importantly, family members who are recognized and included with the patient in the treatment process will be reassured of the competency of the staff and gain hopefulness about the outcome of the diagnostic and treatment experience. And providing hope in the healthcare setting is a radiology professional's most important job. PMID:15543702

  14. Community members as recruiters of human subjects: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have considered in detail the ethical issues surrounding research in which investigators ask community members to engage in research subject recruitment within their own communities. Peer-driven recruitment (PDR) and its variants are useful for accessing and including certain populations in research, but also have the potential to undermine the ethical and scientific integrity of community-based research. This paper examines the ethical implications of utilizing community members as recruiters of human subjects in the context of PDR, as well as the authors' experience with a variant of PDR in a research project in South Africa. The importance of situating PDR in a comprehensive community engagement process that is responsive to the constraints of science and local needs and interests is emphasized. The paper will have relevance to bioethicists, health researchers, and research regulators concerned about the appropriate use of peer-driven recruitment strategies in health research. PMID:20229402

  15. Trace metals in Ganges soft-shell turtle (Aspideretes gangeticus) from two barrage: Baloki and Rasul, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ghaffar, Bushra; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of nine metals was measured in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, plastron, and carapace of Aspideretes gangeticus from Rasul and Baloki barrages, Pakistan. The results indicated that metal concentration were significant different among tissues of Ganges soft-shell turtles. However, higher concentrations of Co (5.12 ?g/g) and Ni (1.67 ?g/g) in liver, Cd (0.41 ?g/g) in heart, Fe (267.45 ?g/g), Cd (2.12 ?g/g) and Mn (2.47 ?g/g) in kidney, Cd (0.23 ?g/g), Cu (2.57 ?g/g), Fe (370.25 ?g/g), Mn (5.56 ?g/g), and Pb (8.23 ?g/g) in muscle of A. gangeticus were recorded at Baloki barrage than Rasul barrage. Whereas mean concentrations of Pb (3.33 ?g/g) in liver, Co (1.63 ?g/g), Cu (11.32 ?g/g), Pb (4.8 ?g/g) and Zn (144.69 ?g/g) in heart, Co (4.12 ?g/g) in muscle, Ni (1.31 ?g/g), Pb (2.18 ?g/g), and Zn (9.78 ?g/g) in carapace were recorded higher at Rasul barrage than Baloki barrage. The metals followed the trend Fe>Zn>Ni>Cu>Mn>Pb>Cr>Co>Cd. Metals of toxicological concern such as Cr, Pb, and Cd were at that level which can cause harmful effects to turtles. The results provide baseline data of heavy metals on freshwater turtle species of Pakistan. PMID:23686759

  16. Implications of Welfare Reform on the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carroll L. Estes; Sheryl Goldberg; Chris Wellin; Karen W. Linkins; Sara Shostak; Renée L. Beard

    2006-01-01

    Whereas many studies of welfare reform have focused on effects on children and families, little research has examined the implications of welfare reform for the elderly. This case study incorporates interviews with service providers for the aging, members of advocacy organizations, and two focus groups of older consumers conducted in the multi-ethnic urban community of San Francisco. Study findings suggest

  17. Differential Recognition of Members of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen Family by Opa Variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTINE P. BOS; FRITZ GRUNERT; ROBERT J. BELLAND

    1997-01-01

    Opacity (Opa) protein variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is implicated in the pathogenesis of gonorrhea, possibly by mediating adherence and entry of the bacteria into human tissues. One particular Opa protein me- diates adherence to epithelial cells through cell surface proteoglycans. Recently, two other eukaryotic cell recep- tors for Opa proteins have been reported. These receptors are members of a subgroup

  18. 7 CFR 920.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 920.27 Alternate members. An alternate member of the committee,...

  19. 33 CFR 5.25 - Honorary members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.25 Honorary members...service to or active interest in the Auxiliary, the Commandant may award any person with honorary membership in the Auxiliary. An honorary member of the...

  20. NAMA Members' Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    E-print Network

    Price, Lacy Michelle

    2011-10-21

    in CSR. NAMA members were neutral that the agricultural communications industry has a clear code of ethics and standards of performance. NAMA members agreed that developing programs that are good for society is both good for business and good citizenship...

  1. Members' Day to be held in Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    BVA Members' Day brings together the BVA AGM and Awards Ceremony, and provides an opportunity for members to celebrate the work of their colleagues. Tim Keen, BVA marketing manager, gives a taste of what's in store. PMID:26139681

  2. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  3. Distribution and Mobilization of Arsenic in the Ganges plain sedimentary deposits of South-western Bangladesh; implications from field and laboratory observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mano, A.; Udo, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Han, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The variation of arsenic concentration depending on sediment size and its depositional age in a variety of sediments extracted from four As contaminated sites of the southwestern Bangladesh were studied to elucidate the aquifer geological parameters that controls the vertical As distribution and mobilization in the sediment-water interface. It was found that sediment size, reactive surface area, relative depositional age and presence of other carrier minerals having higher affinity to adsorb As, may greatly dominate the arsenic accumulation. Sorption of As onto sediment surfaces was found to vary based on the variation of the particle diameters (2 to 250 ?m), which eventually reflects the role of geological materials in controlling the As distribution in various depositional layers. Medium sands commonly found in the deeper aquifer (~150m), being older in age (> 7000 yrs BP) and having relatively larger diameter (?~250 ?m) were found to contain relatively low amount of As (0.8 ?g/g) whereas higher As (5 to 25 ?g/g) was identified noticeably in the recently deposited and reasonably younger (100 to 1000 yrs BP) sediment particles including clay and finer sands that commonly have moderately smaller diameter (?~2 to 90 ?m). These observations were supported strongly by the findings obtained from the laboratory batch adsorption tests conducted with those sediments. Presence of As was also observed to be greatly dependent on the availability of its carrier minerals particularly Fe and Al oxide/hydroxide along the aquifer depths. Clay particles with relatively moderate Fe and Al oxide minerals was found to adsorb as much as 70 ?g/g As whereas medium sand with less Fe and Al oxide minerals were noticed to capture only 4 ?g/g of As in the batch adsorption test. In laboratory leaching test, significant amount of As (12 ?g/g) coupled with Fe (4.8 mg/g) were found to be leached out from the shallower brown clay by using sodium bicarbonate (pH~9) as the leaching agent. This implies that bicarbonate may play a key role in triggering the desorption of As in the upper shallower aquifers that explains the high As pollution there, whereas insignificant As that was desorbed from the deeper medium sand suggests that the As mobilization is not an usual phenomena in the later one.

  4. Identification and Mapping of Olivine-Rich Basalt Bedrock Outcrops in Ganges and Eos Chasma on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive olivine-rich basalt unit has been identified and mapped in Ganges and Eos Chasma on Mars using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. A 100 m/pixel THEMIS decorrelation stretch mosaic was created using bands 8, 7, and 5 (11.79 ?m, 11.04 ?m, and 9.35 ?m respectively) as the olivine-rich unit has a deep absorption in THEMIS band 7 data. These outcrops were mapped spatially using this mosaic and were found to extend for more than 1,100 km in length. In addition to the THEMIS data, TES data were used to constrain the composition and abundance of the olivine. By using spectral ratios of the unit and of the surrounding canyon floor material, it is possible to determine that the olivine abundance of this unit is ~10-15% and its composition is estimated to have a Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of ~68. In addition to compositional data, this unit has been characterized using elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). By using MOLA elevation data in conjunction with the compositional data, constraints on the continuity, extent, dip, and orientation of this layer can be made. These data indicate that this unit lies on a nearly uniform surface, dipping slightly (~0.013 degrees) to the northeast. They also indicate that it persists through topographically high areas and outcrops only in predicted locations. Estimates of the thickness of this unit were made utilizing MOLA data, with thickness ranging from ~40 m to ~110 m, illustrating that this layer is thin in comparison to the ~4.5 km of overlying material. High-resolution imagery from the Mars Orbiter Camera and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment provide insights into the small-scale morphologies associated with these outcrops, which appear rough, pitted, and largely unmantled with a slightly higher albedo than the surrounding materials. These observations are consistent with THEMIS thermal inertia for an in place rocky unit, with values of >~300-600 JK-1m-2s-1/2. One of the largest in situ, stratigraphic layers identified on Mars has been mapped and characterized using a variety datasets. Several possible emplacement mechanisms for this unit include a basaltic sill, a rifting event, or more likely large flood lavas or a volcaniclastic deposit.

  5. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. PMID:24417554

  6. Stress concentration factors for dented tubular members

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, J. [Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States); Hsu, T.M. [Stress Engineering Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents results of a finite element (FE) study conducted on /tubular members with dents of various geometries, including dents with circular and elliptical cross-sectional shapes. The modeling and analysis procedures are discussed, and stress concentration factors (SCFs) are generated for axial and bending loads in the member. Equations that give SCFs as function of the member size and dent geometry are developed for both load conditions. Then, simplified equations are proposed for structural assessment purposes.

  7. Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in south Asia is generally considered a tide-dominated system, but much of the subaerial delta plain is geomorphically similar to river-dominated systems such as the Mississippi River delta, with a well-developed distributary network separated by low-lying, organic-rich interdistributary basins. By contrast, the lower GBMD is dominated by tidal processes and comprises a 100-km wide coastal plain with dense, interconnected tidal channels that are amalgamated to the seaward edge of the river-dominated portion of the delta. These distinct river- and tide-dominated geomorphic regions are simultaneously sustained by the enormous sediment load of the GBM rivers and its efficient dispersal via the distributary channel network and onshore advection by tides. Together these processes have resulted in the ability of the GBMD to keep pace with sea-level rise throughout the Holocene, with comparatively little shoreline transgression. However, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) highlight low-lying regions of the delta that are located at the interface of the river- and tide-dominated portions of the delta, where the transport energy of small distributaries and the upper tidal zone go to zero. As a result, these are the most sediment-starved regions of the delta and those most at risk to flooding by the summer monsoon and storm surges. Compounding the slow rates of sedimentation and high local organic content, these regions have been strongly affected by the construction of embankments (polders) that artificially de-water the soils and accelerate organic decomposition during the dry season, and further starve the land surface of sediment. Here, we present an integrated conceptual model for the geomorphic evolution of the GBMD that incorporates river- and tide-dominated regions in conjunction with channel-avulsion processes and delta-lobe construction. Each of these is also overprinted by tectonic deformation and human-landscape modifications. A key goal of this model is to explain the wide-scale distribution of coarse-grained river-borne sediment (predominantly sand) that forms the underlying architecture of the GBMD, with only localized preservation of fine-grained (silt and clay) deposits. Finally, analysis of the channel networks in the tidal delta plain reveal that constructed embankments have significantly decreased the density of naturally functioning tidal channels, inducing locally rapid bank migration and affiliated changes in sinuosity. These rapid landscape changes suggest that there has been a resultant change in hydrodynamics of the tidal delta plain following widespread construction of the embankments. With concern to assess landscape vulnerabilities to environmental change and renewed efforts to rehabilitate and stabilize the embankments, this information is needed to support the successful outcome of coastal defense initiatives.

  8. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition). PMID:24989810

  9. FBI DRUGFIRE program: the development and deployment of an automated firearms identification system to support serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Robert W.

    1994-03-01

    The FBI DRUGFIRE Program entails the continuing phased development and deployment of a scalable automated firearms identification system. The first phase of this system, a networked, database-driven firearms evidence imaging system, has been operational for approximately one year and has demonstrated its effectiveness in facilitating the sharing and linking of firearms evidence collected in serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations. However, there is a pressing need for development of enhancements which will more fully automate the system so that it is capable of processing very large volumes of firearms evidence. These enhancements would provide automated image analysis and pattern matching functionalities. Existing `spin off' technologies need to be integrated into the present DRUGFIRE system to automate the 3-D mensuration, registration, feature extraction, and matching of the microtopographical surface features imprinted on the primers of fired casings during firing.

  10. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf...cooperative when the member cooperative is itself a CMA operating in accordance with this part. Loans and LDP's are restricted based on the CMA obtaining the loan or...

  11. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf...cooperative when the member cooperative is itself a CMA operating in accordance with this part. Loans and LDP's are restricted based on the CMA obtaining the loan or...

  12. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf...cooperative when the member cooperative is itself a CMA operating in accordance with this part. Loans and LDP's are restricted based on the CMA obtaining the loan or...

  13. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf...cooperative when the member cooperative is itself a CMA operating in accordance with this part. Loans and LDP's are restricted based on the CMA obtaining the loan or...

  14. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf...cooperative when the member cooperative is itself a CMA operating in accordance with this part. Loans and LDP's are restricted based on the CMA obtaining the loan or...

  15. A DSP Based H.264/SVC Decoder for a Multimedia F. Pescador, Member IEEE, E. Juarez, Member IEEE, M. Raulet, Member IEEE, and C. Sanz, Member IEEE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A DSP Based H.264/SVC Decoder for a Multimedia Terminal F. Pescador, Member IEEE, E. Juarez, Member of a DSP-based video decoder compliant with the H.264/SVC standard (14496-10 Annex G) is presented. A PC-based decoder implementation has been ported to a commercial DSP. Performance optimizations have been carried

  16. Going Global: Dispatches from Experienced Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Clara M.

    2011-01-01

    Board members are increasingly being asked to bless a variety of international engagements. But how many trustees truly understand how to evaluate opportunities or assess potential risks? The author interviewed board members at institutions that already have committed significant resources to global agendas. These interviewees represent a wide…

  17. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Braverman; C. A. Miller; B. R. Ellingwood; D. J. Naus; C. H. Hofmayer; P. Bezler; T. Y. Chang

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking\\/spalling). Loss of steel

  18. 21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90...Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner...

  19. MeMBer filter for manoeuvring targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Darcy; Kirubarajan, T.

    2012-06-01

    This paper will introduce a new Multitarget Multi-Bernoulli (MeMBer) recursion for tracking targets traveling under multiple motion models. The proposed interacting multiple model MeMBer (IMM-MeMBer) filter uses Jump Markov Models (JMM) to extended the basic MeMBer recursion to allow for multiple motion models. This extension is implemented using both the SMC and GM based MeMBer approximations. The recursive prediction and update equations are presented for both implementations. Each multiple model implementation is validated against its respective standard MeMBer implementation as well as against each other. This validation is done using a simulated scenario containing multiple maneuvering targets. A variety of metrics are observed including target detection capability, estimate accuracy and model likelihood determination.

  20. Locus of control, sources of motivation, and mental boundaries as antecedents of leader-member exchange quality.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E; Finch, Weltmer Dayna; Pennisi, Lisa A

    2010-02-01

    In this study were examined leaders' and members' scores on locus of control, sources of motivation, and mental boundaries to predict the quality of leader-member exchanges. 80 elected officials and their 388 direct reports were sampled in a field study. Analysis indicated followers' scores on locus of control, leaders' scores of self-concept internal motivation, leaders' scores on locus of control, and followers' rated goal-internalization motivation were positively related to leader-member exchanges. Implications and directions for research are discussed. PMID:20402442

  1. TWO UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE FACULTY MEMBERS AND A BOARD MEMBER NAMED TO THE

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    TWO UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE FACULTY MEMBERS AND A BOARD MEMBER NAMED TO THE DAILY RECORD'S LIST OF INFLUENTIAL MARYLANDERS Wednesday, February 13, 2013 Drs. Fraser and Rodriguez, as well as Board Member Emeritus Peter Angelos, Recognized The University of Maryland School of Medicine's Claire

  2. Partnerships at the Middle Level: Perceptions of Family Members, Community Members, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Patricia Maureen

    Recognizing the need for family, school, and community members to participate in partnerships to support middle level children, this study investigated the perceptions of family members, community members, and middle school teachers regarding their relationships with each other from a perspective that views all three groups as integral parts of a…

  3. The costs of family caregiving: implications for geriatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Haley, William E

    2003-11-01

    Older adults with cancer receive considerable care from their family members. The article reviews the types of stressors family members face while caregiving, and what is known about the psychological, physical health, social, and economic costs of caregiving. The benefits experienced by caregivers, and sustained effects on families after bereavement or cancer survivorship are also reviewed. Interventions that are promising in decreasing the costs of caregiving, and implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:14607378

  4. Role of transient receptor potential ankyrin subfamily member 1 in pruritus induced by endothelin-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiexian Liang; Qing Ji; Wenjin Ji

    2011-01-01

    Noxious cold reduces pruritus and transient receptor potential ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1), a non-selective cation channel, is known as a noxious cold-activated ion channel. Recent findings implicated the involvement of TRPA1 in pain induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1). Therefore, we evaluated its potential role in pruritus induced by ET-1. We found that ruthenium red (RR; a nonselective TRP inhibitor) and

  5. Family member involvement in hastened death.

    PubMed

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L; Pearlman, Robert A; Koenig, Barbara A; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R; Bharucha, Ashok J

    2007-02-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family care-giving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared for adverse events; "tying up loose ends" included dealing with family members' fear of legal consequences; and "moving ahead" involved a greater risk of complicated grief when families encountered complications during the dying process. These results highlight the positive and negative consequences of family members' participation in a hastened death. PMID:17410692

  6. Advertising Inter-domain QoS Routing Information Li Xiao, Student Member, IEEE, Jun Wang, Student Member, IEEE, King-Shan Lui, Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    Member, IEEE, King-Shan Lui, Member, IEEE, and Klara Nahrstedt, Member, IEEE Abstract-- To enable end and do not necessarily reflect the views of the DARPA or NSF. Li Xiao, Jun Wang and Klara Nahrstedt

  7. Your Portrait: Board Members Support Voc Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Despite some regional differences, school board members strongly approve of vocational education and take issue with critics who doubt the value of these programs for high school students. (Author/IRT)

  8. 7 CFR 989.33 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.33 Alternate members....

  9. Side wall between differentiating vessel members.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine Esau

    2004-03-09

    Side wall between differentiating vessel members. Secondary wall deposition not yet evident. In the older cell (below), microtubules concentrate near young helical thickenings and are absent along the primary wall.

  10. 75 FR 72872 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...Secretary of the Navy, Civilian Human Resources. Alternate Board Members Deborah McCallum, Assistant General Counsel. Diana Rubens, Associate Deputy Under Secretary for Field Operations, VBA. Madhulika Agarwal, Chief Officer, Patient Care...

  11. To: BREA Executive Committee CC: Committee members

    E-print Network

    : Wednesday. 11 May 2005 In attendance: Graham Campbell, Dave Cox, Alyce Daly, Renee Flack, Jules Godel, Carol members. It was reported that Kurt Fuchel is residing at the Senior Assisted Living facility in East

  12. Spacelab simulations crew members during medical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Spacelab simulations crew members during medical testing. Photo is of Patricia Cowings being zipped into the one-meter-diameter rescue ball during physical tests. Assisting her is Joe Schmitt, a suit technician.

  13. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-03-22

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

  14. Wall between older and younger vessel members.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine Esau

    2004-03-09

    Wall between older (right) and younger (left) vessel members. Microtubules accumulate near the secondary wall in younger cell. Membrane-bound vesicles appear as blebs on plasmalemma. Primary wall of older cell are partly hydrolyzed.

  15. 2013 Member Handbook Universities Academic Pension Plan

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    2013 Member Handbook Universities Academic Pension Plan #12;Introduction..................................................................... 2 Introduction to the Pension Plan Contacts for More Information Information Sheets UAPP Website Sponsors The Board of Trustees Joining the Pension Plan

  16. Elastomeric member for energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI); Chute, Richard (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16), disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, transition end sections, and is attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). During manufacture, woven wire mesh sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle. Each sleeve (26, 28) contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween.

  17. ULTIMATE BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY STEEL SECTION WELDED SPLICES AND DESIGN IMPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Michel

    ULTIMATE BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY STEEL SECTION WELDED SPLICES AND DESIGN IMPLICATIONS By Michel Bruneau,' Associate Member, ASCE, and Stephen A. Mahin,2 Member, ASCE ABSTRACT: Full- and partial-penetration butt-welded splices of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) group four and five rolled steel sections

  18. Ephrin\\/Eph receptor expression in brain of adult nonhuman primates: Implications for neuroadaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danqing Xiao; Gregory M. Miller; Amy Jassen; Susan V. Westmoreland; Douglas Pauley; Bertha K. Madras

    2006-01-01

    In developing brain, Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands (Ephs\\/ephrins) are implicated in facilitating topographic guidance of a number of pathways, including the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathways. In adult rodent brain, these molecules are implicated in neuronal plasticity associated with learning and memory. Cocaine significantly alters the expression of select members of this family of axonal guidance molecules,

  19. Method to drill and tap a hollow underwater member

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wankmuller

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method of strengthening a hollow underwater member by converting it to a substantially solid underwater member. The method comprises the steps of: forming fluid inlet and outlet ports through the wall of the hollow member at substantially opposite ends of the member; ascertaining the need for strengthening the hollow member by revealing leak holes in the

  20. Participant role approach to school bullying: implications for interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTINA SALMIVALLI

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes practical implications of the participant role approach to bullying in schools. This view looks at bullying as a group phenomenon which is largely enabled and maintained by members of a school class taking on different participant roles (such as assistants of the bully, reinforcers of the bully, or outsiders). Since peers are involved in bullying in different

  1. Seasonal, Episodic and Periodic Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage Recorded By DEEP Piezometric Monitoring in the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna DELTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, W. G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R. G.; Ahmed, K. M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.; Zahid, A.

    2014-12-01

    Piezometric monitoring in vertical profile at sites across the southern and coastal floodplains of the Ganges/Brahmaputra/Meghna (GBM) delta confirms gravitational flow in sediments of the Bengal Aquifer System (BAS) to a depth of at least 320 m (the maximum depth of measurement). Individual and paired records of groundwater head indicate seasonal recovery and recession of water storage, periodic and episodic ground surface loading, and earth tide responses. Lunar periodicity in groundwater head fluctuation coincident with tide height at one coastal site is consistent with tidal surface loading/unloading. Diurnal tidal fluctuations in the same record change amplitude and shift phase with depth, also indicative of surface loading/unloading. Transience in the surface loading signals with depth is governed by the vertically integrated hydraulic properties of the thick BAS sedimentary sequence. Inland, earth tide responses of smaller amplitude and lacking phase shift with depth are ubiquitous in the background signal. Most records include clearly resolvable episodic deflections in the order of 0.1 m water head and up to 0.5 m water head, near simultaneous with depth, corresponding to individual episodes of rainfall. The episodic head deflections provide a record of change in terrestrial water storage (?TWS) comprising undifferentiated surface water flooding, soil moisture and shallow groundwater recharge - a direct land-based equivalent of satellite estimates of ?TWS. Enigmatic short-term recession from individual deflection peaks may be related to elastic deformation and ground surface lowering under terrestrial water storage loading.

  2. Hydrologic Visualization of Glacier-Driven Watersheds to Enhance Education Exchange Between Students from the US and Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta on Freshwater Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    It has been argued and demonstrated in the past that STEM outreach in the field of hydrology is effective only when it is contextualized using an actual problem that students can visualize in 'their backyard.' The Puyallup watershed, which is in the "backyard" of University of Washington (UW) and the Ganges Brahmaputra (GB) Delta (which UW Department of Civil Engineering has institutional access through an MOU with Institute of Water Modeling-IWM, Bangladesh and International Center for Integrated Mountain Development-ICIMOD, Nepal) provide an ideal opportunity to build a unique education program for US and South Asian students on global freshwater sustainability. Using a rich set of geospatial data layers, dynamic hydrologic datasets and a user-driven visualization platform called Hydro-VIZ, we present a plan on how exchange students can witness the differences in human-nature coupling of each region and share notes on the future of freshwater supply for densely-populated deltas. We discuss the development of a set of place-based learning curricular material built around two contrasting regions and the HydroVIZ platform with functionality to explore the human coupling of water sustainability.

  3. Effects of tectonic deformation and sea level on river path selection: Theory and application to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Meredith D.; Pickering, Jennifer L.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Paola, Chris; Steckler, Michael S.; Seeber, Leonardo; Akhter, Syed H.

    2015-04-01

    The set of active rivers of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta in Bangladesh overlies an active plate boundary that continually modifies the landscape of the delta by deformation. The response of rivers to spatially variable subsidence, from tectonic tilting or other causes, has been thought to include preferred occupation of regions of higher subsidence. In this paper, we develop further the theoretical framework for analysis of the interplay of tectonics and river dynamics, and apply this model to conditions in the GBM Delta. First, we examine the overall competition between variable subsidence and channel dynamics, and find that tilting in Bangladesh should be strong enough to influence river path selection. We then present new theory for the effect of subsidence that is spatially (not temporally) variable. We find a constant residence timescale on different parts of the delta, and differing frequencies of avulsion to these locations, and describe the effects of incision or floodplain deposition on these quantities. We present estimates of the channel residence timescale of the Jamuna (Brahmaputra) River reconstructed from the lithology, provenance, and dating of sediment cores. We apply our framework to a map of regional subsidence to predict the effects on avulsion for the Jamuna River. Comparison between our predicted (2150 years) and our stratigraphically based estimates of avulsion timescale (1800 years) shows encouraging consistency.

  4. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  5. 17 CFR 200.57 - Relationships with other members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.57 Relationships with other members. Each member should recognize that his conscience and those of other members are distinct entities and that differing shades of opinion should be anticipated. The free...

  6. 76 FR 63616 - SES Performance Review Board; Appointment of Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION SES Performance Review Board; Appointment of Members AGENCY: Equal...and titles of executives appointed to serve as members of the SES PRE. Members will serve a 12-month term, which begins...

  7. 4 CFR 28.140 - Personnel actions involving SES members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Personnel actions involving SES members. 28.140 Section 28.140 ...§ 28.140 Personnel actions involving SES members. Members of the GAO Senior Executive Service (SES) may appeal adverse actions relating...

  8. 77 FR 63313 - SES Performance Review Board; Appointment of Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION SES Performance Review Board; Appointment of Members AGENCY: Equal...and titles of executives appointed to serve as members of the SES PRB. Members will serve a 12-month term, which begins...

  9. 4 CFR 28.140 - Personnel actions involving SES members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Personnel actions involving SES members. 28.140 Section 28.140 ...§ 28.140 Personnel actions involving SES members. Members of the GAO Senior Executive Service (SES) may appeal adverse actions relating...

  10. 4 CFR 28.140 - Personnel actions involving SES members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Personnel actions involving SES members. 28.140 Section 28.140 ...§ 28.140 Personnel actions involving SES members. Members of the GAO Senior Executive Service (SES) may appeal adverse actions relating...

  11. 4 CFR 28.140 - Personnel actions involving SES members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Personnel actions involving SES members. 28.140 Section 28.140 ...§ 28.140 Personnel actions involving SES members. Members of the GAO Senior Executive Service (SES) may appeal adverse actions relating...

  12. 4 CFR 28.140 - Personnel actions involving SES members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 true Personnel actions involving SES members. 28.140 Section 28.140 ...§ 28.140 Personnel actions involving SES members. Members of the GAO Senior Executive Service (SES) may appeal adverse actions relating...

  13. Results -Spring Election Member Type Group Elected Type / Term

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Opportunities in Education Committee Jeff Boerner Member - 2 year CAHSS Faculty Senate Amanda Brown Member - 3 Berrier Member - 1 year Faculty At-Large January Opening Week Professional Development Committee Todd

  14. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance Through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin

    2012-07-16

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join ...

  15. Overcoming shadows in 3-source photometric stereo Carlos Hernandez, Member, IEEE, George Vogiatzis, Member, IEEE, and Roberto Cipolla, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    1 Overcoming shadows in 3-source photometric stereo Carlos Hern´andez, Member, IEEE, George. Hern´andez and G. Vogiatzis are with Toshiba Resrearch Europe Ltd, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ, UK. E-mail: carlos.hernandez@crl.toshiba.co.uk E-mail: george

  16. Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

  17. Metabolic Regulation by p53 Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Berkers, Celia R.; Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Cheung, Eric C.; Mor, Inbal; Vousden, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    The function of p53 is best understood in response to genotoxic stress, but increasing evidence suggests that p53 also plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. p53 and its family members directly influence various metabolic pathways, enabling cells to respond to metabolic stress. These functions are likely to be important for restraining the development of cancer but could also have a profound effect on the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. A better understanding of the metabolic functions of p53 family members may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and reveal novel uses for p53-modulating drugs. PMID:23954639

  18. Analysis of Mental Retardation Service Provision for Class Members and Non-Class Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreat, Scott; Conroy, James W.

    2003-01-01

    A class action suit led to the 1985 closure of a large, publicly funded institution for persons with mental retardation in Oklahoma. This study compared services provided to class members with those not in the plaintiff class. Findings indicated that members of the plaintiff class received substantially more services and a greater share of the…

  19. Enhancing Data Analysis with Noise Removal Hui Xiong, Member, IEEE, Gaurav Pandey, Student Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Vipin

    Enhancing Data Analysis with Noise Removal Hui Xiong, Member, IEEE, Gaurav Pandey, Student Member--Removing objects that are noise is an important goal of data cleaning as noise hinders most types of data analysis or only weakly relevant can also significantly hinder data analysis. Thus, if the goal is to enhance

  20. The Streaming-DMT of Fading Channels Ashish Khisti Member, IEEE, and Stark Draper Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Khisti, Ashish

    The Streaming-DMT of Fading Channels Ashish Khisti Member, IEEE, and Stark Draper Member, IEEE-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) in the high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime, and show that it equals T times the DMT to be new. We propose two coding schemes that achieve the optimal DMT. The first scheme involves

  1. Why are Faculty Members Not Teaching Blended Courses? Insights from Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Mehmet Akif

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory, qualitative case study and examines problems and impediments faculty members encountered in blended learning environments in Turkish Higher Education system. A total of 117 faculty members from 4 universities responded to 8 interview questions. Findings were based on content analyses of…

  2. Wireless Technology in Industrial Networks Andreas Willig, Member, IEEE, Kirsten Matheus, Member, IEEE, Adam Wolisz, Senior

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    1 Wireless Technology in Industrial Networks Andreas Willig, Member, IEEE, Kirsten Matheus, Member), pp. 1130-1151 Abstract With the success of wireless technologies in consumer electronics, standard wireless technologies are envisioned for the deployment in industrial environments as well. Industrial

  3. Compressed Facade Displacement Maps Saif Ali, Jieping Ye, Member, IEEE, Anshuman Razdan, Member, IEEE, and

    E-print Network

    Compressed Facade Displacement Maps Saif Ali, Jieping Ye, Member, IEEE, Anshuman Razdan, Member. To prevent a memory transfer bottleneck, we propose to render the models from a compressed representation by ray-tracing displacement maps in the fragment shader. We demonstrate how to compress a displacement

  4. The First Aid course costs $30 UWM Students & UREC Members / $40 Non-Members

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    The First Aid course costs $30 UWM Students & UREC Members / $40 Non-Members CPR/AED AND FIRST AID RE-CERTIFICATION CHALLENGES: These challenges allow anyone with a current Red Cross CPR/AED or First.m. - 5:30 p.m. ADULT CPR/AED FIRST AID American Red Cross CPR/AED and First Aid certifications are valid

  5. Priority Tries for IP Address Lookup Hyesook Lim, Member, IEEE, Changhoon Yim, Member, IEEE, and

    E-print Network

    Yim, Changhoon

    Priority Tries for IP Address Lookup Hyesook Lim, Member, IEEE, Changhoon Yim, Member, IEEE, and Earl E. Swartzlander, Jr., Fellow, IEEE Abstract--High-speed IP address lookup is essential to achieve wire speed packet forwarding in Internet routers. The longest prefix matching for IP address lookup

  6. Curved Glide-Reflection Symmetry Detection Seungkyu Lee, Member, IEEE, and Yanxi Liu, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    . We propose a local feature-based approach for curved glide- reflection symmetry detection from realCurved Glide-Reflection Symmetry Detection Seungkyu Lee, Member, IEEE, and Yanxi Liu, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--We generalize the concept of bilateral reflection symmetry to curved glide-reflection

  7. Gibbs Construction in Steganography Toms Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Fridrich, Jessica

    1 Gibbs Construction in Steganography Tomás Filler, Student Member, IEEE and Jessica Fridrich, Member, IEEE Abstract--We make a connection between steganography de- sign by minimizing embedding- duces the design of secure steganography in empirical covers to the problem of finding local potentials

  8. Light-Efficient Photography Samuel W. Hasinoff, Member, IEEE, and Kiriakos N. Kutulakos, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Jepson, Allan D.

    Light-Efficient Photography Samuel W. Hasinoff, Member, IEEE, and Kiriakos N. Kutulakos, Member to off-the-shelf cameras and typical photography conditions, and advocate the use of dense, wide-aperture photo sequences as a light-efficient alternative to single-shot, narrow-aperture photography. Index

  9. Color Imaging for Multimedia GAURAV SHARMA, MEMBER, IEEE, MICHAEL J. VRHEL, MEMBER, IEEE, AND

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Gaurav

    Color Imaging for Multimedia GAURAV SHARMA, MEMBER, IEEE, MICHAEL J. VRHEL, MEMBER, IEEE, AND H. JOEL TRUSSELL, FELLOW, IEEE To a significant degree, multimedia applications derive their effectiveness-based multimedia systems have grown from their humble beginnings into systems that truly allow the integration

  10. Method to drill and tap a hollow underwater member

    SciTech Connect

    Wankmuller, R.N.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method of strengthening a hollow underwater member by converting it to a substantially solid underwater member. The method comprises the steps of: forming fluid inlet and outlet ports through the wall of the hollow member at substantially opposite ends of the member; ascertaining the need for strengthening the hollow member by revealing leak holes in the member caused by corrosion or structural damage; and injecting grout into the member through one of the ports and discharging the fluid therein through the outer port thereof to substantially fill the member with grout.

  11. Proactive Collective Bargaining for School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California School Boards Association, Sacramento.

    This handbook is a guide to the collective bargaining process for school board members. It emphasizes the need for school boards to take the initiative in setting goals, reducing the potential for friction, and preserving management prerogatives against the competing responsibility to bargain in good faith under the law. Chapter 1 describes the…

  12. Honoring Service members on Veterans Day

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Honoring Service members on Veterans Day Story on page 4 #12;2 YANKEE ENGINEER November 2013 Yankee Samaris, New England District Commander, joins the people of Westford, Mass., in celebrating Veterans Day by all of our Wounded Warriors. On Monday, Nov. 11, our Nation celebrated Veterans Day, a day to express

  13. Charter Members History of Pi Mu Epsilon

    E-print Network

    Feingold, Alex

    Signing of the Roll Book Distribution of Certificates Student Officers Taylor R. Finn Kristen J. Kohler. Herman Deirdre Lavelle Hickey Robert John Hogan Jr. Olivia C. Hon Hui-Hung Hwang Mustafa Ibrahim Members Norcini Ridwan Olatilewa Melissa Oskowsky Charles B. Owens Robert Panebianco Jr. Sung Seo Park Nicholas C

  14. Team Productivity and Individual Member Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses distribution of capabilities and role assignments on a team and proposes a model linking variables that affect productivity. Research is needed on what interaction processes result from team characteristics and which processes affect team productivity for members with particular capabilities. (Author/JAC)

  15. THE MESSENGER Switzerland, Member of ESO .

    E-print Network

    Liske, Jochen

    THE MESSENGER Switzerland, Member of ESO . No. 27 - March 1982 .. . and Italy wi11 Follow Soon is deposited with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. We welcome this imminent happy event. Switzerland, the Federal Council of Switzerland submitted its signed ESO membership document to the French Foreign Ministry

  16. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA for marketing must be produced by its members for the CMA to obtain a loan or LDP for such crop. CCC...years, waive this requirement if: (1) The CMA can establish to CCC that such...

  17. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA for marketing must be produced by its members for the CMA to obtain a loan or LDP for such crop. CCC...years, waive this requirement if: (1) The CMA can establish to CCC that such...

  18. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA for marketing must be produced by its members for the CMA to obtain a loan or LDP for such crop. CCC...years, waive this requirement if: (1) The CMA can establish to CCC that such...

  19. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA for marketing must be produced by its members for the CMA to obtain a loan or LDP for such crop. CCC...years, waive this requirement if: (1) The CMA can establish to CCC that such...

  20. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA for marketing must be produced by its members for the CMA to obtain a loan or LDP for such crop. CCC...years, waive this requirement if: (1) The CMA can establish to CCC that such...

  1. Performance Of Mooring System Tension Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gibson

    1983-01-01

    The subject of mooring lines encompasses a broad spectrum of service requirements (water depths, sea states, tensile loadings, and useful service lives) and a wide variety of candidate mooring members (chain, wire rope, synthetic fiber rope, electromechanical cables, or combinations of these elements). For some systems, a suitable mooring line may have a breaking strength of only a few hundred

  2. Physical Fitness of University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, H. N.; Barksdale, J. M.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity, aerobic fitness, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in 27 male and 21 female university faculty members. Results of t-tests indicate that the males had significantly greater values for physical activity index, systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness (V02 max), and…

  3. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

  4. UNIVERSITY of WASHINGTON Individual Science Party Member

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    UNIVERSITY of WASHINGTON Individual Science Party Member Personal Data Form You must complete-entry U.S. visa: and date of issue: PERSON TO BE NOTIFIED IN CASE OF EMERGENCY: Name: Relationship: Phone Hall Health Primary Care Center at (206) 685-1060 or your primary care physician). Should I require

  5. May 2, 2012 Family Member Verification Deadline

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    insurance, supplemental life insurance, ADD, disability, and supplemental disability. Frequently asked are a problem for employers and members nationwide. UC's health & welfare benefits program for faculty, staff, including social security numbers, on your documents before sending them in. 5. What if I am away from home

  6. Member Handbook Information about your pension plan

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    1 Member Handbook Information about your pension plan Know your pension options Plan for your retirement #12;2 Are you online? Your pension information is just a click away at www.pspp.ca. Each year you get your pension information by mail, but now you can access it when you need it. Sign up

  7. Board Member Testifies at Cyber Safety Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    House Education and Labor Subcommittee on Healthy Families and Communities unanimously expressed concern for the growing trend in cyberbullying during a hearing last June 24. The event, which featured National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) board member Barbara-Jane Paris and other witnesses, including TV personality Dr. Phil…

  8. A Union Member's Guide to Employee Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juravich, Tom; Harris, Howard

    This guide is intended to be a first-time, general introduction to employee involvement for trade unionists--local leaders, stewards, and rank-and-file members. It makes no attempt to be comprehensive, but instead raises the major issues concerning employee involvement framed in trade union terms. Part I looks at the kinds of employee involvement…

  9. Number Theory group in Nottingham Current members

    E-print Network

    Wuthrich, Christian

    Number Theory group in Nottingham Current members Prof. Ivan Fesenko Dr. Konstantin Ardakov Dr Ricotta (12/2007 ­ 8/2008) Dr. Masatoshi Suzuki (until 2/2008) Six Ph.D. students #12;Number Theory group in Nottingham What do we do ? #12;Number Theory group in Nottingham What do we do ? Analytic : Algebraic

  10. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  11. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-12-10

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  12. Policymaking: A Challenge for School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ellen, Ed.

    This booklet consists of seven articles intended to introduce new school board members in Texas to the formation and implementation of educational policy, with particular emphasis on the legal requirements governing policy-making and other school board activities. The articles include the following: "Policy Development: An Overview," by Richard L.…

  13. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  14. Variations in fluvial style in the Westwater Canyon Member, Morrison formation (Jurassic), San Juan basin, Colorado plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miall, A.D.; Turner-Peterson, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of architectural element analysis and lateral profiling have been applied to the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic) in southern San Juan Basin. On a large scale, the sandstone-body architecture consists mainly of a series of tabular sandstone sheets 5-15 m thick and hundreds of meters wide, separated by thin fine-grained units. Internally these sheets contain lateral accretion surfaces and are cut by channels 10-20 m deep and at least 250 m wide. On a more detailed scale, interpretations made from large-scale photomosaics show a complex of architectural elements and bounding surfaces. Typical indicators of moderate- to high-sinuosity channels (lateral accretion deposits) coexist in the same outcrop with downstream-accreted macroform deposits that are typical of sand flats of low-sinuosity, multiple-channel rivers. Broad, deep channels with gently to steeply dipping margins were mapped in several of the outcrops by carefully tracing major bounding surfaces. Locally thick accumulations of plane-laminated and low-angle cross-laminated sandstone lithofacies suggest rapid flow, probably transitional to upper flow regime conditions. Such a depositional style is most typical of ephemeral rivers or those periodically undergoing major seasonal (or more erratic) stage fluctuations, an interpretation consistent with independent mineralogical evidence of aridity. Fining-upward sequences are rare in the project area, contrary to the descriptions of Campbell (1976). The humid alluvial fan model of Galloway (1978) cannot be substantiated and, similarly, the architectural model of Campbell (1976) requires major revision. Comparisons with the depositional architecture of the large Indian rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, still seem reasonable, as originally proposed by Campbell (1976), although there is now convincing evidence for aridity and for major stage fluctuations, which differs both from those modern rivers and Campbell's interpretation. ?? 1989.

  15. Alignment Jigs For Bonding End Fittings To Truss Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    Set of alignment jigs hold fittings during adhesive bonding of fittings to ends of truss members. For each member, jigs hold two end fittings collinear while member allowed to move slightly, within dimensional tolerances, during injection and curing of adhesive. Once adhesive cured, fittings remain collinear even though member not necessarily perfectly straight between them.

  16. An epidemiological assessment of problematic contacts to members of Congress.

    PubMed

    Scalora, Mario J; Baumgartner, Jerome V; Zimmerman, William; Callaway, David; Hatch Maillette, Mary A; Covell, Christmas N; Palarea, Russell E; Krebs, Jason A; Washington, David O

    2002-11-01

    In order to assess the nature of threat assessment activity pertaining to members of Congress, 4387 cases involving threatening and other problematic contact were analyzed. The cases were studied regarding subject characteristics, articulated motives, as well as several aspects of contact behavior in relation to approach behavior. Approachers were significantly less likely to have articulated threat language prior to or during their contacts and were also less likely to have stated a policy grievance (foreign or domestic) as the source of their concern. Further, approachers were substantially more likely to have expressed help seeking requests as part of their prior and approach-related contacts and were less likely to have had racial or sexualized content within their contacts. Approachers were also significantly more likely to have had a criminal record as well as displayed symptoms suggestive of major mental illness. Subjects engaging in approach behavior were also less likely to have used an alias, were less likely to be a direct constituent of the target and were more likely to have contacted multiple congressional targets. The implications for threat assessment activity are discussed. PMID:12455664

  17. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices

    PubMed Central

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and past experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design Eight focus groups, two with each segment (men/women vegetable-likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Setting Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Participants 61 low-income, married/cohabiting men (n=28) and women (n=33). Analysis Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t-tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Results Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable-liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Past experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored due to unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Conclusions and Implications Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could 1) alter family norms about vegetables served, 2) change perceptions of past experiences, 3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables and 4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. PMID:20452288

  18. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudduha, M.; Uddin, A.; Saunders, J. A.; Lee, M.-K.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 µg/L to 191 µg/L with a mean concentration of 33 µg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO3 type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO4. The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 µg/L. Deeper aquifer (> 100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 µg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  19. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. PMID:18528911

  20. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions. PMID:18502538

  1. Sedimentary profile from oxbow lake as an archive for past productivity and vegetation changes: a case study from Ganges basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Sambit; Sanyal, Prasanta; Ambili, Anoop

    2015-04-01

    Isotope (?13CSOM) and biomarker (lipid n-alkane) investigations has been carried out on three sedimentary profiles (ca. 1.8 m depth) collected from Mohanpur, West Bengal, India with the aim of reconstructing paleovegetational and paleoproductivity changes. Satellite images reveal that the investigated sediments has been deposited in an oxbow lake setting of the river Ganges. The correlation of the three sedimentary profiles has been achieved using lithological and isotopic (?13CSOM) marker layers. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the profile ranges from 0.9% to 0.1%. The isotopic analysis (?13CSOM) shows values mostly fluctuating between -19.2o to -22o with a rapid excursions (~5) showing enriched ?13CSOMvalue (-14.2) observed at ca. 1.5 m depth. The biomarker studies of the profile reveals dominant preferences in short carbon chain (C14, C16, C18, C20) with a little preferences for higher chain (C29, C31, C33). Interestingly, n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth shows very high concentration in short chain n-alkanes. Since the lower chain n-alkane represents aquatic vegetation/productivity and higher chain indicates the terrestrial contribution, the data from the investigated sedimentary profile shows contribution mostly from aquatic vegetation with a little contribution from terrestrial plants. This inference has been further corroborated by ?13CSOMvalues (-19.2o to -22) of the sedimentary profile typical of mixed aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Additionally, the enriched ?13CSOMvalue (-14.2) coupled with very high concentration of short chain n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth reveals intense lake eutrophication. The development of rigorous chronology and high resolution data set of additional analytical parameters (e.g., C/N, ?15N) will provide crucial paleoclimate data set from this unexplored setting of Indian summer monsoon domain.

  2. 7 CFR 905.150 - Eligibility requirements for public member and alternate member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...citrus fruit (except as a consumer of agricultural products). (b) The public member...become familiar with the background and economics of the industry. (c) The...

  3. Distributed Weight Balancing over Digraphs Apostolos I. Rikos, Member, IEEE, Themistoklis Charalambous, Member, IEEE, and

    E-print Network

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    Distributed Weight Balancing over Digraphs Apostolos I. Rikos, Member, IEEE, Themistoklis-balance Apostolos I. Rikos is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Cyprus

  4. Abstinence Among Members of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. LeBron McBride

    1991-01-01

    A.A. has continued to dominate the alcoholism treatment field, yet very little outcome research has been completed on this organization. This paper reviews the research literature of outcome studies on A.A. and presents a study of the correlation of a sample of A.A. members' length of membership by their length of abstinence. A.A. attendance appeared to be significantly related to

  5. Interleukin17 Family Members and Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay K. Kolls; Anders Lindén

    2004-01-01

    IL-17A was cloned more than 10 years ago and six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) have subsequently been described. IL-17A is largely produced by activated memory T lymphocytes but stimulates innate immunity and host defense. IL-17A and IL-17F both mobilize neutrophils partly through granulopoeisis and CXC chemokine induction, as well as increased survival locally. IL-17A and IL-17F production by T lymphocytes

  6. Orientating Nonpharmacist Faculty Members to Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Bianca; Sheridan, Leah; Sucher, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design, implement, and evaluate a faculty development program intended to orient nonpharmacist faculty members to pharmacy practice. Design. A multifaceted program was implemented in 2012 that included 4 shadowing experiences in which faculty members visited acute care, ambulatory care, hospital, and community pharmacy settings under the guidance of licensed preceptors. Itineraries for each visit were based on objective lists of anticipated practice experiences that define the role of the pharmacist in each setting. Assessment. The 4 shadowing experiences culminated with reflection and completion of a survey to assess the impact of the program. All of the faculty participants agreed that the experience improved their conceptual understanding of contemporary pharmacy practice and the role of the pharmacist in the healthcare setting. The experience also improved faculty comfort with creating practice-relevant classroom activities. Conclusions. A shadowing experience is an effective way of orienting nonpharmacist faculty members to the practice of pharmacy. This program inspired the creation of an experience to introduce pharmacy practice faculty to pharmaceutical science faculty research initiatives. PMID:24954946

  7. On the Capacity of k-MPR Wireless Networks Ming-Fei Guo, Member, IEEE, Xinbing Wang, Member, IEEE, Min-You Wu, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xinbing

    1 On the Capacity of k-MPR Wireless Networks Ming-Fei Guo, Member, IEEE, Xinbing Wang, Member, IEEE, Min-You Wu, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The capacity of wireless ad hoc networks is mainly the capacity of 2-D wireless networks wherein each node can decode at most k simultaneous transmis- sions

  8. Hybrid-member stiffness matrix accounting for geometrical nonlinearity and member inelasticity in semi-rigid frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuxin Liu

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the derivation of a generic stiffness matrix for steel members accounting for the combined influence of P–delta effects, member shear deformation, inelasticity, semi-rigid connection, and joint damage. Member stiffness coefficients accounting for rotational stiffness degradation are derived using the modified moment distribution method. The displacement method is applied to derive the member stiffness coefficients due to translational

  9. Sisterhood may be powerful for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: an evaluation of the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Arnold, Julie S; Eckstein, Robert P; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    Sorority members may be at greater risk than other college women for sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluated the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members who participated in the program (n = 30) compared with those who did not (n = 18). Results indicate that program participants showed increased bystander efficacy, likelihood to help, and responsibility for ending violence without unintended "backlash" effects. Implications include a call for future programming with more diverse sorority members over longer time. In addition, we discuss what the findings might mean for formal campus policies and practices for preventing sexual violence and IPV. PMID:21628337

  10. An eye for the I: Preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kerry; Williams, Amanda; Sidhu, David; Choma, Becky L; Rodriguez-Bailón, Rosa; Cañadas, Elena; Chung, Derek; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Human faces, and more specifically the eyes, play a crucial role in social and nonverbal communication because they signal valuable information about others. It is therefore surprising that few studies have investigated the impact of intergroup contexts and motivations on attention to the eyes of ingroup and outgroup members. Four experiments investigated differences in eye gaze to racial and novel ingroups using eye tracker technology. Whereas Studies 1 and 3 demonstrated that White participants attended more to the eyes of White compared to Black targets, Study 2 showed a similar pattern of attention to the eyes of novel ingroup and outgroup faces. Studies 3 and 4 also provided new evidence that eye gaze is flexible and can be meaningfully influenced by current motivations. Specifically, instructions to individuate specific social categories increased attention to the eyes of target group members. Furthermore, the latter experiments demonstrated that preferential attention to the eyes of ingroup members predicted important intergroup biases such as recognition of ingroup over outgroup faces (i.e., the own-race bias; Study 3) and willingness to interact with outgroup members (Study 4). The implication of these findings for general theorizing on face perception, individuation processes, and intergroup relations are discussed. PMID:24956311

  11. Accelerated aging of wood-composite members

    SciTech Connect

    Sonti, S.S.; GangaRao, H.V.S.; Talakanti, D.R. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the longterm performance of various adhesives under accelerated aging conditions, where the intended application of the adhesives is bonding wood member to composite fabric wraps. Northern Red Oak was used as the core and two types of composite fabrics were used (glass and carbon) as external reinforcements. The adhesives used for bonding include: Epoxy, Polyurethane, Isopolyester, Resorcinol Formaldehyde, and Phenolic based Resorcinol Formaldehyde. Results from the shear strength evaluations show that a primer/resin combination provided a better bond compared to the bond developed by resin system only. Also, it was observed that phenolic-based resins had higher retention of shear strength after being subjected to aging conditions.

  12. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  13. A profile of Sydney club members: implications for strategic management in a newly competitive environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nerilee Hing; Helen Breen

    1999-01-01

    Registered clubs in New South Wales Australia have enjoyed a privileged competitive position for four decades, being the only providers of machine gambling in the state. However, increased competition for this core product and heightened awareness of its social impacts, as reflected in two recent government inquiries, point to a need to reassess their strategic direction, an exercise benefiting from

  14. Recycling of metasomatized lithosphere and implications for the formation of mantle end- members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilet, S.; Baker, M. B.; Stolper, E. M.; Muntener, O.

    2008-12-01

    The chemical and isotopic heterogeneity sampled by OIBs is generally accepted to reflect the continuous extraction and recycling of continental and oceanic lithosphere. However, the nature and origin of the mantle components that melt below oceanic islands are still debatable decades are they were first identified. While recycled oceanic crust is recognized as an important component in the generation of tholeiitic (i.e., hy- and qtz- normative) magmas from large oceanic islands and continental lava flows [1], the fact that oceanic crust produces silica-oversaturated partial melts makes it difficult to envision it as a major component in the generation of alkaline (i.e., ne-normative) magmas. An alternative is that the recycled components in the sources of alkaline OIBs are derived from veined/metasomatized oceanic or continental lithosphere. Experiments on amphibole (amph)-bearing veins and their dehydrated equivalents demonstrate that high- degree melting of these veins followed by variable amounts of interaction of the liquid with surrounding mantle can reproduce key features of the major- and trace-element compositions of alkaline magmas [2]. We suggest two scenarios for the production of alkaline magmas by melting metasomatized lithosphere: (i) the metasomatized lithosphere experiences a thermal perturbation or decompression and thereby melts in situ; or (ii) the metasomatized lithosphere is recycled into the convecting mantle by subduction or delamination and melts during later upwelling (e.g., in a plume). The presence in continental alkaline magmas of amph xenocrysts compositionally similar to amph in metasomatic veins is consistent with the "in situ" hypothesis. While such veins may play a role in alkaline magmas from some oceanic islands and seamounts, long residence times of the metasomatized sources are required to explain the range of isotopic ratios observed in some OIBs. The recycling scenario could isolate metasomatic veins for times sufficient for ingrowth of extreme isotopic ratios such as those observed in alkaline OIBs from Polynesia. Since our hypothesis implies that alkaline magmas are typically produced by high degrees of melting of the metasomatic veins, the petrogenesis of these veins is an important component of our model. The veins are generally interpreted as cumulates formed during the ascent and differentiation within the lithosphere of low- degree melts of volatile-rich peridotite. To evaluate whether amph cumulates are suitable as sources for alkaline magmas, we did Monte Carlo simulations of metasomatic vein formation. These simulations show that (i) cumulates produced by such processes have trace-element patterns similar to metasomatic veins observed in samples of oceanic and continental lithosphere and thus could be acceptable sources for alkaline magmas; (ii) the trace-element pattern of these model cumulates could account for the trace-element patterns of HIMU to EM magmas simply by varying the proportion of trapped intercumulus liquid in the cumulates; and (iii) the model cumulates can account for the range of isotopic composition observed in OIBs if the amph ± cpx cumulates (with variable amounts of trapped intercumulus liquid) are isolated for 1.5 to 2.5 Ga. Thus, we suggest that melting of metasomatized lithosphere is a viable hypothesis for the formation of alkaline OIBs and that the recycled components in the sources of islands characterized by tholeiitic magmas [1] differ from those where ne-normative compositions are dominant. [1] Sobolev et al. (2007) Science 316, 412 [2] Pilet et al. (2008) Science 320, 916

  15. Sexual Orientation Differences in Spirituality in a Sample of Alcoholics Anonymous Members: Implications for Practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna L. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Although research interest on the relationship between spirituality and substance misuse has grown in breadth and depth since the latter part of the twentieth century, very little research examines sexual orientation differences in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to begin to address this omission by examining sexual orientation differences (heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual) in spirituality among a sample

  16. Implications of Changes in

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    on the implications of reducing riparian buffer widths and piping of headwater streams for the State's trout streams. IMPLICATIONS OF REDUCTIONS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTHS FOR YOUNG TROUT Summary 44 4.1 Introduction 45 4.2 Predicting Stream Temperatures for 100- vs. 50-ft Riparian Buffer Widths 45 4.3 Predicting Sediment

  17. Scholarly Productivity of Athletic Training Faculty Members

    PubMed Central

    Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the scholarly productivity index (SPI) among the levels of academic appointment, degree type, and percentage of academic appointment of athletic training faculty members. Design and Setting: We used a 5 × 6 × 4 factorial design for this study. A survey instrument was used to determine the number of publications and the number of years in their current appointment. Subjects: Subjects were faculty members in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs. Measurements: The SPI was calculated by dividing the total number of publications (peer-reviewed and non–peer-reviewed journal articles, peer-reviewed abstracts, books written or edited, book chapters, platform presentations, published book reviews, and external funding) by the number of years in the productivity period. Results: The SPIs were different for the levels of academic rank. Full professors had a higher SPI than all other groups (Tukey honestly significant difference, P ? .05). Associate professors had higher SPIs than instructors or lecturers and clinical specialists, equivalent SPIs to assistant professors, and lower SPIs than full professors. Assistant professors had lower SPIs than full professors but were equivalent to all other groups. There were no differences among the levels of degree type or percentage of academic appointment. Conclusions: The scholarly productivity of athletic training educators was affected by their academic rank but not by the percentage of time they were assigned to academics or their academic degree type. PMID:12937457

  18. Gastrointestinal problems in airline crew members.

    PubMed

    Enck, P; Müller-Sacks, E; Holtmann, G; Wegmann, H

    1995-09-01

    The presence of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms was investigated by a symptom questionnaire in crew members (n = 190) - and as controls in age and sex matched ground based administrative employees (n = 100) - of a charter carrier and was related to the actual flight schedule of the flying staff during one month. In addition, health and illness behaviors and personal, job and life satisfaction were assessed and related to symptom scores and flight schedules. Flying staff did report significantly more dyspeptic symptoms than did ground staff, and this was found mainly with long-distance flying, since staff with short-haul experience only did not report as much upper intestinal complaints. Also, cabin crew reported significantly more intestinal symptoms than did cockpit members, and part of the upper GI symptoms could be explained by different eating behaviors, specifically more fibre intake in flying staff. With increasing intestinal symptom frequency, doctor visits and sick-days increased, and satisfaction with job and personal life decreased. Flying staff had, however, more awareness of the importance of health behaviors. It is concluded that frequent flying specifically on long distances may result in increased intestinal symptoms, presumably due to time-shift. PMID:8525654

  19. Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Ray E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

  20. Coupling a land surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2014-06-01

    Land surface models are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land surface-atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the land surface model JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parameterised it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges river basin (India). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm m-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 7-14 mm m-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm m-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 1-2 mm m-1. The new modelling scheme, by offering increased accuracy of evapotranspiration estimations, is an important step towards a better understanding of the two-way crops-atmosphere interactions.

  1. Coupling a land-surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.

    2014-10-01

    Land-Surface Models (LSMs) are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land-surface-atmosphere coupling over India and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the LSM JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version (v3.4) does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parametrized it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges River basin (India). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm month-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 5.4-11.6 mm month-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm month-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 2.2-3.4 mm month-1. The new modelling scheme, by offering increased accuracy of evapotranspiration estimations, is an important step towards a better understanding of the two-way crops-atmosphere interactions.

  2. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end of this century. PMID:26086045

  3. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous hurdles that we did not anticipate, and often required a change in plan. In this study we summarize these key hurdles faced and offer a step by step approach to setting up river models for large ungauged river basins. Such a guide can be useful for the community wishing to set up RAS type models in basins such as Niger, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus etc.

  4. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a liberal arts education brought a generally broader perspective than the more specialized graduate students. Overcoming this condition for the grad students is one of the principal reasons that the course was designed, and incorporating undergrads involved in the humanities and social disciplines invigorated these transdisciplinary aspects of the course.

  5. Molecular mechanics calculations of five-membered and pseudo-four-membered rings 

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Carol Rae

    1986-01-01

    . Jaan Laane Molecular mechanics calculations (MM2) were used to determine barriers to planarity and -pseudorotation in the five-membered rings, 1, 3-dioxolane and CsHsX, where X = CHz, CO, 0, S, SiHz. Energies for planar, twist (Cz) and bent (C... Conclusion CHAPTER IV PSEUDO-FOUR-MEMBERED RINGS . . Introduction Results and Discussion Bicyclo[3. 1. 0]hexane 3-0xabicyclo[3. 1. 0]hexane Page Vl vu1 X111 14 14 18 18 33 35 44 49 50 60 62 62 64 69 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Pape...

  6. Fully 3D Bayesian Image Reconstruction for the ECAT EXACT HR+ 1 Jinyi Qi2, Student Member, IEEE, Richard M. Leahy2, Member, IEEE, Chinghan Hsu2, Student Member,

    E-print Network

    Leahy, Richard M.

    , Richard M. Leahy2, Member, IEEE, Chinghan Hsu2, Student Member, IEEE, Thomas H. Farquhar3, Student Member, IEEE, and Simon R. Cherry3, Senior Member, IEEE 2 Signal and Image Processing Institute, University

  7. 50 CFR 600.250 - Council member training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Membership § 600.250 Council member training. (a) The Secretary shall provide a training course covering a variety of topics relevant to matters before the Councils and shall make the training course available to all Council members and staff...

  8. 21 CFR 14.95 - Compensation of advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees...member, while attending meetings of the full committee or a subcommittee, will be paid whether the meetings are held in the...

  9. 21 CFR 14.95 - Compensation of advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees...member, while attending meetings of the full committee or a subcommittee, will be paid whether the meetings are held in the...

  10. 21 CFR 14.95 - Compensation of advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees...member, while attending meetings of the full committee or a subcommittee, will be paid whether the meetings are held in the...

  11. "It's Helped Me with My Anger and I'm Realising Where I Go in Life": The Impact of a Scottish Youth Work / Schools Intervention on Young People's Responses to Social Strain and Engagement with Anti-Social Behaviour and Gang Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Ross; Ellis, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Moral panics relating to anti-social youth have accelerated in recent years, and there has been an increasing recognition that preventing problematic behaviour is more effective than sanctions once it occurs. Drawing upon General Strain Theory, this paper explores the social pressures that might stimulate anti-social behaviour and gang culture. It…

  12. Children's Conceptions of Characteristic Features of Category Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Fabio; Bennett, Mark; Agostini, Luisa; Malucchi, Lucilla; Ferguson, Nicola

    2000-01-01

    Investigates children's conceptions of the characteristic features of category members. Hypothesized that (1) children initially perceive category members in terms of individual characteristics and (2) only later do children conceive of category members in terms of shared beliefs and values. Two separate studies confirm the hypotheses. (CMK)

  13. Leader-Member Relations as a Function of Rapport Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Sydow Campbell; Charles D. White; Diane E. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Leader-member interaction is important to organizations. Unfortu nately, such exchanges can also be a leading cause of employee dis tress. Recent Research calls for leaders to develop higher quality rela tions with their members, which in turn will increase communication satisfaction. Scholars have also suggested additional research that focuses on interaction between leaders and members to better under stand how

  14. PENSION PLAN DECLARATION OF BENEFICIARY SECTION A: Plan Member Identification

    E-print Network

    PENSION PLAN DECLARATION OF BENEFICIARY SECTION A: Plan Member Identification Employee ID Plan Member OR; Street City Prov Postal Code N.B. In accordance with the B.C. Pension Benefits Standards Act, is entitled to the pension benefit in the event the member of the plan dies prior to their retirement date

  15. Managing Conflicting Roles: A Qualitative Study with Female Faculty Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla M. Damiano-Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    :  The interface and transactions between the roles individuals need to play in their family and employment environments are a source of both positive and negative stressors for women, their employers, and family members. Drawing on interviews with female faculty members working in three types of higher education institutions in Michigan, the paper first suggests that female faculty members’ current employment-household

  16. Homophily among Peer Groups Members' Perceived Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Alexander, Joyce M.; Estell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is one of the first examining whether peer group members hold similar levels of self-regulated learning. The study specifically addresses the potential homophily among group members' regulative abilities (metacognition, environment regulation, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking) and whether group members'…

  17. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  18. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing within, and...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  19. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing within, and...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  20. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing within, and...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  1. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing within, and...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  2. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft arriving in, continuing within, and...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

  3. Variables influencing family members' decisions regarding continued placement of family members with mental disabilities in one state-operated institution 

    E-print Network

    Colvin, Alex Don

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of the study is to identify variables influencing family members’ decisions regarding continued placement of family members with mental disabilities in state-operated mental retardation institutions. This study ...

  4. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and Albert Einstein stayed in the famous city for periods of time. The Czech capital also played host to the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, first in 1967 and, more recently, in August 2006. Astronomy in the Czech Republic is shared between the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences and several leading universities, in Prague, Brno and Opava, among others. The Astronomical Institute operates the Ondrejov Observatory, with a 2-m optical telescope and a 10-m radio telescope. Czech astronomers are very active in many fields of this science, such as solar and stellar physics, and the study of interstellar matter, galaxies and planetary systems. Created in 1962, ESO, which quite fittingly means 'ace' in the Czech language, provides state-of-the-art research facilities to European astronomers and astrophysicists. ESO's activities cover a wide spectrum including the design and construction of world-class ground-based observational facilities for the member-state scientists, large telescope projects, design of innovative scientific instruments, developing new and advanced technologies, furthering European co-operation and carrying out European educational programmes. Whilst the Headquarters are located in Garching near Munich, Germany, ESO operates three observational sites in the Chilean Atacama desert. The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is located on Paranal, a 2 600m high mountain south of Antofagasta. At La Silla, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at 2 400m altitude, ESO operates several medium-sized optical telescopes. The third site is the 5 000m high Llano de Chajnantor, near San Pedro de Atacama. Here a new submillimetre telescope (APEX) is in operation, and a giant array of 12-m submillimetre antennas (ALMA) is under development. Over 1 600 proposals are made each year for the use of the ESO telescopes.

  5. UCAN Serve AmeriCorps member name

    E-print Network

    th f sa 8/1/2010 8/2/2010 8/3/2010 8/4/2010 8/5/2010 8/6/2010 8/7/2010 su m t w th f sa 8/15/2010 8/16/2010 8/17/2010 8/18/2010 8/19/2010 8/20/2010 8/21/2010 su m t w th f sa 8/22/2010 8/23/2010 8/24/2010 8/25/2010 8/26/2010 8/27/2010 8/28/2010 su m t w th f sa 8/29/2010 8/30/2010 8/31/2010 su m t member name

  6. UCAN Serve AmeriCorps member name

    E-print Network

    th f sa su m t w th f sa 1/1/2012 1/2/2012 1/3/2012 1/4/2012 1/5/2012 1/6/2012 1/7/2012 1/15/2012 1/16/2012 1/17/2012 1/18/2012 1/19/2012 1/20/2012 1/21/2012 su m t w th f sa 1/22/2012 1/23/2012 1/24/2012 1/25/2012 1/26/2012 1/27/2012 1/28/2012 su m t w th f sa 1/29/2012 1/30/2012 1/31/2012 su m t member name

  7. Stability evaluation of steel girder members in long-span cable-stayed bridges by member-based stability concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoon Yoo; Ho-Sung Na; Eun-Soo Choi; Dong-Ho Choi

    2010-01-01

    The member-based design concept utilizing the buckling length of each structural member has been widely used to assess the\\u000a buckling instability of steel structures. Since steel girder members in conventional cable-stayed bridges are generally exposed\\u000a to large axial forces, the buckling instability of these members should be carefully investigated in the design stage. However,\\u000a analytical approaches for obtaining the buckling

  8. Detecting and Isolating Malicious Routers Alper Tugay Mzrak, Student Member, IEEE, Yu-Chung Cheng, Keith Marzullo, Member, IEEE, and

    E-print Network

    Savage, Stefan

    Detecting and Isolating Malicious Routers Alper Tugay Mzrak, Student Member, IEEE, Yu-Chung Cheng, Keith Marzullo, Member, IEEE, and Stefan Savage, Member, IEEE Abstract--Network routers occupy a unique--when network routers are subverted to act in a malicious fashion. By manipulating, diverting, or dropping

  9. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  10. Hemispheric Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael P.

    1981-01-01

    This article explores some of the current research regarding the hemispheric specialization of the brain and indicates some implications of the theory for educators in the teaching-learning process. (Author)

  11. Modeling reciprocal team cohesion-performance relationships, as impacted by shared leadership and members' competence.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, John E; Kukenberger, Michael R; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Reilly, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Despite the lengthy history of team cohesion-performance research, little is known about their reciprocal relationships over time. Using meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 17 CLP design studies, and analyze their results using SEM. Results support that team cohesion and performance are related reciprocally with each other over time. We then used longitudinal data from 205 members of 57 student teams who competed in a complex business simulation over 10 weeks, to test: (a) whether team cohesion and performance were related reciprocally over multiple time periods, (b) the relative magnitude of those relationships, and (c) whether they were stable over time. We also considered the influence of team members' academic competence and degree of shared leadership on these dynamics. As anticipated, cohesion and performance were related positively, and reciprocally, over time. However, the cohesion ? performance relationship was significantly higher than the performance ? cohesion relationship. Moreover, the cohesion ? performance relationship grew stronger over time whereas the performance ? cohesion relationship remained fairly consistent over time. As expected, shared leadership related positively to team cohesion but not directly to their performance; whereas average team member academic competence related positively to team performance but was unrelated to team cohesion. Finally, we conducted and report a replication using a second sample of students competing in a business simulation. Our earlier substantive relationships were mostly replicated, and we illustrated the dynamic temporal properties of shared leadership. We discuss these findings in terms of theoretical importance, applied implications, and directions for future research. PMID:25751749

  12. Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment. PMID:23852334

  13. Gang Up on Lighting Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A new lighting system at a Wisconsin elementary school involved replacing all the incandescent fixtures with either fluorescent, mercury vapor, or high-output fixtures. Group lamp replacement procedures instead of spot relamping are expected to save labor costs. (MLF)

  14. A Tale of Two Deltas: Contrasting Perspectives on the State of Natural and Human-modified Regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Wilson, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Roy, K.; Ahmed, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Akhter, S. H.; Hossain, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effective risk analysis and the management of complex coastal systems require that the scale of interest be well defined. Here we present recent research from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta (GBD) that highlights different, if not divergent, perspectives on the current status of this system and its potential response to future environmental change. The contrasts emerge from viewing the GBD at different temporal and spatial scales, raising the question of how scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers might most effectively develop a shared understanding of large, at-risk delta systems. Among the world's deltas, the GBD is often cited as being highly vulnerable to future sea-level rise and environmental change, owing to its vast low-lying landscape and large human population. Taking a broad perspective, however, it is not coincident that the GBD, the world's largest delta system, is fed by immense water and sediment discharge from the Asian monsoon and Himalayan orogen - simply, the size of the GBD reflects the robust processes that have constructed and maintained it. At the regional scale, the deltaplain itself is interconnected by a labyrinth of fluvial and tidal channels that effectively convey sediment to most areas of the landscape, through overbank flooding, distributaries, and tidal transport. Together, the sediment supply, water discharge, and dense channel network bless the GBD with potential basinwide accretion rates >5 mm/yr. More locally, modern sedimentation rates >10 mm/yr are observed in many areas of the tidal delta plain, which are sufficient to maintain land-surface elevations under a variety of sea-level rise scenarios, or at least to mitigate whatever effects do occur. The long-term stratigraphic record of the GBD also reflects a system in dynamic equilibrium, with major landforms persisting through changes in sea level, sediment loading, river avulsion, and delta lobe switching - together providing an encouraging outlook in the face of ongoing global environmental changes. Nevertheless, evidence of an inherently robust natural GBD contrasts with areas that have been strongly impacted by human modifications of the environment. For example, in the last five decades 15,000 km^2 of coastal islands have been embanked ('poldered') for flood protection and agricultural development, resulting in sediment starvation and a loss of elevation relative to natural tidal landscapes. Elevation losses >1 m have occurred in many of these embanked areas, yielding a rate of relative sea-level rise equivalent to 20 mm/yr, which is more than 4× that observed in the GBD's natural mangrove forest. Furthermore, the reorganization of tidal channels in response to poldering has led to local bank erosion and undercutting or weakening of embankments, exemplified by the occurrence of multiple failures during Cyclone Aila (2009). These findings demonstrate that recent and ongoing anthropogenic modifications of the land surface are cause for concern within specific regions of the GBD, and their impact on a significant portion of the delta could well be comparable to or larger than increasing rates of sea-level rise. Looking ahead, human alterations of the physical environment cannot be avoided, but we can more reliably avoid negative consequences with a more realistic and precise understanding of human-landscape interactions.

  15. Radial-velocity survey of members and candidate members of the TW Hydrae association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Torres; Eike W. Guenther; Laurence A. Marschall; Ralph Neuhaeuser; David W. Latham; Robert P. Stefanik

    2002-01-01

    We report our spectroscopic observations of stars belonging to the young\\u000anearby group known as the TW Hydrae association, as well as of a number of\\u000apotential members of the association identified in kinematic and X-ray surveys.\\u000aMultiple radial velocity measurements were obtained for each object, several of\\u000awhich turn out to be multiple systems. Orbital solutions are presented for

  16. Paradoxical Role of an Egr Transcription Factor Family Member, Egr2/Krox20, in Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that Egr1/zif268, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memories. Recently, the Egr3 family member has also been implicated in learning and memory. Because Egr family members encode closely related zinc-finger transcription factors sharing a highly homologous DNA binding domain that recognises the same DNA sequence, they may have related functions in brain. Another Egr family member expressed in brain, Egr2/Krox20 is known to be crucial for normal hindbrain development and has been implicated in several inherited peripheral neuropathies; however, due to Egr2-null mice perinatal lethality, its potential role in cognitive functions in the adult has not been yet explored. Here, we generated Egr2 conditional mutant mice allowing postnatal, forebrain-specific Cre-mediated Egr2 excision and tested homozygous, heterozygous and control littermates on a battery of behavioural tasks to evaluate motor capacity, exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity and learning and memory performance in spatial and non-spatial tasks. Egr2-deficient mice had no sign of locomotor, exploratory or anxiety disturbances. Surprisingly, they also had no impairment in spatial learning and memory, taste aversion memory or fear memory using a trace conditioning paradigm. On the contrary, Egr2-deficient mice had improved performance in motor learning on a rotarod, and in object recognition memory. These results clearly do not extend the phenotypic consequences resulting from either Egr1 or Egr3 loss-of-function to Egr2. In contrast, they indicate that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18958188

  17. Complex Determinants in Specific Members of the Mannose Receptor Family Govern Collagen Endocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Johansson, Kristina; Madsen, Daniel H.; Porse, Astrid; Melander, Maria C.; Sørensen, Kristine R.; Nielsen, Christoffer; Bugge, Thomas H.; Behrendt, Niels; Engelholm, Lars H.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the well-conserved mannose receptor (MR) protein family have been functionally implicated in diverse biological and pathological processes. Importantly, a proposed common function is the internalization of collagen for intracellular degradation occurring during bone development, cancer invasion, and fibrosis protection. This functional relationship is suggested by a common endocytic capability and a candidate collagen-binding domain. Here we conducted a comparative investigation of each member's ability to facilitate intracellular collagen degradation. As expected, the family members uPARAP/Endo180 and MR bound collagens in a purified system and internalized collagens for degradation in cellular settings. In contrast, the remaining family members, PLA2R and DEC-205, showed no collagen binding activity and were unable to mediate collagen internalization. To pinpoint the structural elements discriminating collagen from non-collagen receptors, we constructed a series of receptor chimeras and loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Using this approach we identified a critical collagen binding loop in the suggested collagen binding region (an FN-II domain) in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR, which was different in PLA2R or DEC-205. However, we also found that an active FN-II domain was not a sufficient determinant to allow collagen internalization through these receptors. Nevertheless, this ability could be acquired by the transfer of a larger segment of uPARAP/Endo180 (the Cys-rich domain, the FN-II domain and two CTLDs) to DEC-205. These data underscore the importance of the FN-II domain in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR-mediated collagen internalization but at the same time uncover a critical interplay with flanking domains. PMID:24500714

  18. Evaluation of dynamic collapse in thin-walled composite members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, N.; Murase, K.; Onda, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-07-01

    Many of steel thin wall closed section members are used by automobile industry. The local buckling of these elements that occur under compressive stress remains the main technological problem. To improve the performance of the members, the filling the inside of closed section with the low-density foaming material are usually used. In this study, we present the usefulness of axial compression and 3-point bending tests for the composite members filled with two kinds of epoxy resin. The difference between composite member and thin-walled member was investigated concerning their elastic and plastic collapse characteristics while tested with various deformation velocities. The adherent strength between thin-walled member and foaming material, and filling effect of the foaming material in the energy absorption characteristics was clarified.

  19. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  20. An investigation of buckling of compression members having initial curvature

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Raymond Coy

    1962-01-01

    having initial curvature. The member begins to deflect immediately upon the application of any axial load and the deflections continue until the buckling strength of the member is reached. Since stress is proportional to the deflections, the initially...AN INVESTIGATION OF BUCKLING OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS HAVING INITIAL CURVATURE Raymond C. Robertson Submitted to the Graduate Sohool of the Agrioultural and Meohanioal College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  1. 7 CFR 4284.699 - Member delegate clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Rural Business Opportunity Grants § 4284.699 Member delegate...

  2. STRUCTURAL DETAIL WEST END, NOTE VARYING SIZES OF TENSION MEMBERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STRUCTURAL DETAIL WEST END, NOTE VARYING SIZES OF TENSION MEMBERS - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  3. Genetic structure of a unique admixed population: implications for medical research

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    Genetic structure of a unique admixed population: implications for medical research Nick Patterson1 Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5 Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health: In naming population groups, we think a chief aim is to use terms that the group members use them- selves

  4. The Euro Changeover in the Slovak Republic: Implications for Inflation and Interest Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Hüfner; Isabell Koske

    2008-01-01

    In January 2009, the Slovak Republic will adopt the euro and become the 16th member of the euro area. This paper investigates the implications of euro adoption in the Slovak Republic for inflation and interest rates with an attempt to quantify their likely size as well as their consequences for the general public. The empirical analysis – which makes use

  5. Confronting racial prejudice: The ideological implications of racial conflict on ABC's Wife Swap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Hoon Park

    2011-01-01

    Through an in-depth analysis of an episode of Wife Swap, this study examines the ideological implications of racial conflict on the lifestyle makeover show. Wife Swap constantly addresses the viewers as individuals who must abandon their own racial prejudice rather than members of racial groups who need to reflect on their racial conditions. Although audiences were able to critique racial

  6. Psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Bienenfeld, D G; Marciniszyn, S L; Markert, R J

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate, for the first time, the psychosocial implications of blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis. METHODS: Two hundred ten individuals rated whole-face photographs of a series of patients on the basis of 11 different personal characteristics: intelligence, throat, friendliness, health, trustworthiness, hard work, mental illness, financial success, attractiveness, alcoholism, and happiness. Preoperative and postoperative photographs of both male and female patients with bilateral blepharoptosis and/or dermatochalasis were used. The paired t test was used to compare preoperative and postoperative ratings on the 11 characteristics. RESULTS: The preoperative photographs were rated more negatively than the postoperative photographs (P < .01-P < .001) on all 11 characteristics for both male and female patients by the 210 study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Members of society seem to view individuals with blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis negatively. These psychosocial attitudes may lead to unjust bias toward affected patients, and surgical correction likely provides benefits beyond improved visual function. PMID:11797321

  7. Preserving performance of concrete members under seismic loading conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Dry; Jacob Unzicker

    1998-01-01

    Normal reinforced concrete lacks the ability to directly respond to the formation of cracking within its own cross section during dynamic loading. A way to introduce this ability is to apply self-healing concepts in the design of reinforced concrete members. Such members could then 'intelligently' react in the event of damaging forces -- by deriving the means of repair from

  8. Charts for checking the stability of compression members in trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkmann, K

    1936-01-01

    The present report contains a set of charts developed for computing the fixity effect on a compression member in a truss through its adjacent members, the amount of fixity being considered variable with the particular total truss load. The use of the charts is illustrated on two- and three-bay systems, as well as on a triangular truss.

  9. Postsecondary Students with Disabilities and Perceptions of Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraska, Marie

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of postsecondary faculty members related to students with disabilities. A questionnaire, entitled "The Survey of Faculty Attitudes Relative to Serving Students with Disabilities," was used to collect data from a sample of 106 faculty members at a public four-year, state-supported…

  10. Welcoming New Board Members: 15 Tips for Better Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Board orientation provides a unique forum for an institution to help new board members understand the roles and responsibilities expected of them. It is a chance, too, to share essential information that the college or university thinks new trustees need to know. Moreover, it is an opportunity for the institution to bring new members up to date…

  11. Directory of member organizations of the National Water Data Exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwell, Cassandra D.; Nokes, Janet M.

    1982-01-01

    The National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) is a national confederation of water-oriented organizations working together to improve access to water data. It consists of member organizations from all sectors of the water-data community. This Directory provides the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of all NAWDEX member organizations and their designated NAWDEX representatives. (USGS)

  12. Teaching Styles and Occupational Stress among Chinese University Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching style among university faculty members. A sample of 144 faculty members from a large university in the People's Republic of China rated themselves on three ability scales and responded to the Thinking Styles in Teaching Inventory and to four…

  13. An Exploration of Group and Member Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Prochenko, Yulia; Stulmaker, Hayley; Huffman, David; Fernando, Delini; Swan, Karrie

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, we explored 52 group members' development in experiential groups. Specifically, participants completed 10 weekly journal reflections about their experiences as members and also reflected on the group's overall development. Four overall themes--exploration, transition, working, closure--as well as multiple…

  14. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  15. Emotion and attribution of intentionality in leader–member relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie T. Dasborough; Neal M Ashkanasy

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we present a model of emotions and attributions of intentionality within the leader–member relationship. The model is predicated on two central ideas. The first is that leadership is intrinsically an emotional process, where leaders display emotion and attempt to evoke emotion in their members. The second is that leadership is a process of social interaction and is

  16. Teaching in Online Courses: Experiences of Instructional Technology Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdemir, Omur

    2008-01-01

    The Internet and computer technology have altered the education landscape. Online courses are offered throughout the world. Learning about the experiences of faculty members is important to guide practitioners and administrators. Using qualitative research methodology, this study investigated the experiences of faculty members teaching online…

  17. The New Faculty Members' Concerns: The Case of Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qudais, Mahmoud Abu; Al-Omari, Aieman; Smadi, Rana

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and interpret concerns of the new faculty members in Jordanian universities. A total of 336 new faculty members who participated in this study were asked to rate their perceptions of issues related to teaching, research, service, balancing work and home life and the academic culture of their workplace. Means and…

  18. Knowledge of Physical Therapy: A Survey of Fitness Center Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Clark; Suzanne Foley-Belatti; Lourdes Lacson

    2001-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge the public, specifically members of fitness centers, had about services offered by physical therapists. The two proposed hypotheses of this study relate to the knowledge of physical therapy by members of fitness centers based on services offered at the fitness centers and the respondent's experience

  19. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  20. Education of ethics committee members: experiences from Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Borovecki; H. A. M. J. ten Have; S. Oreskovic

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study knowledge and attitudes of hospital ethics committee members at the first workshop for ethics committees in Croatia. DESIGN: Before\\/after cross-sectional study using a self administered questionnaire. SETTING: Educational workshop for members of hospital ethics committees, Zagreb, 2003. Main outcome measurements: Knowledge and attitudes of participants before and after the workshop; everyday functioning of hospital ethics committees. RESULTS:

  1. BOLTED CONNECTIONS FOR FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

    E-print Network

    BOLTED CONNECTIONS FOR FIBRE-REINFORCED COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Charles N. Rosner and Sami H Kingston, Ontario, K7K 5LO ABSTRACT Bolted connections in orthotropic materials, such as fibre the behaviour of bolted connections in fibre-reinforced composite members. The behaviour of connections

  2. Faculty Members Discuss What Role They Should Play in Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2007-01-01

    More than 130 faculty members and athletics administrators from some of the country's largest universities gathered in Washington, D.C. last week to discuss the relationship between faculty members and intercollegiate athletics at what organizers said was the first national forum dedicated to the topic. During a series of panel discussions,…

  3. 17 CFR 23.609 - Clearing member risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Clearing member risk management. 23.609 Section 23.609 Commodity...Participants § 23.609 Clearing member risk management. (a) With respect to clearing...intra-day and overnight; (4) Conduct stress tests under extreme but plausible...

  4. 17 CFR 23.609 - Clearing member risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Clearing member risk management. 23.609 Section 23.609 Commodity...Participants § 23.609 Clearing member risk management. (a) With respect to clearing...intra-day and overnight; (4) Conduct stress tests under extreme but plausible...

  5. Fear of AIDS among Faculty Members and Student Affairs Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, T. Lynn; Rentz, Audrey L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a study examining fear of AIDS and the level of AIDS knowledge and homophobia among student affairs administrators and faculty members. Student affairs administrators were found to have more knowledge and less fear of AIDS than faculty members. Presents a discussion of these results and recommendations for practice.…

  6. 1 Member Raoul Adamchak University of California Davis Agriculture Lecture 2 Member Jeffrey Amthor US DOE, Climate and Environmental Sceiences Div Agriculture Room A

    E-print Network

    1 Member Raoul Adamchak University of California Davis Agriculture Lecture 2 Member Jeffrey Amthor US DOE, Climate and Environmental Sceiences Div Agriculture Room A 3 Member Nick Bajjalieh United Soybean Board Agriculture 4 Member Steven Britz USDA Agriculture 5 Member Timothy Gish USDA, Hydrology

  7. Behavioral Health and Adjustment to College Life for Student Service Members/Veterans.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Braue, Lawrence A; Stire, Sheryl; Gum, Amber M; Cross, Brittany L; Brown, Lisa M

    2014-09-25

    Abstract Increasing numbers of student service members/veterans (SSM/Vs) are enrolling in college. However, little is known about how their previous military experience affects their adjustment to this new role. The present study tested the hypothesis that SSM/Vs who report adjustment problems in college have a higher incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and other behavioral health problems compared to those who do not report adjustment problems. SSM/Vs (n = 173) at a large, Southeastern, public university completed online surveys that included well-validated screens measuring substance use, depression, PTSD, and other mental disorders. Those reporting difficulties adjusting to university life (28%) reported significantly higher frequencies of behavioral and health problems while in the military, and significantly higher levels of PTSD, depression, and mental health disorders, but no difference in substance use. Implications for improved behavioral health screening and coordination of university behavioral health services with veterans' health systems are discussed. PMID:25257623

  8. Detection of Additional Members of the 2003 EL61 Family via Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    E. L. Schaller; M. E. Brown

    2008-08-01

    We have acquired near-infrared spectra of Kuiper belt objects 2003 UZ117, 2005 CB79 and 2004 SB60 with NIRC on the Keck I Telescope. These objects are dynamically close to the core of the 2003 EL61 collisional family and were suggested to be potential fragments of this collision by Ragozzine and Brown (2007). We find that the spectra of 2003 UZ117 and 2005 CB79 both show the characteristic strong water ice absorption features seen exclusively on 2003 EL61, its largest satellite, and the six other known collisional fragments. In contrast, we find that the near infrared spectrum of 2004 SB60 is essentially featureless with a fraction of water ice of less than 5%. We discuss the implications of the discovery of these additional family members for understanding the formation and evolution of this collisional family in the outer solar system.

  9. The Tangles of Implication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britzman, Deborah P.

    1997-01-01

    Asks a spate of questions about the nature of research and boundaries of identification. Points to numerous ambiguities inherent in the research prescriptions of critical postmodernism writers. Suggests the miasma that the many implications of postmodernist injunctions about identity and representation can become. (DSK)

  10. Mainstreaming: Origins and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Maynard C., Ed.

    Presented are papers and responses given at the July 1975 Deans' Projects Conference on the origins and implications for personnel training of trends in mainstreaming handicapped children. A paper by E. Martin, director of the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, identifies problems such as the need for more training of regular teachers.…

  11. Active member bridge feedback control for damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gun-Shing; Lurie, Boris J.

    1992-01-01

    An active damping augmentation approach using active members in a structural system is described. The problem of maximizing the vibration damping in a lightly damped structural system is considered using the analogy of impedance matching between the load and source impedances in an electrical network. The proposed active damping augmentation approach therefore consists of finding the desired active member impedances that maximize the vibration damping, and designing a feedback control in order to achieve desired active member impedances. This study uses a bridge feedback concept that feeds back a combination of signals from sensors of the axial force and relative velocity across the active member to realize the desired active member impedance. The proposed active damping augmentation approach and bridge feedback concept were demonstrated on a three-longeron softly suspended truss structure.

  12. Nursing support for family members of critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Vandall-Walker, Virginia; Jensen, Louise; Oberle, Kathleen

    2007-11-01

    Researchers have identified the needs of family members of critically ill adults, explored their experiences, and investigated interventions. To address a gap in the theoretical knowledge about how nurses help these individuals, the authors developed a grounded theory of nursing support from the perspective of family members. Results indicated that family members were initiated into a cycle of Work to meet perceived responsibilities to Get Through the experience. Supportive nurses engaged in the process of Lightening Our Load to mitigate the negative effects of the critical care experience on family members by Engaging With Us, Sustaining Us, and Disengaging From Us. No previous research has yet identified the Work of these family members, the steps they take to gain nurses' respect, and the significance to them of nurses' Welcoming us and Saying goodbye. This theory extends the understanding of nursing support beyond current knowledge of family needs, caring, comfort, supportive care, and social support. PMID:17968038

  13. Evaluation of gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assays for diagnosis of enterobacteriaceae members in food and water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyoti; Sharma, Shivesh; Nara, Seema

    2015-03-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are advantageous over conventional detection methods in terms of their simplicity and rapidity. These assays have been reported using various types of labels but colloidal gold nanoparticles are still the preferred choice as a label because of their easy synthesis, visual detection and stability. Bacterial contamination of food and drinking water is a major threat and hindrance towards ensuring food and water safety. Enterobacteriaceae family members are mainly transmitted by the consumption of contaminated water and food and implicated in various food or water borne infections. The LFIAs have been popularly used for detection of bacterial cells in different matrices. Therefore, this review intends to provide an analysis of the gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assays developed for detecting enterobacteriaceae family members in food and water samples. The review includes detailed data and discusses the factors that influence the performance of LFIAs and their shortcomings. PMID:25306373

  14. New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor

    E-print Network

    Majaess, Daniel J; Molnar, Larry A; Haegert, Melissa J; Lane, David J; Turner, David G; Nielsen, Inga

    2008-01-01

    In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

  15. New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor

    E-print Network

    Daniel J. Majaess; David Higgins; Larry A. Molnar; Melissa J. Haegert; David J. Lane; David G. Turner; Inga Nielsen

    2008-11-02

    In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

  16. Is a management degree worth the investment for physicians? A survey of members of the American College of Physician Executives.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B; Lazarus, Arthur; Wallace, Amy E

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of 568 physician members of the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE), most of whom had advanced management degrees (MBA, MMM, MPH), approximately 90% of respondents reported that their investment in the education was "worth it." The return on investment was independent of the quality of the academic institution, although primary care physicians stood to gain more relative to specialists. Salary comparisons showed that female physicians had approximately 20% lower incomes than male physicians, confirming the presence of a "glass ceiling" for female physician executives as seen in other medical specialties. These findings have implications for early and mid-career physicians and physician recruiters. PMID:18309736

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor/Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Members in Antiviral CD8 T-Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    CD8 memory T cells can play a critical role in protection against repeated exposure to infectious agents such as viruses, yet can also contribute to the immunopathology associated with these pathogens. Understanding the mechanisms that control effective memory responses has important ramifications for vaccine design and in the management of adverse immune reactions. Recent studies have implicated several members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family as key stimulatory and inhibitory molecules involved in the regulation of CD8 T cells. In this review, we discuss their control of the generation, persistence, and reactivation of CD8 T cells during virus infection. PMID:20377415

  18. Supplemental Material of "Collaborative Mobile Sheng Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Jie Wu, Fellow, IEEE, and Sanglu Lu, Member, IEEE

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    1 Supplemental Material of "Collaborative Mobile Charging" Sheng Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Jie Wu, Fellow, IEEE, and Sanglu Lu, Member, IEEE ! PROOF OF THEOREM 2 Theorem 2: (Coverage) Given, the maximum coverages of EqualShare, SolelyCharge, CLCharge, and PushWait are P/2c, P/2c, P/c, and infinity

  19. 3D Underwater Sensor Network Localization Amin Y. Teymorian, Student Member, IEEE, Wei Cheng, Student Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

    3D Underwater Sensor Network Localization Amin Y. Teymorian, Student Member, IEEE, Wei Cheng, and Zexin Lu, Member, IEEE Abstract--We transform the 3D underwater sensor network (USN) localization that given a network and a constant k, all of the geometric k-lateration localization methods are equivalent

  20. Control Law Design for Haptic Interfaces to Virtual Reality Richard J. Adams, Member IEEE, and Blake Hannaford, Member IEEE

    E-print Network

    1 Control Law Design for Haptic Interfaces to Virtual Reality Richard J. Adams, Member IEEE, and Blake Hannaford, Member IEEE Abstract - The goal of control law design for haptic displays is to provide in a virtual environment. This paper outlines a control design approach which stabilizes a haptic interface