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1

Examining gang violence through the lives and eyes of young male gang members: implications for educational leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gang violence through the lives and eyes of young male gang members. Throughout the conduction of this study; surveys were given and interviews were conducted to explore the phenomenon of gang violence as well as its implications for educational leaders. Variables were discussed in order to discover their influence on gang participation, activity, and violence. The variables

Jamal S Edwards

2011-01-01

2

A Phenomenological Study with Youth Gang Members: Results and Implications for School Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a phenomenological model, examines eight male adolescents' perceptions of their gang membership. Interviews revealed such themes as self-esteem, a sense of belonging, and protection. Outlines implications for school counselors when working with gang members individually, in groups, with families, or during school interventions. (RJM)

Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Honda, Marianne R.

1997-01-01

3

Negotiating with Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of gang members and their involvement in crime has been documented and debated by researchers and practitioners for years. In 1998, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention reported there were 28,700 gangs and 780,200 gang members in the United States (National Institute of Justice, 2000). These findings represent a 7% decrease in the number of gangs

Elizabeth Gail Sharpe

2002-01-01

4

CONDOM ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED VULNERABILITY, AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORS OF YOUNG LATINO MALE URBAN STREET GANG MEMBERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION  

PubMed Central

We examined condom attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV, HIV testing experiences, and sexual and substance use risk behaviors of 161 active Latino male gang members, aged 18–26 years old, living in Los Angeles, California. Gang members reported negative condom attitudes and a perceived vulnerability to HIV. The majority (53%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that participants who engaged in the following behaviors were more likely to report UVI: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.66), received money or drugs for sex (AOR = 5.05), or had sex with someone who had a sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 4.99). Participants with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI (AOR = 0.82). Our findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for Latino male gang members. PMID:19824836

Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.

2010-01-01

5

Are Rural Gang Members Similar to Their Urban Peers? Implications for Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated factors associated with gang involvement among rural and urban adolescents using data from a sample of 1,183 Nevada students in grades 7 through 12. There was no significant difference in gang membership or pressure to join gangs between the rural and urban samples, but there were differences on other gang and violence indicators.…

Evans, William P.; Fitzgerald, Carla; Weigel, Dan; Chvilicek, Sarah

1999-01-01

6

Mothers of Gang Members Give Voice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three mothers whose children were connected to Dallas (Texas) gangs told their stories at the Fourth Joint National Conference on Gangs, Schools, and Community. It is said that gang members come from dysfunctional families, usually from homes where fathers are not present or involved in children's upbringing. In spite of a great deal of research…

Cooke, Gwendolyn; McEvoy, Alan

1997-01-01

7

Comparing the Effects of Treatment on Female Juvenile Gang and Non-Gang Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research indicates that males comprise the greatest proportion of gang members. Since the 1990s, however, there has been an increasing interest in female gangs and gang members. The current study builds on this research interest by examining differences between female gang members and non-gang members who participated in a juvenile probation program designed to identify and intervene with youth

Pamela J. Schram; Larry K. Gaines

2008-01-01

8

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2012-10-01

9

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2013-10-01

10

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: Riding Gang Member Requirements (OCT 2011)...

2014-10-01

11

48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Riding gang member requirements. 252.247-7027...And Clauses 252.247-7027 Riding gang member requirements. As prescribed...use the following clause: RIDING GANG MEMBER REQUIREMENTS (OCT 2010)...

2011-10-01

12

Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

13

Gang Members on the Move. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Youth Gang Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from the National Survey on Gang Migration and other literature provides a look at the relationship between gang migration and proliferation. "Gang migration" refers to the movement of gang members from one city to another. Whether such movement has played a major role in the proliferation has been the focus of several studies,…

Maxson, Cheryl L.

14

Pre-Teen Gang Members: The Father Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang membership and violence are pervasive across the United States. Today children, adolescents and young adults of all social classes and environments are susceptible to gang involvement. Gang members are getting younger and gang leaders are getting older. The composition and structure of the family is examined for the common element between…

Bracki, Marie A.; Dolson, Bonnie M.; Maurice, Kenneth

15

DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS.  

PubMed

Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

Pih, Kay Kei-Ho; DE LA Rosa, Mario; Rugh, Douglas; Mao, Kuoray

2008-08-01

16

DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS  

PubMed Central

Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

2009-01-01

17

Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

2012-01-01

18

Gang involvement: psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth.  

PubMed

Research has noted the existence of a loose and dynamic gang structure. However, the psychological processes that underpin gang membership have only begun to be addressed. This study examined gang members, peripheral youth, and nongang youth across measures of criminal activity, the importance they attach to status, their levels of moral disengagement, their perceptions of out-group threat, and their attitudes toward authority. Of the 798 high school students who participated in this study, 59 were identified as gang members, 75 as peripheral youth, and 664 as nongang youth. Gang members and peripheral youth were more delinquent than nongang youth overall; however, gang members committed more minor offenses than nongang youth and peripheral youth committed more violent offenses than nongang youth. Gang members were more anti-authority than nongang youth, and both gang and peripheral youth valued social status more than nongang youth. Gang members were also more likely to blame their victims for their actions and use euphemisms to sanitize their behavior than nongang youth, whereas peripheral youth were more likely than nongang youth to displace responsibility onto their superiors. These findings are discussed as they highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the cognitive processes that relate to gang involvement. PMID:20718002

Alleyne, Emma; Wood, Jane L

2010-01-01

19

Pride and prejudice in high school gang members.  

PubMed

This study compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and their self-professed role models. A total of 78 Caucasian (65 nongang and 13 gang members) and 77 African-American students (41 nongang and 36 gang members) participated. Results indicated that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to their nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial stereotyping toward racial outgroups; gang members were not more racially prejudiced compared to other students. The role model data revealed that overall, gang members could name fewer role models than did their nongang peers. African-American students who were not gang members were much more likely to mention a parent or teacher as a role model. A regression analysis indicated that the absence of parental or teacher roles models was the best predictor of gang membership. These results are conceptualized within the framework provided by social identity theory. PMID:8085481

Wang, A Y

1994-01-01

20

The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

2002-01-01

21

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth Mackenzie, and Larry  

E-print Network

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Workloads Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth-purpose multiprocessors usu- ally include both compute-bound parallel jobs, which often require gang scheduling, as well as I/O-bound jobs, which require high CPU priority for the individual gang members of the job in order

Feitelson, Dror

22

"Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

23

Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…

Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

2012-01-01

24

75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY...addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD- exempted individuals...addresses requirements that apply to riding gang members and DoD-exempted...

2010-10-25

25

Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among former patients. These efforts should be continued and complemented by funding support from the Salvadoran government for DAT centers that obtain certification. In addition, tailored/alternative treatment modalities are needed for gang members in treatment for heavy drinking. PMID:23734635

2013-01-01

26

THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS  

PubMed Central

While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

2009-01-01

27

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman and Dror G. Feitelson, Senior Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman and Dror G. Feitelson, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Conventional gang scheduling has the disadvantage that when processes perform I/O or blocking communication, their processors remain idle because alternative processes cannot be run independently of their own gangs

Wiseman, Yair

28

“GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

PubMed Central

This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

29

Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

2006-01-01

30

Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

2010-01-01

31

Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

2011-01-01

32

76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG25 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS...an interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement...

2011-10-04

33

The drugs-violence nexus among Mexican-American gang members.  

PubMed

This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history /intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant's last fight. Gang member participant's ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member's risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxication levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450

Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Cepeda, Alice

2006-06-01

34

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Workloads Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth Mackenzie, and Larry Rudolph  

E-print Network

Implications of I/O for Gang Scheduled Workloads Walter Lee, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Kenneth compute-bound parallel jobs, which often require gang scheduling, and I/O-bound jobs, which require high multiprocessor scheduler must weigh both the benefits and costs of gang scheduling when deciding how to allocate

Frank, Matthew I.

35

"Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

2011-01-01

36

Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

37

Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

2004-01-01

38

Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

39

Gangs Action Group  

E-print Network

Several youth murders in 2008, three of which were arguably “gang-related” Widespread media attention referring to Edmonton as “knife town ” highlighting gang problems Several youth gang members injured by gunshot from a Mac-10 submachine gun Fear within the local community- 50 % of residents

unknown authors

2011-01-01

40

Gangs and Girls in the 'Hood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers to commonly asked questions about female gang members. Girls typically join gangs at age 14 to 15. If given alternatives, females will often leave gangs sooner than males. Female gang members are respected, and see themselves as strong, committed soldiers. Includes "Myths about Females in Gangs" and suggestions for additional readings.…

Garland, Richard

1996-01-01

41

Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

2003-01-01

42

A Comparison between Mexican American Youth Who Are in Gangs and Those Who Are Not  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study compares the differences between 43 Mexican American gang members and 43 Mexican American adolescents who are not members of a gang on several demographic, educational, familial, cultural, and psychological variables. Differences were analyzed using "t" tests and chi-square analyses. discussion focuses on implications for…

Tapia, Hugo A.; Kinnier, Richard T.; MacKinnon, David P.

2009-01-01

43

Resource Brief: Gangs. Inquiry Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…

Johnston, Howard

2013-01-01

44

Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

US Government Accountability Office, 2009

2009-01-01

45

"It's like we're just renting over here": The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai'i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai'i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K

2009-03-30

46

“It’s like we’re just renting over here”: The Pervasive Experiences of Discrimination of Filipino Immigrant Youth Gang Members in Hawai’i  

PubMed Central

Researchers, service providers, and policymakers must uncover and better understand the issues facing youths in Asian gangs in order to most effectively intervene with appropriate policies and programs. The present investigation sampled young male Filipino gang members in Hawai’i. Thematic analyses of the focus group data challenge the commonly held view of racial harmony in Hawai’i. It appears that racial and social discrimination from peers and authority figures propel Filipino boys to seek out gang membership as a way to protect themselves from being targets of oppression. PMID:19946383

Kim, Su Yeong; Benner, Aprile D.; Takushi, Rena Mae Nalani; Ongbongan, Kathleen; Dennerlein, Donna; Spencer, Deborah K.

2009-01-01

47

Youth gang membership and serious violent victimization: the importance of lifestyles and routine activities.  

PubMed

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their nongang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at increased risk of victimization, although the reasons for this relationship have not fully been explored. The current study uses data from a multisite study of youth to explore whether the gang membership-victimization link is mediated by lifestyles and routine activities. In other words, is gang members' involvement in delinquent lifestyles and routine activities a viable explanation for their increased risk of serious violent victimization? Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:18319365

Taylor, Terrance J; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-10-01

48

[Drugs use as a cultural practice within gangs].  

PubMed

Today, the social phenomenon of drugs trafficking and violence related to drugs has tended to minimize the implications of drugs consumption in gangs. This article is based on in-depth interviews in young gangs in the metropolitan area of Nuevo León, Mexico, with a view to reflecting on and analyzing the drug as a cultural practice within gangs. In the search for meaning, the first thing that is shown is the beginning of gang members in drugs consumption, and the form how drugs are presented by family members and friends of the gang is described. Next, we described the meaning of drugs use in everyday life and show the extent to which drugs use is acceptable and normalized. PMID:21739067

Guzmán-Facundo, Francisco Rafael; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge; Lopez-García, Karla Selene; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Esparza-Almanza, Santiaga Enriqueta

2011-06-01

49

Facilitating Violence: A Comparison of Gang-Motivated, Gang-Affiliated, and Nongang Youth Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that gangs facilitate violent offending by members,but the mechanisms by which that facilitation occurs remain unclear. Gangsmay promote violence indirectly by facilitating members' access to riskysituations such as drug markets or directly through gang functions such asturf defense. We explore alternative modes of facilitation in a comparisonof gang-affiliated homicides (which involve gang members but do not

Richard Rosenfeld; Timothy M. Bray; Arlen Egley

1999-01-01

50

Understanding the relationship between violent victimization and gang membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeResearch examining factors that precipitate gang violence has contributed substantially to our understanding of gangs and gang activity with respect to offending, yet we still know relatively little about how gangs influence members’ risk of victimization. The current study examines three hypotheses: (1) gang involvement and involvement in other risky lifestyles is related to violent victimization, (2) involvement in gang

Charles M. Katz; Vincent J. Webb; Kate Fox; Jennifer N. Shaffer

2011-01-01

51

Surf and turf wars online--growing implications of Internet gang violence.  

PubMed

To examine use of the Internet by gangs and its affect on youth, i-SAFE Inc. collected information from more than 100,000 students and 137 gang associates from an urban population. Although individuals who associate with a gang have distinguishable discrepancies in the amount of time spent online, they have similar online behavior as compared with those who are not involved with gangs. Additional research is necessary to develop a substantive link between gangs online and the school and community culture. PMID:18047950

King, Jonathan E; Walpole, Carolyn E; Lamon, Kristi

2007-12-01

52

Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.  

PubMed

The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed. PMID:19477786

Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

2008-09-01

53

The Alienation of Rural Middle School Students: Implications for Gang Membership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that public schools and their authoritarian organizational structure contribute to adolescent alienation, which in turn fosters gang membership. This paper examines alienation and gang membership among eighth-graders in a rural middle school in south central Texas. All 147 students in grade 8 completed a modified version of the…

Shoho, Alan R.

54

The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

2007-01-01

55

Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,550…

Egley, Jr., Arlen; O'Donnell, Christina E.

2009-01-01

56

Gang-related crime: the social, psychological and behavioral correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the behavioral, social and psychological factors associated with gang-related crime. By comparing group crime committed by non-gang youth and gang members, this study sought to identify the kinds of criminal activity gang members engage in and identify the specific characteristics that differentiate gang-related crime from other group crimes. We found that gangs map out their territory with

Emma Alleyne; Jane L. Wood

2012-01-01

57

Understanding the Black Box of Gang OrganizationImplications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests that gangs are not very well organized. However, the findings from the current research

Scott H. Decker; Charles M. Katz; Vincent J. Webb

2008-01-01

58

Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

2008-01-01

59

Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Prison Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has only recently begun to examine the relationship between gang membership and crime victimization, and much\\u000a remains unknown about the descriptive nature of the gang-victimization link, especially among incarcerated populations. The\\u000a current study aimed to contribute to the emerging gang-victimization literature by examining: (1) characteristics of victimization\\u000a for gang and non-gang members, (2) descriptors of gang membership comparing

Katrina A. Rufino; Kathleen A. Fox; Glen A. Kercher

60

Gangs a Suburban Problem Too! "Taking the Gang Threat Seriously."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs are no longer the exclusive problem of large metropolitan areas. Suburban schools and communities are now vulnerable, and the problem is spreading. To combat the problem, it is essential to overcome denial in the school and community. The case study of Chris, a junior high school student, exemplifies suburban youth gang members.…

Stabile, Michael J.

61

Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

2008-01-01

62

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs  

PubMed Central

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

2010-01-01

63

Are All Gangs Equal Security Risks? An Investigation of Gang Types and Prison Misconduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the demographic and offense-related characteristics of 1,636 gang members admitted to Canadian federal penitentiaries\\u000a between January 1, 2006 and August 31, 2009 revealed that there is considerable variation between these groups. Members of\\u000a Aboriginal, Asian and Street Gangs tended to be admitted at much younger ages than members of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMG),\\u000a or members of Traditional Organized

Rick Ruddell; Shannon Gottschall

64

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and victimization); "Delinquency and…

Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

65

Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed. PMID:23525778

Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

2013-08-01

66

“JUST EVERY MOTHER'S ANGEL”An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies of gangs have explored both ethnic and gender variations in the experience of gang membership. Based on an analysis of interviews with 48 youth from a number of ethnic gangs in Hawaii, this article explores boys' and girls' reasons for joining gangs. The results suggest that although gang members face common problems, they deal with these in ways

KAREN A. JOE; MEDA CHESNEY-LIND

1995-01-01

67

Gang violence.  

PubMed

During childhood and adolescence, the formation of groups or gangs is a normal part of the growing process. Playmates, school friends, Boy and Girl Scout troops are each examples of the natural inclination to form group attachments that provide a stable social outlet. However, gangs, as we now know them, are part of the pathological process brought on by the inability to disassociate from adolescent groupings, and more frightening, the result of infiltration by criminal elements, such as drug dealers, who exert violent influence on impressionable youngsters, particularly in major urban areas. The transition of gangs from innocent to deadly is due in large part to society's failure to respond to the environment that causes their pathology. In order to reverse the process, society must engage in programs that reinforce the gang or group experience as a positive one by incorporating adult supervision and mentoring as essential elements. PMID:7795033

Sigler, R T

1995-01-01

68

Gang-related homicides in Los Angeles County.  

PubMed

The incidence of gang homicides in Los Angeles County has increased faster than that of non-gang homicides in the past decade. This study compares characteristics of gang homicide victims with those of non-gang homicide victims for the year 1987. In 1186 cases, gang members were more likely to be young Black men who died of gunshot wounds. Gang homicide victims were more likely to die of firearm injuries in the early evening, and were more likely to die in a relatively small area of Los Angeles County. Drive-by shooting was highly associated with gang homicide. PMID:8355004

Rogers, C

1993-07-01

69

Coping with Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to coping with street gangs is aimed at the young person who may be considering gang membership or who is afraid of gang violence. Understanding gangs leads to the ability to cope with the problems they pose. Part I explores "What Gangs Are," explaining characteristics of gangs and why young people join them. It is essential that…

Webb, Margot

70

Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004

Akiyama, Cliff

2015-01-01

71

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending in a sample of youth offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending were examined in case files of 390 youth offenders aged between 16 and 18 years. Results indicated that youth offenders who were gang members and those who were not gang members but exposed to friends in gangs had a significantly higher likelihood of violent offending compared with a reference group of youth offenders who

Rebecca P. Ang; Vivien S. Huan; Sok Hoon Chua; Si Huan Lim

2011-01-01

72

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending in a sample of youth offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang affiliation, aggression, and violent offending were examined in case files of 390 youth offenders aged between 16 and 18 years. Results indicated that youth offenders who were gang members and those who were not gang members but exposed to friends in gangs had a significantly higher likelihood of violent offending compared with a reference group of youth offenders who

Rebecca P. Ang; Vivien S. Huan; Sok Hoon Chua; Si Huan Lim

2012-01-01

73

MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET  

PubMed Central

This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

Valdez, Avelardo

2010-01-01

74

Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

2007-01-01

75

Gang Membership and Adherence to the “Code of the Street”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang members have been found to engage in more delinquent behaviors than comparable nongang youth. Few empirical attempts have been made to identify the group processes associated with the gang experience that lead to such noteworthy behavioral outcomes. While not developed to explain gang behavior, Elijah Anderson’s “code of the street” framework may prove insightful. Utilizing data from a diverse

Kristy N. Matsuda; Chris Melde; Terrance J. Taylor; Adrienne Freng; Finn-Aage Esbensen

2012-01-01

76

The Black Hole Gang  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Black Hole Gang Web site is authored by fifth grade teacher Stephen Kramer and illustrated by Richard Torrey. The main page of the site contains pictures of the five members of the gang, which, when clicked, bring up another scene with the character in a room with various objects such as a rock collection, map, chemistry set, poster of Albert Einstein, telescope, and other science related items. Once an item is chosen, students read a brief description of it and can explore a variety of informational material and links relating to it. Although some of the pages only contain one link to an outside source, the design of the site is good at getting the attention of students and will hopefully spark an interest in them to continue learning.

1998-01-01

77

Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs: A Situational Analysis.  

PubMed

This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members' susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

2009-09-01

78

Boys Who Join Gangs: A Prospective Study of Predictors of First Gang Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a representative sample of boys who were in the 7th grade of an urban public school system at the start of a 6-year longitudinal study, more African American boys (23.8%) than non-Hispanic White boys (3.9%) had entered an antisocial gang by age 19. There were too few White gang members to study, but among African American boys, first gang

Benjamin B. Lahey; Rachel A. Gordon; Rolf Loeber; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber; David P. Farrington

1999-01-01

79

Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

2005-01-01

80

Self-definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant disagreement among researchers as to the appropriate concep- tual and operational definitions of gang membership. One of the key issues involves the validity of allowing respondents to identify themselves as gang members. This re- search examines the construct validity of gang membership by examining the relation- ship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquent involvement.

BETH BJERREGAARD

2002-01-01

81

Mentoring as an Intervention for Adolescents in the School Setting with Potential or Actual Gang Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to address gang concerns, educators should develop intervention strategies that keep youth from considering gang involvement. It is vital that schools reach the students before gang members are able to influence them. Intervention strategies should stress prevention, conversion, and address the causes of gang activity and not merely the…

Vanover, Beverly; Utesch, William E.

82

Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

83

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

2015-01-01

84

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well-informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under a changing climate.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

2015-01-01

85

Ganges Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color infrared image was taken by the camera system on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft over part of Ganges Chasma in Valles Marineris (approximately 13 degrees S, 318 degrees E). The infrared image has been draped over topography data obtained by Mars Global Surveyor. The color differences in this image show compositional variations in the rocks exposed in the wall and floor of Ganges (blue and purple) and in the dust and sand on the rim of the canyon (red and orange). The floor of Ganges is covered by rocks and sand composed of basaltic lava that are shown in blue. A layer that is rich in the mineral olivine can be seen as a band of purple in the walls on both sides of the canyon, and is exposed as an eroded layer surrounding a knob on the floor. Olivine is easily destroyed by liquid water, so its presence in these ancient rocks suggests that this region of Mars has been very dry for a very long time. The mosaic was constructed using infrared bands 5, 7, and 8, and covers an area approximately 150 kilometers (90 miles) on each side. This simulated view is toward the north.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

86

Ganges Landslides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

87

Ganges Landslide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide

Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2006-01-01

88

Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context.  

PubMed

A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs. PMID:25429188

Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L

2009-12-01

89

Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context  

PubMed Central

A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don’t sell drugs and drug sellers that don’t belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don’t belong to gangs and gang members who don’t sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs. PMID:25429188

Bellair, Paul E.; McNulty, Thomas L.

2014-01-01

90

Troubles in Smurftown: Youth Gangs and Moral Visions on Guam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined youth gang problem in U.S. Guam. Found that changes in island traditionalism and culture wrought by modern society and modern Western individualism can isolate some youth. Concluded that gang members must be viewed as members of a culture that proposes moral visions and prescribes group behaviors for its membership. (Author/SD)

Schmitz, Stephen; Christopher, John Chambers

1997-01-01

91

Gender and Gang Membership: A Contrast of Rural and Urban Youth on Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…

Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

2003-01-01

92

Gang Research.Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted and maintained by John Hagedorn, a professor of criminal justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago, this site provides information about the nature of gangs around the United States, with a particular emphasis on gangs in Chicago. The prime objective of the site is "to dispel stereotypes and present research, original documents, and helpful links." The site is divided into three main sections, including information on globalization, Chicago gangs, and gang research. There are several compelling primary documents on the site, including transcriptions of interviews and presentations from current and former gang leaders from Chicago. Also, there is a chronology detailing the history of one of the most infamous African-American gangs in Chicago, the Blackstone Rangers. The site will be of great interest to those studying the nature of gangs in the United States and particularly to those interested in the evolution of gangs in Chicago over the past century.

93

Longitudinal Perspectives on Adolescent Street Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street gangs have been of primary concern to the public, policy makers, and criminologists for well over a century. There\\u000a is a very good reason for such concern: gang members contribute disproportionately to the overall level of crime, especially\\u000a violent and serious offenses (Battin-Pearson, Thornberry, Hawkins, & Krohn, 1998; Curry, 2000; Curry, Ball, & Decker, 1996;\\u000a Hill, Hawkins, Catalano, Maguin,

Marvin D. Krohn; Terence P. Thornberry

94

The Gang Intervention Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

95

Gang Identifiers and Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

Cantrell, Mary Lynn

1992-01-01

96

Gang zag rten  

E-print Network

Gang zag rten Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshe 'dzin tells a folktale named Gang zag rten. Gang zag rten was a holy man who married a herdswoman. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Folktale Name...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-17

97

Gangs in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book comprised of theories and findings from researchers concerning youth gangs in the United States, is organized into the following five parts: (1) Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives on the Gang and the Community; (2) Defining and Measuring Gang Violence; (3) Diffusion, Diversity, and Drugs; (4) Assessing the Changing Knowledge…

Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

98

Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

Larence, Eileen R.

2010-01-01

99

Ganges Mensa and other light-toned outcrops in Ganges Chasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ganges Mensa is the single large mesa within Ganges Chasma, standing over 4 km above the chasma floor. It displays a variety of lithologies in its layered stack. Its lower flanks consist of light-toned rock units which show a very low crater retention age. Observations of the mensa show that this low crater retention age indicates a susceptibility to erosion instead of a truly young age. There is good evidence that Ganges Mensa was once much larger, but has shrunk considerably in size due to erosion of this basal unit. Strewn about Ganges Chasma there are a number of smaller mounds of light-toned material that have very similar morphologies and OMEGA data indicate that some of them have a kieserite spectral signature, similar to the kieserite signature displayed by the light-toned units at the base of Ganges Mensa. This study examines these mounds and the relationships between them and Ganges Mensa, including the implications of the kieserite spectral signature. All of these data continue to contribute to discriminating between various origin hypotheses for Ganges Mensa and the light-toned units within Ganges Chasma.

Beyer, R. A.

2006-12-01

100

Moving beyond the gang-drug-violence connection.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members' lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members' lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members' lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future. PMID:24049247

Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P

2012-01-01

101

Moving beyond the gang–drug–violence connection  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members’ lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members’ lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs. We have broadened our analysis of gang members’ lives and incorporated new theoretical developments from research outside of the gang field. In addition to this shift in emphasis, our overall aim has been to redirect the research focus on youth gangs from a social problem and criminological perspective to a more sociological approach in which these youth are situated within an everyday perspective. With these overall issues in mind, we see this discussion as taking stock of the nature of gang research in the past, present and future. PMID:24049247

Joe-Laidler, Karen; Hunt, Geoffrey P.

2013-01-01

102

Stratigraphy of Ganges Mensa, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slopes and surfaces of Ganges Mensa display a variety of morphologies which indicate that units of variable lithology constitute the stratigraphic stack of the mensa as observed by previous studies. Excellent coverage by the MOC, MOLA, and THEMIS instruments allows correlation between those data sets in order to make improved distinctions between morphologic units. Meter-scale images and detailed elevation data about the extent of these units and their boundaries allows for a better understanding of their associations with one another, and their relation to Ganges Mensa as a whole. This study identifies several thick units (several hundred meters) of erosionally resistant layered materials (some identified by previous studies based on lower-resolution data) and associated land-forms suggestive of a volcanic origin. One of these units is at the highest elevations on the mensa and appears to have acted as a resistant cap. There is evidence that it was once more areally extensive, however the unit which underlies it is more erodible and has been undermining the cap unit causing it to shrink. This morphologic evidence strengthens the hypothesis that Ganges Mensa formed in a fashion similar to terrestrial tuyas. In fact, the presence of these resistant layered units at different elevations within the stack may be markers of different water/ice levels through time, as they are in terrestrial tuyas. However, the true discriminator for the tuya origin hypothesis is the composition of the very thick (some up to 1 km), friable, finely layered units which compose the majority of Ganges Mensa. The tuya origin hypothesis requires that they be hyaloclastites, which has been difficult to discern from orbit. Unfortunately, the unit morphologies do not particularly eliminate any of the other origin hypotheses for Ganges Mensa, but these observations do have implications for them.

Beyer, R. A.

2005-12-01

103

Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2010-01-01

104

Preventing Youths from Joining Gangs: How to Apply Inoculation Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years, gang prevalence, the number of gang members nationwide, and the seriousness of their impact on society, particularly schools, have increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to analyze Inoculation Theory, a process by which attitude transformation can be resisted during social interactions that involve persuasive messages designed to change existing attitudes, and to promote

Gerald-Mark Breen; Jonathan Matusitz

2008-01-01

105

Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

2002-01-01

106

The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

Duran, Robert J.

2009-01-01

107

Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive individual and social behaviors were assessed among male gang members and males involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. Correlations of attribute scores were more often significant for the gang than for the nongang youth. Approximately one-quarter of the gang youth had total positive…

Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Pamela M.

2003-01-01

108

Aboriginal Youth and Violent Gang Involvement in Canada: Quality Prevention Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an epidemic of Aboriginal youth gang violence in some parts of Canada today, and young Aboriginal gang members are killing each other and committing suicide at rates that exceed those of any other group in Canada. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, and describes five major pathways to violent gang involvement for Aboriginal youth. It

Mark Totten

109

The Effect of Gang Perpetrated Crime on the Likelihood of Non-Lethal Victim Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies consistently find that gang members are involved in a disproportionately high rate of violence. The association between\\u000a gangs and violence is largely based on the legal definition of violence, however. The current study moves beyond the legal\\u000a definition of gang violence by examining the relationship between non-lethal gang involved incidents and the likelihood of\\u000a victim injury, using pooled data

Chris Melde; Callie Marie Rennison

2008-01-01

110

Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization.  

PubMed

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use. Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

Sanders, Bill

2012-01-01

111

Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization  

PubMed Central

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

Sanders, Bill

2014-01-01

112

Pathways to Risk among Inner-City African-American Adolescent Females: The Influence of Gang Membership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the influence of gang membership on rates of participation in sexual activity, substance use, and violence among African American adolescent girls. Found that gang members had higher participation rates in all three risk behaviors. (JPB)

Harper, Gary W.; Robinson, W. LaVome

1999-01-01

113

Influence of Gang Membership on Negative Affect, Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior Among Homeless African American Male Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial\\/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members,

Gary W. Harper; Jonathan Davidson; Sybil G. Hosek

2008-01-01

114

Gangs. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

115

Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang

Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

2004-01-01

116

Concurrent Gang: Towards a Flexible and Scalable Gang Scheduler  

E-print Network

Concurrent Gang: Towards a Flexible and Scalable Gang Scheduler Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1.S.A. isaac@ics.uci.edu x Abstract--- Gang scheduling has been widely used as a practical solution on a partition of a parallel com­ puter. Gang Scheduling has many advantages, such as responsiveness, efficient

Scherson, Isaac D.

117

Female Gang Delinquency: A Search for "Acceptably Deviant Behavior"  

E-print Network

and instructed that serial monogamy was required- (p. 461). Campbell indicates two reasons for this emphasis on serial monogamy. First, this emphasis is in part motivated by the girls' own interest in protecting their current relationships with their boyfriends..." are strictly sanctioned by female gang members and disregarded by their female peers if they fail to change their "Ioose" behavior. The resulting serial monogamy of female gang members, then, can be seen as the consequence of an attempt to act normatively in a...

Swart, William J.

1991-01-01

118

Estimating the Effect of Gang Membership on Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency: A Counterfactual Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study reconsiders the well-known link between gang membership and criminal involvement. Recently developed analytical techniques enabled the approximation of an experimental design to determine whether gang members, after being matched with similarly situated non-gang members, exhibited greater involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency. Findings indicated that while gang membership is a function of self-selection, selection effects alone do not account for the greater involvement in delinquency exhibited by gang members. After propensity score matching (PSM) was employed, gang members maintained a greater involvement in both nonviolent and violent delinquency when measured cross-sectionally, but only violent delinquency when measured longitudinally. Additional analyses using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) reaffirmed these conclusions. PMID:20718001

Barnes, J.C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Miller, J. Mitchell

2011-01-01

119

Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

2003-01-01

120

Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

2006-01-01

121

Paired Gang Scheduling Yair Wiseman  

E-print Network

Paired Gang Scheduling£ Yair WisemanÜ School of CS & Engineering Hebrew University and Dept Hebrew University Jerusalem Israel feit@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract Conventional gang scheduling has alternative processes cannot be run independently of their own gangs. To alleviate this problem we suggest

Feitelson, Dror

122

Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

2004-01-01

123

Analysing youth gangs in Glasgow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs remain a considerable police and public health challenge. Knife crime is a significant cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Glasgow. Examples of gang fighting in Glasgow can be traced back to the 1700s, but the phenomena escalated in the 1840s following mass migration, rapid population expansion and the emergence of territorialism.By examining the intra and inter gang

W Linden

2010-01-01

124

Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey. Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation's gang problem and summarizes findings from the 2012 survey. Of the 2,538 survey recipients, 2,199 (87 percent) responded to the survey. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100…

Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Howell, James C.; Harris, Meena

2014-01-01

125

Ganges Sedimentary Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

2004-01-01

126

MODELING FASHION , Gang Wang  

E-print Network

MODELING FASHION Qi Chen , Gang Wang , Chew Lim Tan Department of Computer Science, National}@comp.nus.edu.sg, wanggang@ntu.edu.sg ABSTRACT We propose a method to try to model fashionable dress- es in this paper. We clustering approach. A fashionable dress is expected to con- tain certain visual patterns which make

Tan, Chew Lim

127

Youth Gangs and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

2007-01-01

128

Victory Junction Gang Camp  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

Shell, Ryan

2007-01-01

129

Gangs in the Schools. ERIC Digest 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC digest examines the growth and nature of juvenile gangs and the growing problem they present in the nation's public schools. It explores the characteristics of gangs, the impact gangs are having on public schools, why gangs develop and why students join them, what the schools' responses have been to gangs, and effective interactions for…

Burnett, Gary; Walz, Garry

130

California Prison Gang Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs, in…

Cummins, Eric

131

Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

2011-01-01

132

Familiar Correlates of Gang Membership: An Exploratory Study of Mexican-American Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data collected from 30 East Los Angeles Mexican American mothers, using semistructured interviews, indicated that family related variables distinguish families of gang members from control families. Youths in gangs are more likely to come from families which put less emphasis on intrafamilial socialization, youth supervision, and outward…

Adler, Peter; And Others

1984-01-01

133

Views on sex and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in the United States.  

PubMed

Although gang-involved Latino youth in the United States are uniquely at risk of adverse consequences from sexual behavior, little research is available that can guide those who wish to develop interventions to reduce sexual risk among these youth. To facilitate the development of effective interventions, we identified cultural and contextual factors that influence sexual behavior and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in one U.S. community. By analyzing transcripts from interviews and focus groups with three different groups of key stakeholders--gang-experienced Latino youth, the parents of gang-experienced Latino youth, and the personnel of a program providing comprehensive human services for gang-involved Latino youth--we identified three domains to be considered in developing sexual risk-reduction interventions for gang-involved U.S. Latino youth. The focus of our discussion is on the implications of these findings for future development or adaptation of interventions. PMID:24705683

Kassab, Veronica A; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Grzybowski, Megan M; Stout, Stacy; Richards, Allyn E; Barnett, Miya L; Guerra-Morales, Aileen; Bell, Katrina M; Crider, Elizabeth A; Beck, Kara L; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; Alfaro, Mario; Saxena, Suchita R

2014-05-01

134

Ganges River Delta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image of the Ganges River Delta in Bangladesh was acquired by the Landsat- 7 satellite on February 28, 2000. It's a false-color composite image made using green, blue and near infrared wavelengths, provided by the USGS, EROS Data Center. The Ganges River forms an impressive and extensive area of distributaries where it empties into the Bay of Bengal after moving across India. This delta is referred to as the Sunderbans and is home to approximately 120 million people. It's routinely flooded during cyclones and monsoonal rains. Because its inhabitant are so poor and the delta is so densely populated, even when flood and storm warnings are issued, each year thousands of people lose their lives as a result of floods. Note the sediment (milky blue color) flowing from the delta into the Bay of Bengal.

NASA Earth Observatory

135

Legitimating drug use: A note on the impact of gang membership and drug sales on the use of illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good deal is known about gang members' involvement as sellers of drugs. We know little, however, about the extent to which gang members are involved in the drug market as users, and about the role that involvement in drug sales plays in the use of drugs. This paper presents data from an 11-city survey of arrestees that includes a

Scott H. Decker

2000-01-01

136

Gulabi Gang (2012) Enter the badlands of Bundelkhand in central India and you have entered a place of  

E-print Network

of desolation, dust and despair. This film follows the Gulabi Gang, an unusual group of rural women led against them to protect the perpetrators of violence. While we see Gulabi Gang members struggling against gender violence and state corruption, we also see the flip side ­ members getting sucked by the trappings

Brierley, Andrew

137

The Global Impact of Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American study of gangs can no longer start and stop with local conditions but today must also be rooted in a global context. Studying gangs is important because of unprecedented world urbanization, the retreat of the state under the pressure of neoliberal policies, the strengthening of cultural resistance identities, including fundamentalist religion, nationalism, and hip-hop culture, the valorization of

John M. Hagedorn

2005-01-01

138

Ganges Rocks and Sand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

2005-01-01

139

Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

140

IndIa'sHoly Ganges River Aboard Bengal Ganga  

E-print Network

IndIa'sHoly Ganges River KolKata to Varanasi Aboard Bengal Ganga KolKata to Varanasi Aboard Bengal international locations. In addition to supporting community-based initiatives at each program site, Bridge Year and volunteer alongside community members at local schools and nongovernmental organizations working to address

Rowley, Clarence W.

141

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS Xiao-Gang Wen  

E-print Network

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS Xiao-Gang Wen 1. Electric and Magnetic Charges in Superstring Models Xiao-Gang Xiao-Gang Wen and E. Witten Phys. Lett. 166B, 397 (1986) 3. Nonperturbative Effect on String World Sheet M. Dine, N. Seiberg, Xiao-Gang Wen and E. Witten Nucl. Phys. B278, 769 (1986) 4. Nonperturbative

Wen, Xiao-Gang

142

Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

143

Pathways to Risk Among Inner-City African-American Adolescent Females: The Influence of Gang Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential rates of participation in three categories of risk behaviors (i.e., sexual activity, substance use, violence) were explored, comparing gang members to nonmembers, within a sample of 1,143 inner-city African American adolescent females. The relationship between gang membership and risk behavior also was examined, by exploring the association between a variety of microsystemic influences (e.g., gang, family, school) and participation

Gary W. Harper; W. LaVome Robinson

1999-01-01

144

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-12-01

145

Gang scheduling a parallel machine  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

1991-03-01

146

Eyes of Ganges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

2005-01-01

147

Gangs as Alternative Transitional Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a comparative study of youth gangs in minority communities in Los Angeles and London, England. A combined qualitative-quantitative research design was used to obtain information on the experiences, attitudes and behaviors of Black youth who were involved with or influenced by gangs.Measures included two semi-structured interview schedules for focus groups and individual youth, respectively.

Jewelle Taylor Gibbs

2000-01-01

148

Adolescent gang participation: Psychological perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

An issue concerning societal welfare that receives much exposure in the media is the existence of gangs and their effects\\u000a on children. There is a perception that the level of youth related violence is going up while the age of gang participation\\u000a is going down. Multiple sources (e.g., statistics from the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of

Hohn Hitchcock

2001-01-01

149

Gang change and evolutionary theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most street gangs are temporary and disorganized, some have institutionalized, and a number of these show signs of evolving\\u000a into more serious criminal enterprises, becoming more networked, technologically savvy and internationalized, less visible,\\u000a more predatory and sometimes more violent. The boundaries that researchers have drawn between gangs and other types of criminal\\u000a groups, particularly organized crime, are becoming blurred.

Julie Ayling

2011-01-01

150

Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ganges River Delta is the largest inter-tidal delta in the world. With its extensive mangrove mud flats, swamp vegetation and sand dunes, it is characteristic of many tropical and subtropical coasts. As seen in this photograph, the tributaries and distributaries of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers deposit huge amounts of silt and clay that create a shifting maze of waterways and islands in the Bay of Bengal.

1994-01-01

151

Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

2014-01-01

152

Ganges Chasma Landslide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 01 April 2002) This image shows a spectacular landslide along a portion of the southern wall of Ganges Chasma within Valles Marineris. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff is layered, with spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. Below the steep scarp is a smoother, steep slope of material with small, narrow tongues of debris that have eroded off of the escarpment since the landslide occurred (a talus slope). The actual landslide deposit, visible in the upper half of this image, shows striations that form by differences in the side-by-side motion during high velocity emplacement. This immense landslide traveled some 70 km at speeds that probably exceeded 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour) before coming to rest, forming abrupt, terminal fronts (upper right corner of image). Even at these high speeds, this massive landslide was moving for nearly an hour before it came to rest.

2002-01-01

153

Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

2001-01-01

154

Integrated Analysis of Ganges Mensa, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Viking, MOLA, and MOC data, we analyzed the stratigraphy of Ganges Mensa, an interior layered deposit in Ganges Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris. Geomorphic units matching topographic slope breaks were identified on the SW side of the Mensa.

Higbie, M. A.; Herrick, R. R.; Treiman, A. H.

2002-03-01

155

Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

White, Rob

2009-01-01

156

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling  

E-print Network

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling Dror G. Feitelson1 and Morris A. Jette is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice overall system utilization and responsiveness. Em- pirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T

Feitelson, Dror

157

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. OJJDP Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations to summarize what has been learned about: (1) prevention programs, including early childhood, school-based, and afterschool initiatives; (2) intervention programs, including those that work to create violence-free zones, establish gang summits and truces, and rehabilitate gang

Howell, James C.

158

The Street Gang Identification Manual. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is a comprehensive guide to identifiers of gang activities and memberships. The "People" and "Folks" concepts it uses represent the two main divisions of street gang affiliation. Gangs that belong to the "People" nation use the left side as an identifier, use a five-pointed star as an emblem, and claim affiliation with the "Latin King"…

Petrone, Frank M.

159

Groundwater Flow in the Ganges Delta  

E-print Network

Groundwater Flow in the Ganges Delta Basu et al. (1) reported that 2 1011 m3 /year of groundwater groundwater than in Ganges-Brahmaputra river water. The flow could also have impli- cations for the origin and fate of other groundwater constituents in the Ganges delta that could be flushed by such rapid regional

Entekhabi, Dara

160

Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs

Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

2005-01-01

161

Building Inside/Studio Gang  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exhibition from the Art Institute of Chicago (AIC) takes visitors inside the working process of Studio Gang Architects. Founded by Jeanne Gang in 1997, Studio Gang is the creative force behind projects inspired by the city of Chicago, such as the Aqua Tower, an 82-story, � multi-use high-rise with a hotel, apartments, condominiums, parking, offices, and one of Chicagoâ��s largest green roofs. Also in the exhibition is an unbuilt concept for an apartment complex in India: Hyderabad Tellapur 02, that "transforms the traditional Indian courtyard house into a new porous building type that serves a much larger-scale...development." The porousness is a system of cracks that provide cross ventilation for individual apartments, without air conditioning. The web exhibition concludes with a short video of the installation of the show at AIC.

2012-09-24

162

Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

163

Dunes in Ganges Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 12 April 2004

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

This daytime VIS image was collected on December 14, 2002 during the southern winter season in Ganges Chasma.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7, Longitude 310.8 East (49.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

164

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Jobs that do not require all processors in the system can bepacked together for gang scheduling. We examine accounting traces fromseveral parallel computers to show that indeed many jobs have small sizesand can be packed together. We then formulate a number of such packingalgorithms, and evaluate their effectiveness using simulations based onour workload study. The results are that two

Dror G. Feitelson

1996-01-01

165

Steering Students Clear of Gangs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young adolescents yearn to belong—especially when they are new to a community and don't speak the language. Communication and awareness among administrators, teachers, parents, and students are keys to ensuring students have the strength to say "no" to gang involvement and "yes" to continuing their education.

Tess Kluttz

166

Seasonal variability of geochemical signatures of streamflow: potential implications for end-member characterizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, the vast majority of investigations on water source and flowpaths have been focusing on small catchments with homogenous landuse and geology. While these studies have brought new knowledge on how these individual hydrological systems behave, we still face uncertainties inherent to basic assumptions related to end-member stability and degree of mixing. We rely on hydroclimatological and hydrogeochemical datasets collected in three small experimental catchments with contrasting lithology in the Attert river basin (Luxembourg, Europe): the Weierbach (schists), the Huewelerbach (sandstone) and the Wollefsbach (marls). Investigations based on oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope signatures in streamwater show the dominant influence of geology on catchment storage and mixing potential (Pfister et al., in preparation). Catchments dominated by permeable substrate exhibit stable isotopic signatures through the entire range of the flow duration curve, consistent with large storage volumes and mixing potential. On impermeable substrate, storage volumes are smaller and reduced mixing potential exists; isotopic signatures of streamflow are much more variable. Here, our objective is to determine whether (i) geochemical signatures along the individual flow duration curves of catchments exhibit similar patterns to those of stable isotopes and (ii) what potential implications those patterns have on mixing assumptions and end-member stability/identification. Our findings show two distinct patterns along the flow duration curves for cations, silica, EC and Abs254: during low flow conditions (i.e. restricted to groundwater contributions), concentrations of these parameters tend to increase as discharge values decrease, whereas during high flows, concentrations are more or less stable. For anions, no distinct patterns could be determined. Nitrates exhibit a special behaviour, in that their concentrations gradually increase with rising discharge values along the entire flow duration curve. Our observations document a significant variability of all investigated geochemical parameters during low flow conditions - a flow condition were only one well-mixed component is supposed to be hydrologically active. These findings give new insights to the use of streamwater sampled during low flow conditions for characterizing groundwater as a potential end-member.

François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, Francois; Hissler, Christophe; Klaus, Julian; Martinez Carreras, Núria; Pfister, Laurent

2014-05-01

167

Gang warfare: the medical repercussions.  

PubMed

Gang related violence in Los Angeles County has increased, with homicides increasing from 205 in 1982 to 803 in 1992. This study examines the medical and financial consequences of such violence on a level I trauma center. Of 856 gunshot injuries over a 29-month period, 272 were gang related. There were 55 pediatric and 217 adult patients. Eighty-nine percent were male and 11% were female. Trauma Score averaged 14.7 +/- 3.1, Glasgow Coma Scale average score was 13.7 +/- 3.4, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 10.8 +/- 14. Twenty-two percent of the gunshots were to the head and neck, 20% to the chest, 20% to the abdomen, 6% had a peripheral vascular injury, and 33% sustained an extremity musculoskeletal injury. Emergency surgery was performed on 43%, including laparotomy 58 (49%), craniotomy 16 (13%), laparoscopy 14 (12%), vascular procedures 10 (8%), orthopedic procedures 6 (5%), head and neck endoscopies 4 (3%), thoracotomies 2 (2%), and 10 (8%) unspecified. There were 25 deaths (9%), primarily caused by head injuries and exsanguinating hemorrhage. Eighty-six percent entered the hospital during the hours of minimal staffing that preempted the use of facilities for other emergent patients. Charges totaled $4,828,828 (emergency room, surgical procedures, intensive care, and surgical ward stay) which equated to $5,550 per patient per day. Fifty-eight percent had no third party reimbursement, 22% had Medi-Cal, and 20% had medical insurance. Because of dismal reimbursement rates, the costs of gang violence are passed on to the tax payer. The cost of gang related violence cannot be derived from hospital charges only, because death, disability, and pain are not entered into the calculation. Education, increased social programs, and strict criminal justice laws and enforcement may decrease gang related violence and the drain it has on financial and medical resources. PMID:8614085

Song, D H; Naude, G P; Gilmore, D A; Bongard, F

1996-05-01

168

Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

169

Discouraging Gangs in Schools: A Prescription for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication identifies five levels of gang activity in middle and high schools and presents corresponding strategies for dealing with troublesome situations. The five levels of involvement include: (1) no known gang activity; (2) limited gang activity; (3) emerging gang activity; (4) community in crisis; and (5) gang-controlled community. A…

Foster, Linda G.

1994-01-01

170

Treatment of Gangs\\/Gang Behavior in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs constitute the largest component of criminally active adolescent peer groups in the United States (Howell, 2003a).\\u000a Applying primary prevention and health promotion models to this topic is a complex matter, especially in light of the guiding\\u000a definition of primary prevention and health promotion used in this volume, which is “those planned actions that help participants\\u000a prevent predictable problems,

Mark B. Borg; Michael R. Dalla

171

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

2013-01-01

172

Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico  

PubMed Central

We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

2012-01-01

173

Improving Gang Scheduling through Job Performance Analysis and Malleability  

E-print Network

Improving Gang Scheduling through Job Performance Analysis and Malleability Julita Corbalan, Xavier present two new approaches to attack the two main problems of Gang Scheduling: the excessive number slot of Gang Scheduling to distribute processors among applications considering their efficiency

Corbalan, Julita

174

Gangs in Nigeria: an updated examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes gangs in Nigeria, providing an updated examination of their current strategies and activities. The premise\\u000a of this analysis partly draws on Social Identity Theory, with respect to gang affiliation. Particularly explored are (1) gang\\u000a cultism as a common phenomenon on college campuses in Nigeria (through their malicious, secret, fraternity-like activities)\\u000a and (2) the role of Islam in

Jonathan Matusitz; Michael Repass

2009-01-01

175

Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents papers from some leading social scientists and scholars who examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem. New material is provided on wilding (i.e., running amok for no specific reason) gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public education disruption. Other topics involve organization of gangs, their social…

Cummings, Scott, Ed.; Monti, Daniel J., Ed.

176

Girl Members of Deviant Youth Groups, Offending Behaviour and Victimisation: Results from the ISRD2 in Italy and Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a lot of research has been conducted on the delinquency of boys who are members of gangs, only a few quantitative\\u000a studies have analysed the involvement of girl gang members in delinquency and its link with victimisation. In this study,\\u000a the prevalence rates of girls who are members of gangs in Italy and in Switzerland are shown. We compared

Sandrine Haymoz; Uberto Gatti

2010-01-01

177

Gender and Gangs: A Quantitative Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research and theory about female gang involvement remain scarce. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addresses whether males and females differ in risk factors associated with gang membership (e.g., community characteristics, parent-child relationships, associations with deviant friends). Integrating theory…

Bell, Kerryn E.

2009-01-01

178

Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

2013-01-01

179

Community organization and gang policy response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of agency response networks in 21 urban areas reveals that the adoption of policy responses is significantly related to social network location. In the 1988 National Youth Gang Intervention and Suppression Program survey, agency representatives were asked to list agencies with which regular contact was maintained in the process of dealing with the youth gang problem. Policy response is

G. David Curry; Rodney W. Thomas

1992-01-01

180

The Primacy of Decision-Action as an Influence Strategy of Violent Gang Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between decisions, actions, and orders as facets of influence, both over criminal events and group members, for 37 leaders of sexually violent gangs. The degree to which decisions, actions, and orders were employed during the offense (quantitative variation), as well as the combinations of these elements (qualitative varia- tion), was examined to evaluate the range

LOUISE E. PORTER; LAURENCE J. ALISON

2005-01-01

181

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations #3; Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson School of Computer parallel jobs is gang scheduling [10, 5]. The idea is to map the threads of a parallel job to distinct studies find gang schedul­ ing to be very efficient. A major drawback of current implementations of gang

Wiseman, Yair

182

Improving Throughput and Utilization in Parallel Machines Through Concurrent Gang  

E-print Network

Improving Throughput and Utilization in Parallel Machines Through Concurrent Gang Fabricio Alves Gang, that combines the advan­ tages of gang scheduling for communication and synchro­ nization. Besides that, scalability in Concurrent Gang is achieved through the use of a global synchronizer

Scherson, Isaac D.

183

An Economic Analysis Of A Drug-Selling Gang'S Finances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a unique data set detailing the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang to analyze gang economics. On average, earnings in the gang are somewhat above the legitimate labor market alternative. The enormous risks of drug selling, however, more than offset this small wage premium. Compensation within the gang is highly skewed, and the prospect of future riches,

Steven D. Levitt; Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

2000-01-01

184

The protective influence of gangs: Can schools compensate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gangs have risen to the level of a broad social problem, yet, to date, research has neglected the influence of school factors on gang membership. Although gang involvement leads to many negative outcomes, such as incarceration, drug and alcohol use, injury, and death, gangs may also serve a protective influence to those who join them. For this reason, it is

Jill D. Sharkey; Zhanna Shekhtmeyster; Lizbeth Chavez-Lopez; Elizabeth Norris; Laura Sass

2011-01-01

185

Latino High School Students’ Perceptions of Gangs and Crews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with them. Sixty three percent reported that gangs were

Edward M. Lopez; Alison Wishard; Ronald Gallimore; Wendy Rivera

2006-01-01

186

Geometry Analysis Numerics Graphics (GANG) Pre-print series 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry Analysis Numerics Graphics (GANG), an interdisciplinary differential geometry research team at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, has posted pre-prints from its team members. Although this page is not new (the pre-prints were posted during 1999-2000), a variety of research results can be found here. The abstracts are in HTML format, and the full text must be downloaded in .ps format. Examples of article titles from the most recent pre-print series (5): "From microscopic interactions to macroscopic laws of cluster evolution," "New constant mean curvature trinoids," and "Periodic discrete conformal maps."

187

Issues in the Production and Dissemination of Gang Statistics: an Ethnographic Study of a Large Midwestern Police Gang Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a great deal of public debate concerning matters related to gang data, there has been little research investigating the process by which these data are collected and disseminated. This article uses a multimethodological approach to explore the issues in the production and dissemination of gang statistics in one midwestern gang unit. Unlike previous research examining gang

Charles M. Katz

2003-01-01

188

Eight-Membered Ring-Containing Jadomycins: Implications for Non-enzymatic Natural Products Biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Jadomycin Oct (1) was isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 and characterized as a structurally unique eight-membered l-ornithine ring-containing jadomycin. The structure was elucidated through the semisynthetic derivatization of starting material via chemoselective acylation of the l-ornithine ?-amino group using activated succinimidyl esters. Incorporation of 5-aminovaleric acid led to jadomycin AVA, a second eight-membered ring-containing jadomycin. These natural products illustrate the structural diversity permissible from a non-enzymatic step within a biosynthetic pathway and exemplifies the potential for discovery of novel scaffolds. PMID:25692677

Robertson, Andrew W; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Smithen, Deborah A; Yin, Huimin; Monro, Susan; Thompson, Alison; McFarland, Sherri A; Syvitski, Raymond T; Jakeman, David L

2015-03-11

189

Pathways to risk among inner-city African-American adolescent females: the influence of gang membership.  

PubMed

Differential rates of participation in three categories of risk behaviors (i.e., sexual activity, substance use, violence) were explored, comparing gang members to nonmembers, within a sample of 1,143 inner-city African American adolescent females. The relationship between gang membership and risk behavior also was examined, by exploring the association between a variety of microsystemic influences (e.g., gang, family, school) and participation in risk behaviors. MANOVA analyses indicated that gang members, relative to nonmembers, reported higher rates of participation in each of the three categories of risk behaviors. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that gang membership was the variable with the most consistent predictive ability, across all categories of risk, as it entered early in all equations and remained in all three final models after controlling for other statistically significant contextual variables. Findings suggest that intervention efforts aimed at reducing adolescent females' participation in sexual activity, substance use, and violence should consider the influence of gang membership on the participation in these behaviors. PMID:10492881

Harper, G W; Robinson, W L

1999-06-01

190

Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

1991-12-01

191

Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose.  

PubMed

Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene -based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with (13) C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our (13) C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry-in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The (13) C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

2014-04-01

192

Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose  

PubMed Central

Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene-based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with 13C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our 13C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry–in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The 13C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

2014-01-01

193

Genetic relationships among members of the Ichthyobodo necator complex: implications for the management of aquaculture stocks.  

PubMed

Abstract Ichthyobodo necator (costia) is a common and important flagellate parasite that infests the skin and gills of many freshwater and marine fish. Costia infestations are often fatal and cause significant aquaculture losses worldwide. Recently it has been demonstrated that Ichthyobodo is a multispecies complex with differing host preferences. Knowing if those species have broad or narrow host specificity has important implications for the management of costia. To address the question of host specificity, genomic DNA was isolated from Ichthyobodo trophonts collected from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, koi, Cyprinus carpio, mirror carp, C. carpio, goldfish, Carassius auratus, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene from each isolate was analysed with previously published Ichthyobodo sequences using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) from six isolates were also PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Both the SSU rRNA phylogenetic analysis and the ITS rRNA sequence data support grouping the 22 Ichthyobodo isolates examined into a complex of nine different species. Many of these species were frequently isolated from multiple hosts, indicating that exchange of infested fish from one region to another has a high potential for spreading the disease. In one instance, the same species was obtained from marine and freshwater fish, further suggesting that certain Ichthyobodo species may not be limited by salinity. PMID:15705156

Callahan, H A; Litaker, R W; Noga, E J

2005-02-01

194

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN  

E-print Network

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN Abstract. In [26] the authors STREETS AND GANG TIAN certain entropy functional. Finally, we discuss some applications of our conjectural

Streets, Jeff

195

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN  

E-print Network

REGULARITY RESULTS FOR PLURICLOSED FLOW JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN Abstract. In [8] the authors with torsion given by a closed Date: August 16, 2010. 1 #12;2 JEFFREY STREETS AND GANG TIAN three-form, namely

Streets, Jeff

196

FINITE MAXIMAL TORI GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR.  

E-print Network

FINITE MAXIMAL TORI GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR. To Nolan Wallach, with respect, admiration, and the second author in part by NSF grant DMS-0967272. 1 #12;2 GANG HAN AND DAVID A. VOGAN, JR. Unfortunately

Vogan, David

197

Satzung der Johann Wolf-gang Goethe-Universitt  

E-print Network

Satzung der Johann Wolf- gang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main für das Verfahren in zulassungs- schulischen Leistungen, die über die Eignung für den gewählten Studien- gang besonderen Auf- schluss geben

Mester, Rudolf

198

Gang culture from the streets to the emergency department.  

PubMed

Gangs, gang activity, and the results of such activities, can have a special impact on hospitals, their employees, and others in the hospital community. In this article, the authors spell out in detail the extent of the gang culture to assist hospital professionals in understanding its many ramifications and guide them in taking actions to reduce the impact of gangs on hospital operations. PMID:18409448

Michelman, Bonnie; Patak, George

2008-01-01

199

El astrologo y el Emperador del Ganges1 Nota preliminar  

E-print Network

El astr´ologo y el Emperador del Ganges1 Nota preliminar El explorador y aventurero Sir Richard~nos las Actas de las audiencias del Emperador del Ganges, pero apenas logr´o recopilar algunos de los comunicante: Las audiencias del Emperador del Ganges eran re- gistradas en Actas, con todo lujo de detalles

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

200

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

Packing Schemes for Gang Scheduling Dror G. Feitelson Institute of Computer Science The Hebrew that do not require all processors in the system can be packed together for gang scheduling. We examine, proved to be counterproductive. The buddy system approach depends on the capability to gang-schedule jobs

Feitelson, Dror

201

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming  

E-print Network

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming Fang Wang 1. In this paper we explore the performance of various aspects of gang scheduling designs. We developed an event­driven simulator of a vanilla gang scheduler that relies on the Distributed Hierarchical Control (DHC) structure

Papaefthymiou, Marios

202

An Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Multiprogrammed Parallel Computing Environments  

E-print Network

An Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Multiprogrammed Parallel Computing Environments Mark S­8285 fwang­fang,papaefthymiou­mariosg@cs.yale.edu Abstract Gang scheduling is a resource management scheme and analyze a queueing theoretic model for a general gang scheduling scheme that forms the basis of a multipro

Papaefthymiou, Marios

203

Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

2006-01-01

204

Gang Scheduling Performance Bene ts for Fine-Grain Synchronization  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling Performance Bene#12;ts for Fine-Grain Synchronization Dror G. Feitelson #3; Larry policies. A promising new idea is gang scheduling, where a set of threads are scheduled to execute, without the risk of waiting for a thread that currently is not running. Without gang scheduling, threads

Newhall, Tia

205

Response Time Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Real Time Systems  

E-print Network

Response Time Analysis of Gang Scheduling for Real Time Systems Fabrício A. B. Silva, Ernesto P investigates the application of gang scheduling-based algorithms for real time systems that contain multiple processors. We derive the worst-case response time analysis for gang scheduling with and without machine

Cirne, Walfredo

206

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming  

E-print Network

Performance Evaluation of Gang Scheduling for Parallel and Distributed Multiprogramming Fang Wang1. In this paper we explore the performance of various aspects of gang scheduling designs. We developed an event-driven simulator of a vanilla gang scheduler that relies on the Distributed Hierarchical Control (DHC) structure

Feitelson, Dror

207

Gang Migration of Virtual Machines using Cluster-wide Deduplication  

E-print Network

Gang Migration of Virtual Machines using Cluster-wide Deduplication Umesh Deshpande, Brandon}@binghamton.edu Abstract--Gang migration refers to the simultaneous live migration of multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) from failures. Gang migration generates a large volume of network traffic and can overload the core network

Gopalan, Kartik

208

Gang Scheduling with Lightweight User-Level Communication Eitan Frachtenberg,  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling with Lightweight User-Level Communication Eitan Frachtenberg, ¡ Fabrizio Petrini,fabrizio,scoll, feng}@lanl.gov Abstract In this paper, we explore the performance of gang scheduling on a cluster using of processes, timeslice quantum, and multiprogramming lev- els. Our experiments show that the gang scheduler

209

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling with Memory Considerations Anat Batat Dror G. Feitelson Institute of Computer determines when and on which nodes a job will be executed. One way of scheduling parallel jobs is gang run simultaneously makes it possible for them to synchronize with each other [10]. The price of gang

Feitelson, Dror

210

Gang behavior in the schools: Reality or myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to explore the nature of gang behavior in U.S. schools, with a particular focus on the extent to which such behavior affects or exacerbates the larger issue of school violence. An unanticipated finding was the absence of strong empirical support for school gang violence. The evidence does show youth gangs have changed dramatically over

Carolyn P. Parks

1995-01-01

211

The Social Outcomes of Street Gang Involvement. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined links between early adolescent exposure to entrepreneurial gang activity and later criminal justice, economic, and social outcomes, comparing the social and behavioral outcomes of young people with active gang involvement and their non-gang affiliated counterparts. Participants came from a concentrated poor, predominantly…

Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi

212

Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide. Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides guidelines for agencies and community groups to develop individualized responses to local gang problems. The manual contains a foundation for understanding the diverse nature of gangs, the problems they pose, and the harm they cause. Two models are presented for addressing gang-related problems. The problem-solving model to…

Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC.

213

Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers,

Rachel A. Hegemann; Laura M. Smith; Alethea B. T. Barbaro; Andrea L. Bertozzi; Shannon E. Reid; George E. Tita

2011-01-01

214

Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-10-01

215

The Situation Complex: Revisiting Frederic Thrasher’s The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Originally published in 1927, Frederic Thrasher’s The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago is a panoramic, multilayered, richly detailed account of youth gangs—a milestone text of the Chicago School of Sociology. The most widely available version of The Gang is a highly edited edition published in 1963, which contained an extensive new introduction by noted sociologist James Short.

Greg Dimitriadis

2006-01-01

216

Gangs as contractors: the social organization of American Taiwanese youth gangs in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the organizational structure and operations of Taiwanese organized crime and youth gangs in Southern California.\\u000a In-depth interviews were used as the principle method of research. In contrast to transnational criminal conspiracy claims\\u000a and the La Cosa Nostra model of vertically integrated organizations, our findings suggest that these criminal groups consist of discrete local Taiwanese\\u000a youth gangs which

Kay Kei-ho Pih; Akihiko Hirose; KuoRay Mao

2010-01-01

217

Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

1986-01-01

218

Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

Deuchar, Ross

2009-01-01

219

Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

Howell, James C.

2010-01-01

220

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Peter Strazdins*  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Cluster Peter Strazdins* and John Uhlmann & Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf 1 1 Outline · introductory concepts for gang and local scheduling of Local & Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf 2 2 Gang and Local Scheduling; Introductory Concepts · run time

Strazdins, Peter

221

Are There Gangs in Schools?: It Depends upon Whom You Ask  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…

Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.

2006-01-01

222

Gang homicides - five U.S. cities, 2003-2008.  

PubMed

Gang homicides account for a substantial proportion of homicides among youths in some U.S. cities; however, few surveillance systems collect data with the level of detail necessary to gang homicide prevention strategies. To compare characteristics of gang homicides with nongang homicides, CDC analyzed 2003-2008 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) for five cities with high levels of gang homicide. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, consistent with similar previous research, a higher proportion of gang homicides than other homicides involved young adults and adolescents, racial and ethnic minorities, and males. Additionally, the proportion of gang homicides resulting from drug trade/use or with other crimes in progress was consistently low in the five cities, ranging from zero to 25%. Furthermore, this report found that gang homicides were more likely to occur with firearms and in public places, which suggests that gang homicides are quick, retaliatory reactions to ongoing gang-related conflict. These findings provide evidence for the need to prevent gang involvement early in adolescence and to increase youths' capacity to resolve conflict nonviolently. PMID:22278158

2012-01-27

223

Tamoxifen downregulates ets oncogene family members ETV4 and ETV5 in benign breast tissue: implications for durable risk reduction.  

PubMed

Five years of tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk by nearly 50% but is associated with significant side effects and toxicities. A better understanding of the direct and indirect effects of tamoxifen in benign breast tissue could elucidate new mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis, suggest novel chemoprevention targets, and provide relevant early response biomarkers for phase II prevention trials. Seventy-three women at increased risk for breast cancer were randomized to tamoxifen (20 mg daily) or placebo for 3 months. Blood and breast tissue samples were collected at baseline and posttreatment. Sixty-nine women completed all study activities (37 tamoxifen and 32 placebo). The selected biomarkers focused on estradiol and IGFs in the blood; DNA methylation and cytology in random periareolar fine-needle aspirates; and tissue morphometry, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression (microarray and reverse transcriptase PCR) in the tissue core samples. Tamoxifen downregulated Ets oncogene transcription factor family members ETV4 and ETV5 and reduced breast epithelial cell proliferation independent of CYP2D6 genotypes or effects on estradiol, ESR1, or IGFs. Reduction in proliferation was correlated with downregulation of ETV4 and DNAJC12. Tamoxifen reduced the expression of ETV4- and ETV5-regulated genes implicated in epithelial-stromal interaction and tissue remodeling. Three months of tamoxifen did not affect breast tissue composition, cytologic atypia, preneoplasia, or apoptosis. A plausible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of tamoxifen is restriction of lobular expansion into stroma through downregulation of ETV4 and ETV5. The human equivalent of murine multipotential progenitor cap cells of terminal end buds may be the primary target. PMID:21778330

Euhus, David; Bu, Dawei; Xie, Xian-Jin; Sarode, Venetia; Ashfaq, Raheela; Hunt, Kelly; Xia, Weiya; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Grant, Michael; Arun, Banu; Dooley, William; Miller, Alexander; Flockhart, David; Lewis, Cheryl

2011-11-01

224

Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.  

PubMed

This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes. PMID:11768147

Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

2001-01-01

225

Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control Dror G, Israel Abstract Gang scheduling | the scheduling of a number of related threads to execute simultaneously, gang scheduling can leave processors idleifthe sizes ofthe gangsdo not matchthe

Feitelson, Dror

226

It's Time to "Gang Up" on an Age-Old Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth gangs can be found throughout all racial, ethnic, and religious groups. Characteristics of gang membership and suggestions for parent and school involvement in preventing gangs are discussed. (DF)

O'Donnell, Harriet

1985-01-01

227

Improved Utilization and Responsiveness with Gang Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicingschemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknownimpact on the future: should a job be scheduled,risking that it will block other larger jobs later,or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipationof future arrivals? This dilemma is solvedby using gang scheduling, because then the impact ofeach decision is limited to its time slice,

Dror G. Feitelson; Morris A. Jette

1997-01-01

228

Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

2012-12-01

229

The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian…

Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

2013-01-01

230

Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

Struyk, Ruth

2006-01-01

231

Precursors and Consequences of Membership in Youth Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied explanations for gang membership in a population of 11,000 secondary school students. Lower self-esteem, perceived academic ability, psychosocial health, and bonds with institutions appeared to precede gang membership. Other precursors and consequences identified were also consistent with a lack of social integration. (SLD)

Dukes, Richard L.; Martinez, Ruben O.; Stein, Judith A.

1997-01-01

232

Adaptive Memory Paging for Efficient Gang Scheduling of Parallel Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The gang scheduling paradigm allows timesharing of computing nodes by multiple parallel applications and supports the coordinated context switches of these applications. It can improve system responsiveness and resource utilization. However, the memory paging overhead incurred during context switches can be expensive and may diminish the positive effects of gang scheduling. We investigate the reduction of

Kyung Dong Ryu; Nimish Pachapurkar; Liana L. Fong

2004-01-01

233

Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

2011-01-01

234

Gangs and healthcare security: preparation and education are the keys.  

PubMed

The threat of gang violence spilling over into hospital emergency rooms has become a reality in communities of all sizes, the author reports. The keys to a successful campaign against gang violence in a hospital setting, he says, are training and education of security and clinical staffs, cooperation with law enforcement, and proper reporting procedures and protocols. PMID:22970625

Moore, Charles D

2012-01-01

235

Gang youth, substance use patterns, and drug normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16–25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while evidence does suggest that illicit drug use

Bill Sanders

2012-01-01

236

Learning from Gangs: The Mexican American Experience. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs have become a fixture in the Mexican American populations of southern California and other regions, spreading from low-income neighborhoods in the Southwest to working class and lower-middle class suburban areas. The development and institutionalization of gangs have involved many factors, including racial discrimination and economic…

Vigil, James Diego

237

Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency, and substance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to respond to gaps in our knowledge about patterns of female gang participation and its causes and consequences. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a panel study that overrepresents adolescents at high risk for delinquency, are used to compare gang participation and delinquent involvement of female and male adolescents. We then examine the

Beth Bjerregaard; Carolyn Smith

1993-01-01

238

Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

Sanders, Bill

2012-01-01

239

Multi-Speaker Language Modeling Gang Ji and Jeff Bilmes  

E-print Network

Multi-Speaker Language Modeling Gang Ji and Jeff Bilmes SSLI Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2500 {gang,bilmes}@ee.washington.edu Abstract, speakers can have significant influence on each other. To recover such un-modeled inter-speaker in

Bilmes, Jeff

240

Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling  

SciTech Connect

Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

Jette, M.A.

1998-03-01

241

Diagenesis and fracture development in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin; implications for reservoir quality in the middle member  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The middle member of the Bakken Formation is an attractive petroleum exploration target in the deeper part of the Williston Basin because it is favorably positioned with respect to source and seal units. Progressive rates of burial and minor uplift and erosion of this member led to a stable thermal regime and, consequently, minor variations in diagenesis across much of the basin. The simple diagenetic history recorded in sandstones and siltstones in the middle member can, in part, be attributed to the closed, low-permeability nature of the Bakken petroleum system during most of its burial history. Most diagenesis ceased in the middle member when oil entered the sandstones and siltstones in the Late Cretaceous. Most oil in the Bakken Formation resides in open, horizontal fractures in the middle member. Core analysis reveals that sandstones and siltstones associated with thick mature shales typically have a greater density of fractures than sandstones and siltstones associated with thin mature shales. Fractures were caused by superlithostatic pressures that formed in response to increased fluid volumes in the source rocks during hydrocarbon generation

Pitman, Janet K.; Price, Leigh C.; LeFever, Julie A.

2001-01-01

242

Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

Richards, Maurice V.

2010-01-01

243

Overhead Analysis of Preemptive Gang Atsushi Hori1, Hiroshi Tezuka1, Yutaka Ishikawa1  

E-print Network

Overhead Analysis of Preemptive Gang Scheduling Atsushi Hori1, Hiroshi Tezuka1, Yutaka Ishikawa1,tezuka,ishikawag@rwcp.or.jp Abstract. A preemptive gang scheduler is developed and evaluated. The gang scheduler, called SCore user processes are gang-scheduled, communica- tion messages are rst ushed, then the messages

Feitelson, Dror

244

Live Gang Migration of Virtual Machines Umesh Deshpande, Xiaoshuang Wang, and, Kartik Gopalan  

E-print Network

Live Gang Migration of Virtual Machines Umesh Deshpande, Xiaoshuang Wang, and, Kartik Gopalan VMs as live gang migration. Cluster administrators may often need to perform live gang migration that our prototype for live gang mi- gration can achieve significant reductions in both network traffic

Gopalan, Kartik

245

Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

Bjerregaard, Beth

2002-01-01

246

Improvements in Parallel Job Scheduling Using Gang Service Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Improvements in Parallel Job Scheduling Using Gang Service Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 of California, Irvine CA 92697, U.S.A Abstract Gang scheduling has been widely used as a practical solution we propose a class of scheduling policies, dubbed Concurrent Gang, that is a generalization of gang

Scherson, Isaac D.

247

U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

Tapia, Mike

2011-01-01

248

Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang Involvement among African American and Hispanic Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female minority students at an urban alternative high school completed interviews regarding perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement. Peer pressure was the largest influence on female gang involvement. Respondents believed girls might turn to gangs for protection from neighborhood crime, abusive families, and other gangs. Lack of…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

2001-01-01

249

2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

250

Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang

Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

251

Racialized Identitites and the Formation of Black Gangs in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the history of Black gangs in Los Angeles, California and iden- tifies the factors that were most significant in the formation of these gangs during two waves of gang formation in the post-World War II period. The results of this analysis suggest that the racialization of Black youths played a major factor in both waves of gang

Alejandro Alonso

2004-01-01

252

Heterodimerization and functional interaction between EGF receptor family members: a new signaling paradigm with implications for breast cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGF receptor (EGFR) and HER2 are members of a growth factor receptor family. Overexpression of either protein in advanced breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis. EGF stimulates growth by binding to EGFR, activating the receptor's intracellular tyrosine kinase. The initial consequence is phosphorylation of specific tyrosine-containing sequences in the receptor's carboxyl terminus. These phosphotyrosines serve as high affinity recognition

H. Shelton Earp; Thomas L. Dawson; Xiong Li; Hong Yu

1995-01-01

253

The contribution of multinational enterprises to the upgrading of national innovation systems in the EU new member states: policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the role of multinational enterprises (MNE) in the upgrading of national innovation systems and the policies that the new member states (NMS) of the European Union (EU) can put in place to enhance it. We use the innovation systems approach as a basis for analyzing policy options and focus on the MNE and the potential for linkages,

Rajneesh Narula; José Guimón

254

The X-It gang desistance programme: an interview with Julia Wolton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-It gang desistance programme began in 2004 in the wake of a spate of fatal, gang-related shootings in Brixton, South London. The programme is owned and run by the X-It peer youth workers, gang-involved young people who wish to find alternatives to gang violence for other young people living in gang-affected neighbourhoods. The programme won the Guardian Public Service

John Pitts

2009-01-01

255

Cliqued Up: The Postincarceration Recidivism of Young Gang-Related Homicide Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the interrelationship between gang affiliation and commitment for a gang-related homicide on the postincarceration recidivism of a sample of 1,804 serious and violent delinquents released from a large southern juvenile correctional system. Controlling for a battery of preincarceration youth characteristics, delinquent background, and social history measures, this research revealed that gang murderers—gang-affiliated offenders committed for a gang-related

Chad R. Trulson; Jonathan W. Caudill; Darin R. Haerle; Matt DeLisi

2012-01-01

256

Integrating seepage heterogeneity with the use of ganged seepage meters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Rosenberry, D.O.

2005-01-01

257

Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

2011-10-01

258

Thinking Like an Indian: Healing Tribal Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a tribal school with a mission to gang-involved youth in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona). Explains disciplinary actions; involvement of parents, teachers, and police; and requirements for student participation in various activities. (LRW)

Hernandez, Arturo

2001-01-01

259

Liquids on Topologically Nanopatterned Surfaces Oleg Gang,1,2,*,  

E-print Network

Liquids on Topologically Nanopatterned Surfaces Oleg Gang,1,2,*, Kyle J. Alvine,3 Masafumi Fukuto,3 of the chemical potential offset from the bulk liquid-vapor coexistence. The strong influence of geometrical

Ocko, Ben

260

Erosion, Burial, and Exhumation at Ganges Mensa, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slopes and surfaces of Ganges Mensa show evidence for aeolian erosion, burial, and exhumation. This indicates that its shape and surfaces are not primary features, but have been modified by the same forces that alter terrain elsewhere on Mars.

Beyer, R. A.

2006-03-01

261

The Enemy Within: The Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Moral Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

When there is a period devoid of sensationalistic biker news, the public’s concern about outlaw bikers can be quite low. All\\u000a it takes is one overt act of violence to heighten the public’s fear of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs are\\u000a the most current “dangerous class” which have been the subject of a moral panic in Canada. Outlaw Motorcycle

Karen Katz

262

Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)  

DOE Data Explorer

In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

263

Isotope geochemistry of Jeongok basalts, northernmost South Korea: Implications for the enriched mantle end-member component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South Korea separates two mantle source domains for Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in East Asia: depleted mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) mantle-enriched mantle type 1 (DMM-EM1) in the north and DMM-EM2 in the south. We determined geochemical compositions, including Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopes for the Jeongok trachybasalts (?0.51 to 0.15 Ma K-Ar ages) from northernmost South Korea, to better constrain the origin and distribution of the enriched mantle components. The Jeongok basalts exhibit light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched patterns ([La/Yb]N = 9.2-11.6). The (La/Yb)N ratios are lower than that of typical oceanic island basalt (OIB). On a primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element plot, the Jeongok samples show OIB-like enrichment in highly incompatible elements. However, they are depleted in moderately incompatible elements (e.g., La, Nd, Zr, Hf, etc.) compared with the OIB and exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb. These anomalies are also prime characteristics of the Wudalianchi basalts, extreme EM1 end-member volcanics in northeast China. We have compared the geochemistry of the Jeongok basalts with those of available Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanic rocks from East Asia (from north to south, Wudalianchi, Mt. Baekdu and Baengnyeong for DMM-EM1, and Jeju for DMM-EM2). The mantle source for the Jeongok volcanics contains an EM1 component. The contribution of the EM1 component to East Asian volcanism increases toward the north, from Baengnyeong through Jeongok to Mt. Baekdu and finally to Wudalianchi. Modeling of trace element data suggests that the Jeongok basalts may have been generated by mixing of a Wudalianchi-like melt (EM1 end-member) and a melt that originated from a depleted mantle source, with some addition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Jeongok area. In Nd-Hf isotope space, the most enriched EM1-component-bearing Jeongok sample shows elevation of 176Hf/177Hf at a given 143Nd/144Nd compared with OIB. Recycled pelagic sediments may explain the EM1-end-member component of northeastern Asian volcanism, possibly from the mantle transition zone.

Choi, Hyun-Ok; Choi, Sung Hi; Yu, Yongjae

2014-09-01

264

Hidden behind the gunfire: young women's experiences of gang-related violence.  

PubMed

This article uses data from a 3-year multisite ethnographic research study of gangs within an English city, to explore the different ways that "gang culture" shapes the victimization experiences and everyday lives of (young) women. Victims of lethal gang violence in Research City are almost exclusively young men, rendering invisible the ways in which gangs have an impact on the lives of women living in neighborhoods with a gang presence. The article also discusses how the adoption of a transdisciplinary approach could be useful in developing a holistic picture of the impact of gang-related violence on the lives of women. PMID:22926187

Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

2012-06-01

265

Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable. PMID:22928103

Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William

2012-01-01

266

Two members of the Tcf family implicated in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during embryogenesis in the mouse.  

PubMed

Tcf transcription factors interact with beta-catenin and Armadillo to mediate Wnt/Wingless signaling. We now report the characterization of genes encoding two murine members of the Tcf family, mTcf-3 and mTcf-4. mTcf-3 mRNA is ubiquitously present in embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) mouse embryos but gradually disappears over the next 3 to 4 days. mTcf-4 expression occurs first at E10.5 and is restricted to di- and mesencephalon and the intestinal epithelium during embryogenesis. The mTcf-3 and mTcf-4 proteins bind a canonical Tcf DNA motif and can complex with the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin. Overexpression of Wnt-1 in a mammary epithelial cell line leads to the formation of a nuclear complex between beta-catenin and Tcf proteins and to Tcf reporter gene transcription. These data demonstrate a direct link between Wnt stimulation and beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activation and imply a role for mTcf-3 and -4 in early Wnt-driven developmental decisions in the mouse embryo. PMID:9488439

Korinek, V; Barker, N; Willert, K; Molenaar, M; Roose, J; Wagenaar, G; Markman, M; Lamers, W; Destree, O; Clevers, H

1998-03-01

267

UNIVERSALITY IN MEAN CURVATURE FLOW NECKPINCHES ZHOU GANG AND DAN KNOPF  

E-print Network

UNIVERSALITY IN MEAN CURVATURE FLOW NECKPINCHES ZHOU GANG AND DAN KNOPF Abstract. We study for support in DMS-1308985. DK thanks NSF for support in DMS-1205270. 1 #12;2 ZHOU GANG AND DAN KNOPF One says

Knopf, Dan

268

Ellis, Erle. C., Rong Gang Li, Lin Zhang Yang, and Xu Cheng. 2000. Nitrogen and the  

E-print Network

Ellis, Erle. C., Rong Gang Li, Lin Zhang Yang, and Xu Cheng. 2000. Nitrogen and the sustainable Strategies. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. #12;Nitrogen and the Sustainable Village Erle C. Ellis, Rong Gang Li

Ellis, Erle C.

269

Thermal contact resistance across nanoscale silicon dioxide and silicon Jie Chen, Gang Zhang, and Baowen Li  

E-print Network

Thermal contact resistance across nanoscale silicon dioxide and silicon interface Jie Chen, Gang://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Thermal contact resistance across nanoscale silicon dioxide and silicon interface Jie Chen,1 Gang

Li, Baowen

270

JOINTLY RECOGNIZING MULTI-SPEAKER CONVERSATIONS Gang Ji and Jeff Bilmes  

E-print Network

JOINTLY RECOGNIZING MULTI-SPEAKER CONVERSATIONS Gang Ji and Jeff Bilmes Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, Washington, USA {gang,bilmes}@ee.washington.edu ABSTRACT We

Noble, William Stafford

271

A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang That Sold College Degrees, Hijacked an  

E-print Network

A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang That Sold College Degrees, Hijacked an Embassy, and Bought, be a bystander. --Yehuda Bauer © 2012 George Gollin #12;2 George Gollin A Dream of Serpents Taking Down the Gang

Gollin, George

272

Gangs: A Handbook for Teachers and Counselors Working with Immigrant Students. Publication No. GC-123.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides information about gangs for education professionals working with immigrants. As the introduction makes clear, gangs are one of the many problems that newly arrived immigrants face in their neighborhoods and at school in the United States. Following the introduction, the first section describes the types of gangs including…

Ponce, Ernest, Comp.

273

Adaptation of an Animal Territory Model to Street Gang Spatial Patterns in Los Angeles  

E-print Network

Adaptation of an Animal Territory Model to Street Gang Spatial Patterns in Los Angeles Laura M Territorial animals and street gangs exhibit similar behavioral characteristics. Both organize themselves this approach to simulate gang dynamics in the Hollenbeck policing division of eastern Los Angeles. We

Soatto, Stefano

274

Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey. OJJDP Fact Sheet. FS-200601  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…

Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.

2006-01-01

275

Implementation of Gang-Scheduling on Workstation Cluster Atsushi Hori, Hiroshi Tezuka, Yutaka Ishikawa,  

E-print Network

Implementation of Gang-Scheduling on Workstation Cluster Atsushi Hori, Hiroshi Tezuka, Yutaka for parallel pro- grams and gang-scheduling on a workstation cluster. In this paper, we report the techniques used to imple- ment gang-scheduling on a workstation cluster and the problems we faced. The most

Feitelson, Dror

276

Gang FTP scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid real-time tasks Joel Goossens Vandy Berten  

E-print Network

Gang FTP scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid real-time tasks Jo¨el Goossens Vandy Berten prove cor- rect) an exact schedulability test for Fixed Task Priority (FTP) Gang scheduler sub-classes: Parallelism Mono- tonic, Idling, Limited Gang, and Limited Slack Reclaim- ing. Additionally, we study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

The E ect of Correlating Quantum Allocation and Job Size for Gang Scheduling ?  

E-print Network

The E ect of Correlating Quantum Allocation and Job Size for Gang Scheduling ? Gaurav Ghare Scott T,leutg@cs.du.edu Abstract. Gang scheduling is an e ective scheduling policy for multi- processing workloads with signi cant has generalized and re ned the coscheduling (now often called gang scheduling) concept 5,6,8,9,11, 14

Feitelson, Dror

278

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Cluster Peter Strazdins and John Uhlmann,  

E-print Network

A Comparison of Local and Gang Scheduling on a Beowulf Cluster Peter Strazdins and John Uhlmann.Strazdins@cs.anu.edu.au,John.Uhlmann @anu.edu.au] Abstract Gang Scheduling and related techniques are widely be- lieved to be necessary Ethernet switches are mnde comparing the Score buddy- based gang scheduling with local scheduling (pmvided

Strazdins, Peter

279

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang , Antony Yang , Anand-located with the file blocks it needs. Gang scheduling (GS), which is used in supercomputing centers to schedule that gang scheduling delivers poor performance towards workloads with high I/O in- tensities (I/O ratio

Feitelson, Dror

280

UserLevel Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

User­Level Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson School. However, if gang scheduling is used, it is possible to swap buffer contents as part of the context switch buffers residing in each process's virtual memory. This is enabled by the use of gang scheduling, which

Feitelson, Dror

281

Analytics for Gang Scheduling Railway tracks wear down and thus need to be constantly maintained.  

E-print Network

Analytics for Gang Scheduling PROBLEM Railway tracks wear down and thus need to be constantly maintained. Groups of maintenance workers, called gangs, are responsible for such maintenance tasks. Throughout a year, a gang works for a few days on a particular track section and then relocates to another

Bustamante, Fabián E.

282

Bounds on Gang Service Scheduling Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1  

E-print Network

Bounds on Gang Service Scheduling Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 Isaac D. Scherson 1;2 \\Lambda.S.A Abstract We define the bounds of two gang service algorithms, namely time balanced and instruction balanced balanced gang service is the best possible non­clairvoyant algorithm. When the objective is to increase

Scherson, Isaac D.

283

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS YU  

E-print Network

A NEW PROXIMITY CONDITION FOR MANIFOLD-VALUED SUBDIVISION SCHEMES TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE, AND THOMAS CRG on Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis. Gang Xie's research was supported, Georgi Medvedev, and Mark Levi for discussions on dynamical systems. 1 #12;2 TOM DUCHAMP, GANG XIE

Yu, Thomas P.-Y.

284

Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897  

E-print Network

Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from of ground motions throughout the Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. For each earthquake we subtract that intensites are 1­3 units higher near the major rivers, as well as at the edges of the Ganges basin. We find

Bilham, Roger

285

The Impact of Job Memory Requirements on Gang-Scheduling Performance  

E-print Network

The Impact of Job Memory Requirements on Gang-Scheduling Performance Sanjeev Setia Computer Science,vkng@watson.ibm.com Abstract Almost all previous research on gang-scheduling has ig- nored the impact of real job memory memory require- ments on the performance of gang-scheduling policies. We rst present an analysis

Jiang, Song

286

User-Level Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson  

E-print Network

User-Level Communication in a System with Gang Scheduling Yoav Etsion and Dror G. Feitelson School. However, if gang scheduling is used, it is possible to swap buffer contents as part of the context switch buffers residing in each process's virtual memory. This is enabled by the use of gang scheduling, which

Feitelson, Dror

287

Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang

Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

2007-01-01

288

Date: Wed, 4 Nov 2009 12:20:43 -0500 From: "Xiao-Gang Wen"  

E-print Network

Date: Wed, 4 Nov 2009 12:20:43 -0500 From: "Xiao-Gang Wen" To: prb@aps.org CC again Xiao-Gang On Wed, 4 Nov 2009 10:51:58 -0500, prb wrote > Re: BH11160 > Emergence of helicity pm 2 modes or gravitons from qubit models > by Zheng-Cheng Gu and Xiao-Gang Wen > > Dear Dr. Wen

Wen, Xiao-Gang

289

Resource Allocation Schemes for Gang Scheduling School of Computing and Mathematics  

E-print Network

Resource Allocation Schemes for Gang Scheduling B. B. Zhou School of Computing and Mathematics 0200, Australia Oxford OX1 3QD, UK Abstract Gang scheduling is currently the most popular scheduling of gang scheduling. We then present some ex- perimental results obtained by implementing four dif- ferent

Feitelson, Dror

290

An Integrated Approach to Parallel Scheduling Using Gang-Scheduling, Backfilling and Migration  

E-print Network

An Integrated Approach to Parallel Scheduling Using Gang-Scheduling, Backfilling and Migration Y technique we analyze is backfilling, the second is gang-scheduling, and the third is migration. The main that, under certain conditions, a strategy that combines backfilling, gang-scheduling, and migration

Feitelson, Dror

291

Developmental Influences and Gang Awareness among African-American Inner City Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 489 African American first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade students examined children's knowledge of gangs. Findings indicated that students are well aware of gang activities in their neighborhoods and can readily name the groups present in their inner-city environment. Students' awareness of gangs increases with age and may represent a…

Cadwallader, Tom W.; Cairns, Robert B.

2002-01-01

292

GAnGS: Gather, Authenticate 'n Group Securely Chia-Hsin Owen Chen  

E-print Network

GAnGS: Gather, Authenticate 'n Group Securely Chia-Hsin Owen Chen , Chung-Wei Chen , Cynthia Kuo in a scalable, secure, and easy to use fashion. In this paper, we propose GAnGS, a protocol for the se- cure exchange of authenticated information among a group of people. In contrast to prior work, GAnGS resists

Xu, Wenyuan

293

Improving First-Come-First-Serve Job Scheduling by Gang Scheduling ?  

E-print Network

Improving First-Come-First-Serve Job Scheduling by Gang Scheduling ? Uwe Schwiegelshohn and Ramin and emphasizes the notion of fairness. Severe fragmentation is prevented by using gang scheduling which is only of gang scheduling to be used in the management system of the IBM RS/6000 SP2, a widely available

Feitelson, Dror

294

Fachstudien-und Prfungsordnung fr den Masterstudien-gang Economics der Rechts-und Wirtschaftswissenschaftli-  

E-print Network

Fachstudien- und Prüfungsordnung für den Masterstudien- gang Economics der Rechts- und Fachprüfungsordnung für den forschungsorientierten konsekutiven Masterstudien- gang ,,Economics" mit dem Abschluss Studiengang, 4. insbesondere ein Bachelorabschluss in einem ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Studien- gang, 5

Fiebig, Peter

295

Job Re-Packing for Enhancing the Performance of Gang Scheduling  

E-print Network

Job Re-Packing for Enhancing the Performance of Gang Scheduling B. B. Zhou1 , R. P. Brent2 , C. W of gang scheduling. We first intro- duce a job re-packing scheme. In this scheme we try to rearrange. Currently the most popular scheme for coordinated scheduling is explicit coscheduling [4], or gang

Feitelson, Dror

296

Delinquent Gangs and Adolescent Victimization RevisitedA Propensity Score Matching Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents in delinquent gangs are at risk for multiple forms of antisocial behavior and related negative outcomes, including victimization. Theoretical attempts to explain the delinquency-gang nexus include selection, facilitation, and enhancement models, but each has limitations in terms of selection biases. To redress this, the current study used propensity score matching (PSM) to evaluate the effects of gang membership on

Matt DeLisi; J. C. Barnes; Kevin M. Beaver; Chris L. Gibson

2009-01-01

297

A Comparative Study of Gang-Involved and Other Adolescent Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent women have been a part of gangs in the United States since the early 1800s, but they have been neglected in gang research. To address the shortfall, this study used structured interviews, standardized questionnaires, and collaborative records to gather information about adolescent women in a metropolitan area with an emerging gang

Shulmire, Sandra Rodden

298

A Systemic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the organization of street gangs and suggests that some of the same concepts used to describe family systems may be applied to them. States that the complex organization of gangs forms a web of interconnectedness, and that in order to provide effective intervention plans, gangs must be viewed from a systematic and holistic perspective.…

Turner, William L.; Ruble, Nikki M.

2000-01-01

299

Gang-related cyber and computer crimes: Legal aspects and practical points of consideration in investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang-related criminal activity has become increasingly more sophisticated, taking advantage of technological advancements that have occurred during the past few decades. Among these advances, criminal gangs have begun to use the internet as an effective tool through which criminal activity can be conducted. Investigators must be adept and competent at locating and collecting gang-related evidence from the internet and from

Robert D. Hanser

2011-01-01

300

Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event  

SciTech Connect

During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis.

Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

1992-08-01

301

Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments  

SciTech Connect

Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

Jette, M.A.

1997-11-01

302

Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

2009-01-01

303

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang + , Antony Yang + , Anand Sivasubramaniam # , Jose Moreira  

E-print Network

Gang Scheduling Extensions for I/O Intensive Workloads Yanyong Zhang + , Antony Yang + , Anand­located with the file blocks it needs. Gang scheduling (GS), which is widely used in supercomputing centers to schedule that gang scheduling does not do a good job scheduling I/O intensive applications. We extend gang scheduling

Zhang, Yanyong

304

Improvements in Gang Scheduling for Parallel Supercomputers Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1;\\Lambda Luis Miguel Campos 2  

E-print Network

Improvements in Gang Scheduling for Parallel Supercomputers Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva 1 and Comp. Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, U.S.A Abstract Gang scheduling has been­ current Gang, that is a generalization of gang­ scheduling, and allows for the flexible simultane­ ous

Scherson, Isaac D.

305

Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.  

PubMed

The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community. PMID:20830865

Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

306

Union Members Are Community Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

Gray, David

2013-01-01

307

Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.  

PubMed

Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

2014-07-01

308

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider  

PubMed Central

Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

2014-01-01

309

Moving into Motherhood: Gang Girls and Controlled Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research challenges the popular characterization that young mothers are bad mothers. This article focuses on a group of girls and young women who were pregnant or mothers and who were engaged in a risky lifestyle through their heavy involvement in gangs, partying, and drinking. The authors examine the impact of the process of…

Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen; MacKenzie, Kathleen

2005-01-01

310

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

2011-01-01

311

Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

2005-01-01

312

Interagency Collaboration with High-Risk Gang Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a study on interagency collaboration required to make major systemic changes in order to address the needs of emotionally and behaviorally disturbed youth. Interviews were conducted with practitioners from a cross-section of agencies that worked with high-risk gang youth. The intent was to examine both the…

Okamoto, Scott K.

313

Design Features of Intersaw Spacers for Ultrasonic Gang Saw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is devoted to analysis of different variants intersaw spacers for the ultrasonic gang saw. The influence on longitudinal and bending oscillations of saw blades is shown. The optimum design which secures saw blades resistance to fractures and necessary amplitude of oscillations is offered.

S. G. Adikov; O. V. Kretinin; V. F. Gordeev

2007-01-01

314

A Former Street Gang Leader Reinterviewed Eight Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

A former street gang leader restates his earlier endorsement of the economic, or differential opportunity, model of crime causation. He also maintains that most of his former associates continued in crime because of adherence to the lower-class values of toughness, autonomy, and easy money. He himself abandoned crime and has become moderately successful as an independent businessman. He believes that

Glenn E. Weisfeld; Roger Feldman

1982-01-01

315

A Former Street Gang Leader Reinterviewed Eight Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a followup interview with a former street gang leader first interviewed eight years before. Restates his earlier endorsement of the economic or differential opportunity model of crime causation. Maintains that the advantages of work are not evident to most urban youths and improved employment opportunities are needed. (Author/JAC)

Weisfeld, Glenn E.; Feldman, Roger

1982-01-01

316

EXTENDED-RANGE PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF GANGES AND  

E-print Network

EXTENDED-RANGE PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF GANGES AND BRAHMAPUTRA FLOODS IN BANGLADESH M any of which is subject to periods of widespread and long-lived flooding. Flooding remains the greatest cause the lives of victims of slow-onset flood disasters, such events remain relentlessly impoverishing. In India

Webster, Peter J.

317

Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths’ involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major conditions (e.g., large families, rural\\/urban migration, poverty, and police

Abeeb Olufemi Salaam

2011-01-01

318

Gangs, Migration, and Crime: The Changing Landscape in Europe and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of gangs is intertwined with migration. In America, a number of classic studies have reported on the possible\\u000a causal link between immigration, socio-economic position, social disorganization, and gang formation. More recently in Europe,\\u000a the impact of migration on gangs reflects a complex mix of factors that also includes cultural and media influences. In addition,\\u000a there are other contextual

Scott H. Decker; Frank van Gemert; David C. Pyrooz

2009-01-01

319

Youth, gangs and violence: Analysing the social and spatial mobility of young people in Guatemala City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth gangs have become an increasingly significant, and controversial, social institution in low-income communities in many cities in Central America, and yet the local-level impacts of this phenomenon, especially on young people, remain under-explored. Drawing on research with young people in Guatemala City, this paper explores the multiple barriers to the social and spatial mobility of both gang and non-gang

Ailsa Winton

2005-01-01

320

Identification of a Waipawa Formation equivalent in the upper Te Uri Member of the Whangai Formation ? implications for depositional history and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes and biomarkers have identified a unit with similar organic geochemistry to the Waipawa Formation, in the upper Te Uri Member of the Whangai Formation, exposed in the Akitio River, at Tawanui, southern Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. At Tawanui, the uppermost greensand of the Te Uri Member contains a large positive 8C isotopic excursion from ?27.0%o to ?20%e and

Karyne M. Rogers; Hugh E. G. Morgans; Gary S. Wilson

2001-01-01

321

Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

2007-01-01

322

Sets of uniqueness of the power of the continuum J. Marshall Ash and Gang Wang  

E-print Network

Sets of uniqueness of the power of the continuum J. Marshall Ash and Gang Wang Abstract. By means of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, DePaul University. 1 #12;2 J. MARSHALL ASH AND GANG WANG Definition

Ash, J. Marshall

323

The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

2010-01-01

324

Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2007-01-01

325

Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

2010-01-01

326

Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.  

PubMed

Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age?=?14.62, SD?=?1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25288165

Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

2014-10-01

327

Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

328

Delinquency and Substance Use among Gang-Involved Youth: The Moderating Role of Parenting Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses longitudinal data from an ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth grade students to examine the moderating effect of parenting practices upon the relationship between gang involvement and adolescent problem behavior. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicate that gang involvement is a highly significant positive predictor of each of three categories of problem behavior (minor delinquency, major delinquency,

Chanequa J. Walker-Barnes; Craig A. Mason

2004-01-01

329

Precursors of Gang Involvement among Ninth Grade Students: A Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 urban ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on 8 occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results…

Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.; Arrue, Rafael Martinez

330

Influences on the Mexican American Youth Gang Discourse on Local Television News  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the production of the Mexican American youth gang story for local television news from a Gramscian perspective. It argues that the production of these stories is the result of a social process and therefore is socially constructed within a context in which power is used to influence the discourse about Mexican American youth gangs. Such discourse is

Raúl Tovares

2000-01-01

331

Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

2003-01-01

332

Always Running. La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiographical narrative describes the early life of Luis J. Rodriguez, a journalist and poet who was immersed in the youth gang culture of Los Angeles (California). Framed by the story of the pull of the gang life for the poet's son, it recounts his experiences from his childhood on the United States-Mexico border through his family's…

Rodriguez, Luis J.

333

Gang Violence and Latino Youth in Chicano Literature: The Loss of Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature analysis examines the representation of violence in Chicano literature, in particular, gang violence. The violent culture of gangs in the Chicano community is an essential aspect of the works of Luis Rodriguez, Mona Ruiz, Yxta Maya Murray, and Alejandro Morales. By examining the lives of the protagonists in a selection of works by these authors, this analysis aims

Maria C. Lara

2005-01-01

334

Acculturative Stress and Gang Involvement among Latinos: U.S.-Born versus Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gang involvement is an increasing issue among Latino youth, yet nuanced research on its potential causes is scarce. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore links between acculturative stress and gang involvement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino middle school students (N = 199). Regression analyses showed that U.S.-born youths…

Barrett, Alice N.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Lewis, Kelly M.

2013-01-01

335

Youth Gangs Aren't Just a Big-City Problem Anymore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innercity students who enter a suburban school system often find themselves at a significant disadvantage, both academically and socially, and seek acceptance by flaunting gang symbols. Identifies 10 strategies for addressing the problems of gang influence in suburban schools, including involving transfer students and providing career counseling.…

Moriarty, Anthony; Fleming, Thomas W.

1990-01-01

336

Suspended sediment in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in Bangladesh: observation from TM and AVHRR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing was used to understand the seasonal and spatial variation of suspended sediment in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in Bangladesh for two different discharge periods. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in these rivers was estimated from the reflectance of Landsat TM band 3. During the high discharge period, SSC in the Ganges is higher than that in the Brahmaputra.

Mohammad Rezwanul Islam; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Katsuro Ogawa

2001-01-01

337

A Partially Ordered Scale of Influence in Violent Group Behavior: An Example From Gang Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined how decisions, actions, and orders combine to act as influence strategies that occur throughout different stages in gang rape. Thirty-nine gang rape cases, yielding 120 offenders, were coded according to each individual's level of involvement at each stage in terms of decisions, actions, and orders. The various combinations of these were examined using a multidimensional scaling

LOUISE E. PORTER; LAURENCE J. ALISON

2001-01-01

338

Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

2011-01-01

339

Q&A: The Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence New York State Office for the  

E-print Network

Q&A: The Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence New York State Office..............................................................................................Cover The Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence .....................................Cover Did You Know&A About the Intersection of Gang Culture and Domestic Violence............ Page 3 Legislative Update

Qiu, Weigang

340

A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

Chiprany, David Thomas

2011-01-01

341

Impact of a Value-Based Insurance Design for Back Pain on Health Plan Member Satisfaction and Its Implications for Patient Outcomes.  

PubMed

Abstract Back pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking care, and physical therapy (PT) can be an effective treatment option. However, PT coverage for back pain varies widely among private health plans, usually requiring high cost sharing, thereby potentially leading to member dissatisfaction and worse outcomes. In this study, a quasi-experimental design was used to estimate the impact of a new value-based insurance design for back pain-related PT on selected Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey items. Under this design, eligible members receive a bundle of 5 PT sessions for a 1-time co-payment; if deemed necessary, the bundle is renewable for 1 additional co-payment. The results indicate that the proportion of members reporting the highest satisfaction rating was higher by about 6 to 10 percentage points among those who received the PT bundle. The data also indicate that those PT bundle members who reported the highest satisfaction rating had improvements in their functional status scores that were roughly 3 to 4 times higher than those who reported a lower satisfaction rating. These findings suggest that providing a value-based insurance design for back pain-related PT can potentially improve health plan members' care experiences and their overall satisfaction. Further study is needed to determine its impact on back pain-related medical care utilization and cost of care. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25248037

Maeng, Daniel D; Fisher, Dorothy Y; Graboski, Anthony; Allison, Peiling L; Rodriguez, Jennifer M; Starr, Alison E; Tomcavage, Janet F; Davis, Duane E

2014-09-23

342

Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

Kotamarthi, VR

2010-06-21

343

The effects of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health.  

PubMed

Gang violence is a growing public health concern in the United States, and adolescents are influenced by exposure to gang violence. This study explored the influence of exposure to gang violence on adolescent boys' mental health using a multi-method design. A semi-structured interview guide and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to collect data from adolescents. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees completed the Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form. Ten adolescent boys, their parents or primary caregivers, and six community center employees participated in the study. Exposure to gang violence was common among these adolescents and they had a variety of reactions. Parents, primary caregivers, and community center employees had differing perceptions of adolescents' exposure to violence and their mental health. Adolescent boys' exposure to gang violence in the community is alarming. These adolescents encountered situations with violence that influenced their mental health. PMID:22273341

Kelly, Sarah; Anderson, Debra; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann; Cerel, Julie

2012-02-01

344

Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory to test the associations between the supervisor–subordinate relationship, psychological empowerment and affective commitment amongst 1283 nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analysed and presented. The findings show that the quality of LMX is more important in public sector nursing contexts than in the private

Yvonne Brunetto; Kate Shacklock; Timothy Bartram; Sandra G. Leggat; Rod Farr-Wharton; Pauline Stanton; Gian Casimir

2012-01-01

345

Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory to test the associations between the supervisor–subordinate relationship, psychological empowerment and affective commitment amongst 1283 nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analysed and presented. The findings show that the quality of LMX is more important in public sector nursing contexts than in the private

Yvonne Brunetto; Kate Shacklock; Timothy Bartram; Sandra G. Leggat; Rod Farr-Wharton; Pauline Stanton; Gian Casimir

2011-01-01

346

Summary and Results from the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges Valley region in northern India has been observed to have high aerosol and ozone concentrations. During the pre-monsoon season and during the monsoon season, trace gases and aerosols can be elevated by strong convection to the mid- and upper troposphere. These pollutants could have a significant impact on regional climate. It has also been hypothesized that the build-up of aerosols in the dry winter may affect the onset and intensity of the summer monsoon. The Ganges Valley Aerosol eXperiment (GVAX) conducted a 9-month observation at Nainital, India, from July 2011 to March 2012, using the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) mobile facility. Measurements of the atmospheric state, dynamics, energy balance and aerosols were made during this nine-month period. Many of the instruments deployed and datasets collected are first of a kind from India and freely available for users. An overview of the experiment, objectives and preliminary results will be presented.

Kotamarthi, V. R.

2012-12-01

347

Trace metals trend analysis in river Ganges in Kanpur  

SciTech Connect

Kanpur, one of the largest industrial cities located on the bank of the river Ganges, discharges large quantities of industrial effluents into it. Heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn) were monitored monthly from July 1986 to June 1989. Samples were collected at locations where the river entered Kanpur and left Kanpur. Time-series analysis was carried out using a moving average model to estimate the trend values free from auto-correlation. The two independent and identically distributed deseasonalized series for up-stream and down-stream were compared by the analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) to find out the space and time effect of different metal levels in the Ganges water. The measured and trend values were completely in accordance with the observed pattern. A significant temporary effect for iron and zinc was observed. Significant site-related effects were observed from chromium due to the presence of a large number of industrial establishments, particularly tanneries, electroplating and metal processing industries. A time-of-year-related effect on the levels of nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were observed. These differences may be attributed to drought and other natural events.

Garg, N.; Mathur, N.; Modak, D.P.; Singh, K.P.; Murthy, R.C.; Ahmed, S.; Chandra, S.V.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Luchnow (India))

1992-01-01

348

Precious and base metal geochemistry and mineralogy of the Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for a multistage emplacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member within the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex is a mineralized, layered package of mafic cumulates developed to the south of the town of Mokopane, at a similar stratigraphic position to the Platreef. The concentration of platinum-group elements (PGE) in base metal sulfides (BMS) has been determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. These data, coupled with whole-rock PGE concentrations and a detailed account of the platinum-group mineralogy (PGM), provide an insight into the distribution of PGE and chalcophile elements within the GNPA member, during both primary magmatic and secondary hydrothermal alteration processes. Within the most unaltered sulfides (containing pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite only), the majority of IPGE, Rh, and some Pd occur in solid solution within pyrrhotite and pentlandite, with an associated Pt-As and Pd-Bi-Te dominated PGM assemblage. These observations in conjunction with the presence of good correlations between all bulk PGE and base metals throughout the GNPA member indicate the presence and subsequent fractionation of a single PGE-rich sulfide liquid, which has not been significantly altered. In places, the primary sulfides have been replaced to varying degrees by a low-temperature assemblage of pyrite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. These sulfides are associated with a PGM assemblage characterized by the presence of Pd antimonides and Pd arsenides, which are indicative of hydrothermal assemblages. The presence of appreciable quantities of IPGE, Pd and Rh within pyrite, and, to a lesser, extent millerite suggests these phases directly inherited PGE contents from the pyrrhotite and pentlandite that they replaced. The replacement of both the sulfides and PGM occurred in situ, thus preserving the originally strong spatial association between PGM and BMS, but altering the mineralogy. Precious metal geochemistry indicates that fluid redistribution of PGE is minimal with only Pd, Au, and Cu being partially remobilized and decoupled from BMS. This is also indicated by the lower concentrations of Pd evident in both pyrite and millerite compared with the pentlandite being replaced. The observations that the GNPA member was mineralized prior to intrusion of the Main Zone and that there was no local footwall control over the development of sulfide mineralization are inconsistent with genetic models involving the in situ development of a sulfide liquid through either depletion of an overlying magma column or in situ contamination of crustal S. We therefore believe that our observations are more compatible with a multistage emplacement model, where preformed PGE-rich sulfides were emplaced into the GNPA member. Such a model explains the development and distribution of a single sulfide liquid throughout the entire 400-800 m thick succession. It is therefore envisaged that the GNPA member formed in a similar manner to its nearest analogue the Platreef. Notable differences however in PGE tenors indicate that the ore-forming process may have differed slightly within the staging chambers that supplied the Platreef and GNPA member.

Smith, J. W.; Holwell, D. A.; McDonald, I.

2014-08-01

349

Climatic Forcing of Organic-Carbon-Export Dynamics from the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are modulated by exchanges between atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial reservoirs of carbon, which in turn are driven by changes in the residence times of carbon within each of these pools, as well as the transport efficiencies between them. This study employs inorganic proxies of sediment composition and delivery, coupled with compound-specific stable-isotope and radiocarbon (?14C) measurements of terrestrial biomarkers delivered to the Bay of Bengal since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to investigate how changing climate has affected the timescales and dynamics of terrestrial organic-carbon export from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system. Specifically, this study seeks to reconstruct variations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon, in paleo-vegetation and in the residence time of organic carbon delivered to the Bengal Fan by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, as recorded in compound-specific ?14C measurements. At the LGM, reduced differential heating between the Indian Ocean and the Asian continent weakened summer circulation and produced cooler, drier conditions over Asia and across the Himalayas. Increasing Northern Hemisphere insolation during deglaciation and until the Holocene Climatic Optima (HCO; 9-5 ka) corresponded with an increase in atmospheric CO2, mean effective moisture and monsoonal activity in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. These variations were manifested as a large decline of C4 plants in the basin and a general decrease in salinity in the northern Bay of Bengal; these trends have reversed as monsoon strength has weakened since the mid-Holocene. Preliminary compound-specific measurements of long-chain n-alkanoic (fatty) acids from a series of cores capturing the last 20,000 years of sedimentation in the Bay of Bengal record a 30 ‰ shift in ?D between the LGM and HCO, indicating a change from weaker to stronger monsoon conditions over this time period. Likewise, compound-specific fatty-acid ?13C demonstrate a ca. 5 ‰ shift during that same time period, thereby mimicking bulk organic-carbon ?13C records and recording the trend from C4 to C3 plants between LGM and the HCO. Both trends have reversed since the HCO. Preliminary compound-specific ?14C measurements reveal that the residence time of terrestrial biospheric organic carbon in continental reservoirs has decreased following the LGM, likely in response to increases in precipitation and temperature associated with a strengthening Indian summer monsoon. Thus, we have identified climate changes as a likely driver of terrestrial-organic-carbon export and can use these records to characterize the relationships between climate change and the dynamics of terrestrial-organic-carbon export to, and burial in, marine sediments. Additionally, they will have important implications for the estimation of the net atmospheric CO2 consumption caused by climate-driven changes in organic-carbon cycling the largest erosional system on earth.

Galy, V.; Hein, C. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.

2012-12-01

350

Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.  

PubMed

Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. PMID:22998539

Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

2012-10-01

351

Joint Sandhouse Gang Meeting & Transportation Center Seminar........ "Recent Railroad Research at Northwestern"  

E-print Network

Joint Sandhouse Gang Meeting & Transportation Center Seminar........ "Recent Railroad Research to railroad operations, safety and infrastructure maintenance of Railroad Pedestrian Fatalities in Metropolitan Chicago 2004-10" There were 260 pedestrian fatalities

Bustamante, Fabián E.

352

Targeted Outreach: Boys and Girls Clubs of America's Approach to Gang Prevention and Intervention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Commissioned by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) and underwritten by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Pinkerton Foundation, the scholarly study offers readers an inside look at two approaches to reducing youth involvement in gangs -- a clear catalyst of violent crime among teens. Focusing on Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach (GPTTO) and Gang Intervention Through Targeted Outreach (GITTO), the report clearly illustrates the need for and benefits of proactive, community-based programs for at-risk populations. Arguing that both intervention and prevention programs are essential, the authors of the report examine the success of such approaches in a broad cross section of metropolitan settings. Far from controversial, the report concludes that youth can escape the gang-related cycles of violence and criminality if alternatives exist and other people are there for them.

Arbreton, Amy J.A.

2002-01-01

353

A dynamic programming algorithm on Project-Gang investment decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investment decision-making of Project-Gang, the projects that are associated with one another on economy and technique,\\u000a is studied. In order to find out the best Scheme that can make the maximum profit, a dynamic programming algorithm on the\\u000a investment decision-making of Project-Gang is brought forward, and this algorithm can find out the best Scheme of distributing\\u000a them resources to

Xu Xu-song; Wu Jian-mou

2002-01-01

354

Self-control, differential association, and gang membership: A theoretical and empirical extension of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data gathered from a sample of two hundred jail inmates housed in a large California city, this research extends the still nascent literature on the self-control\\/gang membership association. The article begins by first articulating more comprehensively than earlier research Gottfredson and Hirschi's theoretical justification for expecting a self-control\\/gang membership link. Next, an examination is undertaken of the relative independent

Jason Kissner; David C. Pyrooz

2009-01-01

355

The police and social threat: Urban transition, youth gangs, and social control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of U.S. cities of 25,000 or more, this paper describes the impact of urban decline from 1970–1980 and the magnitude of youth gang problems on municipal fiscal commitment to policing. After statistical controls are imposed for the city's crime rate, revenues and demographic characteristics, the results indicate that urban transition and recognition of youth gang problems

Pamela Irving Jackson

1992-01-01

356

Clumped Isotopes, trace elements, and ?18O of stromatolites from the Laney Member of the Green River Formation (Eocene): Implications for paleoenvironments during the Eocene Climatic Optimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green River Formation, a large lacustrine deposit located across parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming, was deposited during the Eocene Climatic Optimum (~50 Ma), a period of sustained high temperatures and high atmospheric CO2 levels that may provide a geologic analog for future climate scenarios. Large variations in basin hydrology, water chemistry, and paleotemperatures occurring on time scales of tens of thousands of years or longer have been documented in the sedimentary record. Here, we use stromatolites to investigate much finer-scale resolution of paleoenvironmental changes in the Green River Formation and paleo-Lake Gosiute. We studied the lower LaClede Bed, the base of the Laney Member of the Green River Formation, comprised of cyclic layers of oil shale and carbonate. The lower LaClede Bed represents the filling of the lake following an extended period of closure during deposition of the underlying Wilkins Peak Member. To characterize fluctuations in water chemistry and lake level at greater temporal resolution, we conducted micro-stratigraphic and chemostratigraphic analyses on 24 distinct mm-scale laminae in a single 10 cm carbonate stromatolite bed, including ?13C, ?18O, and trace elemental analyses (Mg, Mn, Fe, Si, K, Na, Al, Sr). Sub-cm-scale correlations between petrographic analyses, elemental composition, and carbonate ?13C and ?18O suggest that this stromatolite records both hydrologically-closed and -open periods in the history of Lake Gosiute. During periods of apparent basin closure, we used two models to investigate lake volume change: 1) a Rayleigh distillation model of water evaporation to estimate lake depth variations and 2) a conservative ion model based on Na incorporation into the stromatolites. In both models, lake depth fluctuated by up to 8 m; this represents up to 40km of shoreline change in Lake Gosiute during the deposition of this stromatolite layer. Interestingly, the modern Great Salt Lake experienced similar fluctuations since 1700 AD, with over 100 km of shoreline shift. Clumped isotope analyses were performed on 8 carbonate beds found at the LaClede site to characterize the temperatures during deposition. Temperatures from the stromatolites and other lacustrine phases fell between 21.0 and 32.5 ×1.3°C, whereas a pedogenically-modified sample was higher (41×2.6°C), consistent with paleo-floral temperature estimates for the region. This research was conducted during the 2013 International GeoBiology Summer Course.

Corsetti, F. A.; Miller, H. M.; Asangba, A. E.; Johannessen, K. C.; Wang, D. T.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Tripati, A.; Shapiro, R. S.

2013-12-01

357

Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration  

SciTech Connect

The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

Lorenz, J.C.

1997-05-01

358

How minority members' perceptions of majority members' acculturation preferences shape minority members' own acculturation preferences: evidence from Chile.  

PubMed

Two survey studies were conducted in Chile with members of the indigenous minority group Mapuche (Ns = 566; 394). The aim was to find predictors of minority members' acculturation preferences, especially integration. It was hypothesized that minority members' preferences would depend on their perceptions of what majority members want. Specifically, it was predicted that a perception that majority members want minority members to maintain their original culture would be associated with a greater desire for culture maintenance among minority participants. Further, it was predicted that a perception that majority members want intergroup contact would be associated with a greater desire for contact among minority participants. Finally, it was predicted that a perception that majority members are in favour of both culture maintenance and contact (i.e., integration) would be associated with more support for integration among minority participants. Results bore out these predictions. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:21545455

Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert

2011-06-01

359

Mortality in members of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa and implications for antiretroviral therapy initiation: Results of analyses from a multicenter randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of HIV-1 related mortality is strongly related to CD4 count. Guidance on optimal timing for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still evolving, but the contribution of HIV-1 infection to excess mortality at CD4 cell counts above thresholds for HIV-1 treatment has not been fully described, especially in resource-poor settings. To compare mortality among HIV-1 infected and uninfected members of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples followed for up to 24 months, we conducted a secondary data analysis examining mortality among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples participating in a multicenter, randomized controlled trial at 14 sites in seven sub-Saharan African countries. Methods Predictors of death were examined using Cox regression and excess mortality by CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA was computed using Poisson regression for correlated data. Results Among 3295 HIV serodiscordant couples, we observed 109 deaths from any cause (74 deaths among HIV-1 infected and 25 among HIV-1 uninfected persons). Among HIV-1 infected persons, the risk of death increased with lower CD4 count and higher plasma viral levels. HIV-1 infected persons had excess mortality due to medical causes of 15.2 deaths/1000 person years at CD4 counts of 250 – 349 cells/?l and 8.9 deaths at CD4 counts of 350 – 499 cells/?l. Above a CD4 count of 500 cells/?l, mortality was comparable among HIV-1 infected and uninfected persons. Conclusions Among African serodiscordant couples, there is a high rate of mortality attributable to HIV-1 infection at CD4 counts above the current threshold (200 – 350 cells/?l) for ART initiation in many African countries. These data indicate that earlier initiation of treatment is likely to provide clinical benefit if further expansion of ART access can be achieved. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00194519) PMID:23130818

2012-01-01

360

Concurrent loss of INI1, PBRM1, and BRM expression in epithelioid sarcoma: implications for the cocontributions of multiple SWI/SNF complex members to pathogenesis.  

PubMed

The loss of INI1 (SMARCB1) expression, caused by SMARCB1 (INI1, SNF5L4, BAF47) inactivation, frequently occurs in epithelioid sarcoma (ES) and could aid in confirming the diagnosis. Except for INI1, the expression of switch in mating type/sucrose nonfermentation complex members in ES has never been examined. In this study, the expression of key subunits of this complex-INI1, BRG1 (SMARCA4), BRM (SNF2L2, SMARCA2), PBRM1 (hPB1, BAF180), and BAF155 (SMARCC1)-was analyzed in 23 ES cases: 15 conventional and 8 proximal type. All of the cases were reviewed and reclassified by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining for cytokeratin AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, CD34, vimentin, and INI1 expression. Of the 23 ES cases, 19 (82.6%) showed a loss of PBRM1, and 18 (78.3%), a loss of INI1. In most cases (17, 73.9%), loss of INI1 and PBRM1 expression was observed. The pattern of PBRM1 expression was similar to that of INI1, that is, not correlated with changes in cellular morphology. The concurrent loss of BRM, PBRM1, and INI1expression was detected in 2 cases with pure rhabdoid tumor features. The frequent observation of concurrent loss of INI1 and PBRM1 suggests that certain switch in mating type/sucrose nonfermentation complex components might act synergistically in the pathogenesis of ES by unknown mechanisms and that these components could provide new targets for therapy. The usefulness of PBRM1 as a biomarker of ES and its mechanism in ES require further investigation. Loss of BRM in ES with pure rhabdoid features suggests that BRM might be involved in the underlying mechanisms of this type of ES. PMID:25200863

Li, Li; Fan, Xiang-Shan; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Rao, Qiu; Liu, Biao; Yu, Bo; Shi, Qun-Li; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

2014-11-01

361

Risk and protective factors associated with gang affiliation among high-risk youth: a public health approach  

PubMed Central

Background Gang violence accounted for 20% of homicides in large cities from 2002 to 2006. Preventing gang affiliation (ie, youth who either desire or have gang membership) might reduce subsequent gang activity. Previous research has focused on identifying risk factors for gang affiliation; however, little information is available on protective factors. Aim To identify risk and protective factors to provide more direction for gang violence prevention strategies. Methods The author analysed cross-sectional survey data from 4131 youths in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12. Data were collected in 2004 from students in a high-risk, urban public school district. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between gang affiliation and alcohol and drug use, delinquency, depressed mood, suicidal ideation, peer victimisation, parental monitoring and positive reinforcement, adult, family and peer support, coping skills, and school connectedness. Analyses were controlled for sex, race/ethnicity and age. Results An estimated 7% of youths were gang affiliated. Adjusting for all factors, gang affiliation was positively associated with engaging in any delinquent behaviours (prevalence OR: 2.07; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.64), frequent alcohol use (OR: 2.62; 95% CI 1.85 to 3.72) and frequent drug use (OR: 1.95; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.29). Gang affiliation was negatively associated with moderate levels of parental monitoring (OR: 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and coping skills (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71). Conclusions The findings suggest the potential benefit of increasing parental monitoring and coping skills and reducing delinquency, alcohol use and drug use to prevent gang affiliation. PMID:22240265

2012-01-01

362

Multiple oxide content media for columnar grain growth in L10 FePt thin Hoan Ho, En Yang, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu  

E-print Network

, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu Citation: Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 112411 (2013); doi: 10. Laughlin,1,2,3 and Jian-Gang Zhu1,2,3 1 Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

Laughlin, David E.

363

Experimental demonstration of a broadband all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflector Parikshit Moitra, Brian A. Slovick, Zhi Gang Yu, S. Krishnamurthy, and Jason Valentine  

E-print Network

Moitra, Brian A. Slovick, Zhi Gang Yu, S. Krishnamurthy, and Jason Valentine Citation: Applied Physics all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflector Parikshit Moitra,1 Brian A. Slovick,2 Zhi Gang Yu,2 S

Simaan, Nabil

364

Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.  

PubMed

Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents. PMID:19852186

Papachristos, Andrew V

2009-07-01

365

Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone  

SciTech Connect

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

1993-11-01

366

Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

2011-01-01

367

The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.  

PubMed

The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides. PMID:19247837

Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

2009-07-01

368

Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

Rios, Victor M.

2010-01-01

369

YOUTH GANGS AND PERVERSE LIVELIHOODS STRATEGIES IN NICARAGUA: CHALLENGING CERTAIN PRECONCEPTIONS AND SHIFTING THE FOCUS OF ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of longitudinal ethnographic research carried out in a poor neighbourhood in Managua (Nicaragua) in 1996-97 and 2002-03, this paper describes the dynamics of urban youth gangs and their violence in order to highlight the way in which under certain conditions they can be seen as not solely destructive but socially constructive. In particular, it shows how gangs

Dennis Rodgers

370

Mini-rsberetning, Datalogisk Institut, 2009 Det er med stor glde, at jeg endnu en gang kan konstatere, at det forlbne r har vret yderst succesfuldt  

E-print Network

1 Mini-årsberetning, Datalogisk Institut, 2009 Det er med stor glæde, at jeg endnu en gang kan områder. På trods af sit relativt beskedne antal faste videnskabelige medarbejdere er instituttet ganggang i stand til at markere sig helt i top på alle de tre områder, som vi beskæftiger os med: forskning

371

t the turn of the 21st century, youth gangs have again be-come an object of societal anxiety, occupying a special place among  

E-print Network

t the turn of the 21st century, youth gangs have again be- come an object of societal anxiety everything turns grey. Media coverage of fights between gangs is uneven and cyclical, but particularly, and no distinction is made between youth gangs and criminal groups. As is often the case for trivial news

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

Social Learning Theory, Self-Reported Delinquency, and Youth Gangs: A New Twist on a General Theory of Crime and Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of applying selected elements of the social-learning theory to the examination of youth gangs. Studying ninth-grade public-school pupils, researchers discovered that the social-learning perspective provided insights into gang membership. Group-context offending was related to both social-learning theory and gang membership.…

Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.; And Others

1994-01-01

373

Young Mother (in the) Hood: Gang Girls' Negotiation of New Identities.  

PubMed

This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and gang girls-both stigmatized identities. For many of the young women, motherhood entails a retreat from the street and a renewed emphasis on time spent in the home. While many receive (financial and childcare) support from their families, this also often means a diminution of the autonomy they experienced while more heavily involved in the gang. Issues of respect and respectability remain important for the young women, but the dimensions on which these are based change. PMID:21116461

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Joe-Laidler, Karen; McKenzie, Kathleen

2011-02-01

374

Local Ganging in the Central Calorimeter and Major Portions of the Endcap Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

This is the minority report on the decision to use local ganging in the central calorimeter and major portions of the end cap calorimeters. The method not chosen for the readout is distant ganging. This method requires that the signal from each pad be carried to the outer radial edge of the board. There the signals from successive boards are connected together in parallel(ganged). From there the signal is carried to the cryostat port. All of the procedures needed to effect this design are known at this time. The line connecting each pad to the outer edge of its board can be produced by routing the line onto the readout board when the pads are routed. The lines are designed to be .007 inches wide with .008 inch spacings between lines. Lines of these dimension have been produced at Fermi Lab with very little difficulty. Three lines each 50 feet long were cut with out a break or short on the first attempt using the Fermi Gerber router. The connection from the lead to ganging cable is made with lands at the outer edge of the board. The ganging cable is created by layering copper and mylar. The first surface is copper with spaces etched on it to create leads with the same spacing as the lands on the boards. the second layer is mylar. The third layer is a solid copper sheath. The fourth layer is mylar. This cable is held in contact with the lands by spring clips. This system was used to connect over 300 lines in series. The test piece was cold shocked in LN{sub 2} ten times without a failure in any connection. The ganging cable is then connected to a twisted pair cable. Several connectors are commercially available for this transition. All are extremely reliable.

Pitas, A.; /Fermilab

1986-02-03

375

Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.  

PubMed

To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade. PMID:24463984

Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

2014-10-01

376

Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

2012-02-01

377

Layered Deposits on the floor of Ganges Chasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 29 March 2002) The Science The Story These layered deposits are located on the floor of a large canyon called Ganges Chasma which is a part of the Valles Marineris. Dramatic layering can be seen throughout the deposit. Different styles of erosion are manifest in these different layers and at different locations within the layered material. For example, the southern portion of these deposits have a pronounced fluting, whereas in other areas the same layers are more intact. Relatively dark dunes and sand sheets can be observed surrounding the relatively brighter layered material in the upper right and lower portions of the image. Darker material also appears to mantle select areas of the layered deposits. The formation of the dunes is influenced by topography; this influence is best illustrated in the upper left of the image where a small hillock has interfered with the local wind flow. Impact craters of all sizes are noticeably absent in this image, indicating a relatively young age for this surface. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top. The Story If this wonderfully textured landform were on Earth, it would have to be designated as a 'national park,' much like the popular canyon parklands of the American Southwest. Look for the oblong plateau at the center right of this image, and see how the terrain descends from it on all sides. The southerly canyon wall (bottom third of the image) displays a visually beautiful canyon slope, with descending erosional flutes that cut pathways through the differently hued rock and mineral layers. While the northern side of the plateau might not look as dramatic, don't miss the dark-colored sand dunes that lie at the base of the canyon. Why did they form in just that place? To find out, look for the small hillock in the top left of the image that has interfered with the wind's flow, causing the ripply dunes to form. With so many interesting and physically stunning features, this spot will no doubt attract eager Mars tourists some day far in the future.

2002-01-01

378

Exposure to partner, family, and community violence: gang-affiliated Latina women and risk of unintended pregnancy.  

PubMed

While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the U.S.A. overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and relationship violence exposure may lead to unintended pregnancy. Interviews of 20 young adult Latinas with known gang involvement in Los Angeles County were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for key themes related to violence exposure and reproductive health. Limited access to reproductive health care compounded by male partner sexual and pregnancy coercion, as well as physical and sexual violence, emerged in the interviews. Exposures to interparental domestic violence, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and gang violence were prominent and closely associated with unhealthy and abusive intimate relationships. Adverse childhood experiences and exposure to partner, family, and community violence impact the reproductive lives and choices of young Latina women in gangs. These findings may guide targeted pregnancy prevention efforts among urban gang-affiliated Latinas as well as encourage the integration of sexual violence prevention and reproductive health promotion within gang violence intervention programs. PMID:22160445

Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

2012-02-01

379

Data Partitioning for Reconfigurable Architectures with Distributed Block RAM Wenrui Gong Gang Wang Ryan Kastner  

E-print Network

Data Partitioning for Reconfigurable Architectures with Distributed Block RAM Wenrui Gong Gang Wang cores and 1,738 kilobytes of distributed, embedded block RAM. Reconfigurable devices currently lack {gong, wanggang, kastner}@ece.ucsb.edu Abstract Modern, high performance reconfigurable architectures

Sherwood, Tim

380

DICTIONARY TRANSFER FOR IMAGE DENOISING VIA DOMAIN ADAPTATION Gang Chen Caiming Xiong Jason J. Corso  

E-print Network

DICTIONARY TRANSFER FOR IMAGE DENOISING VIA DOMAIN ADAPTATION Gang Chen Caiming Xiong Jason J,cxiong,jcorso}@buffalo.edu ABSTRACT The idea of using overcomplete dictionaries with prototype signal atoms for sparse representation. However, the standard process to train a new dictionary for image denoising requires the whole image (or

Corso, Jason J.

381

Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: the interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage.  

PubMed

Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join. In this study, we tested whether a combination of individual propensity and facilitating neighborhood conditions amplifies the probabilities of youth gang affiliation. A subset of 3,522 adolescents was selected from a nationally representative, prospective sample of Canadian youth. Psychopathic tendencies (i.e., a combination of high hyperactivity, low anxiety, and low prosociality as compared to national norms) were assessed through parent reports, while neighborhood characteristics (i.e., concentrated economic disadvantage and residential instability) were derived from the 2001 Census of Canada. Our results indicated that neighborhood residential instability, but not neighborhood concentrated economic disadvantage, interacted with individual propensity to predict youth gang membership. Adolescents with preexisting psychopathic tendencies appeared especially vulnerable mainly if they were raised in residentially unstable neighborhoods. PMID:17610153

Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2007-12-01

382

The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

2011-01-01

383

"American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

De Genova, Nicholas

2008-01-01

384

Weathering processes in the Ganges–Brahmaputra basin and the riverine alkalinity budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present river chemistry data for a network of rivers draining the western and central Nepal Himalaya. Our sampling locations cover the system from the sources of rivers in Tibet to the Gangetic plain. Water samples were collected throughout the year, including the monsoon season, for rivers in Nepal and for the Ganges and Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Rivers draining the

Albert Galy; Christian France-Lanord

1999-01-01

385

Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

2012-01-01

386

Collateral Damage? Juvenile Snitches in America’s 'Wars' on Drugs, Crime and Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government’s use of children as informants in America’s 'wars' on drugs, crime, and gangs is little recognized and rarely discussed by scholars, policymakers, and the public. As with many governmental practices, only notorious instances make headlines, such as when a child is killed in retaliation for informing. Because public attention rarely is focused on the practice, it has not

Andrea L. Dennis

2009-01-01

387

POLLUTION KNOWLEDGE AND URBAN WATER POLITICS IN THE GANGES RIVER BASIN (INDIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people rely upon the Ganges River as a source of water provision and a site of disposal for sewage, solid waste, agricultural runoff and industrial effluent. The river is also a goddess in the Hindu pantheon who is worshipped for her purificatory powers, despite water quality levels that fall far short of standards for use in bathing, washing,

Sya Buryn Kedzior

2011-01-01

388

A comparison of local and gang scheduling on a Beowulf cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gang Scheduling and related techniques are widely be- lieved to be necessary for efficient job scheduling on dis- tributed memory parallel computers. This is hecause they minimize context switching overheads and permit the paral- lel job currently running to progress at the fastest possible rate. Howevec in the case of cluster computers, and panicu- larly those with COTS networks, these

Peter E. Strazdins; John Uhlmann

2004-01-01

389

DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important? Andrew James Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang  

E-print Network

DNA Packaging in Bacteriophage: Is Twist Important? Andrew James Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang 91125 ABSTRACT We study the packaging of DNA into a bacteriophage capsid using computer simulation ejection of the polymer chain in the absence of external forces. INTRODUCTION The ability of bacteriophage

Straight, Aaron

390

NEWS THEMES AND ETHNIC IDENTITY: LOS ANGELES TIMES NEWS REPORTS OF VIETNAMESE, BLACK, AND HISPANIC GANGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The news media and popular culture inform public perceptions of social problems and issues. This paper examines how Vietnamese, black, and Hispanic gang activities are presented by Los AngelesTimes reporters. Qualitative content analysis of a theoretical sample of reports over a several year period indicates that Vietnamese youthful offenses are more likely to be \\

John Eyres; David L. Altheide

391

Young mother (in the) hood: gang girls' negotiation of new identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and

Molly Moloney; Geoffrey P. Hunt; Karen Joe-Laidler; Kathleen MacKenzie

2011-01-01

392

The Role of School-Related Bonding Factors and Gender: Correlates of Gang Membership Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several decades both the education and criminology literatures have examined the influence of school factors on the attitudes and behaviors of adolescents. This literature shows that school-related factors, especially those related to social bonding, are relevant to explaining delinquent behavior. This research examines the efficacy of school-related bonding factors in explaining gang membership. In addition, it examines

Beth Bjerregaard; Joseph A. Cochran

2012-01-01

393

Lucky money for little brother: The prevalence and seriousness of Chinese gang extortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many Chinese residents acknowledge victimization and extortion of businesses by Asian youth gangs, there is little evidence with which to estimate the seriousness and prevalence of the problem, the number or types of businesses affected, the extent of monetary loss, or the prevalence of violence that business owners may endure. This study presents estimates of the rates of extortion

Robert J. Kelly; Jeffrey Fagan

2000-01-01

394

Moral Panics and Glasgow Gangs: Exploring ‘the New Wave of Glasgow Hooliganism’, 1965–1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1965 and 1968, gangs ‘reappeared’ in Glasgow. Perceived as younger, more violent and more dangerous to the public than their interwar predecessors, concern quickly grew in the media, police force, local and national government and the public domain more generally. This article uses the sociological concept of ‘moral panics’ to explore ‘the New Wave of Glasgow Hooliganism’. It demonstrates

Angela Bartie

2010-01-01

395

Semiflexible Polymer Confined to a Spherical Surface Andrew J. Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang  

E-print Network

Semiflexible Polymer Confined to a Spherical Surface Andrew J. Spakowitz and Zhen-Gang Wang, persistence length lp, and sphere radius R.We predict two qualitatively different behaviors for a long polymerRevLett.91.166102 PACS numbers: 68.47.Pe, 05.20.­y, 36.20.Ey A polymer in a confined geometry

Straight, Aaron

396

Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Zhen-Gang Wang,  

E-print Network

Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Tao Jiang, Zhen-Gang Wang, California ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a contagious human pathogen causing liver diseases-termini. INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pararetrovirus responsible for up to 80% of all cases

Wu, Jianzhong

397

Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 1890 the legendary outlaws of the 1870s and 1880s were mostly dead or in prison. When Luther Perkins erected his new bank building in Coffeyville, Kansas, a bank robbery was the farthest thing from his mind. But the Dalton cousins, former Coffeyville residents, were interested in the bank because they wanted to outdo the James gang by using the…

Hunter, Kathleen

398

Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2013-01-01

399

Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and the Social Structure of Gang Homicide1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the dif- ferential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social char- acteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by

2009-01-01

400

Penetrating craniocerebral injury resultant from gunshot wounds: gang-related injury in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

We prospectively and retrospectively reviewed a series of 780 patients who presented to the University of Southern California/Los Angeles County Medical Center with a diagnosis of gunshot wound to the brain during an 8-year period. Of these, 105 were children ranging in age from 6 months to 17 years. Injuries were gang related in 76 (72%) children and adolescents. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to formulate a predictive model of outcome in this population. Patient age (F = 10.92), sex (F = 9.32), occipital entry site (F = 8.17), bihemispheric injury (F = 8.50), and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (F = 69.91) were all found to correlate with outcome (P < 0.05). Significant differences between pediatric and adult populations were noted in transit time, entrance site, and age-related outcome. Occipital or assassination-type wounds were most common in children. In addition, a younger age was associated with poor outcome (P < 0.0001). We describe both the economic and racial trends in our population of patients in addition to weapon type and toxicological evaluation. The Department of Neurological Surgery is becoming directly involved in providing information to children at the junior high school level regarding gang activity and brain and spinal cord injury. In conjunction with the Community Youth Gang Services Organization and Think First Organization, we are attempting to integrate prevention through education and community mobilization. This is a plan aimed at informing and recovering the youth affected by gangs. PMID:8133986

Levy, M L; Masri, L S; Levy, K M; Johnson, F L; Martin-Thomson, E; Couldwell, W T; McComb, J G; Weiss, M H; Apuzzo, M L

1993-12-01

401

Surfacing and diving behaviour of free-ranging Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Present address: Wildlife Trust of India, Noida 401 301, India 3 Present address: GPRS, Zoological Survey of India, Patna 800 016, India Swimming and breathing are the two most important behaviours of cetaceans. Due to the turbid waters of the Ganges, underwater activities of the Ganga river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica in wild condi- tions are difficult to observe.

R. K. Sinha; Samir Kumar Sinha; Gopal Sharma; D. K. Kedi

2010-01-01

402

Adhesion of Copper and Alumina from First Principles Xiao-Gang Wang and John R. Smith  

E-print Network

Adhesion of Copper and Alumina from First Principles Xiao-Gang Wang and John R. Smith Delphi of the Al2O3(0001)/Cu(111) interface have been studied by density-functional theory. The oxygen interfacial energies as a function of oxygen partial pressures. In particular, see Fig. 4 of Zhang et al.13

403

Deconstructing Deviance: Filipino American Youth Gangs, "Party Culture," and Ethnic Identity in Los Angeles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ways in which ethnicity is constructed by Filipino-American youths and examines the role played by generation in the formation of youth groups and identity construction within them. Findings from field observation and interviews with 20 Filipino-American males show changing gang roles from the 1960s through the present. (SLD)

Alsaybar, Bangele D.

1999-01-01

404

School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

2001-01-01

405

Findings from the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program. Juvenile Justice Bulletin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin draws on findings from an independent evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, of the Gang Reduction Program's (GRP) Impact in Los Angeles, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; North Miami Beach, Florida; and Richmond, Virginia, to examine how effectively these sites implemented the program. Following are some of the authors' key…

Cahill, Meagan; Hayeslip, David

2010-01-01

406

Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

2009-01-01

407

CONFLICTS AND COOPERATION OVER FLOODS IN THE HIMALAYA-GANGES REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood damage in the plains and tributaries of the Ganges is increasing as more people and structures crowd into these lands. Recent damage has been blamed on degraded watershed conditions in the Himalayan foothills. How ever, there is no scientific evidence to support such claims, and they are generating needless conflict at a time when relations between India and Nepal

Richard Kattelmann

1990-01-01

408

Layer Thickness Determination of the Interior Layered Deposit within Ganges Chasma, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer thicknesses measured over 3 km of stratigraphy on the large ILD within Ganges Chasma indicate that layering is on average 1.26 m thick. These layer thickness measurements are less than similar measurements made on layers in Candor Mensa.

Ismailos, C.; Fueten, F.; Stesky, R.; Flahaut, J.; Rossi, A.; Hauber, E.

2012-03-01

409

Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z  

E-print Network

Cycle Life Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Gang Ning* and Branko N. Popov**,z Department and Newman4 made a first attempt to model the parasitic reactions in lithium-ion batteries by incorporating a solvent oxidation into a lithium-ion battery model. Spotnitz5 developed polynomial expressions

Popov, Branko N.

410

The Effect of Urban Street Gang Densities on Small Area Homicide Incidence in a Large Metropolitan County, 1994–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through\\u000a a process of gun–drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates\\u000a of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure\\u000a to local street gang densities on

Paul L. Robinson; W. John Boscardin; Sheba M. George; Senait Teklehaimanot; Kevin C. Heslin; Ricky N. Bluthenthal

2009-01-01

411

The OCLC Members Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between OCLC Online Computer Library Center and its member institutions worldwide is formalized in the Members Council. This body, representing OCLC's constituent networks and service centers, has a key role in helping the OCLC Board of Trustees and management determine the future direction of the cooperative. Its core responsibilities include electing six trustees to the fifteen-member Board, and

George M. Needham; Richard Van Orden

2006-01-01

412

The Asian factor: Methodological barriers to the study of Asian gangs and organized crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines methodological barriers that confront the study of Asian criminal gangs and organized crime. Researchers\\u000a need to address definitional issues, appreciate the pluralistic nature of Asian communities, incorporate region as a unit\\u000a of analysis, enhance the reliability of interviewees’ responses, and recognize the impact of news media on the public perception\\u000a of Asian crime. A research agenda is

John Huey-Long Song

1996-01-01

413

“Are we a family or a business?” History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 1987, in pool halls and city parks, high school football games, storefront churches, youth centers, and other sites where police presence was minimal, high-ranking leaders from Chicago’s largest AfricanAmerican street gang ‘‘Nations’’ began meeting to discuss the latest period of change in their respective associations. Adorned in jewelry and expensive designer clothes, and transported in luxury cars, the leaders

Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh; Steven D. Levitt

2000-01-01

414

Friends, status symbols and weapons: the use of dogs by youth groups and youth gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent UK media reports and government responses evidence a rising concern over irresponsible dog ownership, particularly\\u000a the use of so-called status or weapon dogs. Youth criminal and antisocial behaviour using these dogs has been widely reported\\u000a in urban areas and associated with street-based youth groups, in particular, the growing phenomenon of UK youth gangs. This\\u000a article reports on the findings

Jennifer Maher; Harriet Pierpoint

2011-01-01

415

Suicide ideation, attempts and abuse among incarcerated gang and nongang delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines suicide ideation and attempts as well as reported levels of physical and sexual abuse among gang and nongang-involved incarcerated youth. The self-report survey data were collected from 334 males and 61 females who were incarcerated in Nevada youth correctional facilities in the summer of 1994. Over half (58.3 percent) of the males and nearly half (45.2

William Evans; Eric Albers; Dan Macari; Alex Mason

1996-01-01

416

Hearts and Minds, Psuedo Gangs and Counter Insurgency: Based upon Experiences from Previous Campaigns in Kenya (1952-60), Malaya (1948-60) & Rhodesia (1964-1979)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudo gangs form the steely side of Hearts and Minds and were used with great effect in counter-insurgency campaigns in Kenya (1952-60) Malaya (1948-60) and Rhodesia (1964-1979). Although the use of pseudo gangs was not new to counter-insurgency tactics, with the British using a similar tactic in the Boer war (1899-1902), the use of such gangs was certainly perfected during

Bill Bailey

2010-01-01

417

Rich pickings near large communal roosts favor 'gang' foraging by juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax.  

PubMed

Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as 'information centers' regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in 'gangs' and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. PMID:19240813

Dall, Sasha R X; Wright, Jonathan

2009-01-01

418

Rich Pickings Near Large Communal Roosts Favor ‘Gang’ Foraging by Juvenile Common Ravens, Corvus corax  

PubMed Central

Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as ‘information centers’ regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and pool their effort by recruiting each other at roosts. However, at a large raven roost in Newborough on Anglesey, North Wales, some juveniles have been observed recently to forage in ‘gangs’ and to roost separately from other birds. Here we adapt a general model of juvenile common raven foraging behavior where, in addition to the typical co-operative foraging strategy, such gang foraging behavior could be evolutionarily stable near winter raven roosts. We refocus the model on the conditions under which this newly documented, yet theoretically anticipated, gang-based foraging has been observed. In the process, we show formally how the trade off between search efficiency and social opportunity can account for the existence of the alternative social foraging tactics that have been observed in this species. This work serves to highlight a number of fruitful avenues for future research, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. PMID:19240813

Dall, Sasha R. X.; Wright, Jonathan

2009-01-01

419

Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.  

PubMed

Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed. PMID:24203526

Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

2015-05-01

420

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

SciTech Connect

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-07-01

421

Collapsable seal member  

DOEpatents

A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

Sherrell, Dennis L. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01

422

Collapsable seal member  

DOEpatents

A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

Sherrell, D.L.

1983-12-08

423

Family Member Casualty Assistance  

E-print Network

Family Member Casualty Assistance Handbook Taking Care of Our Own #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1: Important Documents and Information p 22 Appendix 2: Developing Family Plans in Case Your.S. Army Corps of Engineer (USACE*) Family Members whose Soldier or Department of the Army (DA) Civilian

US Army Corps of Engineers

424

Family Member Casualty Assistance  

E-print Network

Family Member Casualty Assistance Handbook Taking Care of Our Own #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1: Important Documents and Information p 18 Appendix 2: Developing a Family Plan in Case Your.S. Army Corps of Engineer (USACE*) Family Members whose Soldier or Department of the Army (DA) Civilian

US Army Corps of Engineers

425

Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

Rodriguez, Hector

2009-01-01

426

Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu  

E-print Network

Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang,2 and Jian-Gang Zhu1,3 1 Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Laughlin, David E.

427

Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

2009-01-01

428

Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.  

PubMed

Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

2008-05-01

429

Gang Membership, Gun Carrying, and Employment: Applying Routine Activities Theory to Explain Violent Victimization Among Inner City, Minority Youth Living in Extreme Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

du Conceptual inconsistencies in routine activities theory are illustrated by demon- strating how gang membership, gun carrying, and employment can be categorized as both risk and protective factors in a high-poverty context. Two waves of longi- tudinal data from a high-poverty sample of African American youth were used to examine the determinants of victimization risk. Bivariate analyses indicated that gang

Richard Spano; Joshua D. Freilich; John Bolland

2008-01-01

430

DBN-BASED MULTI-STREAM MODELS FOR MANDARIN TONEME RECOGNITION Xin Lei, Gang Ji, Tim Ng, Jeff Bilmes, Mari Ostendorf  

E-print Network

DBN-BASED MULTI-STREAM MODELS FOR MANDARIN TONEME RECOGNITION Xin Lei, Gang Ji, Tim Ng, Jeff Bilmes,gang,tng,bilmes,mo}@ee.washington.edu ABSTRACT A toneme in Mandarin Chinese is a tonal phone which consists of a base phone (main vowel recognition results show significant improvements by using the multi-stream models. 1. INTRODUCTION Mandarin

Washington at Seattle, University of

431

Monsoon sedimentation on the ‘abandoned' tide-influenced Ganges-Brahmaputra delta plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual sediment delivery by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers to the Bengal margin has kept pace with sea level rise since the mid Holocene, sustaining subaerial growth of the delta. However, the Sundarbans region of the tidal delta is disconnected from major distributary sources of sediment and is often thought to be sediment starved, eroding, and susceptible to the meter of sea level rise predicted for the 21st century. Despite these assumptions, direct sedimentation measurements on the tidal delta plain reveal widespread mean annualized accretion rates of ?1.1 cm yr-1, although heterogeneous depositional patterns indicate that topography and internal creek networks influence local sediment distribution. Short-lived radioisotope inventories (7Be: t1/2 = 53.3 days) measured on the freshly accumulated sediments indicate that about ½ of the mass deposited on the lower delta was sourced directly from the seasonal flood pulse of the river; the remaining ½ is derived from older (?1 yr) reworked sediments. Net sedimentation on this part of the delta traps ?10% of annual Ganges-Brahmaputra sediment load, with accretion rates roughly equivalent to the mean regional rate of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) of ?1.0 cm yr-1. If these sedimentation rates are representative of longer-term trends and subsidence rates remain stable over the next century, the lower delta plain may continue to maintain its elevation and stability despite documented mangrove retreat around its seaward edges.

Rogers, Kimberly G.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Mondal, Dhiman R.

2013-10-01

432

Headward growth of chasmata by volatile outbursts, collapse, and drainage: Evidence from ganges chaos, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nature and significance of collapse processes in Capri, Eos, and Ganges Chasmata remain poorly understood. Using Ganges Chasma as a type locality, these chasmata are interpreted to be the result of clustering and assimilation of multiple chaotic terrains, which primarily formed by localized depressurization-induced or thermally-triggered dissociation of buried gas clathrate hydrates and explosive eruption of gas-saturated ground water. Such crustal destabilization could have been triggered by (1) deep fracture propagation from the Martian surface, (2) magmatic intrusions and associated heating and inflation-induced terrain fracturing, and/or (3) climatic thaw and thinning/weakening of the permafrost over the clathrate and gas-rich groundwater zones. Volume increases associated with release of gases contributed to the xpulsion of groundwater and fluidized sediments at the surface, thereby carving the higher outflow channels peripheral to the chasmata and the lower outflow channel floors of the chasmata and outflow channels. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Kargel, J.; Crown, D.A.; Bleamaster, L. F., III; Tanaka, K.L.; Baker, V.; Miyamoto, H.; Dohm, J.M.; Sasaki, S.; Komatsu, G.

2006-01-01

433

Natural Selection in a Bangladeshi Population from the Cholera-Endemic Ganges River Delta  

PubMed Central

As an ancient disease with high fatality, cholera has likely exerted strong selective pressure on affected human populations. We performed a genome-wide study of natural selection in a population from the Ganges River Delta, the historic geographic epicenter of cholera. We identified 305 candidate selected regions using the Composite of Multiple Signals (CMS) method. The regions were enriched for potassium channel genes involved in cyclic AMP-mediated chloride secretion and for components of the innate immune system involved in NF-?B signaling. We demonstrate that a number of these strongly selected genes are associated with cholera susceptibility in two separate cohorts. We further identify repeated examples of selection and association in an NF-kB / inflammasome-dependent pathway that is activated in vitro by Vibrio cholerae. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of cholera resistance in a population from the Ganges River Delta and present a promising approach for identifying genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases. PMID:23825302

Karlsson, Elinor K.; Harris, Jason B.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Rahman, Atiqur; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Patterson, Nick; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Gupta, Sameer; Chowdhury, Fahima; Sheikh, Alaullah; Shin, Ok Sarah; Ellis, Crystal; Becker, Christine E.; Stuart, Lynda M.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Sabeti, Pardis C.; LaRocque, Regina C.

2015-01-01

434

Use of Ridge Points in Partial Fingerprint Gang Fang, Sargur N. Srihari, Harish Srinivasan and Prasad Phatak  

E-print Network

1 Use of Ridge Points in Partial Fingerprint Matching Gang Fang, Sargur N. Srihari, Harish Srinivasan and Prasad Phatak Abstract Automatic fingerprint identification systems utilize algorithms which extract minutiae information from the input fingerprint­ which are ridge endings and ridge bifurcations

435

Evaluating Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT): Is the Impact the Same as That of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) prevention program at several sites. Findings show a very small effect on children, but as has been the case for the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program (DARE), GREAT will continue because of its importance to stakeholders and political symbolism. (SLD)

Palumbo, Dennis J.; Ferguson, Jennifer L.

1995-01-01

436

Understanding the Psychosocial Characteristics of Gang-Involved Youths in a System of Care: Individual, Family, and System Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 64 gang-involved youth found that they represent all ethnic and gender groups; experience multiple child and family risk factors; present mental health, substance abuse, and academic problems; and often score within clinical ranges on behavioral and emotional indices. Non-Latina females present more internalizing and externalizing…

Wood, Michelle; Furlong, Michael J.; Rosenblatt, Jennifer A.; Robertson, Laurel M.; Scozzari, Frank; Sosna, Todd

1997-01-01

437

Storage-aware Smartphone Energy Savings David T. Nguyen , Gang Zhou , Xin Qi , Ge Peng , Jianing Zhao , Tommy Nguyen  

E-print Network

Storage-aware Smartphone Energy Savings David T. Nguyen , Gang Zhou , Xin Qi , Ge Peng , Jianing are first to pro- vide an experimental study on how storage techniques affect power levels in smartphones sav- ings named SmartStorage. The system tracks the run-time I/O pattern of a smartphone

Zhou, Gang

438

Participative Goal Setting as a Strategy for Improving Performance and Job Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Evaluation with Railway Track Maintenance Gangs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal field experiment of job change was conducted over a 1-year period with 42 geographically dispersed railway track maintenance gangs. Experimental groups that employed participative goal setting were compared with a control unit that continued to employ the traditional work procedures. When perceptual, behavioral and affective responses were evaluated, over eight trials, it was determined that there were significantly

C. A. L. Pearson

1987-01-01

439

WOMEN'S AND MEN'S FEAR OF GANG CRIMES: SEXU I, AND NONSEXUAL ASSAULT AS PERCEPTU\\/ IJLY CONTEMPORANEOUS OFFENSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptually contemporaneous offenses are crimes that are coupled in peo- ple's minds when they express fear. Previous studies have shown that fear of rape predicts women's fears of other crimes. This study examined the differential effects of sexual and nonsexual assault as offenses that may be coupled with specific gang crimes. For both women and men, once physical harm is

JAMES W. MEEKER

440

On the Validity of Geosocial Mobility Traces Zengbin Zhang, Lin Zhou, Xiaohan Zhao, Gang Wang, Yu Su,  

E-print Network

guiding the de- sign of cellular network protocols and smartphone energy management systems. Unfortunately, for both privacy and logistical reasons, ac- cess to such mobility traces has been elusive. This in turnOn the Validity of Geosocial Mobility Traces Zengbin Zhang, Lin Zhou, Xiaohan Zhao, Gang Wang, Yu

Zhao, Ben Y.

441

The Etiology of Female Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Membership: A Test of Psychological and Social Structural Explanations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined female delinquency and gang membership in 122 black female juveniles using data from the 1960s. Concluded that racism, sexism, poverty, and limited opportunity are more important predictors of delinquency than personality and family relationships. Relationships with girl friends were more significant predictors than heterosexual…

Bowker, Lee H.; Klein, Malcolm W.

1983-01-01

442

Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*  

E-print Network

Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

Popov, Branko N.

443

Stress in service members.  

PubMed

Military service differs from civilian jobs in the stressors that service members experience, including frequent deployments (eg, to an area of combat operations), obedience, regimentation, subordination of self to the group, integrity, and flexibility. The military culture emphasizes teamwork and peer support. In some cases, service members cannot adapt to military life, become overwhelmed by stress, or cannot overcome a traumatic experience. Clinicians should conduct a thorough evaluation guided by an understanding of the military culture. Every effort should be made to identify the stress and the maladaptive response and provide early clinical interventions to prevent progression. PMID:25455065

Lande, R Gregory

2014-12-01

444

Ethics Commission Member's Comment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

Riley, Sue Spayth

1988-01-01

445

National Member Education Campaign.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot test of the National Campaign in Co-operative Member Education was carried out in Tanzania in 1970. The test objectives were to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the Campaign administrative organization, and (2) learn how to organize such a campaign. Held during Adult Education Year, the Campaign covered three subjects: Produce Marketing,…

Dubell, F.

446

OBSERVATORY SNO INSTITUTE MEMBERS  

E-print Network

near Sudbury, Ontario. SNO was planned, constructed and operated by a 130-member team of scientists provides new ways to detect neutrinos from the sun and other astrophysical objects and measure their type en-route to Earth, thus providing answers to questions about neutrino properties and solar energy

Abolmaesumi, Purang

447

Members Making a Difference  

E-print Network

appointments and we follow up to make sure that everything is okay with them, but it's difficultMembers Making a Difference BODY DERMATOLOGY WORLD18 JUNE 2009 The American Academy of Dermatology or a colleague has been involved in ongoing vol- unteer efforts serving the profession or its patients, please

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

448

Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

449

Climatic variation and runoff from partially-glacierised Himalayan tributary basins of the Ganges.  

PubMed

Climate records for locations across the southern slope of the Himalaya between 77°E and 91°E were selected together with discharge measurements from gauging stations on rivers draining partially-glacierised basins tributary to the Ganges, with a view to assessing impacts of climatic fluctuations on year-to-year variations of runoff during a sustained period of glacier decline. The aims were to describe temporal patterns of variation of glaciologically- and hydrologically-relevant climatic variables and of river flows from basins with differing percentages of ice-cover. Monthly precipitation and air temperature records, starting in the mid-nineteenth century at high elevation sites and minimising data gaps, were selected from stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network and CRUTEM3. Discharge data availability was limited to post 1960 for stations in Nepal and at Khab in the adjacent Sutlej basin. Strengths of climate-runoff relationships were assessed by correlation between overlapping portions of annual data records. Summer monsoon precipitation dominates runoff across the central Himalaya. Flow in tributaries of the Ganges in Nepal fluctuated from year to year but the general background level of flow was usually maintained from the 1960s to 2000s. Flow in the Sutlej, however, declined by 32% between the 1970s and 1990s, reflecting substantially reduced summer precipitation. Over the north-west Ganges-upper Sutlej area, monsoon precipitation declined by 30-40% from the 1960s to 2000s. Mean May-September air temperatures along the southern slope of the central Himalayas dipped from the 1960s, after a long period of slow warming or sustained temperatures, before rising rapidly from the mid-1970s so that in the 2000s summer air temperatures reached those achieved in earlier warmer periods. There are few measurements of runoff from highly-glacierised Himalayan headwater basins; runoff from one of which, Langtang Khola, was less than that of the monsoon-dominated Narayani river, in which basin Langtang is nested. PMID:24296050

Collins, David N; Davenport, Joshua L; Stoffel, Markus

2013-12-01

450

Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).  

PubMed

Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of monsoonal rainfall variations that derive from orbital insolation and/or glacial forcing. PMID:17919684

Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

2007-11-01

451

Chain Gang  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

452

Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.  

PubMed

Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily"). PMID:19658574

Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

2009-06-01

453

Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

2009-06-01

454

Ideological extremism and electoral design. Multimember versus single member districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relying on a formal theoretical model, Gary Cox demonstrates that single member districts induce candidates toward policy\\u000a positions at their constituency median while multimember districts encourage dispersion. We test this theoretical implication\\u000a in the context of the Arizona state legislature, in which each legislative district chooses one senator and two representatives\\u000a in single member and multimember contests respectively. To do

Anthony Bertelli; Lilliard E. Richardson

2008-01-01

455

House Committee Members named  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the House committees for the 103rd Congress have been named. The House Science, Space and Technology Committee, which is influential in science policy, is concerned with activities of NASA, the National Science Foundation, science research, energy research, and the National Weather Service. In addition, subcommittees of the House Appropriations Committee are important to research because they are responsible for funding the scientific agencies' programs. Many of the Senate subcommittees have not yet been named.

456

[Comment on] BOSP members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

Richman, Barbara T.

457

Gangs & Gang-Related Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several years ago, Dan Kahan and I wrote a piece about addressing crime in the inner city (Meares and Kahan, 1998). Our goal in the piece was to enrich criminal law policy analysis by explaining the ways in which social science could helpfully inform policy strategies. At that time, the dominant approach to inner-city crime was to focus on increasing

Tracey L. Meares

2005-01-01

458

TANGO -a Collaborative Environment for the World-Wide Web Lukasz Beca, Gang Cheng, Geoffrey C. Fox, Tomasz Jurga, Konrad Olszewski, Marek Podgorny1  

E-print Network

TANGO - a Collaborative Environment for the World-Wide Web Lukasz Beca, Gang Cheng, Geoffrey C. Fox of computer networks and technologies re- lated to them. Especially, a significant influence of the Internet

459

Guiding Electron Emissions by Excess Negative Charges in Multiply Charged Molecular Anions Chuan-Gang Ning, Phuong Diem Dau, and Lai-Sheng Wang*  

E-print Network

Force Microscopy Cristian Staii a,*, Chris Viesselmann b , Jason Ballweg b , Lifang Shi c , Gang-yu Liu collective influence on the growing neuron is still poorly understood. In addition, the extremely complex

Wang, Yayu

460

Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the upstrean Hing-she station raise vivestok Sing-She stations are that ammonia on a upward trend, BOD5 no significant change in trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, river pollution index (RPI) a slight downward trend. Dong-gang River Basin , but the progress of sewer construction in slow. To reduce pollation in this river effort shoul be made regulatory reform on livestock waste control and acceleration of sewer construction. Keywords: quantile regression analysis, BOD5, RPI

Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

2013-12-01

461

Gang Exposure and Pregnancy Incidence among Female Adolescents in San Francisco: Evidence for the Need to Integrate Reproductive Health with Violence Prevention Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a pre- dominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated

A. M. Minnis; J. G. Moore; I. A. Doherty; C. Rodas; C. Auerswald; S. Shiboski; N. S. Padian

2008-01-01

462

The pro-cell death Bcl-2 family member, BNIP3, is localized to the nucleus of human glial cells: Implications for glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell survival under hypoxia  

PubMed Central

The Bcl-2 nineteen kilodalton interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is a hypoxia-inducible pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that induces cell death by associating with the mitochondria. Under normal conditions, BNIP3 is expressed in skeletal muscle and in the brain at low levels. In many human solid tumors, BNIP3 is upregulated in hypoxic regions but paradoxically, this BNIP3 expression fails to induce cell death. Herein, we have determined that BNIP3 is primarily localized to the nucleus of glial cells of the normal human brain, as well as in the malignant glioma cell line U251. Upon exposure of U251 cells to hypoxia, BNIP3 expression in the cytoplasm increases and localizes with the mitochondria, contributing to induction of cell death. In contrast, when BNIP3 is forcibly over expressed in the nucleus, it fails to induce cell death. Expression of N-terminal BNIP3 (lacking the transmembrane and conserved domains) in U251 cells blocks hypoxia-induced cell death acting as a dominant negative protein by binding to wild-type BNIP3 and blocking its association with the mitochondria. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, BNIP3 expression is increased in hypoxic regions of the tumor and is primarily localized to the nucleus in approximately 80% of tumors. Hence, BNIP3 is sequestered in the nucleus within the brain but under hypoxic conditions, BNIP3 becomes primarily cytoplasmic promoting cell death. In GBMs, BNIP3 expression is increased but it remains sequestered in the nucleus in hypoxic regions, thereby blocking BNIP3’s ability to associate with the mitochondria providing tumor cells with a possible survival advantage. PMID:16217754

Burton, Teralee R.; Henson, Elizabeth S.; Baijal, Priti; Eisenstat, David D.; Gibson, Spencer B.

2011-01-01

463

Communist China's foreign trade and its implication for Japan  

E-print Network

COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGN TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis by LEH-AN HSIEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lg72... Major Subject: Economics COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGI'J TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis LEH-AN HSIEH Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member / Member Member (Member) ABSTRACT Communist China's Foreign Trade...

Hsieh, Leh-An

1972-01-01

464

Cryogenic support member  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

465

2014 HONORARY MEMBERS, AWARDS, LECTURERS, and FELLOWS HONORARY MEMBERS  

E-print Network

2014 HONORARY MEMBERS, AWARDS, LECTURERS, and FELLOWS HONORARY MEMBERS ROBERT E. DICKINSON BRIAN J William H. Hooke For gracious, dedicated mentoring of scores of individuals over more than four decades

Huang, Yanyi

466

Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs.  

PubMed

Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents) showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people. PMID:18695808

Facundo, Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge

2008-01-01

467

Interior Layered Deposits on Mars: Insights from elevation, image- and spectral data of Ganges Mensa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) are exposed at various locations on Mars. They differ from their surroundings by their higher albedo, morphology, and fine layering. Their origin (sedimentary or volcanic) is well discussed [e.g. 1-3] but Fe-oxides and hydrated minerals such as sulfates [4-6] have been detected on ILD surfaces suggesting an aquatic environment. Here we present some features of Ganges Mensa. We looked at HRSC elevation data [7], THEMIS brightness-temperature and CRISM data to understand differences in morphology and composition. Ganges Mensa observations This ILD shows sub-horizontal layering and mesa morphology (flat top and steep slopes). Its stairstepped morphology is shown on Fig. 3 and does not appear in ILDs occurring in the eastern chaotic terrains (Iani, Aureum, Aram, and Arsinoes Chaos) but in other ILDs in Valles Marineris (e.g. Hebes). Ganges Mensa features fresh-eroded light-toned layers appearing competent, forming steep scarps and having high surface temperatures as well as thermal inertia. The dark material corresponds to accumulations of wind-transported matter that covers flatter slopes and shows lower brightness-temperatures. Analyses of CRISM and image data (HRSC, MOC, HiRISE) indicate that there are differences in texture and mineralogical composition as well. CRISM observations show that the lower sequence of the ILD (consisting of many layers) has a strong kieserite signature as observed by [8]. Exposed windblown dark material on its surface has no olivine, pyroxene, or ferric oxide spectral features. This unit comprises an approximate thickness of ~1.6 km out of 3.5 km for the whole ILD and is very rough and coarse looking. There, the surface temperatures (Fig. 2) as well as thermal inertia values are much higher which is in agreement with [8]. A transition zone characterized by a discrete layer at an elevation of about -1.9 km marks the beginning of the upper unit (Fig. 1-3). In the upper unit, weak polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) features are observed in the light-toned material while the dark dunes on top and in grooves show clinopyroxene (HCP). The mineralogy might correlate with the steepness of the slopes observed by [8,10] for kieserite being exposed in steeper parts and polyhydrated sulfates in less steep parts. As the ILD is composed of alternating steep and less steep parts, less steep parts may possibly exhibit polyhydrated sulfates that are covered by windblown material. We observe a higher thermal inertia in the lower, fresh eroded kieserite unit (400-600 SI) than in the upper unit that shows polyhydrated sulfate features (300- 500 SI) which is not coincident to observations in West Candor Chasma ILD [11] but may be due to weak PHS signal or hydration state of PHS. The same is observed comparing kieserite exposed on steep exposures and PHS [12] in Capri Chasma. ILDs observed in other regions ILDs have various morphologies. They often appear as mounds or hills. Massive cap rock at their top and layering in lower parts is also very common. Material enclosing chaotic structures, terrace-like appearances, and knobs are visible. Varying surfaces (knobby, rough, fractured, grooved, cap rock) are widespread as well as talus exhibited on steep slopes. Yardangs and flutes on their surface as well as dunes located in surface fractures indicate that the material is highly affected by wind erosion and therefore weakly consolidated. The contact between ILD and chaotic terrain often is covered by dusty and/or fine-grained material, but few MOC-images [9] show the stratigraphic position of ILDs superposing chaotic terrain, and indicating a younger age. Layering is observed at different elevations at MOCscale reaching from -4.6 km up to -1 km, but mostly between -4.5 km up to -3 km and is absent in upper parts that are mostly cap rock. The vertical thickness of layered material is high in Ganges Mensa and low in other regions of Ganges or the chaotic terrains, e.g. Arsinoes. We discriminate between less than 16 layers and less than 7 layers we counted at MOC-scale. Apparently, t

Sowe, M.; Roach, L. H.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Mustard, J. L.; Neukum, G.

2008-09-01

468

Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

2013-01-01

469

Low school engagement and sexual behaviors among African American youth: Examining the influences of gender, peer norms, and gang involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether negative peer influences (i.e., norms favoring risky sex and drug use and gang involvement) mediated the relationship between school engagement (i.e., grade point averages [GPAs] obtained from school records and student–teacher connectedness) and sexual behaviors (i.e., sexual début, sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs) among African American high school adolescents, and whether

Dexter R. Voisin; Torsten B. Neilands

2010-01-01

470

Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members in the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family contains death receptors, which have a cytoplasmic death domain and can induce apoptosis, as well as receptors with no apparent homology in the cytoplasmic tail. This second group of receptors binds TNF receptor–associated factors (TRAFs), which are implicated in gene regulation and anti–apoptotic signaling. A bewildering variety of TNF receptor family members and

Loes A. Gravestein; Jannie Borst

1998-01-01

471

Melt containment member  

SciTech Connect

A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

2014-09-09

472

Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation-Downscaled from GCM predictors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia-the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of large rural populations linked to subsistence agriculture in the basins. Uncertainty analysis of the downscaled precipitation indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than the uncertainty in the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is suggested for comprehensive impact studies.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

2014-09-01

473

Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change. Precipitation during and after the monsoon is likely to increase in both basins under the A1B and A2 emission scenarios; whereas, the pre-monsoon precipitation is likely to decrease. Peak monsoon precipitation is likely to shift from July to August, and may impact the livelihoods of large rural populations linked to subsistence agriculture in the basins. Uncertainty analysis of the downscaled precipitation indicated that the uncertainty in the downscaled precipitation was less than the uncertainty in the original CGCM3.1 precipitation; hence, the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation was a better input for the regional hydrological impact studies. However, downscaled precipitation from multiple GCMs is suggested for comprehensive impact studies.

Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

2014-01-01

474

Construction and Maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta: Linking Process, Morphology, and Stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise.

Wilson, Carol A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

2015-01-01

475

Land atmosphere feedbacks and their role in the water resources of the Ganges basin.  

PubMed

The northern Indian subcontinent has frequently been identified as a hotspot for land atmosphere interactions. It is also a region with the highest concentration of irrigated land and highest (and increasing) population density in the world. The available water in the region with which to grow food depends on the Asian monsoon, groundwater and melt from Himalayan snows. Any changes or disruptions to these sources of water could threaten the food supply. It is therefore essential to understand how the land surface, and in particular irrigated land, interacts with the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the interactions will occur on many scales. To an extent the magnitude and form of these will depend on the depth of the atmosphere which is affected. Thus at the local, or micro, scale it is the surface layer (some 10 s m deep) which is cooled and moistened by the evaporation of irrigated water, at the meso-scale the Planetary boundary layer (up to 1 or 2 km) will be modified - with possible atmospheric moistening, increased cloud and rain formation and at very large scales the whole dynamics of the south Asian Monsoon will be affected. This illustrates a strong interaction between the Asian monsoon and the regional topography. Of considerable significance is the finding in this paper that up to 60% of the evaporation from irrigated areas in the summer months is ultimately recycled to Himalayan rainfall and so feedbacks to river flows in the Ganges. PMID:23557782

Harding, R J; Blyth, E M; Tuinenburg, O A; Wiltshire, A

2013-12-01

476

Construction and maintenance of the ganges-brahmaputra-meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.  

PubMed

We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise. PMID:25251271

Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

2015-01-01

477

Hydrogeochemistry and arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Geochemical composition and the level of Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, southwestern Bangladesh were elucidated. Hydrogeochemical data of tube well samples suggested that the groundwater is mostly Ca-Mg-HCO(3) type with bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) as the dominant anion, though other type waters are also observed. In contrast, the elevated EC, Cl(-) and high content of Na(+) relative to Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+) in six groundwater samples suggest their saline origin. Low concentrations of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), HCO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) indicate the reducing conditions of subsurface aquifer where sediments are deposited with abundant organic matter. The total As concentration in the analyzed samples is very high (0.0431-1.352 mg/L) along with high Fe (2.791-17.058 mg/L) and relatively low Mn (0.134-1.972 mg/L) at different depths. Distinct relationship of As with Fe and Mn, and strong correlation with DOC suggests that the biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxide is considered to be the dominant processes to release As in aquifers. Moreover, negative correlation between As and SO(4)(2-) demonstrates the As may not be directly mobilized from sulfide minerals like arsenopyrite. PMID:18977593

Halim, M A; Majumder, R K; Nessa, S A; Hiroshiro, Y; Uddin, M J; Shimada, J; Jinno, K

2009-05-30

478

Bullies, gangs, drugs, and school: understanding the overlap and the role of ethnicity and urbanicity.  

PubMed

Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as youth ethnicity, urbanicity, and school characteristics, also has been overlooked in previous research. The current study examined different subtypes of involvement in bullying-as primarily a victim, as primarily a bully, as both a victim and bully, and no involvement-and the association with significant health-risk behaviors, including engaging in violence and substance use, as well as academic problems. The analyses use self-report data from 16,302 adolescents (50.3 % female, 62.2 % Caucasian, 37.8 % African American) enrolled in 52 high schools. A series of three-level HLM analyses revealed that bullies and bully/victims were generally at greatest of risk of being involved in violence, engaging in multiple types of substance use, and having academic problems. These findings extend prior research by emphasizing a potential link between involvement in bullying and multiple health-risk behaviors, particularly among urban and African American high school youth. PMID:23180070

Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2013-02-01

479

Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, with 170 million people and a vast, low-lying coastal plain, is perceived to be at great risk of increased flooding and submergence from sea-level rise. However, human alteration of the landscape can create similar risks to sea-level rise. Here, we report that islands in southwest Bangladesh, enclosed by embankments in the 1960s, have lost 1.0-1.5 m of elevation, whereas the neighbouring Sundarban mangrove forest has remained comparatively stable. We attribute this elevation loss to interruption of sedimentation inside the embankments, combined with accelerated compaction, removal of forest biomass, and a regionally increased tidal range. One major consequence of this elevation loss occurred in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands failed during Cyclone Aila, leaving large areas of land tidally inundated for up to two years until embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape received tens of centimetres of tidally deposited sediment, equivalent to decades’ worth of normal sedimentation. Although many areas still lie well below mean high water and remain at risk of severe flooding, we conclude that elevation recovery may be possible through controlled embankment breaches.

Auerbach, L. W.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C. A.; Ahmed, K. R.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Small, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B. A.

2015-02-01

480

MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM SOLANI SPECIES COMPLEX CAUSING INFECTIONS IN BOTH HUMANS AND PLANTS ARE THOSE MOST COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are increasingly implicated as the causative agents of human mycoses, particularly in the expanding immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patient populations. Best known as ubiquitous plant pathogens and saprotrophs, members of FSSC comprise ov...

481

Air pollution modeling over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal in the early post-monsoon season using the NASA GEOS-5 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ganges basin is characterized by a significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation. This has resulted in increased anthropogenic emissions and declining air quality. The NASA GEOS-5 model was used to extend the MERRA reanalysis with five atmospheric aerosol components (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, desert dust, and sea-salt). The model includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. The obtained eight-year (2002 - 2009) MERRA-driven aerosol dataset (MERRAero) was applied to study AOT and its trends over the Ganges basin and north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; lower cloud fraction compared to the monsoon season; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mm/month. In the early post-monsoon season (October), modeled data showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the north-west of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions due to higher population density, increased industrial output and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the north-west of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and north-west BoB, AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation, but mainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Air pollution modeling allowed us to determine aerosol species responsible for the increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB: aerosols were dominated by anthropogenic air pollution, such as sulfates and carbon aerosols. In October 2009, the vertically integrated aerosol mass flux over north-west BoB was maximal, while monthly mean wind was minimal. This indicates accumulating aerosol particles over north-west BoB. The wind convergence over north-west BoB was also maximal in October 2009. Therefore, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux is sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation.

Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

2014-05-01

482

How do congressional members appear on the web? Tracking the web visibility of South Korean politicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web visibility of politicians has substantial implications for the internet and politics. In this regard, the present paper examines the web visibility of South Korea's 18th National Assembly members. This study identifies those members with the highest web visibility and determines the factors affecting their web visibility by using a set of socio-demographic variables indicating web visibility. The concept

Yon Soo Lim; Han Woo Park

2011-01-01

483

Hydrologic control of temporal variability in groundwater arsenic on the Ganges floodplain of Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated arsenic in groundwater affects some 100 million people in South Asia, yet mitigation efforts are hindered by persistent uncertainty about the proximal source of arsenic and mechanisms for its mobilization. At the core of this uncertainty are the relative roles of surficial organic clays vs. deeper aquifer matrix iron oxyhydroxides. Temporal variations in groundwater chemistry can serve to distinguish the contributions of these two sources, and such variation is especially pronounced in headwater areas of the Ganges floodplain immediately adjacent to the Himalayan foothills (e.g. the Terai of Nepal). Tubewells down to 50 m in the Terai commonly exhibit cyclical, temporally-correlated variation in dissolved arsenic, iron and other species. In Nawalparasi, the most arsenic-affected district, these wells tap thin (2 m) gray sand aquifers embedded in a thick (>50 m) sequence of organic clays. Monsoon recharge refreshes these aquifers, temporarily minimizing arsenic concentrations. Post-monsoon, average groundwater compositions exhibit increasing trends in water-rock interaction (higher TDS, with cation exchange to form increasingly Na-HCO3 waters), arsenic and iron. This cycle can be repeated during dry-season precipitation events as well, revealing direct correlation between trends in degree of clay interaction (sodium fraction of major cations) and arsenic concentrations. During the year, reversals in vertical head gradient yield reversals in arsenic temporal trend, and downward gradients in the dry season correlate with increases in arsenic. Collectively these observations strongly support a model of reductive mobilization of arsenic from adjacent clays into aquifers, tempered by repeated flushing during periods of appreciable rainfall.

Brikowski, T. H.; Neku, A.; Shrestha, S. D.; Smith, L. S.

2014-10-01

484

InSAR measurements of compaction and subsidence in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the world's largest river deltas are sinking due to sediment loading, compaction, and tectonics but also recently because of groundwater extraction, hydrocarbon extraction, and reduced aggradation. Little is known, however, about the full spatial variability of subsidence rates in complex delta systems. This study reconstructs subsidence rates in the eastern portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), Bangladesh, covering more than 10,000 km2 at a high spatial resolution of 100 m. The map was produced using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) covering the period 2007 to 2011. Eighteen Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased-Array L-band SAR scenes were used to generate 30 interferograms calibrated with GPS. Interferograms were stacked to yield average subsidence rates over the study period. Small Baseline Subset-InSAR was then applied to validate the results against an additional GPS record from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Land subsidence of 0 to > 10 mm/yr is seen in Dhaka, with variability likely related to local variations in shallow subsurface sediment properties. Outside of the city, rates vary from 0 to > 18 mm/yr, with the lowest rates appearing primarily in Pleistocene Madhupur Clay and the highest rates in Holocene organic-rich muds. Results demonstrate that subsidence in this delta is primarily controlled by local stratigraphy, with rates varying by more than an order of magnitude depending on lithology. The ability of L-band InSAR to differentiate between stratigraphic units in this humid, vegetated subtropical river delta demonstrates the power of interferometry as a tool for studying the subsurface in deltaic environments.

Higgins, Stephanie A.; Overeem, Irina; Steckler, Michael S.; Syvitski, James P. M.; Seeber, Leonardo; Akhter, S. Humayun

2014-08-01

485

Policy Views of AEA Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

People often suppose or imply that free-market economists constitute a significant portion of all economists. We surveyed American Economic Association members and asked their views on 18 specific forms of government activism. We find that about 8 percent of AEA members can be considered supporters of free-market principles, and that less than 3 percent may be called strong supporters. The

Daniel B. Klein; Charlotta Stern

2007-01-01

486

Air pollution over the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal in the early postmonsoon season based on NASA MERRAero data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation but mainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

Kishcha, Pavel; Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

2014-02-01

487

Members may bring a guest  

E-print Network

-members. First time NEWFA attendees may register as a guest at no charge. REGISTER NOW: On-line registration form, Assistant Director Marketing and NEWFA Boston College Center for Work & Family 617-552-2862 jennifer

Huang, Jianyu

488

Design Exploration of 192-bit Elliptic Curve Adder On The StarBridge HC-36 System Gang Quan, Duncan A. Buell, James P. Davis, Siddaveerasharan Devarkal  

E-print Network

. The fundamental operation for the elliptic curve cryptography is the multiplication of a point P = (xDesign Exploration of 192-bit Elliptic Curve Adder On The StarBridge HC-36 System Gang Quan, Duncan of implementing 192-bit elliptic curve adder on StarBridge HC-36 high performance computing system. In this paper

Davis, James P.

489

The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

2013-01-01

490

Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

2007-01-01

491

SAPSM: Smart Adaptive 802.11 PSM for Smartphones Andrew J. Pyles, Xin Qi, Gang Zhou, Matthew Keally and Xue Liu  

E-print Network

Keywords Energy efficiency, WiFi, Adaptive Power Save Mode, Smart- phones INTRODUCTION WiFi on SmartphonesSAPSM: Smart Adaptive 802.11 PSM for Smartphones Andrew J. Pyles, Xin Qi, Gang Zhou, Matthew Keally}@cs.wm.edu, xueliu@cs.mcgill.ca ABSTRACT Effective WiFi power management can strongly impact the energy consumption

Zhou, Gang

492

On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

Vander Horst, Anthony

2012-01-01

493

Distribution of nutrients, heavy metals, and PAHs affected by sediment dredging in the Wujin'gang River basin flowing into Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu.  

PubMed

This paper's survey of the pollution of the Wujin'gang River is important because it is one of the main rivers flowing into Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in eastern China. Trace metals (TMs) in this paper are described according to their pollution index (P i). Cluster analysis and correlation analysis are utilized for group sites and to assess co-contamination. Toxicity effect analysis was conducted using individual sediment quality guideline quotients (SQGQs) and mean SQGQs. The results showed that sediment from the Wujin'gang River basin was affected by nutrients, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are an essential contamination source for both Meiliang Bay and Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu. The discharge of TMs has significant correlations to total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP); however, no significant correlations were observed between the content of PAHs and TMs. Toxicity effect results show that sediment in the Wujin'gang River basin threatens sediment-dwelling organisms. The harmful effect was mainly caused by heavy metals especially Cd, Cr, Ni, and Cu. Sediment dredging is an effective way to control pollution from internal rivers especially for the pollution of TN and heavy metals in the Wujin'gang River basin. PMID:24037297

Zhang, Rongfei; Jiang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Liujun; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei; Xiao, Lin

2014-02-01

494

Fan-Gang Zeng is Director of Center for Hearing Research, Research Director of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, and Professor of  

E-print Network

Fan-Gang Zeng is Director of Center for Hearing Research, Research Director of Otolaryngology Sciences and Otolaryngology at the University of California, Irvine (2000-present). Dr. Zeng is a leading of Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Journal of Speech Language Hearing Research, Audiology

Segraves, Kari A.

495

Framing Comparison of The Li Gang Incident and The Diaoyu Island Dispute between Social Networking Sites and Mainstream Media in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Networking Sites (SNSs) offer a unique platform to communicate based on real identity. Under the authoritarian regime in China, SNSs have become a tool to share and communicate alternative political information. This study seeks to identify the framing differences between SNSs and mainstream media by comparing the framing of two recent cases, the Li Gang incident as domestic news

Ying Han

2011-01-01

496

Climate-induced variations in the sourcing and weathering of fluvial sediments: Deltaic records from the monsoon-forced Ganges and Brahmaputra dispersal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system is among the largest in the world and has been shown to respond rapidly to millennial-scale shifts in South Asian Monsoon climate. This response is seen in an order of magnitude shift in both river discharge and sediment deposition from the modern mean throughout the Holocene. The tectonic dynamics of the basin and the high sediment

P. M. Youngs; S. L. Goodbred; S. A. Kuehl

2004-01-01

497

Joint NU Sandhouse Gang & TRF Meeting Special December Luncheon Meeting in Downtown Chicago  

E-print Network

sector. He has also been asked to comment on intermodal transportation and the impact of events in China, Dec. 17, 2012 11:30 am ­ 1:30 pm "Transportation Trends and Investment Implications" Featured Speaker is the Senior Equity Analyst covering the Transportation Sector for Credit Suisse in New York. He covers

Bustamante, Fabián E.

498

Evolution of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 'Gang of Four' Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of eight NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'snapshots' shows the evolution of the P-Q complex, also called the 'gang of four' region, of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9.

The eight individual frames chronicle changes in the comet during the 12 months before colliding with Jupiter. The sequence shows that the relative separations of the various cometary fragments, thought to range in size from about 500 meters to almost 4 km (2.5 miles) across, changed dramatically over this period. The apparent separation of Q1 and Q2 was only about 1100 kilometers (680 miles) on 1 July 1993 and increased to 28,000 kilometers (17,400 miles) by 20 July 1994.

The P-Q complex demonstrates that further fragmentation occurred after the breakup of the parent body in July 1992. Fragments Q1 and Q2 were probably together at some point in a single body. However, it is not clear how P1 and P2, and the P and Q objects are related.

Between 24 January and 30 March 1994, the P2 nucleus broke-up into two separate fragments, one of which disappeared by late June. (It might be present in the mid-May image.) The P1 nucleus had a 'streaked' appearance on 24 January 1994 and then became a barely discernible 'puff' through mid-May. It was not detected in subsequent observations.

Throughout the period, most nuclei were within a 4000 kilometer-wide (2500 miles) spherical cloud of dust, called a coma. However, shortly before impact, the coma around each nucleus became highly elongated along the comet's travel path due to 'stretching' by Jupiter's rapidly increasing gravity.

This stretching is dramatic in the image of the Q-complex taken on 20 July 1994, just 10 hours before collision. Despite the coma's changes, HST images show that the core of each nucleus always remained concentrated. This shows that the nuclei were probably not catastrophically fragmenting, at least not up to 10 hours before impact.

The first HST image was taken on 1 July 1993 with the Planetary Camera before the December 1993 HST servicing mission. All other images were taken with the WFPC-2. (The image taken on 17 May 1994 was taken in 'wide-field' mode and has a lower resolution than the other WFPC-2 images). The images were taken in visible light. The different shades of red are a false-color representation of the different intensities of light reflecting off the comet's dust. Each frame covers a region 90,000 by 30,000 kilometers (56,000 by 18,600 miles).

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

1994-01-01

499

In the Balance: Natural v. Embanked Landscapes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural river deltas are defined by a balance of net aggradational processes that construct the delta platform, and marine processes that redistribute sediments and facilitate platform evolution. The future of deltas worldwide will be determined by this balance of sedimentation, subsidence and sea-level rise, in addition to human-caused perturbations. Among the world's delta systems the Ganges-Brahmaputra is perceived to be at great risk to degradation and submergence under multiple climate and sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. In particular, the lower delta plain in southwest Bangladesh is isolated from fluvial processes, yet still receives up to 1 cm of sediment accretion annually as sediments discharged at the river mouth are reworked by tides and deposited onto the lower delta plain. In the Sundarbans, a 10,000 km2 block of pristine mangrove forest in the region, this tidally supported sedimentation has been effective in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with SLR that is augmented by local subsidence and shallow compaction. Adjacent to the Sundarbans, however, human modification has significantly impacted the landscape through embankment construction that occurred in the 1960s to increase arable land for rice production and famine relief. As a consequence, the embankments have locally inhibited sediment delivery to the landscape, decoupling these interacting systems. In the ensuing five decades the land has continued to subside and compact, and in the absence of sediment accretion has experienced a net elevation loss of more than 1 m since embankment construction. The acute effects of this elevation offset were felt in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands breached during Cyclone Aila. We are studying Polder 32, a 60 km2 island that was land tidally inundated for two years until its embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape rebounded with tens of centimeters of tidally deposited sediment, accounting for decades-worth of normal sedimentation, but only partly restoring the elevation lost over the previous five decades. This work implements field measurements and a conceptual model of the lower delta plain to establish a budget for observed elevation differences among local, relative water levels and the natural and human-altered landscapes. We demonstrate that embanked regions of the lower delta are more vulnerable than pristine areas to changes in sea level caused by impeded sediment delivery as a result of decoupling the tidal channel-landscape system. The elevation disparity that has developed in the past 50 years is equivalent to ~2 cm/yr of RSL rise. This rate is more than twice the upper end of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections for future sea-level rise, making these poldered landscapes a very useful, albeit troubling, analog for studying the impact of increased SLR in coming decades.

Wallace Auerbach, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C.; Ahmed, K.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Nooner, S. L.

2013-12-01

500

Predictability of current and future multi-river discharges: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining river discharge is of critical importance to many societies as they struggle with fresh water supply and risk of flooding. In Bangladesh, floods occur almost every year but with sufficient irregularity to have adverse social and economical consequences. Important goals are to predict the discharge to be used for the optimization of agricultural practices, disaster mitigation and water resource management. The aim of this study is to determine the predictability of river discharge in a number of major rivers on time scale varying from weeks to a century. We investigated predictability considering relationship between SST and discharge. Next, we consider IPCC model projections of river discharge while the models are statistically adjusted against observed discharges. In this study, we consider five rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Blue Nile, and the Murray-Darling Rivers. On seasonal time scales, statistically significant correlations are found between mean monthly equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the summer Ganges discharge with lead times of 2-3 months due to oscillations of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena. In addition, there are strong correlations in the southwest and northeast Pacific. These, too, appear to be tied to the ENSO cycle. The Brahmaputra discharge, on the other hand, shows somewhat weaker relationships with tropical SST. Strong lagged correlations relationships are found with SST in the Bay of Bengal but these are the result of very warm SSTs and exceptional Brahmaputra discharge during the summer of 1998. When this year is removed from the time series, relationships weaken everywhere except in the northwestern Pacific for the June discharge and in areas of the central Pacific straddling the equator for the July discharge. The relationships are relative strong, but they are persistent from month to month and suggest that two different and sequential factors influence Brahmaputra river flow. Second goal is to project the behavior of future river discharge forced by the increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Three more rivers, the Yangtze, Blue Nile, and Murray-Darling rivers are considered. It is meaningful to people living within the watershed, which would experience flooding or drought in the next 100-years. The original precipitation output from the third phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP3) project has large inter-model variability, which limits the ability to quantify the regional precipitation or runoff trends. With a basic statistical Quantile-to-Quantile (Q-Q) technique, a mapping index was built to link each modeled precipitation averaged over river catchment and observational discharge measured close to the mouth. Using the climatological annual cycle to choose the "good" models, the observational river discharges are well reproduced from the 20th century run (20C3M) model results. Furthermore, with the same indices, the future 21st century river discharge of the Yangtze, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Blue Nile are simulated under different SRES scenarios. The Murray-Darling River basin does not have the similar seasonal cycle of discharge with modeled precipitations. So we choose to build the link between satellite imaged and modeled precipitations and use it to simulate the future precipitation. The Yangtze, Ganges, Brahmaputra River mean wet season discharges are projected to increase up to 15-25% at the end of the 21st century under the most abundant GHGs scenarios (SRESA1B and SRESA2). The risks of flooding also reach to a high level throughout the time. Inter-model deviations increase dramatically under all scenarios except for the fixed-2000 level concentration (COMMIT). With large uncertainty, the Blue Nile River discharge and Murray-Darling River basin annual precipitation do not suggest a sign of change on multi-model mean.

Jian, Jun

2007-12-01