Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…
Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in nine children with Sydenham chorea (SC) and compared to nine controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet, and synaptosomal preparations from adult and pediatric postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density (OD) values were higher in SC patients than
Harvey S Singer; Christopher R Loiselle; Olivia Lee; Marjorie A Garvey; Franz H Grus
Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in nine children with Sydenham chorea (SC) and compared to nine controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet, and synaptosomal preparations from adult and pediatric postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density (OD) values were higher in SC patients than controls across all preparations, but did not reach a level of significance. Although WB identified multiple bands in all subjects, discriminant analysis showed that the mean binding patterns of SC patients were significantly different from control, most notably in the caudate S1 fraction (Wilks' lambda=0.011, p<0.0001). Numerous antigens contributed to differences between groups; the two most defining molecular masses were at 126 and 113 kDa. In contrast to WB with discriminant analysis, ELISA measurements did not significantly differentiate between the SC group and controls. PMID:12620655
Singer, Harvey S; Loiselle, Christopher R; Lee, Olivia; Garvey, Marjorie A; Grus, Franz H
Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning. PMID:19718651
Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari
Current studies support the belief that high levels of performance and intellectual abilities are associated with increased brain size or volume. With few exceptions, this conclusion is restricted to studies of post-adolescent subjects and to cerebral cortex. There is evidence that "bigger is better" may not pertain to children and further, that there are areas of the brain in which larger structures are associated with cognitive deficits. In 50 preadolescent children (21 girls) a structural survey of the brain (VBM) was conducted to determine and locate areas in which gray matter volume was associated with poor cognitive performance. Only increased gray matter volume in particular areas of the basal ganglia and specifically the putamen was significantly associated with poor performance on tests of memory, response speed and a general marker and subtests of intelligence. Based on the VBM findings, volumetric analysis of basal ganglia structures was performed using FSL/FIRST. However, no significant changes in total volume of putamen or other basal ganglia structures were detected with this analysis. The disagreement between measures of localized gray matter differences and volumetric analysis suggested that there might be local regional deformity rather than widespread volumetric changes of the putamen. Surface analysis with FSL/FIRST demonstrated that bilateral outward deformation of the putamen, but especially the left, was associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests. Expansion of the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus also was associated with poor performance. Moreover a significant association was detected between a reliable test of language-free intelligence and topographically distinct outward and inward deformation of the putamen. Expansion and contraction of the putamen as a predictor of intelligence may explain why this association was not observed with measures of total volume. These results suggest that deformity is a sensitive measure of function, and that distortion of the basal ganglia may be a neurophenotype for risk of developmental impairment. PMID:24844741
Sandman, Curt A; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L Tugan; Su, Lydia; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi
Aims: To study stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the basal ganglia in DYT1 primary dystonia. Methods: Twenty-five genetically confirmed DYT1 dystonia patients (age range, 8–66 years; mean age, 22 years) underwent brain MRI under general anesthesia at the time of globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. MR images were retrospectively reviewed for signal intensity alterations.
S. Gavarini; N. Vayssičre; P. Delort; L. Cif; B. Biolsi; C. Tancu; X. Vasques; S. Plagnol; A. Bonafe; P. Coubes
Signal abnormalities of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract detected either by diffusion tensor imaging, including measurements of mean diffusivity, a parameter of brain tissue integrity, and fractional anisotropy, a parameter of neuronal fibre integrity, or transcranial sonography, were recently reported in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. In this study, changes in the nigral and olfactory diffusion tensor signal, as well as nigral echogenicity, were correlated with clinical scales of motor disability, odour function and putaminal dopamine storage capacity measured with 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography in early and advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. Diffusion tensor imaging, transcranial sonography and positron emission tomography were performed on 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (mean disease duration 3.7 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to 4) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Odour function was measured by the standardized Sniffin' Sticks Test. Mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa influx constant, mean nigral echogenicity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract were identified by region of interest analysis. When compared with the healthy control group, the Parkinson's disease group showed significant signal changes in the caudate and putamen by 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography, in the substantia nigra by transcranial sonography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) and in the olfactory tract by mean diffusivity (P < 0.05). Regional mean diffusivity values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract correlated significantly with putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake (r = -0.52, P < 0.05 and r = -0.71, P < 0.01). Significant correlations were also found between nigral mean diffusivity values and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.48, P < 0.01) and between mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake and the total odour score (r = 0.58; P < 0.05) as well as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.53, P < 0.05). This study reports a significant association between increased mean diffusivity signal and decreased 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake, indicating that microstructural degradation of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract parallels progression of putaminal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Since increases in nigral mean diffusivity signal also correlated with motor dysfunction, diffusion tensor imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for disease progression in future studies of putative disease modifying therapies. PMID:24014521
Scherfler, Christoph; Esterhammer, Regina; Nocker, Michael; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Warwitz, Boris; Spielberger, Sabine; Pinter, Bernadette; Donnemiller, Eveline; Decristoforo, Clemens; Virgolini, Irene; Schocke, Michael; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus
This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3701-3725, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24443091
Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I
1. Adult male albino rats (CF Strain) were administered i.p. CS2 dissolved in cotton seed oil at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt. for a period of 60 days. Effect of CS2 on epididymis, adrenal weight, sperm count and sperm head shape abnormality was studied. 2. Epididymal weight remained unaltered in 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg CS2 treated groups, whereas in highest dose of CS2 treated (200 mg/kg) group a non-significant reduction in epididymis weight was observed. A slight increase in adrenal weight was observed in lower doses groups (25 and 50 mg/kg) while a considerable decrease in adrenal weight was noted in highest dose (200 mg/kg) of CS2 treated group in the present study. 3. An increase in sperm head shape abnormality and decrease in sperm count was observed in all the CS2 treated groups. However, the changes were statistically significant only after higher dose of CS2 treatment as compared to control. 4. This study suggests that CS2 may have the potential to induce adverse effects on male reproductive system of rats. Sperm head shape abnormality assay used in this study also elicits germ cell genotoxic potential of carbon disulphide. PMID:10627660
Kumar, S; Patel, K G; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K; Shah, B A; Saiyed, H N
In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866
Womer, Fay Y; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Smith, Matthew J; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M; Mamah, Daniel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6–26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., “positive controls”), and healthy controls (i.e., “negative controls”). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs.
Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef
SPACA1 is a membrane protein that localizes in the equatorial segment of spermatozoa in mammals and is reported to function in sperm-egg fusion. We produced a Spaca1 gene-disrupted mouse line and found that the male mice were infertile. The cause of this sterility was abnormal shaping of the sperm head reminiscent of globozoospermia in humans. Disruption of Spaca1 led to the disappearance of the nuclear plate, a dense lining of the nuclear envelope facing the inner acrosomal membrane. This coincided with the failure of acrosomal expansion during spermiogenesis and resulted in the degeneration and disappearance of the acrosome in mature spermatozoa. Thus, these findings clarify part of the cascade leading to globozoospermia. PMID:22949614
Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Inoue, Naokazu; Isotani, Ayako; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru
Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.
The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167
Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh
Background: Despite strong circumstantial evidence that the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from relatively small in vivo TS imaging studies have supported contradictory conclu- sions concerning the role of abnormal anatomical charac- teristics of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of TS. Methods: Basal ganglia volumes
Bradley S. Peterson; Prakash Thomas; Michael J. Kane; Lawrence Scahill; Heping Zhang; Richard Bronen; Robert A. King; James F. Leckman; Lawrence Staib
The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771
Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne
An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign cystic lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Bilateral and symmetrical lesions of the wrist are rare. Intraosseous ganglia of the carpal bones are uncommon causes of chronic wrist pain. Isolated cases of intraosseous ganglion have been reported most commonly in the lunate and scaphoid. The lunate was most frequently affected, followed by the capitate, scaphoid, and triquetrum bones. Radiolucent lesions in the carpal bones are not uncommon and are often seen incidentally in asymptomatic patients. The differential diagnosis of a lytic lesion in a carpal bone includes unicameral bone cyst, degenerative cyst, fibrous developmental defect, osteomyelitis, and intraosseous ganglion cyst. This article describes a case of bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia. A review of the literature revealed that bilateral and symmetrical intraosseous ganglia of the wrist are rare, with only 3 other reported cases of bilateral lunate lesions. PMID:20608626
Kural, Cemal; Sungur, Ibrahim; Cetinus, Ercan
A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different
RICHARD A. BRONSON; SUSAN K. BRONSON; LUCILA D. OULA
Following secondary recovery processes in conventional light oil reservoirs, more than half the original oil in place may remain trapped as a discontinuous phase. During the previous recovery processes these oil ganglia have been pinched off by capillary forces and remain immobile while the continuous phase which surrounds them is able to flow freely. Furthermore if a portion of this
V. De La Cruz; T. J. T. Spanos
Increases in the total volume of basal ganglia structures have been reported in schizophrenia. However, patterns of basal ganglia shape change, which can reveal localized changes in substructure volumes, have not been investigated. In this study, the total volume and shape of several basal ganglia structures were compared in subjects with and without schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected in 54 schizophrenia and 70 comparison subjects. High-dimensional (large-deformation) brain mapping was used to assess the shape and volume of several basal ganglia structures. The relationships of shape and volume measures with psychopathology, cognition and motor function were also assessed. Left and right volumes of the caudate and putamen, as well as the right globus pallidus volume, were significantly increased in subjects with schizophrenia as compared to comparison subjects after total brain volume was included as a covariate. Significant differences in shape accompanied these volume changes in the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus, after their total volumes were included as covariates. There were few significant correlations between volume or shape measures and either cognitive function or clinical symptoms, other than a positive correlation between an attention/vigilance cognitive dimension and the volume of the caudate and putamen, and a negative correlation between nucleus accumbens volume and delusions. In conclusion, basal ganglia volumes relative to total brain volume were larger in schizophrenia subjects than healthy comparison subjects. Specific patterns of shape change accompanied these volume differences.
Mamah, Daniel; Wang, Lei; de Erausquin, Deanna Barch Gabriel A.; Gado, Mokhtar; Csernansky, John G.
We will learn about shapes! Make pictures with pattern blocks! Pattern Blocks Make the shapes fit inside the picture. Tangrams Find the shapes in the picture! Shape Pictures Sort the shapes. Shape Sort Take a quiz! Shapes Quiz Take a test! Shape Test ...
The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708
Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, El?bieta
High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.
Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher
Rotavirus gastroenteritis may be associated with the onset of an acute reversible encephalitis. We describe a case of transient bilateral basal ganglia lesions after a prodromal gastroenteritis which completely resolved four months later. Diffusion weighted images were determinant to depict the basal ganglia abnormalities and were helpful to evaluate the prognosis. A review of the literature indicates that many diseases may be accompanied by signal abnormalities within the basal ganglia and that differential diagnosis is possible only through the simultaneous evaluation of imaging, clinical and laboratory findings. PMID:24148332
Messina, M; Meli, G A; Viglianesi, A; Scavone, G; Belfiore, G; Di Bella, D
Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p?0.05). Combined basal ganglia (?=0.610), caudate (?=0.645), anterior (?=0.595) and posterior putamen (?=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (?=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions.
Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A
When viewed as a whole, these basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits appear to play a modulating role in a wide range of behaviors. At the cortical level, given convergence upon specified regions within the frontal lobes, the behaviors in question would be those dependent upon SMA, premotor, frontal eye fields, dorsolateral, and orbitofrontal outflow targets. Broadly speaking, processes such as the generation, maintenance, switching, and blending of motor, mental, or emotional sets would be involved. Accordingly, in basal ganglia disease, the planning and the execution of the above behavioral domains can be affected. Given the diversity and complexity of activity within the basal ganglia, the consequences of disruption depend largely upon lesion site and the associated interplay of neurochemical factors. For example, in the motor domain, damage to various striatal circuitry levels can result in either hypo- or hyperkinetic disorders of movement. Following this analogy, it might also be said that diverse lesions, depending on site, can result in problems with the development and maintenance of behavioral sets ("hypophrenic") versus problems in relinquishing preferential sets ("hyperphrenic"). These contrasting patterns are best represented in PD and OCD, respectively. In the latter case, however, the "hyperphrenic" pattern would only apply to those behaviors which are part of the obsessional rituals. This suggests that procedural system "overdrive" remains domain-specific as is the case for most operations within the procedural system. To return to the broad principle of habituation, a process first described in the context of the visual system and its connections with the tail of the caudate nucleus, it would be tempting to view PD and OCD as disorders of "under" and "over" habituation to behavioral routines. Unfortunately, the situation has proven to be more complex in view of recent neuropsychological findings (Nicholson et al., in preparation). Using a variety of problem-solving and other cognitive tasks, both PD and OCD patients were found to require more practice and/or the provision of external guidelines to facilitate habit formation. Thus, in both cases, as in other disorders of the basal ganglia, the establishment of useful heuristics by which to direct adaptive behavior suffers. OCD patients therefore appear to have at least two compartmentalized types of basal ganglia dysfunction: the ritualistic compulsions and obsessions as well as the heuristic inefficiency (i.e., poor procedural mobilization). PD patients would also suffer a similar fate as it is known that the degrees of motor versus nonmotor (i.e., procedural) deficit are poorly correlated (42).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7872134
Saint-Cyr, J A; Taylor, A E; Nicholson, K
The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379
Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A
The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function.
Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.
The availability of suitable animal models and of the opportunity to record electrophysiologic data in movement disorder patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures has allowed researchers to investigate parkinsonism-related changes in neuronal firing patterns in the basal ganglia and associated areas of thalamus and cortex. These studies have shown that parkinsonism is associated with increased activity in the basal ganglia output nuclei, along with an increase in burst discharges, oscillatory firing, and synchronous firing patterns throughout the basal ganglia. Computational approaches have the potential to play an important role in the interpretation of these data. Such efforts can provide a formalized view of neuronal interactions in the network of connections between basal ganglia, thalamus and cortex, allow for the exploration of possible contributions of particular network components to parkinsonism, and potentially result in new conceptual frameworks and hypotheses that can be subjected to biological testing. It has proven very difficult, however, to integrate the wealth of the experimental findings into coherent models of the disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the abnormalities in neuronal activity that have been associated with parkinsonism. Subsequently, we discuss some particular efforts to model the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link abnormal basal ganglia activity to the cardinal parkinsonian motor signs and may help explain the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. We emphasize the logical structure of these computational studies, making clear the assumptions from which they proceed and the consequences and predictions that follow from these assumptions.
Rubin, Jonathan E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Turner, Robert S.; Wichmann, Thomas
Background: Prior brain imaging and autopsy studies have suggested that structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia (BG) nuclei may be present in Tourette Syndrome (TS). These studies have focused mainly on the volume differences of the BG structures and not their anatomical shapes. Shape differences of various brain structures have been demonstrated in other neuropsychiatric disorders using large-deformation, high dimensional brain mapping (HDBM-LD). A previous study of a small sample of adult TS patients demonstrated the validity of the method, but did not find significant differences compared to controls. Since TS usually begins in childhood and adult studies may show structure differences due to adaptations, we hypothesized that differences in BG and thalamus structure geometry and volume due to etiological changes in TS might be better characterized in children. Objective: Pilot the HDBM-LD method in children and estimate effect sizes. Methods: In this pilot study, T1-weighted MRIs were collected in 13 children with TS and 16 healthy, tic-free, control children. The groups were well matched for age. The primary outcome measures were the first 10 eigenvectors which are derived using HDBM-LD methods and represent the majority of the geometric shape of each structure, and the volumes of each structure adjusted for whole brain volume. We also compared hemispheric right/left asymmetry and estimated effect sizes for both volume and shape differences between groups. Results: We found no statistically significant differences between the TS subjects and controls in volume, shape, or right/left asymmetry. Effect sizes were greater for shape analysis than for volume. Conclusion: This study represents one of the first efforts to study the shape as opposed to the volume of the BG in TS, but power was limited by sample size. Shape analysis by the HDBM-LD method may prove more sensitive to group differences.
Black, Kevin J.
Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are critical for motor control and motor learning. Classically, basal ganglia nuclei are thought to regulate motor behavior by increasing or decreasing cortical firing rates, and basal ganglia diseases are assumed to reflect abnormal overall activity levels. More recent studies suggest instead that motor disorders derive from abnormal firing patterns, and have led to the hypothesis that surgical treatments, such as pallidotomy, act primarily by eliminating pathological firing patterns. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the basal ganglia normally influence task-related cortical activity to regulate motor behavior, and how lesions of the basal ganglia influence cortical firing properties. Here, we investigated these questions in a songbird circuit that has striking homologies to mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits but is specialized for singing. The "cortical" outflow nucleus of this circuit is required for song plasticity and normally exhibits increased firing during singing and song-locked burst firing. We found that lesions of the striato-pallidal nucleus in this circuit prevented hearing-dependent song changes. These basal ganglia lesions also stripped the cortical outflow neurons of their patterned burst firing during singing, without changing their spontaneous or singing-related firing rates. Taken together, these results suggest that the basal ganglia are essential not for normal cortical firing rates but for driving task-specific cortical firing patterns, including bursts. Moreover, such patterned bursting appears critical for motor plasticity. Our findings thus provide support for therapies that aim to treat basal ganglia movement disorders by normalizing firing patterns. PMID:23449880
Kojima, Satoshi; Kao, Mimi H; Doupe, Allison J
The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506
Yin, Henry H
...findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings...Readers to show an abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...
Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853
Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien
A 3 years old boy was admitted due to recurrent attacks of tetany and carpopedal spasm since one and a half years of age. The tetany lasting for 1-2 minutes in each episode was often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection and occurred 2-3 times a month. Both birth and family history were unremarkable. Physical findings showed mild psychomotor retardation with positive Chvostek sign. Laboratory examination revealed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low serum parathyroid hormone level. EEG showed abnormal tracing with increased slow waves. Head CT Scan demonstrated symmetrical calcification in the basal ganglia region. The clinical features and laboratory findings were consistent with hypoparathyroidism. The mechanism of calcium deposit in the basal ganglia still remains unclear. Tetany, muscle cramping and seizures secondary to hypocalcemia are the most common neurologic signs which respond quickly to calcium replacement. Subsequent supplemental therapy resolved movement disorders and mental retardation. If early treatment prior to the tetanic episodes is instituted in a patient with hypoparathyroidism, it may prevent the development of complications such as intracranial calcifications, cataract and permanent retardation. PMID:2637591
Chow, K S; Lu, D N
Background and Purpose Lacunar infarction is due to a perforating arteriolar abnormality. Possible causes include embolism, atheromatosis or intrinsic disease. We examined whether the size, shape or location of the lacunar infarct varied with embolic sources, systemic atheroma or vascular risk factors. Methods We examined data from three prospective studies of patients with clinical and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) positive symptomatic lacunar infarction who underwent full clinical assessment and investigation for stroke risk factors. Lacunar infarct size (maximum diameter; shape, oval/tubular; location, basal ganglia/centrum semiovale/brainstem) were coded blind to clinical details. Results Amongst 195 patients, 48 infarcts were tubular, 50 were 15-20mm diameter, 97 were in the basal ganglia and 74 in the centrum semiovale. There was no association between infarct size or shape and any risk factors. Centrum semiovale infarcts were less likely to have a potential relevant embolic source (4% v 11%, OR 0.16 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.83) and caused a lower National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (2 v 3, OR 0.78 95% CI 0.62-0.98) than basal ganglia infarcts. There were no other differences by infarct location. Conclusions Lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia caused marginally more severe strokes and were three times as likely to have a potential embolic source than those in the centrum semiovale but the overall rate of carotid or known cardiac embolic sources (11%) was low. We found no evidence that other risk factors differed with location, size or shape suggesting that most lacunar infarcts share a common intrinsic arteriolar pathology.
Del Bene, Alessandra; Makin, Stephen DJ; Doubal, Fergus N; Inzitari, Dominico; Wardlaw, Joanna M
The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of interconnected nuclei which play a pivotal part in limbic, associative, and motor functions. This role is mirrored by the wide range of motor and behavioral abnormalities directly resulting from dysfunction of the BG. Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events. In the normal BG, this modulation is highly specific, with each neuron related only to a small subset of behavioral events depending on specific combinations of movement parameters and context. In many pathological conditions involving BG dysfunction and motor abnormalities, this neuronal specificity is lost. Loss of specificity (LOS) manifests in neuronal activity related to a larger spectrum of events and consequently a large overlap of movement-related activation patterns between different neurons. We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG. The prevalence of LOS in a many BG-related disorders suggests that neuronal specificity may represent a key feature of normal information processing in the BG system. Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control.
Bronfeld, Maya; Bar-Gad, Izhar
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
Manion, Patrick J.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive and behavioral impairments such as poor attention, learning, memory and planning ability and uncontrolled crying that can be more persistent problems than the physical disabilities. Cognitive enhancers have been shown to improve cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with hemorrhagic basal ganglia lesions as well as other forms of TBI. There is little research about the use of cognitive enhancers after hemorrhagic basal ganglia damage. We present a case of a 38 year old male who made significant recovery with the use of cognitive enhancers. PMID:22795553
Al Owesie, Rafat Mohammed; Morton, Catherine Saino
For insect ganglia, Altman (Advances in Physiological Science, Vol. 23. Neurobiology of Invertebrates. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 537-555, '81) proposed that individual neuropils control different motor activities. A corollary of this hypothesis is that motor neurons involved in many behavioral functions should branch in more neuropils than those active in fewer behaviors. In crayfish, the abdominal fast-flexor muscles are active only during the generation of the powerstroke for tailflips, whereas the slow-flexor muscles are involved in the maintenance of body posture. The slow flexors are thus active in many of the crayfish's behavioral activities. To test the generality of Altman's idea, we filled groups of crayfish fast-flexor and slow-flexor motor neurons with cobalt chloride and described their shapes with respect to the ganglionic structures through which they pass. Individual fast flexors were also filled intracellularly with HRP. Ganglia containing well-filled neurons were osmicated, embedded in plastic, and sectioned. Unstained sections were examined by light microscopy and pertinent sections were photographed. We found that the paths of the larger neurites were invariant, that the dendritic domains of fast and slow motor neurons occupied distinctive sets of neuropils, and that dendrites of slow motor neurons branched in more ganglionic structures than did those of fast motor neurons. These results are consistent with Altman's hypothesis. PMID:2432099
Leise, E M; Hall, W M; Mulloney, B
Objective Clinical experience suggests that the majority of schwannomas arise within sensory ganglia, suggesting that intraganglionic glial cells represent a potential cell of origin for schwannomas. To support this clinical impression, we reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies performed over a 5 year period at our institution to determine the relationship of cranial and spinal nerve schwannomas with the ganglia of the associated nerves. Study design Retrospective cohort study Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Patients undergoing imaging study at our institution over a 5 year period. Intervention(s) Radiographical images at our institution were reviewed as well as published studies to determine the anatomic location of schwannomas. Main outcome measure(s) Anatomical location of schwannomas Results A total of 372 patients were found over the 5-year study period, 31 of those were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Vestibular schwannomas comprised the greatest number of schwannomas, followed by spinal schwannomas. In NF2 patients, spinal schwannomas were the most common tumor, followed by vestibular schwannomas. In NF2 patients and those with sporadic schwannomas, the overwhelming majority of tumors arose in nerves with a sensory component and were associated with sensory ganglia of the nerves (562/607, 92.6%). Very few tumors arose from pure motor nerves. This is supported by review of published articles on anatomic location of schwannomas. Conclusions Schwannomas are strongly associated anatomically with ganglia of sensory nerves. These findings raise the possibility that intraganglionic glial cells give rise to the majority of schwannomas.
Tryggvason, Geir; Barnett, Andrew; Kim, John; Soken, Hakan; Maley, Joan; Hansen, Marlan R.
Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward
D. Shohamy; C. E. Myers; J. Kalanithi; M. A. Gluck
The striatum, the largest input nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives massive inputs from the neocortex and thalamus, and gives rise to the direct, indirect and striosomal pathways of the basal ganglia. Here, the view is developed that the striatum is a major site for adaptive plasticity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, affecting in the normal state a broad range of
Ann M. Graybiel
This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,
André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials. PMID:21326826
Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice exhibiting hyperkinesia (affected) transgenic mice not showing movement abnormalities (unaffected), and non-transgenic littermates A decrease in the density of striatal D2 binding sites, measured by [3H]raclopride binding, and D2 mRNA expression in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was revealed in affected an unaffected transgenic mice when compared with non-transgenic. No difference in D1 receptor binding and DAT binding, measured by [3H]SCH23390 and [3H]WIN35428 binding, respectively, was found in striatum of transgenic animals. In SNpc, increased levels of DAT binding sites were observed in affected and unaffected animals compared to non-transgenic, whereas no change in DAT mRNA expression was found. Our results show selective neurochemical changes in the basal ganglia dopaminergic system, suggesting a possible involvement in the pathophysiology of dystonialike motor hyperactivity.
Giannakopoulou, D.; Armata, I. A.; Mitsacos, A.; Shashidharan, P.; Giompres, P.
Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is rare. Here, we have reported a case of Down syndrome in a 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression, and basal ganglia calcification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Down syndrome, in a child, which was accompanied by these 3 neurologic complications simultaneously. As seen in this case, patients with Down syndrome may have neurologic conditions without any obvious neurologic symptoms; hence, patients with Down syndrome should be carefully examined for the presence of neurologic conditions.
Lee, Kun-Soo; Weon, Young Cheol
The direct and indirect efferent pathways from striatum ultimately reconverge to influence basal ganglia output nuclei, which in turn regulate behavior via thalamocortical and brainstem motor circuits. However, the distinct contributions of these two efferent pathways in shaping basal ganglia output are not well understood. We investigated these processes using selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways, in combination with single-unit recording in the basal ganglia output nucleus substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice. Optogenetic activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway projection neurons produced diverse cellular responses in SNr neurons, with stimulation of each pathway eliciting both excitations and inhibitions. Despite this response heterogeneity, the effectiveness of direct pathway stimulation in producing movement initiation correlated selectively with the subpopulation of inhibited SNr neurons. In contrast, effective indirect pathway-mediated motor suppression was most strongly influenced by excited SNr neurons. Our results support the theory that key basal ganglia output neurons serve as an inhibitory gate over motor output that can be opened or closed by striatal direct and indirect pathways, respectively.
Freeze, Benjamin S.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Hammack, Nora; Berke, Joshua D.
The direct and indirect efferent pathways from striatum ultimately reconverge to influence basal ganglia output nuclei, which in turn regulate behavior via thalamocortical and brainstem motor circuits. However, the distinct contributions of these two efferent pathways in shaping basal ganglia output are not well understood. We investigated these processes using selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways, in combination with single-unit recording in the basal ganglia output nucleus substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice. Optogenetic activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway projection neurons produced diverse cellular responses in SNr neurons, with stimulation of each pathway eliciting both excitations and inhibitions. Despite this response heterogeneity, the effectiveness of direct pathway stimulation in producing movement initiation correlated selectively with the subpopulation of inhibited SNr neurons. In contrast, effective indirect pathway-mediated motor suppression was most strongly influenced by excited SNr neurons. Our results support the theory that key basal ganglia output neurons serve as an inhibitory gate over motor output that can be opened or closed by striatal direct and indirect pathways, respectively. PMID:24259575
Freeze, Benjamin S; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Hammack, Nora; Berke, Joshua D; Kreitzer, Anatol C
Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…
Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.
The period immediately preceding the onset of overt psychosis is characterized by a range of symptoms and behaviors including emerging attenuated psychosis, spontaneous movement abnormalities, and a broad decline in role and social functioning. Recent evidence suggests that basal ganglia dysfunction, which is implicated in the development of psychotic symptomatology, may manifest in the form of both movement abnormalities and
Vijay A. Mittal; Maria Jalbrzikowski; Melita Daley; Cristina Roman; Carrie E. Bearden; Tyrone D. Cannon
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC, Fahr disease) is an inherited neurologic condition characterized by basal ganglia and extra-basal ganglia brain calcifications, parkinsonism, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The authors examined six families for linkage to the previously identified genetic locus (IBGC1) located on chromosome 14q. The authors found evidence against linkage to IBGC1 in five of the six families supporting previous preliminary studies demonstrating genetic heterogeneity in familial IBGC. PMID:15596772
Oliveira, J R M; Spiteri, E; Sobrido, M J; Hopfer, S; Klepper, J; Voit, T; Gilbert, J; Wszolek, Z K; Calne, D B; Stoessl, A J; Hutton, M; Manyam, B V; Boller, F; Baquero, M; Geschwind, D H
Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia.
Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.
This paper summarises the results of some of our recent tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical studies of the dopaminergic innervation of the human basal ganglia. It also reports new findings on the presence of TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the striatum. Our data show the existence of nigrostriatal TH-ir axons that provide collaterals arborizing in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the ansa lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson's pencils. We postulate that this extrastriatal innervation, which allows nigral dopaminergic neurons to directly affect the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus, plays a critical role in the functional organisation of human basal ganglia. The TH-ir fibres that reach the striatum arborize according to a highly heterogeneous pattern. At rostral striatal levels, numerous small TH-poor zones embedded in a TH-rich matrix correspond to calbindin-poor striosomes and calbindin-rich extrastriosomal matrix, respectively. At caudal striatal levels, in contrast, striosomes display a TH immunostaining that is more intense than that of the matrix. A significant number of small, oval, aspiny TH-ir neurons scattered throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the caudate nucleus and putamen, together with a few larger, multipolar, spiny TH-ir neurons lying principally within the ventral portion of the putamen, were disclosed in human. This potential source of intrinsic striatal dopamine might play an important role in the functional organisation of the human striatum, particularly in case of Parkinson's disease. PMID:11207419
Prensa, L; Cossette, M; Parent, A
The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.
Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru
This report concerns a 10-month-old boy, admitted to the Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung with generalized tonic convulsion and aspiration pneumonia. He was found to have had developmental regression, progressive hypotonia and hepatosplenomegaly since four months of age. Physical examination revealed a large head circumference (97th percentile), frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, hepatosplenomegaly, broad hands and short fingers. Neurologic examination showed poor control of eye movement, profound hypotonia, muscle weakness, brisk deep tendon reflexes and Babinski's sign. Hypoplasia of the vertebral bodies with anterior beaking, wedge-shaped metacarpals, spatulated ribs and a J-shaped sella turcica were displayed on bone radiographs. Cranial computerized tomography scans showed diffuse brain atrophy, dilated ventricles and calcification of the bilateral basal ganglia. Vacuolated lymphocytes were noted in a peripheral blood smear. Type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis was diagnosed based on a deficiency of beta-galactosidase activity. To our knowledge, basal ganglia calcification in type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis has never been reported in the literature. We suggest that type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with an early onset of neurologic decline, organomegaly and basal ganglia calcification. PMID:10063711
Chen, C C; Chiu, P C; Shieh, K S
The impact of acoustic pressure waves on multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) ganglia dissolution in water saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Laboratory data from dissolution experiments with two and three component NAPL mixtures suggested that acoustic waves significantly enhance ganglia dissolution due to the imposed oscillatory interstitial water velocity. The dissolution enhancement was shown to be directly proportional to the acoustic wave frequency. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the greatest dissolution enhancement in the presence of acoustic waves is associated with the component of the NAPL mixture having the smallest equilibrium aqueous solubility. Finally, square shaped acoustic waves were shown to lead to greater NAPL dissolution enhancement compared to sinusoidal and triangular acoustic waves. The results of this study suggested that aquifer remediation using acoustic waves is a promising method particularly for aquifers contaminated with NAPLs containing components with very low equilibrium aqueous solubilities. PMID:15212271
Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Vogler, Eric T
Dominant mutations in TUBB2B have been reported in patients with polymicrogyria. We further explore the phenotype associated with mutations in TUBB2B. Twenty patients with polymicrogyria (five unilateral) were tested for mutations in TUBB2B by Sanger sequencing. We identified two novel de novo mutations, c.743C>T (p.Ala248Val) and c.1139G>T (p.Arg380Leu) in exon 4 of TUBB2B in three unrelated families. Brain magnetic resonance images showed polymicrogyria involving predominantly the perisylvian regions. In addition, there was a dysmorphic appearance of the basal ganglia, thin corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, thinning of the white matter and hypoplasia of pons and cerebellar vermis. This combination of associated features was absent in all 17 patients with polymicrogyria in whom no mutation was identified. This report underlines that the association of polymicrogyria with thin or absent corpus callosum, dysmorphic basal ganglia, brainstem and vermis hypoplasia is highly likely to result from mutations in TUBB2B and provides further insight in how mutations in TUBB2B affect protein function. PMID:23495813
Amrom, D; Tanyalçin, I; Verhelst, H; Deconinck, N; Brouhard, Gj; Décarie, J-C; Vanderhasselt, T; Das, S; Hamdan, Ff; Lissens, W; Michaud, Jl; Jansen, Ac
Pelvic ganglia are mixed sympathetic-parasympathetic ganglia and provide the majority of the autonomic innervation to the urogenital organs. Here we describe the structural and histochemical features of the major pelvic ganglion in the male mouse and compare two different mouse strains. The basic structural features of the ganglion are similar to those in the male rat. Almost all pelvic ganglion
Yewlan Wanigasekara; Mark E. Kepper; Janet R. Keast
The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force.
Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.
The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review, we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force. PMID:19428499
Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E
A susceptible individual exposed to herpes simplex virus (HSV) will develop latent infection in multiple cranial nerve ganglia. There are a few quantitative studies of the viral load within the trigeminal ganglion, but none that investigate other cranial nerve ganglia. In this study, human trigeminal, geniculate, vestibular (Scarpa's) and cochlear (spiral) ganglia were obtained from willed body donors. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the HSV DNA polymerase gene was performed on ipsilateral ganglion sets from the same individual. Viral load, expressed as HSV genomes per 105 cells, was significantly greater in the vestibular ganglion (mean +/- SD, 176705 +/- 255916) than in the geniculate (9948 +/- 22066), cochlear (3527 +/- 9360), or trigeminal (2017 +/- 5578) ganglia. There was not a significant correlation among ganglia from the same individual. The results support the hypothesis that neuronal subpopulations have variable susceptibility to HSV infection. PMID:15371151
Vrabec, Jeffrey T; Alford, Raye L
While a basal ganglia with striatal and pallidal subdivisions is 1 clearly present in many extant anamniote species, this basal ganglia is cell sparse and receives only a relatively modest tegmental dopaminergic input and little if any cortical input. The major basal ganglia influence on motor functions in anamniotes appears to be exerted via output circuits to the tectum. In contrast, in modern mammals, birds, and reptiles (i.e., modern amniotes), the striatal and pallidal parts of the basal ganglia are very neuron-rich, both consist of the same basic populations of neurons in all amniotes, and the striatum receives abundant tegmental dopaminergic and cortical input. The functional circuitry of the basal ganglia also seems very similar in all amniotes, since the major basal ganglia influences on motor functions appear to be exerted via output circuits to both cerebral cortex and tectum in sauropsids (i.e., birds and reptiles) and mammals. The basal ganglia, output circuits to the cortex, however, appear to be considerably more developed in mammals than in birds and reptiles. The basal ganglia, thus, appears to have undergone a major elaboration during the evolutionary transition from amphibians to reptiles. This elaboration may have enabled amniotes to learn and/or execute a more sophisticated repertoire of behaviors and movements, and this ability may have been an important element of the successful adaptation of amniotes to a fully terrestrial habitat. The mammalian lineage appears, however, to have diverged somewhat from the sauropsid lineage with respect to the emergence of the cerebral cortex as the major target of the basal ganglia circuitry devoted to executing the basal ganglia-mediated control of movement. PMID:9858740
Reiner, A; Medina, L; Veenman, C L
A primary intracranial yolk sac tumor (YST) is a type of germ cell tumor (GCT) and usually involves the pineal or suprasellar regions, as do other GCTs. Primary YST in the basal ganglia is not common, and bilateral basal ganglia involvement is even rarer. Early diagnosis is often difficult because of minimal or subtle findings without space-occupying lesions shown on neuroimaging during the early course of the disease. We report a case of primary intracranial YST encountered in the basal ganglia bilaterally and describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic problem, imaging characteristics, histopathologic features, and prognosis of the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of primary YST confined to the basal ganglia in the literature. PMID:20728859
Wang, Chung-Hao; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Tzu-Ying; Wong, Tai-Tong; Chang, Feng-Chi; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping
A 35-year-old man presented with simultaneous multiple intracranial hematomas in the right cerebellar dentate nucleus and left basal ganglia. The hematomas were visible by computed tomography performed within two hours of the patient's arrival. The initial computed tomography showed acute hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia and dentate nucleus in cerebellum. The patient then experienced a change of consciousness due to newly developed hydrocephalus, and emergent extra-ventricular drainage was performed. By discharge, fortunately, the patient was fully recovered.
Yi, Ho Jun; Hwang, Hyung Sik
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles1. Clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that following an episode of childhood chickenpox (varicella), VZV becomes latent, presumably in dorsal root ganglia, and is reactivated many years later to produce shingles (zoster) in adults2. VZV has been demonstrated in ganglia by electron microscopy and by indirect immunofluorescence3-5, and infectious viral particles have been isolated
Donald H. Gilden; Abbas Vafai; Yehuda Shtram; Yechiel Becker; Mary Devlin; Mary Wellish
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacological enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. Patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10–15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome.
Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder characterized by the manifestation of motor symptoms, such as akinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor at rest. These symptoms are classically attributed to the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc), which results in a marked dopamine depletion in the striatum. It is well established that dopamine neurons in the SNc innervate not only the striatum, which is the main target, but also other basal ganglia nuclei including the two segments of globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The role of dopamine and its depletion in the striatum is well known, however, the role of dopamine depletion in the pallidal complex and the STN in the genesis of their abnormal neuronal activity and in parkinsonian motor deficits is still not clearly determined. Based on recent experimental data from animal models of Parkinson’s disease in rodents and non-human primates and also from parkinsonian patients, this review summarizes current knowledge on the role of dopamine in the modulation of basal ganglia neuronal activity and also the role of dopamine depletion in these nuclei in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease.
Benazzouz, Abdelhamid; Mamad, Omar; Abedi, Pamphyle; Bouali-Benazzouz, Rabia; Chetrit, Jonathan
Summary In this study we examined the effects of striatal dopamine depletion on cortical and subcortical blood flow changes during two tasks known to involve frontostriatal circuitry. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in six patients with moderate Parkinson's disease and in six age-matched control subjects while they performed easy and difficult versions of a modified Tower of London planning
Adrian M. Owen; Julien Doyon; Alain Dagher; A. Sadikot; Alan C. Evans
Human postural control of upright stance sporadically can show an oscillatory behavior. Based on previous work, we assessed whether an abnormal tendency for such oscillations might contribute to the motor impairments in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated postural control during unperturbed stance in normal control subjects and in PD patients off and under
C. Maurer; T. Mergner; R. J. Peterka
This chapter focuses on neurodevelopmental diseases that are tightly linked to abnormal function of the striatum and connected structures. We begin with an overview of three representative diseases in which striatal dysfunction plays a key role-Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder, Rett's syndrome, and primary dystonia. These diseases highlight distinct etiologies that disrupt striatal integrity and function during development, and showcase the varied clinical manifestations of striatal dysfunction. We then review striatal organization and function, including evidence for striatal roles in online motor control/action selection, reinforcement learning, habit formation, and action sequencing. A key barrier to progress has been the relative lack of animal models of these diseases, though recently there has been considerable progress. We review these efforts, including their relative merits providing insight into disease pathogenesis, disease symptomatology, and basal ganglia function. PMID:24947237
Pappas, Samuel S; Leventhal, Daniel K; Albin, Roger L; Dauer, William T
Purpose: Previous cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism studies suggest that the basal ganglia or thalamus is involved in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). However, the under- lying cerebral abnormalities in idiopathic PKC have not been elucidated. To localise cerebral perfusion abnormal- ities in PKC, we performed interictal brain perfusion 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emis- sion computed
Eun Yeon Joo; Seung Bong Hong; Woo Suk Tae; Jee Hyun Kim; Sun Jung Han; Dae Won Seo; Kyung-Han Lee; Myoung-Hee Kim; Seunghwan Kim; Mann Hyung Lee; Byung Tae Kim
Atypical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). "Neurally impaired" versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable's motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286
Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H
Oscillations form a ubiquitous feature of the central nervous system. Evidence is accruing from cortical and sub-cortical recordings that these rhythms may be functionally important, although the precise details of their roles remain unclear. The basal ganglia share this predilection for rhythmic activity which, as we see in Parkinson's disease, becomes further enhanced in the dopamine depleted state. While certain cortical rhythms appear to penetrate the basal ganglia, others are transformed or blocked. Here, we discuss the functional association of oscillations in the basal ganglia and their relationship with cortical activity. We further explore the neural underpinnings of such oscillatory activity, including the important balance to be struck between facilitating information transmission and limiting information coding capacity. Finally, we introduce the notion that synchronised oscillatory activity can be broadly categorised as immutability promoting rhythms that reinforce incumbent processes, and mutability promoting rhythms that favour novel processing. PMID:23711535
Brittain, John-Stuart; Brown, Peter
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis.
Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.
Neural crest cells migrate extensively and give rise to most of the peripheral nervous system, including sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric, and dorsal root ganglia. We studied how parasympathetic ganglia form close to visceral organs and what their precursors are. We find that many cranial nerve-associated crest cells coexpress the pan-autonomic determinant Paired-like homeodomain 2b (Phox2b) together with markers of Schwann cell precursors. Some give rise to Schwann cells after down-regulation of PHOX2b. Others form parasympathetic ganglia after being guided to the site of ganglion formation by the nerves that carry preganglionic fibers, a parsimonious way of wiring the pathway. Thus, cranial Schwann cell precursors are the source of parasympathetic neurons during normal development. PMID:24925912
Espinosa-Medina, I; Outin, E; Picard, C A; Chettouh, Z; Dymecki, S; Consalez, G G; Coppola, E; Brunet, J-F
Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing-the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138
Gershman, Samuel J; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ludvig, Elliot A
The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of ‘motor’ portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the ‘limbic’ basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R.
The function and modulation of neural circuits underlying motor skill may involve rhythmic oscillations (Feller, 1999; Marder and Goaillard, 2006; Churchland et al., 2012). In the proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the cortical nucleus HVC, the frequency and power of oscillatory bursting during singing increases with development (Crandall et al., 2007; Day et al., 2009). We examined the maturation of cellular activity patterns that underlie these changes. Single unit ensemble recording combined with antidromic identification (Day et al., 2011) was used to study network development in anesthetized zebra finches. Autocovariance quantified oscillations within single units. A subset of neurons oscillated in the theta/alpha/mu/beta range (8-20 Hz), with greater power in adults compared to juveniles. Across the network, the normalized oscillatory power in the 8-20 Hz range was greater in adults than juveniles. In addition, the correlated activity between rhythmic neuron pairs increased with development. We next examined the functional impact of the oscillators on the output neurons of HVC. We found that the firing of oscillatory neurons negatively correlated with the activity of cortico-basal ganglia neurons (HVC(X)s), which project to Area X (the song basal ganglia). If groups of oscillators work together to tonically inhibit and precisely control the spike timing of adult HVC(X)s with coordinated release from inhibition, then the activity of HVC(X)s in juveniles should be decreased relative to adults due to uncorrelated, tonic inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, HVC(X)s had lower activity in juveniles. These data reveal network changes that shape cortical-to-basal ganglia signaling during motor learning. PMID:23776169
Day, Nancy F; Nick, Teresa A
The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities.
Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortes, Juan Camilo
Cholinesterase activity was investigated in the heart of the developing chick from the 6th to 20th day of incubation. The earliest cholinesterase-positive nerve cells and fibers could be demonstrated between the 7th and 9th day. On the 13th day the nervous structure attained full development comparable with that seen in the hatched chicken. The number of ganglia increases up to the 15th day, and remains constant thereafter. The right ventricle is associated with the largest number of ganglia. PMID:453544
Rickenbacher, J; Müller, E
Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration.
Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben
This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 µm) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold.
Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T.; Jasmin, Luc
This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 µm) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold. PMID:23844184
Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T; Jasmin, Luc
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in many patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). These antibodies recognize the ?3 subunit of the ganglionic AChR, and thus do not bind non-specifically to other nicotinic AChR. Patients with high levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure, with orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia gravis, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents and impair transmission in autonomic ganglia. An animal model of AAG in the rabbit recapitulates the important clinical features of the human disease and provides additional evidence that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder caused by impairment of synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia.
Vernino, Steven; Hopkins, Steve; Wang, Zhengbei
Our capacity to store information in working memory might be determined by the degree to which only relevant information is remembered. The question remains as to how this selection of relevant items to be remembered is accomplished. Here we show that activity in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia preceded the filtering of irrelevant information and that activity, particularly in
Fiona McNab; Torkel Klingberg
Selective control of individual neurons could clarify neural functions and aid disease treatments. To target specific neurons, it may be useful to focus on ganglionic neuron clusters, which are found in the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. Because neuron cell bodies are found primarily near the surface of invertebrate ganglia, and often found near the surface of vertebrate ganglia, we developed a technique for controlling individual neurons extracellularly using the buccal ganglia of the marine mollusc Aplysia californica as a model system. We experimentally demonstrated that anodic currents can selectively activate an individual neuron and cathodic currents can selectively inhibit an individual neuron using this technique. To define spatial specificity, we studied the minimum currents required for stimulation, and to define temporal specificity, we controlled firing frequencies up to 45 Hz. To understand the mechanisms of spatial and temporal specificity, we created models using the NEURON software package. To broadly predict the spatial specificity of arbitrary neurons in any ganglion sharing similar geometry, we created a steady-state analytical model. A NEURON model based on cat spinal motor neurons showed responses to extracellular stimulation qualitatively similar to those of the Aplysia NEURON model, suggesting that this technique could be widely applicable to vertebrate and human peripheral ganglia having similar geometry.
Lu, Hui; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Chiel, Hillel J.
Selective control of individual neurons could clarify neural functions and aid disease treatments. To target specific neurons, it may be useful to focus on ganglionic neuron clusters, which are found in the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. Because neuron cell bodies are found primarily near the surface of invertebrate ganglia, and often found near the surface of vertebrate ganglia, we developed a technique for controlling individual neurons extracellularly using the buccal ganglia of the marine mollusc Aplysia californica as a model system. We experimentally demonstrated that anodic currents can selectively activate an individual neuron and cathodic currents can selectively inhibit an individual neuron using this technique. To define spatial specificity, we studied the minimum currents required for stimulation, and to define temporal specificity, we controlled firing frequencies up to 45 Hz. To understand the mechanisms of spatial and temporal specificity, we created models using the NEURON software package. To broadly predict the spatial specificity of arbitrary neurons in any ganglion sharing similar geometry, we created a steady-state analytical model. A NEURON model based on cat spinal motorneurons showed responses to extracellular stimulation qualitatively similar to those of the Aplysia NEURON model, suggesting that this technique could be widely applicable to vertebrate and human peripheral ganglia having similar geometry.
Lu, Hui; Chestek, Cynthia A; Shaw, Kendrick M; Chiel, Hillel J
Adenosine A2A receptors are highly enriched in the basal ganglia system. They are predominantly expressed in enkephalin-expressing GABAergic striatopallidal neurons and therefore are highly relevant to the function of the indirect efferent pathway of the basal ganglia system. In these GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, the A2A receptor tightly interacts structurally and functionally with the dopamine D2 receptor. Both by forming receptor heteromers and by targeting common intracellular signaling cascades, A2A and D2 receptors exhibit reciprocal antagonistic interactions that are central to the function of the indirect pathway and hence to basal ganglia control of movement, motor learning, motivation and reward. Consequently, this A2A / D2 receptors antagonistic interaction is also central to basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. However, recent evidence demonstrates that, in addition to this postsynaptic site of action, striatal A2A receptors are also expressed and have physiological relevance on presynaptic glutamatergic terminals of the cortico-limbic-striatal and thalamo-striatal pathways, where they form heteromeric receptor complexes with adenosine A1 receptors. Therefore, A2A receptors play an important fine-tuning role, boosting the efficiency of glutamatergic information flow in the indirect pathway by exerting control, either pre- and/or post-synaptically, over other key modulators of glutamatergic synapses, including D2 receptors, group I metabotropic mGlu5 glutamate receptors and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and by triggering the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling cascade.
Schiffmann, S.N.; Fisone, G.; Moresco, R.; Cunha, R.A.; Ferre, S.
Sensory ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) were transplanted beneath the renal capsule of syngeneic recipients, and the latent infection remaining was investigated. HSV latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression and reactivation of HSV after explant of transplanted dorsal root ganglia were monitored as markers of latency. Two to four weeks after transplantation, both indicated evidence of HSV latency in transplants. At those times, infectious virus was not detected in direct ganglion homogenates. In addition, viral antigen and infected cell polypeptide 4 RNA were not detected. Taken together, the results suggested that HSV latent infection rather than persistent infection was present in transplants. From these results, two explanations seemed possible: latency was maintained in transplanted neurons, or alternatively, latency developed after transplantation, in neurons not previously latently infected. The latter was considered putative secondary latency and was investigated in three ways. First, evidence of reactivation which might serve as a source for secondary latency was evaluated. Reactivation of HSV in transplants was evident from HSV antigen expression (52% of transplants) and the presence of cell-free virus (38% of transplants) 3 to 5 days after transplantation. Second, putative secondary latency was investigated in recipients immunized with HSV prior to receiving latently infected ganglia. Reactivation was not detected 3 to 5 days after transplantation in immunized recipients, and LAT expression was rare in these recipients after 3 to 4 weeks. Lastly, the possibility of secondary latency was investigated by comparing results obtained with standard HSV and with reactivation-defective thymidine kinase-negative (TK-) HSV. Defective reactivation of TK- HSV was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and by the inability to isolate infectious virus. Donor dorsal root ganglia latently infected with TK+ HSV showed many LAT-positive neurons 2 or more weeks after transplantation (average, 26 per transplant). However, LAT expression was undetectable or minimal > 2 weeks after transplantation in donor ganglia latently infected with TK- HSV (average, 0.2 per transplant). Impaired reactivation of TK- HSV-infected donor ganglia after transplantation, therefore, was correlated with subsequent limited LAT expression. From these results, the occurrence of secondary latency was concluded for ganglia latently infected with TK+ HSV and transplanted beneath the kidney capsule. In vivo reactivation in this transplant model may provide a more useful means to investigate HSV reactivation than in usual in vitro explant models and may complement other in vivo reactivation models. The occurrence of secondary latency was unique. The inhibition of secondary latency by the immune system may provide an avenue to evaluate immunological control of HSV latency. Images
Tenser, R B; Edris, W A; Gaydos, A; Hay, K A
The basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop is an important neural circuit that regulates motor control. A key parameter that the nervous system regulates is the level of force to exert against an object during tasks such as grasping. Previous studies indicate that the basal ganglia do not exhibit increased activity with increasing amplitude of force, although these conclusions are based mainly on the putamen. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which regions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and motor cortex display increased activity when producing pinch-grip contractions of increasing force amplitude. We found that the internal portion of the globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) had a positive increase in percent signal change with increasing force, whereas the external portion of the globus pallidus, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and caudate did not. In the thalamus we found that the ventral thalamic regions increase in percent signal change and activation volume with increasing force amplitude. The contralateral and ipsilateral primary motor/somatosensory (M1/S1) cortices had a positive increase in percent signal change and activation volume with increasing force amplitude, and the contralateral M1/S1 had a greater increase in percent signal change and activation volume than the ipsilateral side. We also found that deactivation did not change across force in the motor cortex and basal ganglia, but that the ipsilateral M1/S1 had greater deactivation than the contralateral M1/S1. Our findings provide direct evidence that GPi and STN regulate the amplitude of force output. These findings emphasize the heterogeneous role of individual nuclei of the basal ganglia in regulating specific parameters of motor output.
Spraker, Matthew B.; Yu, Hong; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.
Spontaneous discharge of basal ganglia neurons is often analyzed with time- or frequency-domain methods. However, it has been shown that sequences of inter-spike interval series are not fully described by such linear procedures. We therefore carried out a characterization of the nonlinear features of spontaneous discharge of neurons in the primate basal ganglia. We studied the spontaneous activity of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (22 cells), as well as neurons in the external and internal pallidal segments (53 and 39 cells, respectively), recorded with standard extracellular recording methods in two awake Rhesus monkeys. As a measure of the statistical irregularity of neuronal discharge, we compared the approximate entropy of inter-spike interval sequences with that of shuffled representations of the same data. In all three basal ganglia structures, approximately 95% of the original data showed lower approximate entropy values than the shuffled data, suggesting a temporal organization in the original sequence. Fano factor analysis confirmed the presence of a temporal organization of inter-spike interval sequences, and indicated the presence of self-similarity in the great majority of them. In addition, Hurst exponent analysis showed that the inter-spike interval series are persistent. Hurst exponents often differ between short and long scaling ranges. Subsequent principal component analyses allowed us to identify three distinct patterns of the temporal evolution of inter-spike interval sequences in the phase space. These types were found in varying distributions in all three nuclei. Our analyses demonstrate that the discharge of most neurons in the basal ganglia of awake monkeys has nonlinear features that may be important for information coding in the basal ganglia. PMID:16989784
Darbin, Olivier; Soares, Jesus; Wichmann, Thomas
The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2. PMID:18052609
Haesler, Sebastian; Rochefort, Christelle; Georgi, Benjamin; Licznerski, Pawel; Osten, Pavel; Scharff, Constance
The L1 family of cell adhesion molecules is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. Mutations in human L1 cause neuronal diseases such as HSAS, MASA, and SPG1. Here we show that sax-7 gene encodes an L1 homologue in Caenorhabditis elegans. In sax-7 mutants, the organization of ganglia and positioning of neurons are abnormal in the adult stage, but these abnormalities are not observed in early larval stage. Misplacement of neurons in sax-7 mutants is triggered by mechanical force linked to body movement. Short and long forms of SAX-7 exhibited strong and weak homophilic adhesion activities in in vitro aggregation assay, respectively, which correlated with their different activities in vivo. SAX-7 was localized on plasma membranes of neurons in vivo. Expression of SAX-7 only in a single neuron in sax-7 mutants cell-autonomously restored its normal neuronal position. Expression of SAX-7 in two different head neurons in sax-7 mutants led to the forced attachment of these neurons. We propose that both homophilic and heterophilic interactions of SAX-7 are essential for maintenance of neuronal positions in organized ganglia. PMID:15775964
Sasakura, Hiroyuki; Inada, Hitoshi; Kuhara, Atsushi; Fusaoka, Eri; Takemoto, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Kosei; Mori, Ikue
The subthalamic nucleus and the external pallidum (GPe) are classically viewed as part of the so-called indirect pathway, which acts in concert with the direct pathway. The direct and indirect pathways form the conceptual framework of the anatomical and functional organization of the basal ganglia. A review of recent data regarding the connections of the subthalamic nucleus and the GPe
André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati
A male infant developed left-sided myoclonus associated with low grade fever at 21 days of age. The course of pregnancy and delivery had been uneventful. Birth weight was 2,240g at 38 weeks of gestation. Physical examination at 26 days of age revealed hyperirritability and incomplete Moro reflex. EEG showed periodic discharges originating in the right central region. Initial brain CT at 26 days of age showed no apparent abnormality. In lumbar CSF protein was 173 mg/dl, and nucleated cells 328/mm3 (polynuclear cells 6 and mononuclear cells 322). Cultures of CSF for bacteria and viruses were negative. Although, the serum titers of CF antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) were 1:4 to 1:8 during hospitalization and those in CSF were not increased significantly, ELISA titers for IgG and IgM in serum and CSF rose significantly. The diagnosis of HSV encephalitis was made at 41 days of age. His myoclonus was well controlled with phenobarbital and clonazepam. He was treated with acyclovir and CSF findings returned to normal. On 2nd brain CT (39 days of age), calcification at thalamus, basal ganglia and right frontal lobe, which is extremely rare CT findings for HSV encephalitis, was noticed. His DQ at discharge was about 90. It is emphasized that the early diagnosis of HSV encephalitis can be made by ELISA and serial brain CT examinations, and that HSV encephalitis should be considered when calcification of thalamus and basal ganglia are detected on brain CT. PMID:2331400
Takahashi, H; Sato, Y; Urata, S; Kaneko, K
The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia.
Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.
Salient cues can prompt the rapid interruption of planned actions. It has been proposed that fast, reactive behavioral inhibition involves specific basal ganglia pathways, and we tested this by comparing activity in multiple rat basal ganglia structures during performance of a stop-signal task. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons showed low-latency responses to Stop cues, irrespective of whether actions were successfully canceled or not. By contrast, neurons downstream in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) responded to Stop cues only in trials with successful cancellation. Recordings and simulations together indicate that this sensorimotor gating arises from the relative timing of two distinct inputs to neurons in the SNr dorsolateral “core” subregion: cue-related excitation from STN and movement-related inhibition from striatum. Our results support race models of action cancellation, with successful stopping requiring Stop cue information to be transmitted from STN to SNr before increased striatal input creates a point of no return.
Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel K.; Mallet, Nicolas; Chen, Fujun; Berke, Joshua D.
Primary cultures of guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of agents that activate adenylate cyclase or mimic intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to stimulate morphological growth. Dose-dependent increases in neurite length and density were produced in enteric neuronal cultures by forskolin (212% of control), cholera toxin (356% of control), or the permeant cAMP analogues 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and dibutyryl cAMP. (R)-p-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases, blocked the growth-promoting effects of cAMP analogues but not of nerve growth factor (NGF). Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways also increased production of mRNA for alpha-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2. Dual pathways, regulated by NGF and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, influence growth signaling in enteric ganglia. PMID:7943337
Simeone, D M; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W
SV2C is an isoform of the synaptic vesicle 2 protein family that exhibits a particular pattern of brain expression with enriched expression in several basal ganglia nuclei. In the present study, we have investigated SV2C implication in both normal and pathological basal ganglia functioning with a peculiar attention to dopamine neuron containing regions. In SV2C-/- mice, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in midbrain dopaminergic neurons was largely and significantly increased and enkephalin mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus. The expression of SV2C was studied in two models of dopaminergic denervation (6-OHDA- and MPTP-induced lesions). In dopamine-depleted animals, SV2C mRNA expression was significant increased in the striatum. In order to further understand the role of SV2C, we performed behavioral experiments on SV2C-/- mice and on knock-down mice receiving an injection of adeno-associated virus expressing SV2C miRNA specifically in the ventral midbrain. These modifications of SV2C expression had little or no impact on behavior in open field and elevated plus maze. However, even if complete loss of SV2C had no impact on conditioned place preference induced by cocaine, the specific knock-down of SV2C expression in the dopaminergic neurons completely abolished the development of a CPP while the reaction to an acute drug injection remains similar in these mice compared to control mice. These results showed that SV2C, a poorly functionally characterized protein is strongly involved in normal operation of the basal ganglia network and could be also involved in system adaptation in basal ganglia pathological conditions. PMID:23458503
Dardou, D; Monlezun, S; Foerch, P; Courade, J P; Cuvelier, L; De Ryck, M; Schiffmann, S N
Ganglia is a scalable distributed monitoring system for high performance computing sys- tems such as clusters and Grids. It is based on a hierarchical design targeted at federations of clusters. It relies on a multicast-based listen\\/announce protocol to monitor state within clus- ters and uses a tree of point-to-point connections amongst representative cluster nodes to fed- erate clusters and aggregate
Matthew L. Massie; Brent N. Chun; David E. Culler
We report our experience with basal ganglia AVM embolization and clinical outcomes after embolization. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive 15 patients with AVMs in the basal ganglia with respect to the endovascular treatment of these lesions. Treatment consisted of embolization and radiosurgery in combination. The angiographic follow-up after the last management was 24-36 months (mean 27 months). Clinical follow-up monitoring (range, 24-120 months, mean 76 months) was measured by the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The 15 patients studied had a mean age of 25.1 years at diagnosis, and 33.3% were male. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) was the event leading to clinical detection in eight patients (53.3%), and 85.5% of these patients were left with hemiparesis. At presentation, eight (53.3%) patients bled a total of 11 times. Twenty-four embolization procedures (16 pedicles embolized) were performed in 15 patients with embolization as the adjunct to radiosurgery. There were three clinically significant complications. Excellent or good outcomes (mRS?2) were observed in 13 (86.7%) patients. Unfavorable outcomes (mRS?2) were 13.3% at follow-up, without mortality. Seven (46.7%) patients had complete AVM obliteration at follow-up. The risk of incurring a neurological deficit with basal ganglia AVM is high. Treatment of these patients is endovascular embolization with a combination of radiosurgery to prevent neurological injury from a spontaneous ICH. PMID:24148599
Sun, Y; Lv, X; Li, Y; Jiang, C; Wu, Z; Li, A M
The basal ganglia (BG) are impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD), but it remains unclear which nuclei are impaired during the performance of motor tasks in early-stage PD. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine which nuclei function abnormally, and whether cortical structures are also affected by early-stage PD. The study also determined if cerebellar hyperactivity is found early in the course of PD. Blood oxygenation level dependent activation was compared between 14 early-stage drug-naďve PD patients and 14 controls performing two precision grip force tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. The grip tasks used in this study were chosen because both tasks are known to provide robust activation in BG nuclei, and the two tasks were similar except that the 2-s task required more switching between contraction and relaxation than the 4-s task. The 4-s task revealed that PD patients were hypoactive relative to controls only in putamen and external globus pallidus, and thalamus. In the 2-s task, PD patients were hypoactive throughout all BG nuclei, thalamus, M1, and supplementary motor area. There were no differences in cerebellar activation between groups during either task. Regions of interest analysis revealed that the hypoactivity observed in PD patients during the 2-s task became more pronounced over time as patients performed the task. This suggests that a motor task that requires switching can accentuate abnormal activity throughout all BG nuclei of early-stage, drug-naive PD, and that the abnormal activity becomes more pronounced with repeated task performance in these patients. PMID:20225221
Spraker, Matthew B; Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Comella, Cynthia L; Vaillancourt, David E
The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain.
Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmuller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schobel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Gunter
Parkinsonism is associated with changes in oscillatory activity patterns and increased synchronization of neurons in the basal ganglia and cortex in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease, but the relationship between these changes and the severity of parkinsonian signs remains unclear. We examined this relationship by studying changes in local field potentials (LFPs) in the internal pallidal segment (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and in encephalographic signals (EEG) from the primary motor cortex (M1) in Rhesus monkeys which were rendered progressively parkinsonian by repeated systemic injections of small doses of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Observations during wakefulness and sleep (defined by EEG and video records) were analyzed separately. The severity of parkinsonism correlated with increases in spectral power at frequencies below 15.5Hz in M1 and GPi and reductions in spectral power at frequencies above 15.6Hz with little change in STN. The severity of parkinsonism also correlated with increases in the coherence between M1 EEG and basal ganglia LFPs in the low frequency band. Levodopa treatment reduced low-frequency activity and increased high-frequency activity in all three areas, but did not affect coherence. The state of arousal also affected LFP and EEG signals in all three structures, particularly in the STN. These results suggest that parkinsonism-associated changes in alpha and low-beta band oscillatory activity can be detected early in the parkinsonian state in M1 and GPi. Interestingly, oscillations detectable in STN LFP signals (including oscillations in the beta-band) do not appear to correlate strongly with the severity of mild-to-moderate parkinsonism in these animals. Levodopa-induced changes in oscillatory M1 EEG and basal ganglia LFP patterns do not necessarily represent a normalization of abnormalities caused by dopamine depletion. PMID:24768805
Devergnas, Annaelle; Pittard, Damien; Bliwise, Donald; Wichmann, Thomas
Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a rare leukoencephalopathy that was identified using magnetic resonance imaging in 2002. In 2013, whole exome sequencing of 11 patients with the disease revealed that they all had the same de novo mutation in TUBB4A, which encodes tubulin ?-4A. We investigated the mutation spectrum in a cohort of 42 patients and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities that are indicative of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Genetic testing and a clinical inventory were performed, and sequential magnetic resonance images were evaluated using a standard protocol. The heterozygous TUBB4A mutation observed in the first 11 patients was the most common (25 patients). Additionally, 13 other heterozygous mutations were identified, located in different structural domains of tubulin ?-4A. We confirmed that the mutations were de novo in all but three patients. In two of these three cases we lacked parental DNA and in one the mutation was also found in the mother, most likely due to mosaicism. Patients showed a phenotypic continuum ranging from neonatal to childhood disease onset, normal to delayed early development and slow to more rapid neurological deterioration. Neurological symptomatology consisted of extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, spasticity, ataxia, cognitive deficit and sometimes epilepsy. Three patients died and the oldest living patient was 29 years of age. The patients' magnetic resonance images showed an absent or disappearing putamen, variable cerebellar atrophy and highly variable cerebral atrophy. Apart from hypomyelination, myelin loss was evident in several cases. Three severely affected patients had similar, somewhat atypical magnetic resonance image abnormalities. The study results were strongly suggestive of a genotype-phenotype correlation. The 25 patients with the common c.745G>A mutation generally had a less rapidly progressive disease course than the 17 cases with other TUBB4A mutations. Overall, this work demonstrates that the distinctive magnetic resonance imaging pattern for hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum defines a homogeneous clinical phenotype of variable severity. Patients almost invariably have prominent extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, which are rarely seen in patients with hypomyelination of different origin. A dominant TUBB4A mutation is also associated with dystonia type 4, in which magnetic resonance images of the brain seem normal. It is highly likely that there is a disease continuum associated with TUBB4A mutations, of which hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum and dystonia type 4 are the extremes. This would indicate that extrapyramidal movement abnormalities constitute the core feature of the disease spectrum related to dominant TUBB4A mutations and that all other features are variable. PMID:24785942
Hamilton, Eline M; Polder, Emiel; Vanderver, Adeline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Schiffmann, Raphael; Fisher, Kate; Raguž, Ana Boban; Blumkin, Luba; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J; Abbink, Truus E M; Wolf, Nicole I; van der Knaap, Marjo S
We examined the spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves from a patient with Tay-Sachs disease, comparing the other nervous tissues morphologically and lipid-biochemically. The spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves showed numerous membranous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (MCBs), which are characteristic of GM2-ganglioside storage in the neuronal cell bodies of the patient brains. In spinal ganglia, all neurons and satellite cells around the
T. Abe; K. Ogawa; H. Fuziwara; K. Urayama; K. Nagashima
To study the trophic requirements of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) in vitro, we developed a purification procedure that yields highly enriched neuronal cultures. Forty to fifty ganglia are dissected from the spinal column of an adult rat. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of the ganglia, myelin debris are eliminated by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The resulting cell suspension is layered onto a nylon mesh with a pore size of 10 microns. Most of the neurons, the diameter of which ranged from 17 microns to greater than 100 microns, are retained on the upper surface of the sieve; most of the non-neuronal cells with a caliber of less than 10 microns after trypsinization go through it. Recovery of neurons is achieved by reversing the mesh onto a Petri dish containing culture medium. Neurons to non-neurons ratio is 1 to 10 in the initial cell suspension and 1 to 1 after separation. When these purified neurons are seeded at a density of 3,000 neurons/cm2 in 6 mm polyornithine-laminin (PORN-LAM) coated wells, neuronal survival (assessed by the ability to extend neurites), measured after 48 hr of culture, is very low (from 0 to 16%). Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) does not improve neuronal survival. However, when neurons are cultured in the presence of medium conditioned (CM) by astrocytes or Schwann cells, 60-80% of the seeded, dye-excluding neurons survive. So, purified adult DRG neurons require for their short-term survival and regeneration in culture, a trophic support that is present in conditioned medium from PNS or CNS glia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2754765
Delree, P; Leprince, P; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G
Similar to language acquisition by human infants, juvenile male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) imitate an adult (tutor) song by transitioning from repetitive production of one or two undifferentiated protosyllables to the sequential production of a larger and spectrally heterogeneous set of syllables. The primary motor region that controls learned song is driven by a confluence of input from two premotor pathways: a posterior pathway that encodes the adult song syllables and an anterior pathway that includes a basal ganglia (BG)-thalamo-cortical circuit. Similar to mammalian motor-learning systems, the songbird BG circuit is thought to be necessary for shaping juvenile vocal behaviour (undifferentiated protosyllables) toward specific targets (the tutor's song syllables). Here, we tested the hypothesis that anterior pathway activity contributes to the process of protosyllable differentiation. Bilateral ablation of lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) was used to disconnect BG circuitry at ages before protosyllable production and differentiation. Comparison to surgical controls revealed that protosyllables fail to differentiate in birds that received juvenile LMAN ablation--the adult songs of birds with >80% bilateral LMAN ablation consisted of only one or two syllables produced with the repetitive form and spectral structure that characterizes undifferentiated protosyllables in normal juveniles. Our findings support a role for BG circuitry in shaping juvenile vocal behaviour toward the acoustic structure of the tutor song and suggest that posterior pathway function remains in an immature "default" state when developmental interaction with the anterior pathway is reduced or eliminated. PMID:24218118
Elliott, Kevin C; Wu, Wei; Bertram, Richard; Johnson, Frank
We present 28 patients with basal ganglia ischemic stroke and describe the main neurological manifestations, neuroimaging findings, risk factors, and outcome. In 23 cases, at least 1 risk factor was identified. A total of 7 cases (25%) had antecedent of varicella infection and 7 cases (25%) had preceding mild head trauma. Similar antecedents were present only in 2.6% and 5.3% of patients with nonbasal ganglia stroke, respectively (odds ratio: 12.2, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-124.65 and odds ratio: 5.92, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-29.7). The arterial abnormalities identified in 10 patients were narrowing (6) or occlusion (4) of the M1 segment. After a median follow-up of 24 months, 19 patients had a good outcome. Magnetic resonance angiography and catheter cerebral angiography played an important role in the identification of arterial disease. We propose that basal ganglia infarction is a different group of ischemic stroke with prevalent risk factors (varicella infection and mild head trauma) and good outcome. PMID:19264737
Buompadre, María Celeste; Arroyo, Hugo Antonio
We present a female infant with (1) abnormal facies: microcephaly, blepharophimosis, small, low set, posteriorly rotated ears, bulbous nose, carp shaped mouth, micrognathia; (2) congenital heart abnormalities: large atrial and ventricular septal defects; (3) congenital hypothyroidism; (4) severe global retardation.
I D Young; K Simpson
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is currently the most common neurological complication of chronic HIV infection and continues to substantially affect patient quality of life. Mechanisms underlying the neuronal damage and loss observed in sensory ganglia of HIV-infected individuals have not been sufficiently studied. The present study aimed to develop and characterize a model of HIV-SN using SIV-infected CD8 T-lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Uninfected controls (n = 5), SIV-infected CD8-depleted (n = 4), and SIV-infected non-CD8-depleted (n = 6) animals were used. Of the six non-CD8-depleted animals, three were conventional progressors (progressing to AIDS >1 year after infection) and three were rapid progressors (AIDS within 6 months). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were examined for histological hallmarks of HIV-SN, including satellitosis, presence of Nageotte nodules, and neuronophagia, as well as increased numbers of CD68+ macrophages and abundant viral replication. In contrast to non-CD8-depleted animals, which had mild to moderate DRG pathology, the CD8-depleted SIV-infected animals had moderate to severe DRG damage, with increased numbers of CD68+ satellite cells. Additionally, there was marked active viral replication in the affected DRG. These findings confirm that many features of HIV-SN can be recapitulated in the CD8-depleted SIV-infected rhesus macaque model within a short time frame and illustrate the importance of this model for study of sensory neuropathy.
Burdo, Tricia H.; Orzechowski, Krystyna; Knight, Heather L.; Miller, Andrew D.; Williams, Kenneth
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277
Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A
In the normal brain beta band oscillatory activity has been associated with retaining of ongoing motor activities. In Parkinson's disease, enhanced beta band oscillatory activity is displayed across the cortico-basal ganglia pathway and is one of the prominent neurophysiological phenomena associated with the disorder. Intraoperative and postoperative recordings of neural activity in patients undergoing stereotactic neurosurgery combined with studies in animal models of parkinsonism have led to the accumulation of complementary data regarding these oscillations. In this review we address some of the key issues facing researchers in the field. These issues encompass existing agreements as well as open debates in modern studies of beta band oscillations, including their defining characteristics, links to clinical symptoms and the functional properties of their formation and effects on behavior. We address these questions by comparing and contrasting the results of neurophysiological observations in human patients, MPTP primate model and 6-OHDA rat model with conceptual and computational models of the normal and parkinsonian basal ganglia. Defining a unifying scheme of beta band oscillations and their relation to neurophysiological, functional and clinical phenomena will enable future targeting of these oscillations for both diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:22921537
Stein, Edward; Bar-Gad, Izhar
The default-mode network (DMN) consists of a set of brain areas preferentially activated during internally focused tasks. We used functional MRI to study the DMN in bipolar mania and acute schizophrenia. 17 bipolar disorder (BD), 14 schizophrenia (SZ) and 15 normal control (NC) subjects underwent 10-minute resting scans. The DMN was extracted using independent component analysis and template-matching; spatial extent and timecourse were examined. Both patient groups showed reduced DMN connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) (BD:x=-2,y=54,z=-12; SZ:x=-2,y=22,z=18). BD subjects showed abnormal recruitment of parietal cortex (correlated with mania severity) while SZ subjects showed greater recruitment of the frontopolar cortex/basal ganglia. Both groups had significantly higher frequency fluctuations than controls (frequency × diagnosis:F(43,2)=3.183,p=0.05). We found ventral mPFC abnormalities in BD and dorsal mPFC abnormalities in SZ. The higher frequency of BOLD signal oscillations observed in patients suggests abnormal functional organization of circuits in both disorders. Further studies are needed to determine how these abnormalities are related to specific symptoms of each condition.
Ongur, Dost; Lundy, Miriam; Greenhouse, Ian; Shinn, Ann K.; Menon, Vinod; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.
Viral reactivation in temporal ganglia is the suspected cause of Bell's palsy, vestibular neuritis and sudden hearing loss. Since the distribution of latent herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) in geniculate, vestibular and spiral ganglia of individual human temporal bones could have implications for the explanation of isolated as well as combined disorders of these three cranial nerves, we examined these
Peter Schulz; Viktor Arbusow; Michael Strupp; Marianne Dieterich; Elisabeth Rauch; Thomas Brandt
The basal ganglia are known to receive inputs from widespread regions of the cerebral cortex, such as the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Of these cortical areas, only the frontal lobe is thought to be the target of basal ganglia output. One of the cortical regions that is a source of input to the basal ganglia is area TE, in inferotemporal cortex. This cortical area is thought to be critically involved in the recognition and discrimination of visual objects. Using retrograde transneuronal transport of herpes simplex virus type 1, we have found that one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, projects via the thalamus to TE. Thus, TE is not only a source of input to the basal ganglia, but also is a target of basal ganglia output. This result implies that the output of the basal ganglia influences higher order aspects of visual processing. In addition, we propose that dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop with TE leads to alterations in visual perception, including visual hallucinations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5
Middleton, F A; Strick, P L
The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia regulate various visceral functions and in particular the digestive tract motility. Several integrative properties of these ganglia have been described: convergence of central inputs, projection of visceral inputs at the pre- and post synaptic level and pacemaker activity of the neurones. This review presents the results obtained on another integrative property which has been widely
Caroline Fasano; Jean-Pierre Niel
Summary Background. Monopolar electrocauterization (MEC) is widely used in spine surgery however electrical currents are hazardous for neural tissues, such as the spinal ganglia sited in the intervertebral foramina. We aimed to investigate the effects of MEC on spinal ganglia. Method. Fifteen male hybrid rabbits were included in the study. Three of the animals were used to analyze the findings
M. D. Aydin; S. Dane; C. Gundogdu; N. Gursan
A study was made of the interneuronal synapses in the ganglia of the solar plexus of persons who had died from various diseases. The corresponding ganglia of persons who had died as a result of accident served as a control. The material was treated by silver impregnation by the method of Campos. In the controls the nerve elements and the
P. G. Shilev
In recent years, a common approach to understanding how the basal ganglia contribute to learning and memory in humans has been to study the deficits that occur in patients with basal ganglia pathology, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Pharmacological manipulations in patients and in healthy volunteers have also been conducted to investigate the role of dopamine, a neurotransmitter
Jessica A. Grahn; John A. Parkinson; Adrian M. Owen
A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor- critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and
Daphna Joel; Yael Niv; Eytan Ruppin
MRI of the brain of a 3-year-old boy performed 3 days after the onset of hemichorea (Sydenham Chorea) revealed abnormal signal and enlargement of the contralateral caudate and putamen. Follow-up imaging 40 months later showed a persistent cystic appearance of the caudate and putamen. This case is the first report of permanent MRI abnormalities after Sydenham Chorea. PMID:9040753
Emery, E S; Vieco, P T
Analysis of dynamic object deformations such as cardiac motion is of great importance, especially when there is a necessity to visualize and compare the deformation behavior across subjects. However, there is a lack of effective techniques for comparative visualization and assessment of a collection of motion data due to its 4-dimensional nature, i.e., timely varying three-dimensional shapes. From the geometric point of view, the motion change can be considered as a function defined on the 2D manifold of the surface. This paper presents a novel classification and visualization method based on a medial surface shape space, in which two novel shape descriptors are defined, for discriminating normal and abnormal human heart deformations as well as localizing the abnormal motion regions. In our medial surface shape space, the geodesic distance connecting two points in the space measures the similarity between their corresponding medial surfaces, which can quantify the similarity and disparity of the 3D heart motions. Furthermore, the novel descriptors can effectively localize the inconsistently deforming myopathic regions on the left ventricle. An easy visualization of heart motion sequences on the projected space allows users to distinguish the deformation differences. Our experimental results on both synthetic and real imaging data show that this method can automatically classify the healthy and myopathic subjects and accurately detect myopathic regions on the left ventricle, which outperforms other conventional cardiac diagnostic methods. PMID:24051831
Taimouri, Vahid; Hua, Jing
1. Potassium currents in cultured postganglionic neurones of avian ciliary ganglia were analysed under whole-cell voltage clamp and their modulation by adenosine determined. 2. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (200 nM), and with moderate holding potentials (Vh = -40 mV), the steady-state current-voltage (I/V) curve was N-shaped over the range from -70 mV to +155 mV. CsCl (1 M) blocked the current, indicating that it was carried by K+. If Ca2+ influx was blocked by CdCl2 (500 microM) then the outward current was reduced and the N-shaped I-V curve lost, indicating the presence of a calcium-activated potassium current (IK(Ca)); the remaining current, due to the delayed rectifier (IK), increased with depolarization up to about a conductance of 10 nS near + 50 mV. This IK was 50% activated at about +20 mV and 50% inactivated at about -50 mV. Adenosine (10 microM) had similar affects on the N-shaped I/V curve as did CdCl2, indicating that it blocked IK(Ca). However, adenosine had little affect on the steady-state current in the presence of CdCl, indicating that it did not much affect IK. 3. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (200 nM), a large inward current occurred for large hyperpolarizations from a Vh = -50 mV. This inward rectifying current (IIR) had a reversal potential near EK and showed 50% activation at about -130 mV. Adenosine (10 microM) reduced IIR, by as much as 50% at large hyperpolarizations beyond -80 mV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Bennett, M. R.; Kerr, R.; Nichol, K.
Summary The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an ‘anti-reward’ signal. Our demonstration of an excitatory projection from the basal ganglia to the LHb explains how LHb-projecting basal ganglia neurons can have similar encoding properties as LHb neurons themselves. Our results also provide a link between ‘anti-reward’ excitatory synapses and serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in depression.
Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T.; Malinow, Roberto
Background We tested the hypothesis whether texture analysis (TA) from MR images could identify patterns associated with an abnormal neurobehavior in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods Ultrasound and MRI were performed on 91 SGA fetuses at 37 weeks of GA. Frontal lobe, basal ganglia, mesencephalon and cerebellum were delineated from fetal MRIs. SGA neonates underwent NBAS test and were classified as abnormal if ?1 area was <5th centile and as normal if all areas were >5th centile. Textural features associated with neurodevelopment were selected and machine learning was used to model a predictive algorithm. Results Of the 91 SGA neonates, 49 were classified as normal and 42 as abnormal. The accuracies to predict an abnormal neurobehavior based on TA were 95.12% for frontal lobe, 95.56% for basal ganglia, 93.18% for mesencephalon and 83.33% for cerebellum. Conclusions Fetal brain MRI textural patterns were associated with neonatal neurodevelopment. Brain MRI TA could be a useful tool to predict abnormal neurodevelopment in SGA.
Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Ratta, Giuseppe A.; Figueras, Francesc; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Padilla, Nelly; Arranz, Angela; Bargallo, Nuria; Gratacos, Eduard
... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.
Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.
Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran
Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.
BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA
Parkinson's disease is a common and debilitating condition, caused by aberrant activity in a complex basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuit. Therapeutic advances rely on characterising interactions in this circuit. However, recording electrophysiological responses over the entire circuit is impractical. Dynamic causal modelling offers large-scale models of predictive value based on a limited or partial sampling of complex networks. Using dynamic causal modelling, we determined the network changes underlying the pathological excess of beta oscillations that characterise the Parkinsonian state. We modelled data from five patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation of more than one target. We found that connections to and from the subthalamic nucleus were strengthened and promoted beta synchrony, in the untreated compared to the treated Parkinsonian state. Dynamic causal modelling was able to replicate the effects of lesioning this nucleus and may provide a new means of directing the search for therapeutic targets.
Marreiros, Andre C.; Cagnan, Hayriye; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.; Brown, Peter
How the brain converts parallel representations of movement goals into sequential movements is not known. We tested the role of basal ganglia (BG) in the temporal control of movement sequences by a convergent approach involving inactivation of the BG by muscimol injections into the caudate nucleus of monkeys and assessing behavior of Parkinson's disease patients, performing a modified double-step saccade task. We tested a critical prediction of a class of competitive queuing models that explains serial behavior as the outcome of a selection of concurrently activated goals. In congruence with these models, we found that inactivation or impairment of the BG unmasked the parallel nature of goal representations such that a significantly greater extent of averaged saccades, curved saccades, and saccade sequence errors were observed. These results suggest that the BG perform a form of competitive queuing, holding the second movement plan in abeyance while the first movement is being executed, allowing the proper temporal control of movement sequences. PMID:23761894
Bhutani, Neha; Sureshbabu, Ramakrishnan; Farooqui, Ausaf A; Behari, Madhuri; Goyal, Vinay; Murthy, Aditya
"With this tool, you can explore how to decompose shapes and recompose them to make other shapes. You can draw and cut shapes and also use slides, turns, and flips to move pieces around" from NCTM Illuminations.
Mathematics, Illuminations N.
Students will go on a shape hunt in the classroom or designated area. During the shape hunt, students will draw pictures of the shapes they find and the object that it is found by, in order to show the position of the shape. After the shape hunt, students will use Timed-Pair-Share to explain to peers what shapes they found and their relative positions.
The ability to grip objects allows us to perform many activities of daily living such as eating and drinking. Lesions to and disorders of the basal ganglia can cause deficits in grip force control. Although the prediction of grip force amplitude is an important component of performing a grip force task, the extant literature suggests that this process may not include the basal ganglia. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of grip force amplitude. The mean force and duration of force did not vary across prediction levels. As anticipated, the reaction time decreased with the level of grip force predictions. In confirmation of previous studies, the parieto-frontal and cerebellar circuits increased their fMRI signal as grip force predictability increased. In addition, the novel finding was that anterior nuclei in the basal ganglia such as caudate and anterior putamen also had an fMRI signal that increased with the level of grip force prediction. In contrast, the fMRI signal in posterior nuclei of the basal ganglia did not change with the level of prediction. These findings provide new evidence indicating that anterior basal ganglia nuclei are involved in the predictive scaling of precision grip force control. Further, the results provide additional support for the planning and parameterization model of the basal ganglia by demonstrating that specific anterior nuclei of the basal ganglia are involved in planning grip force. PMID:19944767
Wasson, Pooja; Prodoehl, Janey; Coombes, Stephen A; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) belongs to the glucagon-secretin family of polypeptides and possesses numerous functions. Its existence in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system has been widely documented. However, there are no reports on the developmental aspects of VIP-like immunoreactivity (VIP-IR) in the human postganglionic sympathetic neurons. In this study the availability and distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been localized in human stellate ganglia neurons and nerve fibers from neonates, children and adults using the immunohistochemical method. In neonatal ganglia VIP-immunoreactive postganglionic neurons were revealed in a marked population compared to others age-groups. These nerve cells are both small and large in size and are distributed in small clusters or singly in the area of ganglia sections. In children, VIP-IR in ganglionic neurons decreases. In adult stellate ganglia, VIP-immunoreactive postganglionic neurons rarely occur. In ganglia of an individual human only varicosities of VIP-positive nerve fibers were observed. These results provide the age-dependent reduction of VIP-like immunoreactivity in human stellate ganglia neurons and suggest the different role of this peptide in the function of sympathetic ganglia neurons with age. PMID:10609054
Roudenok, V; Kühnel, W; Rogov, Y; Nerovnja, A
Changes in nuclear morphology are observed in diverse developmental processes as well as in pathological conditions. Modification of nuclear membrane and nuclear lamina protein levels results in altered nuclear shapes, as it has been demonstrated in experimental systems ranging from yeast to human cells. The important role of nuclear membrane components in regulating nuclear morphology is additionally highlighted by the abnormally shaped nuclei observed in diseases where nuclear lamina proteins are mutated. Even though the effect of nuclear envelope components on nuclear shape has been thoroughly described, not much is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern these events. In addition to the known role of intermediate filament formation by lamins, here we discuss several mechanisms that might alone or in combination participate in the regulation of nuclear shape observed upon modification of the levels of nuclear membrane and lamina proteins. Based on recent work with the two farnesylated nuclear membrane Drosophila proteins, kugelkern and lamin Dm0, we propose that the direct interaction of farnesylated nuclear membrane proteins with the phospholipid bilayer leads to nuclear envelope deformation. In addition to this mechanism, we suggest that the interaction of nuclear membrane and lamina proteins with cytoskeletal elements and chromatin, and modifications in lipid biosynthesis might also be involved in the formation of abnormally shaped nuclei.
Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional specialization of the cortex through the spinal stepping generator-fastigial nucleus-thalamus-cortex pathway. Early detection of locomotion failure and early adjustment of this condition through environmental factors can prevent the development of higher cortical dysfunction. PMID:21068458
Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs with high abuse potential. Acute and chronic doses of amphetamines affect dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that are anatomically positioned to integrate cognitive, motor and sensorimotor inputs from the cortex. Amphetamines can differentially alter the functioning of specific BG circuits to produce neurochemical changes that affect cognition, movement, and drug seeking behavior through their effects on DA neurotransmission. This review focuses on how alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission within distinct basal ganglia pathways can modify their functional output to predict and explain the acute and long term behavioral consequences of amphetamine exposure.
Natarajan, Reka; Yamamoto, Bryan K.
Alphaherpesvirus reactivation from thoracic sympathetic ganglia (TSG) and transaxonal spread to target organs cause human visceral disease. Yet alphaherpesvirus latency in TSG has not been well characterized. In this study, quantitative PCR detected varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and HSV-2 DNA in 117 fresh TSG obtained postmortem from 15 subjects. VZV DNA was found in 76 (65%) ganglia from all subjects, HSV-1 DNA was found in 5 (4%) ganglia from 3 subjects, and no HSV-2 was found. PMID:24789785
Nagel, Maria A; Rempel, April; Huntington, Jonathon; Kim, Forrest; Choe, Alexander; Gilden, Don
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.
Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No
Identify, descirbe, and create simple geometric figures. This is a fun way to introduce the basic shapes to students through interactive activities. Find out about different shaes from the following link: draw me shapes Have fun with shapes with the following links: puzzle draw shapes Sesame Street Finish up the day by making some books: book ...
In the present study we address the hypothesis that the basal ganglia are specifically involved in the planning of movement amplitude (or related covariates). This prediction has often been put forward based on the observation that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit hypokinesia. A close examination of the literature shows, however, that this commonly reported clinical symptom is not consistently echoed by experimental observations. When required to point to visual targets in the absence of vision of the moving limb, PD subjects exhibit various patterns of inaccuracy, including hypometria, hypermetria, systematic direction bias, or direction-dependent errors. They have even been shown to be as accurate as healthy, age-matched subjects. The main aim of the current study is to address the origin of these inconsistencies. To this end, we required nine patients presenting with advanced PD and 15 age-matched control subjects to perform planar reaching movements to visual targets. Eight targets were presented in equally spaced directions around a circle centered on the hand's starting location. Based on a previously validated parsing procedure, end-point errors were segmented into localization and planning errors. Localization errors refer to the existence of systematic biases in the estimation of the initial hand location. These biases can potentially transform a simple pattern of pure amplitude errors into a complex pattern involving both amplitude and direction errors. Results indicated that localization errors were different in the PD patients and the control subjects. This is not surprising knowing both that proprioception is altered in PD patients and that the ability to locate the hand at rest relies mainly on the proprioceptive sense, even when vision is available. Unlike normal subjects, localization errors in PD were idiosyncratic, lacking a consistent pattern across subjects. When the confounding effect of initial hand localization errors was canceled, we found that end-point errors were only due to the implementation of an underscaled movement gain (15%), without direction bias. Interestingly, the level of undershoot was found to increase with the severity of the disease (inferred from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS, motor score). We also observed that movement variability was amplified (32%), but only along the main movement axis (extent variability). Direction variability was not significantly different in the patient population and the control group. When considered together, these results support the idea that the basal ganglia are specifically involved in the control of movement amplitude (or of some covariates). We propose that this structure participates in extent planning by modulating cortical activity and/or the tuning of the spinal interneuronal circuits. PMID:13680045
Desmurget, M; Grafton, S T; Vindras, P; Gréa, H; Turner, R S
This interactive Java applet allows users to explore the relationship between area and perimeter of both rectangles and irregular shapes. In the "Auto Draw" mode a shape is given, and the user finds the area and the perimeter. In the "Create Shape" mode users create their own shape and give the area and perimeter of that shape. The activity allows users to explore the relationship between shapes with a fixed perimeter and variable area or shapes with a a fixed area and variable perimeter. An optional scoring feature allows users to keep track of the number correct.
A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. PMID:24055170
Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G
Get a better understanding of the importance of our basic geometric shapes. While going through the activity below see if you can create the following shapes: A triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, rectangle, kite, diamond. Having fun with quadrilaterals Now that you can create basic shapes see if you can create more difficult shapes on the geoboard. Geoboard Activity See if you can use the geoboard to create 3-D shapes ...
Carter, Mr. S.
Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise.
Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.
Vocal learning in songbirds requires an anatomically discrete and functionally dedicated circuit called the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). The AFP is homologous to cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops in mammals. The basal ganglia portion of this pathway, Area X, shares many features characteristic of the mammalian striatum and pallidum, including cell-types and connectivity. The AFP also deviates from mammalian basal ganglia circuits in fundamental ways. In addition, the microcircuitry, role of neuromodulators, and function of Area X are still unclear. Elucidating the mechanisms by which both mammalian-like and unique features of the AFP contribute to vocal learning may help lead to a broad understanding of the sensorimotor functions of basal ganglia circuits.
Gale, Samuel D.; Perkel, David J.
Context dependence is a key feature of cortical-basal ganglia circuit activity, and in songbirds the cortical outflow of a basal ganglia circuit specialized for song, LMAN, shows striking increases in trial-by-trial variability and bursting when birds sing alone rather than to females. To reveal where this variability and its social regulation emerge, we recorded stepwise from corticostriatal (HVC) neurons and their target spiny and pallidal neurons in Area X. We find that corticostriatal and spiny neurons both show precise singing-related firing across both social settings. Pallidal neurons, in contrast, exhibit markedly increased trial-by-trial variation when birds sing alone, created by highly variable pauses in firing. This variability persists even when recurrent inputs from LMAN are ablated. These data indicate that variability and its context sensitivity emerge within the basal ganglia network, suggest a network mechanism for this emergence, and highlight variability generation and regulation as basal ganglia functions. PMID:24698276
Woolley, Sarah C; Rajan, Raghav; Joshua, Mati; Doupe, Allison J
Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task in which mice learned rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. In addition to neurons with activity related to the start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These results have important implications for understanding the functional organization of basal ganglia during the learning and execution of action sequences. PMID:24464039
Jin, Xin; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M
The localization and chemical determination of acetylcholin esterase in the frog sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia were studied by a combination of the methods of electron microscopy, histochemistry, and microgasometric analysis with the magnetic diver. The Koelle-Friedenwald copper thiocholine histochemical method was modified by eliminating the sulfide conversion and by treatment of the tissue with potassium permanganate. In fixed tissue, enzymatic activity was demonstrated on the inner surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope, subsurface cisternae, and agranular reticulum of the perikaryon and axon. In briefly fixed tissue, end product appeared also at the axon-sheath and the sheath-sheath interface. Activity at the synaptic junction was most readily obtained in unfixed tissue. Isolated neurons recovered from the diver following chemical analysis were studied with the electron microscope. Cells having a high enzyme activity showed a badly ruptured or absent neural plasmalemma and sheath. In this case the measured activity was apparently due to the enzyme present in the endoplasmic reticulum. Neurons having low activity exhibited an intact plasmalemma and sheath. This may reflect the effectiveness of the neural plasmalemma and sheath as a penetration barrier. The effects of fixation on enzyme activity are discussed. Electron microscopic examination of cells following microgasometric analysis is shown to be essential for the interpretation of the biochemical data.
Brzin, Miro; Tennyson, Virginia M.; Duffy, Philip E.
Bruxism characterized by clenching and grinding of teeth can lead to toothwear, headaches and depression. While bruxism has been associated with a number of neurological diseases, it has not been highlighted following cerebral infarction. An elderly man presented with an acute onset of tooth grinding and jaw clenching associated with dysarthria. His bruxism was worse during the day and resolved during sleep. He had frequent jaw aches, headaches and swallowing difficulty. Examination demonstrated the presence of dysarthria with jaw clenching and tooth grinding, producing persistent high pitch and loud squeaky sounds. A magnetic resonance imaging and angiography examination revealed a recent infarct in the right thalamus. In addition, chronic lacunar infarcts were present in the bilateral caudate nuclei with severe basilar artery stenosis. He was successfully treated with botulinum toxin. We discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms of bruxism associated with basal ganglia infarcts. Dysfunction of the efferent and/or afferent thalamic or striatopallidal tracts may play a role in bruxism. Early recognition of bruxism following stroke could reduce unnecessary suffering since the condition can be effectively treated. PMID:14706229
Tan, Eng-King; Chan, Ling-Ling; Chang, Hui-Meng
The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.
N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoit
Background Producing sounds by a musical instrument can lead to audiomotor coupling, i.e. the joint activation of the auditory and motor system, even when only one modality is probed. The sonification of otherwise mute movements by sounds based on kinematic parameters of the movement has been shown to improve motor performance and perception of movements. Results Here we demonstrate in a group of healthy young non-athletes that congruently (sounds match visual movement kinematics) vs. incongruently (no match) sonified breaststroke movements of a human avatar lead to better perceptual judgement of small differences in movement velocity. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhanced activity in superior and medial posterior temporal regions including the superior temporal sulcus, known as an important multisensory integration site, as well as the insula bilaterally and the precentral gyrus on the right side. Functional connectivity analysis revealed pronounced connectivity of the STS with the basal ganglia and thalamus as well as frontal motor regions for the congruent stimuli. This was not seen to the same extent for the incongruent stimuli. Conclusions We conclude that sonification of movements amplifies the activity of the human action observation system including subcortical structures of the motor loop. Sonification may thus be an important method to enhance training and therapy effects in sports science and neurological rehabilitation.
Using real-time fluorescence PCR, we quantitated the numbers of copies of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) genomes in 15 human trigeminal ganglia. Eight (53%) and 1 (7%) of 15 ganglia were PCR positive for HSV-1 or -2 glycoprotein G genes, with means of 2,902 6 1,082 (standard error of the
STEPHANIE R. PEVENSTEIN; RICHARD K. WILLIAMS; DANIEL MCCHESNEY; ERIK K. MONT; JOHN E. SMIALEK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS
The group of nuclei within the basal ganglia of the forebrain is central to the control of movement. We present data showing that the structure and function of the basal ganglia have been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution over some 560 million years. The interaction between the different nuclei within the basal ganglia is conserved as well as the cellular and synaptic properties and transmitters. We consider the role of the conserved basal ganglia circuitry for basic patterns of motor behaviour controlled via brainstem circuits. The output of the basal ganglia consists of tonically active GABAergic neurones, which target brainstem motor centres responsible for different patterns of behaviour, such as eye and locomotor movements, posture, and feeding. A prerequisite for activating or releasing a motor programme is that this GABAergic inhibition is temporarily reduced. This can be achieved through activation of GABAergic projection neurons from striatum, the input level of the basal ganglia, given an appropriate synaptic drive from cortex, thalamus and the dopamine system. The tonic inhibition of the motor centres at rest most likely serves to prevent the different motor programmes from becoming active when not intended. Striatal projection neurones are subdivided into one group with dopamine 1 receptors that provides increased excitability of the direct pathway that can initiate movements, while inhibitory dopamine 2 receptors are expressed on neurones that instead inhibit movements and are part of the 'indirect loop' in mammals as well as lamprey. We review the evidence showing that all basic features of the basal ganglia have been conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny, and discuss these findings in relation to the role of the basal ganglia in selection of behaviour. PMID:23318875
Grillner, Sten; Robertson, Brita; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus
The present study investigated, by using the method of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, whether the 5-HT7 receptor mRNA is expressed in human trigeminal ganglia. Trigeminal ganglia were excised post mortem from five human subjects. Oligonucleotide primers were selected based upon unique regions of complementary DNA sequence for the cloned human 5-HT7 receptor. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a
José A. Terrón; Isabelle Bouchelet; Edith Hamel
Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia (BG) contribute to the manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms. In this article, we would like to summarize our recent work on the mechanism underlying abnormal oscillations in the parkinsonian state and discuss its significance in pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. We recorded neuronal activity in the BG of parkinsonian monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Systemic administration of L-DOPA alleviated parkinsonian motor signs and decreased abnormal neuronal oscillations (8–15 Hz) in the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Inactivation of the STN by muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist) injection also ameliorated parkinsonian signs and suppressed GPi oscillations. The blockade of glutamatergic inputs to the STN by local microinjection of a mixture of 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) suppressed neuronal oscillations in the STN. STN oscillations were also attenuated by the blockade of GABAergic neurotransmission from the GPe to the STN by muscimol inactivation of the GPe. These results suggest that cortical glutamatergic inputs to the STN and reciprocal GPe-STN interconnections are both important for the generation and amplification of the oscillatory activity of GPe and STN neurons in the parkinsonian state. The oscillatory activity in the STN is subsequently transmitted to the GPi and may contribute to manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms.
Nambu, Atsushi; Tachibana, Yoshihisa
In contrast to the current belief that angiotensin II (Ang II) interacts with the sympathetic nervous system only as a circulating hormone, we document here the existence of endogenous Ang II in the neurons of rat and human sympathetic coeliac ganglia and their angiotensinergic innervation with mesenteric resistance blood vessels. Angiotensinogen - and angiotensin converting enzyme-mRNA were detected by using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction in total RNA extracts of rat coeliac ganglia, while renin mRNA was untraceable. Cathepsin D, a protease responsible for cleavage beneath other substrates also angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, was successfully detected in rat coeliac ganglia indicating the possibility of existence of alternative pathways. Angiotensinogen mRNA was also detected by in situ hybridization in the cytoplasm of neurons of rat coeliac ganglia. Immunoreactivity for Ang II was demonstrated in rat and human coeliac ganglia as well as with mesenteric resistance blood vessels. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy we were able to demonstrate the presence of angiotensinergic synapses en passant along side of vascular smooth muscle cells. Our findings indicate that Ang II is synthesized inside the neurons of sympathetic coeliac ganglia and may act as an endogenous neurotransmitter locally with the mesenteric resistance blood vessels. PMID:18308407
Patil, Jaspal; Heiniger, Eva; Schaffner, Thomas; Mühlemann, Oliver; Imboden, Hans
In the present study we investigated, through immunohistochemistry, the presence and location of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body of 16 humans and 5 rats. In both humans and rats, NTR1 immunostained ganglion cells were found in superior cervical ganglia (57.4+/-11.6% and 72.4+/-11.4%, respectively, p0.05), enteric ganglia (51.9+/-10.4% and 64.6+/-6.1, p<0.05), sensory ganglia (69.2+/-10.7% and 73.0+/-13.1%, p>0.05) and parasympathetic ganglia (52.1+/-14.1% and 59.4+/-14.0%, p>0.05), supporting a modulatory role for NT in these ganglia. Positivity was also detected in 45.6+/-9.2% and 50.8+/-6.8% of human and rat type I glomic cells, respectively, whereas type II cells were negative. Our findings suggest that NT produced by type I cells acts in an autocrine or paracrine way on the same cell type, playing a modulatory role on chemoception. PMID:19864207
Porzionato, A; Macchi, V; Amagliani, A; Castagliuolo, I; Parenti, A; De Caro, R
We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accompanied by conscious awareness of category membership. Know-Intuition: A “gut feeling” without fully conscious knowledge of category membership. Guess: Guessing. In addition, new stimuli were introduced throughout the experiment to examine effects of novelty. Categorization overall recruited both the basal ganglia and posterior hippocampus. However, basal ganglia activity was found during Know judgments (both Automatic and Intuition), whereas posterior hippocampus activity was found during Remember judgments. Granger causality mapping indicated interactions between the basal ganglia and hippocampus, with the putamen exerting directed influence on the posterior hippocampus, which in turn exerted directed influence on the posterior caudate nucleus. We also found a region of anterior hippocampus that showed decreased activity relative to baseline during categorization overall, and showed a strong novelty effect. Our results indicate that subjective measures may be effective in dissociating basal ganglia from hippocampal dependent learning, and that the basal ganglia are involved in both conscious and unconscious learning. They also indicate a dissociation within the hippocampus, in which the anterior regions are sensitive to novelty, and the posterior regions are involved in memory based categorization learning.
Seger, Carol A.; Dennison, Christina S.; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J.; Roark, Aubrey A.
Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943
Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James
In this lesson students will compare two and three dimensional shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangle, cone, cylinder, sphere, cube) by differentiating them according to attributes. Students explain attributes of shapes by exploring real world objects.
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Neuzil, C. E.
In this activity (located on page 9 of PDF), learners compare the stability of a triangle- and square-shaped structure. Learners use straws and paper clips to construct the shapes and then press down on the tops to see which shape collapses. Learners are then encouraged to build stronger shapes, perhaps by using diagonal cross-pieces as triangular bases. Use this activity to introduce compression force and structural stability.
Museum, Chicago C.
This activity asks students to recognize differences in shapes and sort them. They are given a set of 15 shape cards that they can sort by the criteria of color, size and shape. Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included along with a printable sheet of the cards.
The complexity of 3D shapes that are represented in digital form and processed in CAD\\/CAM\\/CAE, entertainment, biomedical, and other applications has increased considerably. Much research was focused on coping with or on reducing shape complexity. But, what exactly is shape complexity? We discuss several complexity measures and the corresponding complexity reduction techniques. Algebraic complexity measures the degree of polynomials needed
Does a conflict between inborn motor preferences and educational standards during childhood impact the structure of the adult human brain? To examine this issue, we acquired high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans of the whole brain in adult "converted" left-handers who had been forced as children to become dextral writers. Analysis of sulcal surfaces revealed that consistent right- and left-handers showed an interhemispheric asymmetry in the surface area of the central sulcus with a greater surface contralateral to the dominant hand. This pattern was reversed in the converted group who showed a larger surface of the central sulcus in their left, nondominant hemisphere, indicating plasticity of the primary sensorimotor cortex caused by forced use of the nondominant hand. Voxel-based morphometry showed a reduction of gray matter volume in the middle part of the left putamen in converted left-handers relative to both consistently handed groups. A similar trend was found in the right putamen. Converted subjects with at least one left-handed first-degree relative showed a correlation between the acquired right-hand advantage for writing and the structural changes in putamen and pericentral cortex. Our results show that a specific environmental challenge during childhood can shape the macroscopic structure of the human basal ganglia. The smaller than normal putaminal volume differs markedly from previously reported enlargement of cortical gray matter associated with skill acquisition. This indicates a differential response of the basal ganglia to early environmental challenges, possibly related to processes of pruning during motor development. PMID:20203186
Klöppel, Stefan; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Vongerichten, Anna; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Siebner, Hartwig R
Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...
T. Higuchi W. J. Russell M. Komatsuda S. Neriishi
Background Previous work has shown an association between restricted wrist range of motion (ROM) and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. We compared the prevalence of MRI-identified wrist abnormalities and wrist ROM between asymptomatic and symptomatic computer users. Methods MR images at 1.5 T of both wrists were obtained from 10 asymptomatic controls (8 F, 2 M) and 14 computer users (10 F, 4 M) with chronic wrist pain (10 bilateral; 4 right-side). Maximum wrist range of motion in flexion and radioulnar deviation was measured with an electrogoniometer. Results Extraosseous ganglia were identified in 66.6% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists. Intraosseous ganglia were identified in 45.8% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists, and were significantly (p < .05) larger in the symptomatic wrists. Distal ECU tendon instability was identified in 58.4% of both asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Dominant wrist flexion was significantly greater in the asymptomatic group (68.8 ± 6.7 deg.) compared to the symptomatic group (60.7 ± 7.3 deg.), p < .01. There was no significant correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden (p = .09) Conclusions This appears to be the first MRI study of wrist abnormalities in computer users. This study demonstrates that a variety of wrist abnormalities are common in computer users and that only intraosseous ganglia prevalence and size differed between asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Flexion was restricted in the dominant wrist of the symptomatic group, but the correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden did not reach significance. Flexion restriction may be an indicator of increased joint loading, and identifying the cause may help to guide preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG
Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge
In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications.
Min, Kyou Sik; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June
With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ganglia in particular. The aim of our review is to explore some of these basal ganglia pathologies and provide image illustrations. PMID:24900164
Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth
Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ganglia in particular. The aim of our review is to explore some of these basal ganglia pathologies and provide image illustrations.
Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth
The basal ganglia comprise a crucial circuit involved in force production and force selection, but the specific role of each nucleus to the production of force pulses and the selection of pulses of different force amplitudes remains unknown. We conducted an fMRI study in which participants produced force using a precision grip while a) holding a steady-state force, b) performing a series of force pulses with similar amplitude, and c) selecting force pulses of different amplitude. Region of interest analyses were conducted in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex to compare percent signal change during force pulse versus steady-state force production, and compare force amplitude selection to force production when selection of force amplitude was not present. There were three novel findings in the basal ganglia. First, the caudate nucleus increased activation during the selection of different force amplitudes when compared to producing a series of similar force pulses. Second, GPi, STN, and posterior putamen increased activation during the production of similar force amplitudes when compared to holding a steady-state force, and maintained similar activation during the production of different force amplitudes in which force selection was required. Third, GPe and anterior putamen had increased activation during the production of similar force pulses and further increased activation during the selection of different force pulses. These findings suggest that anterior basal ganglia nuclei are involved in selecting the amplitude of force contractions and posterior basal ganglia nuclei regulate basic aspects of dynamic force pulse production.
Vaillancourt, David E.; Yu, Hong; Mayka, Mary A.; Corcos, Daniel M.
Anatomical, neurophysiological, and neurochemical evidence supports the notion of parallel basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor systems. We developed a neural network model for the functioning of these systems during normal and parkinsonian movement. Parkinson's disease (PD), which results predominantly from nigrostriatal pathway damage, is used as a window to examine basal ganglia function. Simulations of dopamine depletion produce motor impairments consistent with motor deficits observed in PD that suggest the basal ganglia play a role in motor initiation and execution, and sequencing of motor programs. Stereotaxic lesions in the model's globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus suggest that these lesions, although reducing some PD symptoms, may constrain the repertoire of available movements. It is proposed that paradoxical observations of basal ganglia responses reported in the literature may result from regional functional neuronal specialization, and the non-uniform distributions of neurochemicals in the basal ganglia. It is hypothesized that dopamine depletion produces smaller-than-normal pallidothalamic gating signals that prevent rescalability of these signals to control variable movement speed, and that in PD can produce smaller-than-normal movement amplitudes. PMID:7578481
Contreras-Vidal, J L; Stelmach, G E
Infection induces the expression of inflammatory chemokines that recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Whereas tissues such as the intestine and skin express unique chemokines during homeostasis, whether different tissues express distinct chemokine profiles during inflammation remains unclear. With this in mind, we performed a comprehensive screen of the chemokines expressed by two tissues (skin and sensory ganglia) infected with a common viral pathogen (herpes simplex virus type 1). After infection, the skin and ganglia showed marked differences in their expression of the family of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands. Specifically, Cxcl1/2/3, which in turn controlled neutrophil recruitment, was up-regulated in the skin but absent from the ganglia. Within the ganglia, Cxcl2 expression and subsequent neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by type I interferon (IFN). Using a combination of bone marrow chimeras and intracellular chemokine staining, we show that type I IFN acted by directly suppressing Cxcl2 expression by monocytes, abrogating their ability to recruit neutrophils to the ganglia. Overall, our findings describe a novel role for IFN in the direct, and selective, inhibition of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands, which results in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment to neuronal tissue. PMID:24752295
Stock, Angus T; Smith, Jeffrey M; Carbone, Francis R
Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it.
Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen
The amount of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the L5, L6, and cervical dorsal root ganglia of rats was examined from 1 to 30 days after a unilateral crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and adjacent branches of the lumbar plexus at the level of the sciatic notch. Unilateral nerve crush produced increases in NGF content of lumbar ganglia at 1, 4, and 7-8 days after injury, with increased NGF mRNA at 4 and 7-8 days. Increases in NGF at 1 and 4 days were most pronounced on the unlesioned side while increases at days 7 and 8 were most pronounced on the lesioned side. NGF content increased in cervical ganglia of nerve-lesioned animals at 3 and 7 days after injury and in lumbar and cervical ganglia of sham-operated animals 3-5 days after surgery, with no comparable changes in NGF mRNA. Elevations of ganglionic NGF coincide temporally with some of the alterations in metabolism and morphology which occur in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve crush. However, the bilateral nature of increases in NGF demonstrates that the factor(s) producing the response is not restricted to ganglia axotomized by the injury. The data suggest that ganglionic NGF may be regulated by systemic factors, produced during stress or trauma, as well as by factors from the denervated target tissue and/or regenerating axons. PMID:7843302
Wells, M R; Vaidya, U; Schwartz, J P
The aim of this study is to report the spectrum of imaging findings of intraosseous ganglia (IG) with particular emphasis on the radiographic and magnetic resonance (MR) features. Forty-five patients with a final diagnosis of IG were referred to a specialist orthopaedic oncology service with the presumptive diagnosis of either a primary or secondary bone tumour. The diagnosis was established by histology in 25 cases. In the remainder, the imaging features were considered characteristic and the lesion was stable on follow-up radiographic examination. Radiographs were available for retrospective review in all cases and MR imaging in 29. There was a minor male preponderance with a wide adult age range. Three quarters were found in relation to the weight-bearing long bones of the lower limb, particularly round the knee. On radiographs all were juxta-articular and osteolytic; 74% were eccentric in location, 80% had a sclerotic endosteal margin and 60% of cases showed a degree of trabeculation. Periosteal new bone formation and matrix mineralization were not present. Of the 29 cases that underwent MR imaging, 66% were multiloculated. On T1-weighted images the IG contents were isointense or mildly hypointense in 90% cases. Forty-one per cent of the cases showed a slightly hyperintense rim lining that enhanced with a gadolinium chelate. Thirty-eight per cent were associated with soft tissue extension and 17% with a defect of the adjacent articular cortex. Fifty-five per cent showed surrounding marrow oedema on T2-weighted or STIR images and two cases (7%) a fluid-fluid level prior to any surgical intervention. The authors contend that it is semantics to differentiate between an IG and a degenerate subchondral cyst as, while the initial pathogenesis may vary, the histological endpoint is identical, as are the imaging features apart from the degree of associated degenerative joint disease. IGs, particularly when large, may be mistaken for a bone tumour. Correlation of the typical radiographic and MR imaging features will indicate the correct diagnosis and obviate the need for biopsy. PMID:15221263
Williams, H J; Davies, A M; Allen, G; Evans, N; Mangham, D C
The development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is attributed to plastic responses triggered by dopamine (DA) receptor stimulation in the parkinsonian brain. This article reviews studies that have uncovered different levels of maladaptive plasticity in animal models of LID. Rats developing dyskinesia on chronic L-DOPA treatment show abnormal patterns of signaling pathway activation and synaptic plasticity in striatal neurons. In addition, these animals show a gene expression profile indicative of structural cellular plasticity, including pronounced upregulation of genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, neurite extension, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and endothelial and cellular proliferation. Structural changes of neurons and microvessels within the basal ganglia are currently being unraveled by detailed morphological analyses. The structural and functional adaptations induced by L-DOPA in the brain can be viewed as an attempt to meet increased metabolic demands and to boost cellular defense mechanisms. These homeostatic responses, however, also predispose to the appearance of dyskinesia and other complications during the course of the treatment. PMID:20083009
Cenci, M Angela; Ohlin, K Elisabet; Rylander, Daniella
The distribution of the neurotropic alphaherpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV) was determined in autonomic and sensory ganglia of the head and neck from formalin-fixed human cadavers. HSV-1 and VZV DNA were found in 18/58 and 16/58 trigeminal, 23/58 and 11/58 pterygopalatine, 25/60 and 14/60 ciliary, 25/48 and 11/48 geniculate, 15/50 and 8/50 otic, 14/47 and 4/47 submandibular, 18/58 and 10/58 superior cervical, and 12/36 and 1/36 nodose ganglia, respectively. HSV-2 was not detected in any site. Viral DNA positivity and location were independently distributed among autonomic and sensory ganglia of the human head and neck.
Richter, Elizabeth R.; Dias, James K.; Gilbert, James E.; Atherton, Sally S.
Three-dimensional (3D) collagen gels provide a stable matrix in which isolated regenerating ganglia from leech and snail can be maintained for studies of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the regenerative process. Segmental ganglia from leech, or supraoesophageal, suboesophageal or buccal ganglia from snail were maintained for up to 3 weeks in 3D matrices of mammalian Type I collagen. The collagen matrix supports the regenerative outgrowth of axon tracts as well as the migration of microglial cells, important elements in the repair process. Proteins or soluble factors or target tissue may be added to the basic collagen matrix to manipulate the environment of the regenerating tissue. We describe techniques for immunostaining of regenerating axons and microglial cells within the gel matrix in combination with staining of cell nuclei, and the use of intracellular labelling to distinguish axons of identified neurons within the regenerative outgrowth. PMID:16172883
Babington, E J; Vatanparast, J; Verrall, J; Blackshaw, S E
The interaction of basal ganglia and other brain regions is more complex regarding anatomic and functional perspectives than previously assumed. Hence, the classical basal ganglia model has to be extended to at least four satellite systems modulating motor-executive, associative and limbic-motivational brain regions: (i) an indirect projection system, (ii) a striato-nigro-striatal loop, (iii) a "hyperdirect" projection system as well as additional projections to the subthalamic nucleus and (iv) multisynaptic connections from the cerebellum exerting influence on the indirect projection system. The investigation of these satellite systems would be invaluable to foster our understanding of basal ganglia circuitries and may yield a better appreciation of largely opaque symptoms like resting tremor in Parkinson's disease; analysis of these anatomic pathways and functional implications may facilitate explanatory model approaches to side effects due to dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation in humans and thereby offer the possibility for new therapeutic approaches in movement disorders. PMID:24901315
Pelzer, E A; Hintzen, A; Timmermann, L; Tittgemeyer, M
The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.
Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.
Amongst the motor, mental, cognitive and emotional symptoms of the Rett syndrome (RS) the motor symptoms stand out as the hallmark in analyzing the essential pathophysiology. Summarizing the motor symptoms and searching into the knowledge of relevant basic sciences, this report aims at stressing the pathophysiological basis of RS which we have reported in previous studies. The core motor symptoms of RS consist of two aspects; firstly the unique developmental abnormalities of the discrepancy of crawling and walking and secondly the pathognomonic symptoms which include the abnormal muscle tone, posture, locomotion and stereotyped movement. The deranged crawling reflects the abnormal locomotive function. The primary responsible neuronal structures of the abnormal muscle tone, posture and locomotion are probably in the brainstem. Aberrantly formed neuronal structures responsible for voluntary movements and modulatory factors from the basal ganglia are the pathophysiological basis of the stereotyped movement of RS. Thus the neuronal structures that underlie the clinical characteristics of RS extend broadly from the motor neurons to the higher cortex, but involve the specific neuronal systems. The most important and primary of these specific neuronal systems are thought to be the monoaminergic systems, originating from the brainstem and midbrain. Abnormally deficient noradrenergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic systems result in the abnormal modulation of ontogeny and function of the higher and lower nervous systems. As we have already stressed, this unique putative pathophysiological basis could explain the very striking set of clinical symptoms of RS and their age dependent appearance despite the lack of major specific findings in neuropathology. PMID:1626630
Nomura, Y; Segawa, M
To investigate the role of basal ganglia in locomotion, a multiple-channel, single-unit recording technique was used to record neural activity simultaneously in the dorsal lateral striatum (STR), globus pallidus (GP), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) during spontaneous and treadmill locomotion tasks in freely moving rats. Active and quiescent phases appeared alternately in a spontaneous movement session that lasted 60 min. Principal component analysis of the ensemble neural activity from each region revealed a close correlation with spontaneous motor activity. Most of the neurons in these four basal ganglia areas increased their firing rates during the active phase. In the treadmill locomotion task, the firing rates of neurons in all recording areas, especially in the STN, increased significantly during locomotion. In addition, neural responses related to tone cue, initiation and termination of treadmill were observed in a subset of neurons in each basal ganglia region. Detailed video analysis revealed a limb movement related neural firing, predominantly in the STR and the GP, during treadmill walking. However, the proportion of neurons exhibiting limb movement related firing was significantly greater only in the STR. A few neurons in the STR (4.8%) and the GP (3.4%) discharged in an oscillatory pattern during treadmill walking, and the oscillatory frequency was similar to the frequency of the step cycle. This study demonstrates a variety of neural responses in the major basal ganglia regions during spontaneous and forced locomotion. General activation of all major basal ganglia regions during locomotion is more likely to provide a dynamic background for cortical signal processing rather than to directly control precise movements. Implications of these findings in the model of basal ganglia organization are discussed. PMID:15067433
Shi, L H; Luo, F; Woodward, D J; Chang, J Y
Explore molecule shapes by building molecules in 3D! How does molecule shape change with different numbers of bonds and electron pairs? Find out by adding single, double or triple bonds and lone pairs to the central atom. Then, compare the model to real molecules!
Simulations, Phet I.; Moore, Emily; Olson, Jonathan; Lancaster, Kelly; Chamberlain, Julia; Perkins, Kathy
This article describes a lesson on Schapiro Shapes. Schapiro Shapes is based on the art of Miriam Schapiro, who created a number of works of figures in action. Using the basic concepts of this project, students learn to create their own figures and styles. (Contains 1 online resource.)
Is a square stronger than a triangle? Use tongue depressors to build simple shapes. Then apply a little weight to them and see what happens! This activity comes with useful tips for building the shapes, like how to drill the wood without cracking it, and what drill works best.
Minnesota, Science M.
This online activity features two simulations demonstrating the comparative strengths of rectangles, arches, and triangles when stress is applied at a point. Simulations offer a simplified version of real life conditions related to the strength and stability of structures. For comparison's sake, each tested shape is of equivalent thickness and has hinged joints. The shapes show load distribution arrows when force is applied. In one simulation, a student selects a shape and initiates a dynamic illustration, providing an explanation of the effect of applying force and demonstrating how the shape can be strengthened. The second simulation shows and explains what results when increasing numbers of elephants are stacked on each of the three shapes. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387
Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S
The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images
Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R
"Students will balance shapes on the pan balance applet to study equality, essential to understanding algebra. Equivalent relationships will be recognized when the pans balance, demonstrating the properties of equality." (from NCTM's Illuminations)
Mathematics, Illuminations N.
This activity gives students practice drawing straight lines with a ruler and looking for and categorizing shapes, for example, by the number of sides in polygons. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions and ideas for extension.
In this activity, learners work together to make polygons (many-sided shapes) with string. Learners sit on the floor and hold onto a piece of string slid between their thumbs and index fingers. Learners explore how many different kinds of triangles and other shapes they can make by changing their hand positions. Use this activity to help learners explore polygons including convex and concave polygons and vertices.
This activity gives students an opportunity to explore some of the common 3-D shapes and their names and properties. After discussion and an example, it asks students to count the required number of edges and vertices (corners) to build each of 5 given shapes. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a printable recording sheet (pdf).
Cerebral ultrasound (US) imaging was performed as a screening procedure in approximately 3,600 neonates and infants over a period of 18 months. Hyperechoic lesions in the basal ganglia and thalamic region were detected incidentally in 15 of these patients. Clinical diagnoses included cytomegalovirus infection, asphyxia, rotavirus infection, prematurity, amniotic infection, dysmorphic stigmata, hyperbilirubinemia, congenital heart disease, and diabetic fetopathia. Lesions
K. Weber; Th. Riebel; R. Nasir
Following a peripheral nerve injury, a sterile inflammation develops in sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) with axons that project in the damaged nerve trunk. Macrophages and T-lymphocytes invade these ganglia where they are believed to release cytokines that lead to hyperexcitability and ectopic discharge, possibly contributing to neuropathic pain. Here, we examined the role of the sympathetic innervation in the inflammation of L5 DRGs of Wistar rats following transection of the sciatic nerve, comparing the effects of specific surgical interventions 10-14days prior to the nerve lesion with those of chronic administration of adrenoceptor antagonists. Immunohistochemistry was used to define the invading immune cell populations 7days after sciatic transection. Removal of sympathetic activity in the hind limb by transecting the preganglionic input to the relevant lumbar sympathetic ganglia (ipsi- or bilateral decentralization) or by ipsilateral removal of these ganglia with degeneration of postganglionic axons (denervation), caused less DRG inflammation than occurred after a sham sympathectomy. By contrast, denervation of the lymph node draining the lesion site potentiated T-cell influx. Systemic treatment with antagonists of ?1-adrenoceptors (prazosin) or ?-adrenoceptors (propranolol) led to opposite but unexpected effects on infiltration of DRGs after sciatic transection. Prazosin potentiated the influx of macrophages and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes whereas propranolol tended to reduce immune cell invasion. These data are hard to reconcile with many in vitro studies in which catecholamines acting mainly via ?2-adrenoceptors have inhibited the activation and proliferation of immune cells following an inflammatory challenge. PMID:24418114
McLachlan, Elspeth M; Hu, Ping
Experiments were conducted on dodecane at residual saturation (21-26%) in a two-dimensional water-saturated glass bead cell (0.5 mm diameter)--to simulate light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) trapped below the water table--subject to controlled freeze-thaw cycles. The experiments reveal substantial remobilization and rupture of LNAPL ganglia during freeze-thaw, especially during the first few cycles. This includes the detachment and upward mobilization of LNAPL from larger ganglia during upward propagation of the freezing front; the formation of numerous subsinglet ganglia during this transport process, and their entrapment in ice; and the coalescence of such small ganglia during thawing, to form larger singlets. Theoretical calculations suggest that the LNAPL redistribution is caused by large freezing-induced pressure gradients, of up to 6 orders of magnitude higher than the water-LNAPL interfacial (capillary) pressure. The findings have important implications for the understanding and remediation of LNAPLs in cold climate regions. PMID:18754462
Niven, Robert K; Singh, Kamaljit
A consistent feature of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) latency is the restricted pattern of viral gene expression in human ganglionic tissues. To understand further the significance of this gene restriction, we used in situ hybridization (ISH) to detect the frequency of RNA expression for nine VZV genes in trigeminal ganglia (TG) from 35 human subjects, including 18 who were human immunodeficiency
PETER G. E. KENNEDY; ESTHER GRINFELD; JEANNE E. BELL
Movement disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with slow oscillations and increased synchrony of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia. The neural mechanisms underlying this dynamic network dysfunction, however, are only poorly understood. Here, we show that the strength of inhibitory inputs from striatum to globus pallidus external (GPe) is a key parameter controlling oscillations in the basal ganglia. Specifically, the increase in striatal activity observed in PD is sufficient to unleash the oscillations in the basal ganglia. This finding allows us to propose a unified explanation for different phenomena: absence of oscillation in the healthy state of the basal ganglia, oscillations in dopamine-depleted state and quenching of oscillations under deep-brain-stimulation (DBS). These novel insights help us to better understand and optimize the function of DBS protocols. Furthermore, studying the model behavior under transient increase of activity of the striatal neurons projecting to the indirect pathway, we are able to account for both motor impairment in PD patients and for reduced response inhibition in DBS implanted patients.
Kumar, Arvind; Cardanobile, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan; Aertsen, Ad
Mutations in the thymidine kinase gene (tk) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) explain most cases of virus resistance to acyclovir (ACV) treatment. Mucocutaneous lesions of patients with ACV resistance contain mixed populations of tk mutant and wild-type virus. However, it is unknown whether human ganglia also contain mixed populations since the replication of HSV tk mutants in animal
Kening Wang; Gowtham Mahalingam; Susan E. Hoover; Erik K. Mont; Steven M. Holland; Jeffrey I. Cohen; Stephen E. Straus
The sensory reinnervation of dermal papillae and epidermis of glabrous skin, interosseal Pacinian corpuscles, and muscle spindles of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles has been examined 1, 3, and 8 months (allografts) or 3 and 5 weeks (xenografts) following orthotopic grafting of fetal allogeneic or xenogeneic (mouse) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) into ganglionectomized adult rats. Sensory axons in
C. M. Rosario; P. Dubovy; R. L. Sidman; H. Aldskogius
Studies of basal ganglia dysfunction in humans have generally involved patients with degenerative disorders, notably Parkinson's disease. In many instances, the performance of these patients is compared to that of patients with focal lesions of other brain structures such as the cerebellum. In the present report, we studied the performance of…
Aparicio, P.; Diedrichsen, J.; Ivry, R.B.
Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001
Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate
: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of enhancement of lumbar spinal ganglia after Gadolinium chelate injection in patients without radiculopathy, and to correlate the enhancement with histology. This study is based on the analysis of MR lumbar examinations conducted on 18 patients without radicular symptoms, or previous surgery of the lumbar spine, or disease
X. Demondion; X. Leroy; F. Lapčgue; A. Drizenko; J.-P. Francke; A. Cotten
Retrograde dye tracing was combined with immunohistochemistry to determine the distributions of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactive nerve cells that project to prevertebral ganglia from the gastrointestinal tract and spinal cord of the guinea pig. An antiserum was raised against the neuronal form of NOS by selecting an amino-acid sequence specific to this form as immunogen. The antiserum recognised a
C. R. Anderson; J. B. Furness; H. L. Woodman; S. L. Edwards; P. J. Crack; A. I. Smith
The author has recently reported the distribution of the cytoskeleton-associated protein caldesmon in spleen and lymph nodes detected with different antibodies against caldesmon (J Histochem Cytochem 58:183–193, 2010). Here the author reports the distribution of caldesmon in the CNS and ganglia of the mouse using the same antibodies. Western blot analysis of mouse brain and spinal cord showed the preponderance of l-caldesmon and suggested at least two l-caldesmon isoforms in the brain. Immunostaining revealed the predominant reactivity of smooth muscle cells and cells resembling pericytes of many large and small blood vessels, ependymocytes, and secretory cells of the pineal gland and pituitary gland. Neuronal perikarya and neuropil in general displayed no or weak immunoreactivity, but there was stronger labeling of neuronal perikarya in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. In the brain, staining of the neuropil was stronger in the molecular layers of the dentate gyrus and cerebellum. Results show that caldesmon is expressed in many different cell types in the CNS and ganglia, consistent with the notion that l-caldesmon is ubiquitously expressed, but it appears most concentrated in smooth muscle cells, pericytes, epithelial cells, secretory cells, and neuronal perikarya in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia.
Kohler, Christoph N.
BACKGROUND: In the absence of overt stimuli, the brain shows correlated fluctuations in functionally related brain regions. Approximately ten largely independent resting state networks (RSNs) showing this behaviour have been documented to date. Recent studies have reported the existence of an RSN in the basal ganglia - albeit inconsistently and without the means to interpret its function. Using two large
Simon Robinson; Gianpaolo Basso; Nicola Soldati; Uta Sailer; Jorge Jovicich; Lorenzo Bruzzone; Ilse Kryspin-Exner; Herbert Bauer; Ewald Moser
We investigated the relationship between basal ganglia volume and treatment response to the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. Basal ganglia volumes included the bilateral caudate, putamen, and pallidum and were measured using the Freesurfer automated segmentation pipeline in 23 subjects. Also, baseline symptom severity, duration of illness, age, gender, time off medication, and exposure to previous antipsychotic were measured. Treatment response was significantly correlated with all three regions of the bilateral basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, and pallidum), baseline symptom severity, duration of illness, and age but not gender, time off antipsychotic medication, or exposure to previous antipsychotic medication. The caudate volume was the basal ganglia region that demonstrated the strongest correlation with treatment response and was significantly negatively correlated with patient age. Caudate volume was not significantly correlated with any other measure. We demonstrated a novel finding that the caudate volume explains a significant amount of the variance in treatment response over the course of 6 weeks of risperidone pharmacotherapy even when controlling for baseline symptom severity and duration of illness. PMID:24210948
Hutcheson, Nathan L; Clark, David G; Bolding, Mark S; White, David M; Lahti, Adrienne C
We have purified a cardioexcitatory substance, previously designated peak C, from ganglia of the Sunray Venus clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Low concentrations (10 -10M) of this substance not only excite the isolated clam heart, but also produce tonic contractions of the isolated radula protractor muscle of the whelk, Busycon contrarium. These two muscle preparations have therefore been used as a parallel
D. A. Price; M. J. Greenberg
The distribution and chemical coding of neurons supplying urinary bladder in the male pig were studied in the sympathetic chain ganglia, inferior mesenteric ganglia and anterior pelvic ganglia. The combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin(SOM), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(VIP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter(VAChT) were applied in the experiment. Bladder projecting neurons were found in all the ganglia studied. The majority of sympathetic ganglia neurons (inferior mesenteric ganglia and sympathetic chain ganglia) expressed immunoreactivity(IR) to DBH. In sympathetic chain ganglia these neurons simultaneously expressed NPY, GAL or VAChT,while in inferior mesenteric ganglia they contained NPY, SOM and/or GAL. A small number of these bladder projecting neurons was VAChT-IR and some contained NPY. In the pelvic ganglia bladder-projecting neurons formed two populations: DBH- and VAChT-IR. Some of DBH-IR neurons contained IR to NPY, SOM or GAL, while VAChTIR neurons were NPY-, SOM- or NOS-IR. The results indicate that sympathetic ganglia contain mainly adrenergic neurons,while pelvic ganglia contain both adrenergic and cholinergic neurons. All these neurons contain typical combinations of neuropeptides. PMID:24122239
Background A neuroimmune crosstalk between dendritic cells (DCs) and airway nerves in the lung has recently been reported. However, the presence of DCs in airway sensory ganglia under normal and allergic conditions has not been explored so far. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the localisation, distribution and proliferation of DCs in airway sensory ganglia under allergic airway inflammation. Methods Using the house dust mite (HDM) model for allergic airway inflammation BALB/c mice were exposed to HDM extract intranasally (25 ?g/50 ?l) for 5 consecutive days a week over 7 weeks. With the help of the immunohistochemistry, vagal jugular-nodose ganglia complex (JNC) sections were analysed regarding their expression of DC-markers (MHC II, CD11c, CD103), the neuronal marker PGP 9.5 and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and glutamine synthetase (GS) as a marker for satellite glia cells (SGCs). To address the original source of DCs in sensory ganglia, a proliferation experiment was also carried in this study. Results Immune cells with characteristic DC-phenotype were found to be closely located to SGCs and vagal sensory neurons under physiological conditions. The percentage of DCs in relation to neurons was significantly increased by allergic airway inflammation in comparison to the controls (HDM 51.38?±?2.38% vs. control 28.16?±?2.86%, p?0.001). The present study also demonstrated that DCs were shown to proliferate in jugular-nodose ganglia, however, the proliferation rate of DCs is not significantly changed in the two treated animal groups (proliferating DCs/ total DCs: HDM 0.89?±?0.38%, vs. control 1.19?±?0.54%, p?=?0.68). Also, increased number of CGRP-positive neurons was found in JNC after allergic sensitisation and challenge (HDM 31.16?±?5.41% vs. control 7.16?±?1.53%, p?0.001). Conclusion The present findings suggest that DCs may migrate from outside into the ganglia to interact with sensory neurons enhancing or protecting the allergic airway inflammation. The increase of DCs as well as CGRP-positive neurons in airway ganglia by allergic airway inflammation indicate that intraganglionic DCs and neurons expressing CGRP may contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. To understand this neuroimmune interaction in allergic airway inflammation further functional experiments should be carried out in future studies.
Background In the absence of overt stimuli, the brain shows correlated fluctuations in functionally related brain regions. Approximately ten largely independent resting state networks (RSNs) showing this behaviour have been documented to date. Recent studies have reported the existence of an RSN in the basal ganglia - albeit inconsistently and without the means to interpret its function. Using two large study groups with different resting state conditions and MR protocols, the reproducibility of the network across subjects, behavioural conditions and acquisition parameters is assessed. Independent Component Analysis (ICA), combined with novel analyses of temporal features, is applied to establish the basis of signal fluctuations in the network and its relation to other RSNs. Reference to prior probabilistic diffusion tractography work is used to identify the basal ganglia circuit to which these fluctuations correspond. Results An RSN is identified in the basal ganglia and thalamus, comprising the pallidum, putamen, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra, with a projection also to the supplementary motor area. Participating nuclei and thalamo-cortical connection probabilities allow this network to be identified as the motor control circuit of the basal ganglia. The network was reproducibly identified across subjects, behavioural conditions (fixation, eyes closed), field strength and echo-planar imaging parameters. It shows a frequency peak at 0.025 ± 0.007 Hz and is most similar in spectral composition to the Default Mode (DM), a network of regions that is more active at rest than during task processing. Frequency features allow the network to be classified as an RSN rather than a physiological artefact. Fluctuations in this RSN are correlated with those in the task-positive fronto-parietal network and anticorrelated with those in the DM, whose hemodynamic response it anticipates. Conclusion Although the basal ganglia RSN has not been reported in most ICA-based studies using a similar methodology, we demonstrate that it is reproducible across subjects, common resting state conditions and imaging parameters, and show that it corresponds with the motor control circuit. This characterisation of the basal ganglia network opens a potential means to investigate the motor-related neuropathologies in which the basal ganglia are involved.
Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness
D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir
Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.
Law, B. E.; Spencer, C. W.
Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables.
Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D
Objectives To determine the gene expression profile of pelvic ganglia neurones after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR) and subsequent treatment with sildenafil in relation to neurotrophic-related pathways. Materials and methods Fisher rats aged 5 months were subjected to BCNR or sham operation and treated with or without sildenafil (20 mg/kg body-weight in drinking water) for 7 days. Total RNA isolated from pelvic ganglia was subjected to reverse transcription and then to quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the RAT-neurotrophic array. Results were corroborated by real-time PCR and western blotting. Another set of animals were injected with a fluorescent tracer at the base of the penis, 7 days before BCNR or sham operation, and were sacrificed 7 days after surgery. Sections of pelvic ganglia were used for immunohistochemistry with antibodies against neurturin, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, tyrosine hydroxylase and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor ?2. Results A down-regulation of the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase accompanied by changes in the level of cholinergic neurotrophic factors, such as neurturin and its receptor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor ?2, artemin, neurotrophin-4 and cilliary neurotrophic factor, was observed 7 days after BCNR in pelvic ganglia neurones. Treatment with sildenafil, starting immediately after surgery, reversed all these changes at a level similar to that in sham-operated animals. Conclusions Sildenafil treatment promotes changes in the neurotrophic phenotype, leading to a regenerative state of pelvic ganglia neurones. The present study provides a justification for the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors as a neuroprotective agent after BCNR.
Hlaing, Su M.; Garcia, Leah A.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Martinez, Ramon A.; Shah, Sanjana; Artaza, Jorge N.; Ferrini, Monica G.
Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r?=?0.372, p?=?0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r?=?0.507, p?=?0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r?=?0.306, p?=?0.04 and r?=?0.459, p?=?0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to cognitive performance.
Rhein, Cosima; Muhle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes
Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks.
Miller, Andrew H.; Jones, James F.; Drake, Daniel F.; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe
Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks. PMID:24858857
Miller, Andrew H; Jones, James F; Drake, Daniel F; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R; Pagnoni, Giuseppe
We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure. PMID:18991959
Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D
We performed detailed analysis of the abnormal growth of Ni silicide that causes leakage-current failure in CMOS devices. We investigated the three-dimensional shape and the crystal microstructure of the abnormal growth by using advanced transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques: electron tomography and spatially-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Furthermore, we revealed that the abnormal growth is related to crystal microstructure and
S. Kudo; Y. Hirose; N. Hashikawa; T. Yamaguchi; K. Kashihara; K. Maekawa; K. Asai; N. Murata; K. Asayama; E. Murakami
In this activity (pages 8-9), learners investigate the properties of smart materials, which are materials that respond to things that happen around them. Learners train a piece of smart material (Nitinol) to adopt a particular shape. Learners discover that when the Nitinol wire is heated enough, its atoms can move around enough to "reset" its memory. This makes it possible to train the material to have a particular shape. Safety note: Young learners should have adult supervision. Be very careful with the flame and hot wire.
Population activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits is synchronized at different frequencies according to brain state. However, the structures that are likely to drive the synchronization of activity in these circuits remain unclear. Furthermore, it is not known whether the direction of transmission of activity is fixed or dependent on brain state. We have used the directed transfer function (DTF) to investigate the direction in which coherent activity is effectively driven in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Local field potentials (LFPs) were simultaneously recorded in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), together with the ipsilateral frontal electrocorticogram (ECoG) of anaesthetized rats. Directional analysis was performed on recordings made during robust cortical slow-wave activity (SWA) and ‘global activation’. During SWA, there was coherence at ?1 Hz between ECoG and basal ganglia LFPs, with much of the coherent activity directed from cortex to basal ganglia. There were similar coherent activities at ?1 Hz within the basal ganglia, with more activity directed from SNr to GP and STN, and from STN to GP rather than vice versa. During global activation, peaks in coherent activity were seen at higher frequencies (15–60 Hz), with most coherence also directed from cortex to basal ganglia. Within the basal ganglia, however, coherence was predominantly directed from GP to STN and SNr. Together, these results highlight a lead role for the cortex in activity relationships with the basal ganglia, and further suggest that the effective direction of coupling between basal ganglia nuclei is dynamically organized according to brain state, with activity relationships involving the GP displaying the greatest capacity to change.
Sharott, Andrew; Magill, Peter J; Bolam, J Paul; Brown, Peter
Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.
Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.
Neuroendoscopic (NE) surgery as a minimal invasive treatment for basal ganglia hemorrhage is a promising approach. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NE approach using an adjustable cannula to treat basal ganglia hemorrhage. In this study, we analysed the clinical and radiographic outcomes between NE group (21 cases) and craniotomy group (30 cases). The results indicated that NE surgery might be an effective and safe approach for basal ganglia haemorrhage, and it is also suggested that NE approach may improve good functional recovery. However, NE approach only suits the selected patient, and the usefulness of NE approach needs further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate.
Zhang, Heng-Zhu; Li, Yu-Ping; Yan, Zheng-cun; Wang, Xing-dong; She, Lei; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Lun
Acoustic experience critically influences auditory cortical development as well as emergence of highly selective auditory neurons in the songbird sensorimotor circuit. In adult zebra finches, these “song-selective” neurons respond better to the bird's own song (BOS) than to songs of other conspecifics. Birds learn their songs by memorizing a tutor's song and then matching auditory feedback of their voice to the tutor song memory. Song-selective neurons in the pallial-basal ganglia circuit called the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) reflect the development of BOS. However, during learning, they also respond strongly to tutor song and are compromised in their adult selectivity when birds are prevented from matching BOS to tutor, suggesting that selectivity depends on tutor song learning as well as sensorimotor matching of BOS feedback to the tutor song memory. We examined the contribution of sensory learning of tutor song to song selectivity by recording from AFP neurons in birds reared without exposure to adult conspecifics. We found that AFP neurons in these “isolate” birds had highly tuned responses to isolate BOS. The selectivity was as high, and in the striato-pallidal nucleus Area X, even higher than that in normal birds, due to abnormally weak responsiveness to conspecific song. These results demonstrate that sensory learning of tutor song is not necessary for BOS tuning of AFP neurons. Because isolate birds develop their song via sensorimotor learning, our data further illustrate the importance of individual sensorimotor learning for song selectivity and provide insight into possible functions of song-selective neurons.
Kojima, Satoshi; Doupe, Allison J.
OBJECTIVE Diabetic patients often experience visceral hypersensitivity and anorectal dysfunction. We hypothesize that the enhanced excitability of colon projecting dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons observed in diabetes is caused by a decrease in the amplitude of the transient A-type K+ (IA) currents resulting from increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and reduced opening of Kv4.2 channels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed patch-clamp recordings of colon projecting DRG neurons from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry studies were used to elucidate the intracellular signaling pathways that modulate the IA current. In vivo studies were performed to demonstrate that abnormal MAPK signaling is responsible for the enhanced visceromotor response to colorectal distention in STZ-D rats. RESULTS Patch-clamp studies demonstrated that IA current was diminished in the colon projecting DRG neurons of STZ-D rats. Western blot analysis of STZ-D DRG neurons revealed increases in phosphorylated MAPK and KV4.2. In diabetic DRG neurons, increased intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), protein kinase C (PKC), and MAPK were involved in the regulation of IA current through modulation of Kv4.2. Hypersensitive visceromotor responses to colorectal distention in STZ-D rats were normalized by administration of MAPK inhibitor U0126. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrated that reduction of the IA current in STZ-D DRG neurons is triggered by impaired [Ca2+]i ion homeostasis, and this in turn activates the PKC-MAPK pathways, resulting in decreased opening of the Kv4.2 channels. Hence, the PKC-MAPK–Kv4.2 pathways represent a potential therapeutic target for treating visceral hypersensitivity in diabetes.
Grabauskas, Gintautas; Heldsinger, Andrea; Wu, Xiaoyin; Xu, Dabo; Zhou, ShiYi; Owyang, Chung
Abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are infrequently encountered. Mostly instability occurs as a result of trauma. Four types of instability are distinguished: subluxation, anterolateral, posteromedial and superior dislocation. Four radiological methods designed to visualize abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are discussed. Special notice is given to the clinical relevance of a new method. Instability was demonstrated in 19 patients; 16 of these were treated by an operation. History, data obtained by physical examination and ways of treatment are discussed. PMID:6703874
Veth, R P; Kingma, L M; Nielsen, H K
The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, have been implicated in the generation of contraversive movements. The striatum projects to downstream basal ganglia nuclei through two main circuits, originating in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, and different models postulate that the two pathways can work in opposition or synergistically. Here we show striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons are concurrently active during spontaneous contraversive movements. Furthermore, we show that unilateral optogenetic inhibition of either or both projection pathways disrupts contraversive movements. Consistently, simultaneous activation of both neuron types produces contraversive movements. Still, we also show that imbalanced activity between the pathways can result in opposing movements being driven by each projection pathway. These data show that balanced activity in both striatal projection pathways is critical for the generation of contraversive movements and highlights that imbalanced activity between the two projection pathways can result in opposing motor output.
Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Matias, Sara; Dugue, Guillaume P.; Mainen, Zachary F.; Costa, Rui M.
Although we carry out most daily tasks nearly automatically, it is occasionally necessary to change a routine if something changes in our environment and the behavior becomes inappropriate. Such behavioral switching can occur either retroactively based on error feedback or proactively by detecting a contextual cue. Recent imaging and electrophysiological data in humans and monkeys have suggested that the frontal cortical areas play executive roles in behavioral switching. The anterior cingulate cortex acts retroactively and the pre-supplementary motor area acts proactively to enable behavioral switching. The lateral prefrontal cortex reconfigures cognitive processes constituting the switched behavior. The subthalamic nucleus and the striatum in the basal ganglia mediate these cortical signals to achieve behavioral switching. We discuss how breaking a routine to allow more adaptive behavior requires a fine-tuned recruitment of the frontal cortical-basal ganglia neural network.
Hikosaka, Okihide; Isoda, Masaki
Learning by imitation is fundamental to both communication and social behavior and requires the conversion of complex, nonlinear sensory codes for perception into similarly complex motor codes for generating action. To understand the neural substrates underlying this conversion, we study sensorimotor transformations in songbird cortical output neurons of a basal-ganglia pathway involved in song learning. Despite the complexity of sensory and motor codes, we find a simple, temporally specific, causal correspondence between them. Sensory neural responses to song playback mirror motor-related activity recorded during singing, with a temporal offset of roughly 40 ms, in agreement with short feedback loop delays estimated using electrical and auditory stimulation. Such matching of mirroring offsets and loop delays is consistent with a recent Hebbian theory of motor learning and suggests that cortico-basal ganglia pathways could support motor control via causal inverse models that can invert the rich correspondence between motor exploration and sensory feedback. PMID:24711417
Giret, Nicolas; Kornfeld, Joergen; Ganguli, Surya; Hahnloser, Richard H R
We have evaluated the long-term outcome of excision, aspiration and no treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia prospectively in 236 (83%) of 283 patients who responded to a postal questionnaire at a mean of 70 months. The resolution of symptoms was similar between the treatment groups (p>0.3). Pain and unsightliness improved in all three treatment groups. The prevalence of weakness and stiffness altered only slightly in all three treatment groups. More patients with a recurrent, or persistent ganglion complained of pain, stiffness and unsightliness (p<0.0001). Patient satisfaction was higher after surgical excision (p<0.0001), even if the ganglion recurred. Twenty-three of 55 (58%) untreated ganglia resolved spontaneously. The recurrence rate was 58% (45/78) and 39% (40/103) following aspiration and excision, respectively. Eight out of 103 patients had complications following surgery. In this study, neither excision nor aspiration provided significant long-term benefit over no treatment. PMID:17950209
Dias, J J; Dhukaram, V; Kumar, P
The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, have been implicated in the generation of contraversive movements. The striatum projects to downstream basal ganglia nuclei through two main circuits, originating in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, and different models postulate that the two pathways can work in opposition or synergistically. Here we show striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons are concurrently active during spontaneous contraversive movements. Furthermore, we show that unilateral optogenetic inhibition of either or both projection pathways disrupts contraversive movements. Consistently, simultaneous activation of both neuron types produces contraversive movements. Still, we also show that imbalanced activity between the pathways can result in opposing movements being driven by each projection pathway. These data show that balanced activity in both striatal projection pathways is critical for the generation of contraversive movements and highlights that imbalanced activity between the two projection pathways can result in opposing motor output. PMID:25002180
Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Matias, Sara; Dugue, Guillaume P; Mainen, Zachary F; Costa, Rui M
The immunosuppressant drug FK506 acts by binding to receptor proteins, FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), which in turn can bind to and regulate a Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, and a Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor. Based on our findings in regeneration models that levels of FKBPs during neural regeneration parallel those of growth-associated protein GAP43, a calcineurin substrate that regulates neurite extension, we examined effects of FK506 in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells and in rat sensory ganglia. FK506 enhances neurite outgrowth in both systems by increasing sensitivity to nerve growth factor. Blockade of FK506 actions in sensory ganglia by rapamycin, an FK506 antagonist, establishes that these effects involve FKBPs. Rapamycin itself stimulates neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. These drug effects are detected at subnanomolar concentrations, suggesting therapeutic application in diseases involving neural degeneration. Images
Lyons, W E; George, E B; Dawson, T M; Steiner, J P; Snyder, S H
We have examined satellite glial cell (SGC) proliferation in trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve. Using BrdU labeling combined with immunohistochemistry for SGC specific proteins we positively confirmed proliferating cells to be SGCs. Proliferation peaks at approximately 4 days after injury and dividing SGCs are preferentially located around neurons that are immunopositive for ATF-3, a marker of nerve injury. After nerve injury there is an increase GFAP expression in SGCs associated with both ATF-3 immunopositive and immunonegative neurons throughout the ganglia. SGCs also express the non-glial proteins, CD45 and CD163, which label resident macrophages and circulating leukocytes, respectively. In addition to SGCs, we found some Schwann cells, endothelial cells, resident macrophages, and circulating leukocytes were BrdU immunopositive.
Donegan, Macayla; Kernisant, Melanie; Cua, Criselda; Jasmin, Luc; Ohara, Peter T.
Over the past 15 years, computational models have had a considerable impact on basal-ganglia research. Most of these models implement multiple distinct basal-ganglia pathways and assume them to fulfill different functions. As there is now a multitude of different models, it has become complex to keep track of their various, sometimes just marginally different assumptions on pathway functions. Moreover, it has become a challenge to oversee to what extent individual assumptions are corroborated or challenged by empirical data. Focusing on computational, but also considering non-computational models, we review influential concepts of pathway functions and show to what extent they are compatible with or contradict each other. Moreover, we outline how empirical evidence favors or challenges specific model assumptions and propose experiments that allow testing assumptions against each other.
Schroll, Henning; Hamker, Fred H.
... Health Issues > Complications of Labor and Delivery 4 Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Position refers ... neck flexed, and presentation is head first. An abnormal position is facing forward, and abnormal presentations include ...
During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.
Moran, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Moran, Jose Luis; Handal, Anabella; Dominguez, Roberto
Recent physiological and tract tracing studies revealed tight coupling of the centre médian and parafascicular nuclei (the CM–Pf complex), which are posterior intralaminar nuclei (ILN) of the thalamus, with basal ganglia circuits. These nuclei have previously been classified as part of the ascending reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system, with studies of single neuron activity and of interruption of neuronal activity suggested that
Minoru Kimura; Takafumi Minamimoto; Naoyuki Matsumoto; Yukiko Hori
A hypothetical mechanism of the basal ganglia involvement in the occurrence of paradoxical sleep dreams and rapid eye movements is proposed. According to this mechanism, paradoxical sleep is provided by facilitation of activation of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus as a result of suppression of their inhibition from the output basal ganglia nuclei. This disinhibition is promoted by activation of dopaminergic cells by pedunculopontine neurons, subsequent rise in dopamine concentration in the input basal ganglia structure. striatum, and modulation of the efficacy of cortico-striatal inputs. In the absence of signals from retina, a disinhibition of neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus and superior colliculus allows them to excite neurons in the lateral geniculate body and other thalamic nuclei projecting to the primary and higher visual cortical areas, prefrontal cortex and back into the striatum. Dreams as visual images and "motor hallucinations" are the result of an increase in activity of definitely selected groups of thalamic and neocortical neurons. This selection is caused by modifiable action of dopamine on long-term changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission during circulation of signals in closed interconnected loops, each of which includes one of the visual cortical areas (motor cortex), one of the thalamic nuclei, limbic and one of the visual areas (motor area) of the basal ganglia. pedunculopontine nucleus, and superior colliculus. Simultaneous modification and modulation of synapses in diverse units of neuronal loops is provided by PGO waves. Disinhibition of superioir colliculus neurons and their excitation by pedunculopontine nucleus lead to an appearance of rapid eye movements during paradoxical sleep. PMID:16583673
Sil'kis, I G
The implantation of deep brain stimulators in different structures of the basal ganglia to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases has allowed the recording of local field potential activity in these structures. The analysis of these signals has helped our understanding of basal ganglia physiology in health and disease. However, there remain some major challenges and questions for the future. In a recent work, Tan et al. (Tan, H., Pogosyan, A., Anam, A., Foltynie, T., Limousin, P., Zrinzo, L., et al. 2013. Frequency specific activity in subthalamic nucleus correlates with hand bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. Exp. Neurol. 240,122-129) take profit of these recordings to study the changes in subthalamic oscillatory activity during the hold and release phases of a grasping paradigm, and correlate the changes in different frequency bands with performance parameters. They found that beta activity was related to the release phase, while force maintenance related most to theta and gamma/HFO activity. There was no significant effect of the motor state of the patient on this latter association. These findings suggest that the alterations in the oscillatory activity of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease are not limited to the beta band, and they involve aspects different from movement preparation and initiation. Additionally, these results highlight the usefulness of the combination of well-designed paradigms with recordings in off and on motor states (in Parkinson's disease), or in different pathologies, in order to understand not only the pathophysiology of the diseases affecting the patients, but also the normal physiology of the basal ganglia. PMID:23764499
Alegre, Manuel; Valencia, Miguel
The functions of glutamate and GABA in the CNS are mediated by ionotropic and metabotropic, G protein-coupled, receptors. Both receptor families are widely expressed in basal ganglia structures in primates and nonprimates. The recent development of highly specific antibodies and\\/or cDNA probes allowed the better characterization of the cellular localization of various GABA and glutamate receptor subtypes in the primate
Yoland Smith; Ali Charara; Maryse Paquet; Jeremy Z Kieval; Jean-François Paré; Jesse E Hanson; George W Hubert; Masaaki Kuwajima; Allan I Levey
The purpose of these studies was to investigate neuronal activity in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex in relation to the internal generation of goal-directed movements. Monkeys performed goal-directed arm movements at a self-chosen moment in the absence of phasic stimuli providing external temporal reference. They were rewarded with a small morsel of food for each movement, although automatic or
Wolfram Schultz; Ranulfo Romo
The purpose of the present study was to examine immunohistochemically the expression of the low-affinity p75 nerve growth factor receptor in the dorsal root ganglia from 12 human fetuses (gestational ages, 10-24 weeks) located in three different spinal segments (cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral), using a monoclonal mouse-antihuman low-affinity p75 nerve growth factor receptor antibody. The low-affinity p75 nerve growth factor
Mohammad Hossein Khorooshi; Birgit Fischer Hansen; Jean W Keeling; Dorrit S Nolting; Inger M Kjaer
Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC) cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson's disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson's disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia may involve improvement of TC relay fidelity.
Guo, Yixin; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M.; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.
Chronic administration of reserpine to rats increases, in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3.x), the enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. Immunochemical titration of the enzyme in both adrenal gland and innervated superior cervical ganglia demonstrates that enhanced enzyme activity is entirely attributable to accumulation of more specific enzyme protein and not activation of preexistent enzyme molecules. Images
Joh, Tong Hyub; Geghman, Cathya; Reis, Donald
This study demonstrates a role for alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the basal ganglia in the consolidation of memory using weakly and strongly reinforced models of discriminated avoidance learning in the chick. The memory enhancing action of noradrenaline injected into the basal ganglia (lobus parolfactorius-LPO) was reduced in the presence of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, but when noradrenaline was injected into the multi-modal association area (intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale-IMHV), yohimbine failed to prevent memory enhancement. Yohimbine injected into the LPO prevented, whereas the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists oxymetazoline and clonidine enhanced, consolidation of memory. The timing of the inhibitory effect of yohimbine in the LPO suggested that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor involvement occurs 10-15 min after training, and that stimulation of alpha(2)-ARs in LPO is necessary for subsequent consolidation of memory. Oxymetazoline, being hydrophilic, was ineffective injected into IMHV, whereas the action of the lipophilic alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine in the IMHV was interpreted as an action at a site more distal in the brain, probably the LPO. The results suggest that noradrenaline release in the basal ganglia in the chick stimulates alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, which modulate and consolidate memory formation mediated by beta(2)- or beta(3)-ARs in the association area. The LPO may be responsible for the reinforcement of memory in the IMHV. PMID:12871653
Gibbs, Marie E; Summers, Roger J
Methamphetamine (METH) dependence causes alarming personal and social damage. Even though many of the problems associated with abuse of METH are related to its profound actions on dopamine (DA) basal ganglia systems, there currently are no approved medications to treat METH addiction. For this reason, we and others have examined the METH-induced responses of neurotensin (NT) systems in the basal ganglia. This neuropeptide is associated with inhibitory feedback pathways to nigrostriatal DA projections, and NT tissue levels are elevated in response to high doses of noncontingent METH because of its increased synthesis in the striatonigral pathway. The present study reports the contingent responses of NT in the basal ganglia to self-administration of METH (SAM). Intravenous infusions of METH linked to appropriate lever-pressing behavior by rats significantly elevated NT content in both dorsal striatum (210%) and substantia nigra (202%). In these same structures, NT levels were also elevated in yoked METH animals (160 and 146%, respectively) but not as much as in the SAM rats. These effects were blocked by a D1, but not D2, antagonist. A NT agonist administered before the day 5 of operant behavior blocked lever-pressing behavior in responding rats, but a NT antagonist had no significant effect on this behavior. These are the first reports that NT systems associated with striatonigral pathway are significantly altered during METH self-administration, and our findings suggest that activation of NT receptors during maintenance of operant responding reduces the associated lever-pressing behavior.
Frankel, Paul S.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Alburges, Mario E.; McDougall, Jacob W.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.
It has been known for some time that the somata of neurons in sensory ganglia respond to electrical or chemical stimulation and release transmitters in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The function of the somatic release has not been well delineated. A unique characteristic of the ganglia is that each neuronal soma is tightly enwrapped by satellite glial cells (SGCs). The somatic membrane of a sensory neuron rarely makes synaptic contact with another neuron. As a result, the influence of somatic release on the activity of adjacent neurons is likely to be indirect and/or slow. Recent studies of neuron-SGC interactions have demonstrated that ATP released from the somata of dorsal root ganglion neurons activates SGCs. They in turn exert complex excitatory and inhibitory modulation of neuronal activity. Thus, SGCs are actively involved in the processing of afferent information. In this review, we summarize our understanding of bidirectional communication between neuronal somata and SGCs in sensory ganglia and its possible role in afferent signaling under normal and injurious conditions. The participation of purinergic receptors is emphasized because of their dominant roles in the communication.
Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, GuangWen; Wang, Cong Ying; Huang, Li-Yen Mae
The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the "direct" and "indirect" pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward-evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome. PMID:24003130
Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten
A new model of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presented that integrates volume conduction effects with a neural model of pathological beta-band oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia network. The model is used to test the clinical hypothesis that closed-loop control of the amplitude of DBS may be possible, based on the average rectified value of beta-band oscillations in the local field potential. Simulation of closed-loop high-frequency DBS was shown to yield energy savings, with the magnitude of the energy saved dependent on the strength of coupling between the subthalamic nucleus and the remainder of the cortico-basal ganglia network. When closed-loop DBS was applied to a strongly coupled cortico-basal ganglia network, the stimulation energy delivered over a 480 s period was reduced by up to 42%. Greater energy reductions were observed for weakly coupled networks, as the stimulation amplitude reduced to zero once the initial desynchronization had occurred. The results provide support for the application of closed-loop high-frequency DBS based on electrophysiological biomarkers. PMID:22695362
Grant, Peadar F; Lowery, Madeleine M
The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the “direct” and “indirect” pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward–evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome.
Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A.; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by conformational alteration of the ubiquitous prion protein. Sporadic CJD appears to progress faster if the basal ganglia are shown to be affected on magnetic resonance imaging. Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) enables visualization of differences in tissue echogenicity, which can be associated with changes in the cerebral metabolism of various metals. These metabolic changes are considered 1 of the potential mechanisms of the brain damage in CJD; TCS hyperechogenicity may reflect changes in metal homeostasis in CJD. We report a 63-year-old woman who presented with typical sporadic CJD. One month after she fell ill, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of her brain showed diffuse cortical but no obvious basal ganglia involvement. However, TCS revealed moderate hyperechogenicity of both lentiform nuclei. The patient's disease progressed quickly and she died 2 months later. TCS may show basal ganglia alteration early in the disease course of patients with quickly progressing CJD, thus aiding in premortem diagnosis. PMID:24674965
Veselinovic, Nikola; Pavlovic, Aleksandra M; Petrovic, Boris; Ristic, Aleksandar; Novakovic, Ivana; Svabic Medjedovic, Tamara; Pavlovic, Dragan; Sternic, Nada
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latent infection in the sensory neuron and possibly in non-neuronal tissue, particularly the cornea. During latency only one region of the HSV genome is transcribed, producing RNAs known as latency associated transcripts (LAT). The gene for LAT overlaps with the HSV gene for the protein ICPO in the downstream regions of both genes. Latency can occur in the absence of LAT. This study reports the detection of ICPO/LAT and thymidine kinase (TK) gene fragments by the polymerase chain reaction in DNA extracted from the corneas and trigeminal ganglia of latently infected rabbits. Both genes were detected in four of four trigeminal ganglia tested and in three of five corneas tested. More importantly, this study reports the first detection of LAT in RNA extracted from 9% of corneas from latently infected rabbits (n = 22) by the polymerase chain reaction. LAT was detected in RNA from 100% of the corresponding trigeminal ganglia (n = 22). Although LAT is not essential for latency, it remains the only known molecular marker for latent HSV infections. Detection of LAT in these rabbit corneas suggests that HSV latency may occur in this non-neuronal tissue and that reactivation from non-neuronal tissue may occur at a low frequency in animals in which HSV latency has been established. Images
Cook, S. D.; Hill, J. M.; Lynas, C.; Maitland, N. J.
The segmental pattern of peripheral ganglia in higher vertebrates is generated by interactions between neural crest and somite cells. Each mesodermal somite is subdivided into at least two distinct domains represented by its rostral and caudal halves. Most migratory pathways taken by neural crest cells in trunk regions of the axis, as well as the outgrowth of motoneuron fibers are restricted to the rostral domain of each somite. Experimental modification of the somites, achieved by constructing a mesoderm composed of multiple rostral half-somites, results in the formation of continuous and unsegmented nerves, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia (SG). In contrast, both neurites and crest cells are absent from a mesoderm composed of multiple-caudal half somites. However, the mechanisms responsible for gangliogenesis within the rostral half of the somite, appear to be different for DRG and SG. Vertebral development from the somites is also segmental. In implants of either multiple rostral or caudal somite-halves, the grafted mesoderm dissociates normally into sclerotome and dermomyotome. However, the morphogenetic capabilities of each somitic half differ. The lateral vertebral arch is continuous in the presence of caudal half-somite grafts and is virtually absent in rostral half-somite implants. Therefore, the rostrocaudal subdivision of the sclerotome determines the segmental pattern of neural development and is also important for the proper metameric development of the vertebrae. PMID:1818106
Kalcheim, C; Goldstein, R S
A major key to increasing the safety of cranial surgery is a thorough understanding of anatomy. The anatomy of the head is of fundamental interest to dental and medical students early in their studies. Clinically, it is mostly relevant to surgeons who are performing interventions and reconstruction in the maxillofacial region, skull base, and the orbit. However, the level of appropriate anatomical knowledge necessary for general and special medical and surgical practice is still under discussion. This study maps the significant areas and structures of the head that are not normally accessible during dissection courses because of time and difficulties involved in the preparation. The detailed photodocumentation enriched by diagrams provides a view of structures until now only partially documented. Three parasympathetic ganglia are located in hardly accessible areas of the head - inside the orbit, infratemporal fossa, and in the pterygopalatine fossa. No detailed photographs have been found in current anatomical textbooks and atlases in relation to the morphology of fibers (roots) connected to the ciliary, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia. Therefore, this study focused on the detailed display of sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic roots of ganglia to provide relevant photodocumentation and an improvement in human anatomy teaching. This study also confirms that cadaver dissection provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of anatomy and clinical medicine into the early clinical training of undergraduate dental and medical students. We believe this article, because of the details mentioned above, will be beneficial not only for the future anatomical undergraduate but also for postgraduate education. PMID:23433588
Lovasova, Kvetuse; Sulla, Igor J; Bolekova, Adriana; Sulla, Igor; Kluchova, Darina
To aid the development of symptomatic and disease modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a strong need to identify non-invasive measures of basal ganglia function that are sensitive to disease severity. This study examines the relation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation in every nucleus of the basal ganglia and symptom-specific disease severity in early stage, de novo PD. BOLD activation measured at 3 Tesla was compared between 20 early stage de novo PD patients and 20 controls during an established precision grip force task. In addition to the basal ganglia nuclei, activation in specific thalamic and cortical regions was examined. There were three novel findings. First, there were significant negative correlations between total motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and BOLD activation in bilateral caudate, bilateral putamen, contralateral external segment of the globus pallidus, bilateral subthalamic nucleus, contralateral substantia nigra, and thalamus. Second, bradykinesia was the symptom that most consistently predicted BOLD activation in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Also, BOLD activation in the contralateral internal globus pallidus was related to tremor. Third, the reduced cortical activity in primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area in de novo PD did not relate to motor symptoms. These findings demonstrate that BOLD activity in nuclei of the basal ganglia relates most consistently to bradykinesia. The findings demonstrate that functional magnetic resonance imaging has strong potential to serve as a non-invasive marker for the state of basal ganglia function in de novo PD.
Prodoehl, Janey; Spraker, Mathew; Corcos, Daniel; Comella, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial ??m disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may provide new therapeutic tools for the treatment of Manganism and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24632637
Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Beauquis, Juan; Muńoz, Manuel J; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L
The results of hydrogen and deuterium Balmer alpha line shapes and line intensities study in an abnormal glow discharge are reported and analyzed. The Doppler shifts along line wings are used to determine energies of excited hydrogen and deuterium atoms. For 12 different cathodes, intensity and shape of line wings are examined and dependence upon cathode material is determined. Tentative
M. R. Gemisic Adamov; Bratislav M. Obradovic; Milorad M. Kuraica; N. Konjevic
In this activity, learners use chemistry to âself-assembleâ gummy shapes. Learners discover that self-assembly is a process by which molecules and cells form themselves into functional structures. Learners also learn that self-assembly is used to make nanocapsules that can deliver medication to diseased parts of the body, bypassing healthy parts. This activity is a fun way to talk about the connections between science and cooking, since the gummy capsules produced in this activity are also used in molecular gastronomy.
Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon
Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon
The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S
Craniocervical junction abnormality (CJA) is a term that encompasses a number of developmental anatomical aberrations at the region of the caudal occiput and first two cervical vertebrae. Chiari-like malformation appears to be the most common CJA encountered in dogs, and there has been a tremendous amount of clinical investigation into this disorder in recent years. Other abnormalities in this region include atlanto-occipital overlap, dorsal constriction at C1/C2 and atlantoaxial instability. This review article presents an overview of the current understanding of CJA in dogs, as well as medical and surgical treatment options available. PMID:23556552
Dewey, C W; Marino, D J; Loughin, C A
Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.
Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George
Dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome may conceivably underlie the symptoms of motor disinhibition presenting as tics and psychiatric manifestations, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify a possible dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette patients, especially involving the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits and the cerebellum. We studied 11 patients with Tourette syndrome and 11 healthy controls. Positron emission tomography procedure: after injection of 20?mCi of [11C]flumazenil, dynamic emission images of the brain were acquired. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained to provide an anatomical framework for the positron emission tomography data analysis. Images of binding potential were created using the two-step version of the simplified reference tissue model. The binding potential images then were spatially normalized, smoothed and compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping. We found decreased binding of GABAA receptors in Tourette patients bilaterally in the ventral striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus, amygdala and right insula. In addition, the GABAA receptor binding was increased in the bilateral substantia nigra, left periaqueductal grey, right posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral cerebellum. These results are consistent with the longstanding hypothesis that circuits involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are disinhibited in Tourette syndrome patients. In addition, the abnormalities in GABAA receptor binding in the insula and cerebellum appear particularly noteworthy based upon recent evidence implicating these structures in the generation of tics.
Bagic, Anto; Simmons, Janine M.; Mari, Zoltan; Bonne, Omer; Xu, Ben; Kazuba, Diane; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Drevets, Wayne C.; Hallett, Mark
Evidence suggests that some structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental in origin. There is also growing evidence to suggest that shape deformations in brain structure may reflect abnormalities in neurodevelopment. While many magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies have investigated brain area and volume measures in schizophrenia, fewer have focused on shape deformations. In this MR study we used a 3D shape representation technique, based on spherical harmonic functions, to analyze left and right amygdala-hippocampus shapes in each of 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls matched for age, gender, handedness and parental socioeconomic status. Left/right asymmetry was also measured for both shape and volume differences. Additionally, shape and volume measurements were combined in a composite analysis. There were no differences between groups in overall volume or shape. Left/right amygdala-hippocampal asymmetry, however, was significantly larger in patients than controls for both relative volume and shape. The local brain regions responsible for the left/right asymmetry differences in patients with schizophrenia were in the tail of the hippocampus (including both the inferior aspect adjacent to parahippocampal gyrus and the superior aspect adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus and more anteriorly to the cerebral peduncles) and in portions of the amygdala body (including the anterior-superior aspect adjacent to the basal nucleus). Also, in patients, increased volumetric asymmetry tended to be correlated with increased left/right shape asymmetry. Furthermore, a combined analysis of volume and shape asymmetry resulted in improved differentiation between groups. Classification function analyses correctly classified 70% of cases using volume, 73.3% using shape, and 87% using combined volume and shape measures. These findings suggest that shape provides important new information toward characterizing the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and that combining volume and shape measures provides improved group discrimination in studies investigating brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. An evaluation of shape deformations also suggests local abnormalities in the amygdala-hippocampal complex in schizophrenia. PMID:12165365
Shenton, Martha E; Gerig, Guido; McCarley, Robert W; Székely, Gábor; Kikinis, Ron
Evidence suggests that some structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental in origin. There is also growing evidence to suggest that shape deformations in brain structure may reflect abnormalities in neurodevelopment. While many magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies have investigated brain area and volume measures in schizophrenia, fewer have focused on shape deformations. In this MR study we used a 3D shape representation technique, based on spherical harmonic functions, to analyze left and right amygdala-hippocampus shapes in each of 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls matched for age, gender, handedness and parental socioeconomic status. Left/right asymmetry was also measured for both shape and volume differences. Additionally, shape and volume measurements were combined in a composite analysis. There were no differences between groups in overall volume or shape. Left/right amygdala–hippocampal asymmetry, however, was significantly larger in patients than controls for both relative volume and shape. The local brain regions responsible for the left/right asymmetry differences in patients with schizophrenia were in the tail of the hippocampus (including both the inferior aspect adjacent to parahippocampal gyrus and the superior aspect adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus and more anteriorly to the cerebral peduncles) and in portions of the amygdala body (including the anterior–superior aspect adjacent to the basal nucleus). Also, in patients, increased volumetric asymmetry tended to be correlated with increased left/right shape asymmetry. Furthermore, a combined analysis of volume and shape asymmetry resulted in improved differentiation between groups. Classification function analyses correctly classified 70% of cases using volume, 73.3% using shape, and 87% using combined volume and shape measures. These findings suggest that shape provides important new information toward characterizing the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and that combining volume and shape measures provides improved group discrimination in studies investigating brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. An evaluation of shape deformations also suggests local abnormalities in the amygdala–hippocampal complex in schizophrenia.
Shenton, Martha E.; Gerig, Guido; McCarley, Robert W.; Szekely, Gabor; Kikinis, Ron
This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921
Cooper, G; Friedman, J M
Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.
Serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical structures involved in the control of motor behaviour, mood and cognition. These receptors are mediating the effects of 5-HT throughout different brain areas via projections originating from midbrain raphe nuclei. A growing interest has been focusing on the function of 5-HT2C receptors in the basal ganglia because they may be involved in various diseases of basal ganglia function notably those associated with chronic impairment of dopaminergic transmission. 5-HT2C receptors act on numerous types of neurons in the basal ganglia, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic cells. Perhaps inherent to their peculiar molecular properties, the modality of controls exerted by 5-HT2C receptors over these cell populations can be phasic, tonic (dependent on the 5-HT tone) or constitutive (a spontaneous activity without the presence of the ligand). These controls are functionally organized in the basal ganglia: they are mainly localized in the input structures and preferentially distributed in the limbic/associative territories of the basal ganglia. The nature of these controls is modified in neuropsychiatric conditions such as Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia or addiction. Most of the available data indicate that the function of 5-HT2C receptor is enhanced in cases of chronic alterations of dopamine neurotransmission. The review illustrates that 5-HT2C receptors play a role in maintaining continuous controls over the basal ganglia via multiple diverse actions. We will discuss their interest for treatments aimed at ameliorating current pharmacotherapies in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease or drugs abuse. PMID:23615975
De Deurwaerdčre, P; Lagičre, M; Bosc, M; Navailles, S
Background Locating the pyramidal tract (PT) is difficult in patients with thalamic or basal ganglia tumors, especially when the surrounding anatomical structures cannot be identified using computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. Hence, we objected to find a way to predict the location of the PT in patients with thalamic and basal ganglia tumors Methodology/Principal Findings In 59 patents with thalamic or basal ganglia tumors, the PTs were constructed by with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tracking (FT). In axial slices crossing the foramen of Monro, the tumor position was classified according to three lines. Line 1 was vertical and crossed the vertex point of the anterior limbs of the internal capsule. Lines 2 and line 3 were horizontal and crossed the foramen of Monro and joint of the middle and lateral thirds of the posterior limbs, respectively. Six (10.17%) patients were diagnosed with type 1 tumor, six (10.17%) with type 2, seven (11.86%) with type 3a, five (8.47%) with type 3b, 17 (28.81%) with type 4a, six (10.17%) with type 4b, three (5.08%) with type 5, and nine (15.25%) with type 6. In type 1 tumors, the PTs were located at the 12 o'clock position of the tumor, type 2 at six o'clock, type 3a between nine and 12 o'clock, type 3 between six and nine o'clock, type 4a between 12 and three o'clock, type 4b at three o'clock, type 5 between six and nine o'clock, and type 6 between three and six o'clock. Conclusions/Significance The position of the PT relative to the tumor could be determined according to the tumor location. These results could prove helpful in determining the location of the PT preoperatively.
The timing of perceptual events depends on an anatomically and functionally connected network comprising basal ganglia, cerebellum, pre-frontal cortex and supplementary motor area. Recent studies demonstrate the cerebellum to be involved in absolute, duration-based timing, but not in relative timing based on a regular beat. Conversely, functional involvement of the striatum is observed in relative timing, but its role in absolute timing is unclear. This work tests the specific role of the basal ganglia in the perceptual timing of auditory events. It aims to distinguish the hypothesised unified model of time perception (Teki, Grube, & Griffiths, 2012), in which the striatum is a mandatory component for all timing tasks, from a modular system in which they subserve relative timing, with absolute timing processed by the cerebellum. Test groups comprised individuals with Multiple System Atrophy, a disorder in which similar pathology can produce clinical deficits associated with dysfunction of the cerebellum (MSA-C, n=8) or striatum (MSA-P, n=10), and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (HD, n=14). Individuals with chronic autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (n=11) acted as controls. Six adaptive tasks were carried out to assess perceptual thresholds for absolute timing through duration discrimination for sub- and supra-second time intervals, and relative timing through the detection of beat-based regularity and irregularity, detection of a delay within an isochronous sequence, and the discrimination of sequences with metrical structure. All three patient groups exhibited impairments in performance in comparison with the control group for all tasks, and severity of impairment was significantly correlated with disease progression. No differences were demonstrated between MSA-C and MSA-P, and the most severe impairments were observed in those with HD. The data support an obligatory role for the basal ganglia in all tested timing tasks, both absolute and relative, as predicted by the unified model. The results are not compatible with models of a brain timing network based upon independent modules.
Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon; Singh, Baldev; Burn, David J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.
This paper reviews the organization of the avian and mammalian striatum. The striatum receives input from virtually the entire rostrocaudal and mediolateral expanse of the cerebral cortex. The corticostriatal projections appear to be glutamatergic, forming excitatory synapses in the striatum. Another major projection to the avian striatum that also appears to be glutamatergic stems from a set of nuclei in the dorsal zone of the avian thalamus that are comparable to the mammalian intralaminar, mediodorsal, and midline nuclei. Furthermore, the striatum receives a massive projection from dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra in the midbrain tegmentum. In return, the midbrain tegmentum receives a direct GABAergic/substance P-ergic/ dynorphinergic projection from the striatum, as well as an indirect one formed by GABAergic/substance P-ergic/ dynorphinergic and GABA-ergic/enkephalinergic striatal neurons projecting to the pallidum in the first step, and pallidal GABAergic/LANT6/parvalbumin neurons projecting to the midbrain tegmentum in the second step. In addition to its projection neurons, the striatum possesses GABAergic and cholinergic interneurons. One motor output pathway of the striatum runs via the pallidum and dorsal thalamic ventral tier nulei to the motor cortex. In addition to this pathway, birds possess a major descending pathway from the basal ganglia to the tectum via the GABAergic nucleus spiriformis lateralis in the pretectum. On hodological and topological grounds, similar nuclei, although not GABAergic, can be found in mammals. Finally, an other striatal motor output is formed by a sequential GABAergic pathway from the basal ganglia via the substantia nigra to the tectum. In conclusion, it appears that the organization of the avian and mammalian basal ganglia is similar rather than different. PMID:9290931
Veenman, C L
1. Repetitive stimulation (10-20 Hz, 0.5-5 s duration) of the preganglionic nerves to ganglia on the surface of the urinary bladder of the cat produced a prolonged inhibition (duration, 30-65 s) of the postganglionic action potentials, elicited by low-frequency stimulation (0.25-1 Hz) of another preganglionic nerve to the same ganglion. 2. Intra-arterial administration of naloxone, an opiate antagonist (20-50 micrograms/kg), reduced the magnitude and duration of this heterosynaptic inhibition and also blocked the depression of ganglionic transmission elicited by the intra-arterial administration of leucine-enkephalin (0.1-10 micrograms/kg). 3. Naloxone did not alter adrenergic inhibition elicited by repetitive stimulation of the hypogastric nerve or exogenous noradrenaline. Naloxone did not alter the postganglionic firing elicited by single stimuli or trains of low-frequency (1-3 Hz) stimuli to the preganglionic nerves. 4. Heterosynaptic inhibition was not altered by the administration of antagonists for alpha-adrenergic (dihydroergotamine, prazosin, yohimbine), muscarinic (atropine), purinergic (theophylline) or GABAergic (picrotoxin) receptors. 5. A delta-selective opiate receptor agonist, DSLET (D-Ser2-leucine-enkephalin-Thr), inhibited parasympathetic ganglionic transmission in low doses (mean threshold dose, 0.02 microgram/kg, I.A.), whereas a mu-opiate receptor agonist, morphine sulphate, produced only a small depression in larger doses (mean threshold dose, 100 micrograms/kg, I.A.). Ethylketocyclazocine, which has an affinity for kappa-receptors did not alter transmission in relatively large doses (1 mg/kg, I.A.). 6. These findings coupled with previous immunocytochemical demonstrations of leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in preganglionic nerve terminals in bladder ganglia suggest that opioid peptides released endogenously from preganglionic nerves are involved in delta-receptor-mediated inhibitory mechanisms at cholinergic synapses in bladder ganglia. Images Fig. 1
de Groat, W C; Kawatani, M
This paper presents a sensorimotor architecture integrating computational models of a cerebellum and a basal ganglia and operating on a microrobot. The computational models enable a microrobot to learn to track a moving object and anticipate future positions using a CCD camera. The architecture features pre-processing modules for coordinate transformation and instantaneous orientation extraction. Learning of motor control is implemented using predictive Hebbian reinforcement-learning algorithm in the basal ganglia model. Learning of sensory predictions makes use of a combination of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) adaptation rules within the cerebellum model. The basal ganglia model uses the visual inputs to develop sensorimotor mapping for motor control, while the cerebellum module uses robot orientation and world- coordinate transformed inputs to predict the location of the moving object in a robot centered coordinate system. We propose several hypotheses about the functional role of cell populations in the cerebellum and argue that mossy fiber projections to the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) could play a coordinate transformation role and act as gain fields. We propose that such transformation could be learnt early in the brain development stages and could be guided by the activity of the climbing fibers. Proprioceptor mossy fibers projecting to the DCN and providing robot orientation with respect to a reference system could be involved in this case. Other mossy fibers carrying visual sensory input provide visual patterns to the granule cells. The combined activities of the granule and the Purkinje cells store spatial representations of the target patterns. The combinations of mossy and Purkinje projections to the DCN provide a prediction of the location of the moving target taking into consideration the robot orientation. Results of lesion simulations based on our model show degradations similar to those reported in cerebellar lesion studies on monkeys.
Jabri, Marwan A.; Huang, Jerry; Coenen, Olivier J. D.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency in trigeminal ganglia (TG) is accompanied by a chronic immune cell infiltration. The aim of this study was to analyse the T-cell receptor ?-chain repertoire in latently HSV-1 infected human TG. Using complementarity-determining region 3 spectratyping, 74 expanded ?-chain sequences were identified in five TG. No clone appeared in more than one subject. Similar clones were present in the right and the left TG of two subjects. This indicates that these T cells are primed in the periphery and recognise the same antigen in the TG of both sides. PMID:22167486
Held, Kathrin; Eiglmeier, Ingrid; Himmelein, Susanne; Sinicina, Inga; Brandt, Thomas; Theil, Diethilde; Dornmair, Klaus; Derfuss, Tobias
Brain microbleeds (BMBs) can be detected on the gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and are considered a risk factor for cognitive impairment and intracerebral hemorrhage. Detailed radiologic findings on the etiology of BMBs and their changes remain scarce. We present a case of subacute change in a BMB in the basal ganglia that mimicked a subacute lacunar infarct. Our findings underscore the need for physicians to be careful to not erroneously diagnose BMBs as lacunar infarctions and prescribe unnecessary antiplatelet medication. PMID:21757373
Nezu, Tomohisa; Arihiro, Shoji; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo
The response to epinephrine (EP) was determined for neurons in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia by intracellular and voltage-clamp recording techniques. EP (5 microM-1 mM) produced a concentration-dependent depolarization mediated through beta-adrenoceptors. The EP-induced depolarization (EPD) was associated with a decrease in the membrane conductance. The EP-induced current (EP1) was decreased at hyperpolarizing potential levels and nullified at -70 mV. No reversal of the EPI polarity was seen. It is concluded that the EPD is generated by the suppression of a voltage-dependent gK, probably the M-channel. PMID:2882816
Akasu, T; Koketsu, K
Summary The P2X7 receptor mRNA and proteins in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.\\u000a The co-localization of P2X7 receptor with four cytochemical markers, the neurofilament protein NF200, S100, substance P and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding\\u000a glyco-conjugates, were also examined. It was found that P2X7 receptor immunoreactivity (P2X7R-IR) was present mostly in large- and medium-sized DRG
Bai Xuegong; Jiang Ling; Xiang Zhenghua
Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [11C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ?BP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ?BP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ?BP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ?BP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder.
Berman, Brian D.; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark
Five boys who had Noonan's syndrome and lymphatic abnormalities are reported. The youngest boy had clinical lymphoedema and the other four showed dermal backflow after interdigital injection of Patent Blue indicating impairment of flow along the superficial lymphatics. One boy had severe bilateral chylothorax. The lymphographic findings in four of these boys are reported. Patients with the Noonan syndrome frequently have oedema of the hands and feet at birth, which decreases during the first years of life . It has been demonstrated by lymphography that similar peripheral oedema in patients with the Turner's syndrome is due to lymphatic hypoplasia [1, 3]. We report certain lymphatic abnormalities diagnosed by lymphography in four out of five patients with Noonan's syndrome. PMID:673526
Lanning, P; Similä, S; Suramo, I; Paavilainen, T
Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplasic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10.5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. PMID:3595619
Schnyder, P; Candardjis, G
Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems.
Take a look at a textbook illustration of a cell and you will immediately be able to locate the nucleus, which is often drawn as a spherical or ovoid shaped structure. But not all cells have such nuclei. In fact, some disease states are diagnosed by the presence of nuclei that have an abnormal shape or size. What defines nuclear shape and nuclear size, and how does nuclear geometry affect nuclear function? While the answer to the latter question remains largely unknown, significant progress has been made towards understanding the former. In this review, we provide an overview of the factors and forces that affect nuclear shape and size, discuss the relationship between ER structure and nuclear morphology, and speculate on the possible connection between nuclear size and its shape. We also note the many interesting questions that remain to be explored.
Walters, Alison D.; Bommakanti, Ananth; Cohen-Fix, Orna
1. Sensory ganglia from 8-day-old chick embryos were incubated with a specific nerve growth factor and with insulin. 2. From the total lipid extract of the ganglia a compound with steroid characteristics was isolated. 3. The synthesis of this compound, measured spectrophotometrically, diminished after addition of the nerve growth factor and insulin to the incubation medium. 4. The incorporation of sodium [2-14C]acetate and dl-[2-14C]mevalonic acid into total lipids of the sensory ganglia was stimulated by the nerve growth factor and insulin, but the radioactivity of the sterol-like compound was slightly lower. The incorporation of labelled mevalonic acid either into total lipids or into the sterol-like compound was about 25% lower. 5. About 20% of the acetate incorporated into total lipids and about 87% of the mevalonic acid were recovered in the sterol-like compound.
Liuzzi, Antonia; Foppen, Fredrik H.
This article examines how independent corticostriatal loops linking basal ganglia with cerebral cortex contribute to visual categorization. The first aspect of categorization discussed is the role of the visual corticostriatal loop, which connects the visual cortex and the body/tail of the caudate, in mapping visual stimuli to categories, including evaluating the degree to which this loop may generalize across individual category members. The second aspect of categorization discussed is the selection of appropriate actions or behaviors on the basis of category membership, and the role of the visual corticostriatal loop output and the motor corticostriatal loop, which connects motor planning areas with the putamen, in action selection. The third aspect of categorization discussed is how categories are learned with the aid of feedback linked dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia. These projections underlie corticostriatal synaptic plasticity across the basal ganglia, and also serve as input to the executive and motivational corticostriatal loops that play a role in strategic use of feedback.
Seger, Carol A.
GABA and glutamate, the main transmitters in the basal ganglia, exert their effects through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. The dynamic activation of these receptors in response to released neurotransmitter depends, among other factors, on their precise localization in relation to corresponding synapses. The use of high resolution quantitative electron microscope immunocytochemical techniques has provided in-depth description of the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of these receptors in the CNS. In this article, we review recent findings on the ultrastructural localization of GABA and glutamate receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia, at synaptic, extrasynaptic and presynaptic sites. The anatomical evidence supports numerous potential locations for receptor-neurotransmitter interactions, and raises important questions regarding mechanisms of activation and function of synaptic versus extrasynaptic receptors in the basal ganglia.
Galvan, Adriana; Kuwajima, Masaaki; Smith, Yoland
Oscillations in the basal ganglia are an active area of research and have been shown to relate to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. We study oscillations in a multi-channel mean field model, where each channel consists of an interconnected pair of subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus sub-populations.To study how the channels interact, we perform two-dimensional bifurcation analysis of a model of an individual channel, which reveals the critical boundaries in parameter space that separate different dynamical modes; these modes include steady-state, oscillatory, and bi-stable behaviour. Without self-excitation in the subthalamic nucleus a single channel cannot generate oscillations, yet there is little experimental evidence for such self-excitation. Our results show that the interactive channel model with coupling via pallidal sub-populations demonstrates robust oscillatory behaviour without subthalamic self-excitation, provided the coupling is sufficiently strong. We study the model under healthy and Parkinsonian conditions and demonstrate that it exhibits oscillations for a much wider range of parameters in the Parkinsonian case. In the discussion, we show how our results compare with experimental findings and discuss their possible physiological interpretation. For example, experiments have found that increased lateral coupling in the rat basal ganglia is correlated with oscillations under Parkinsonian conditions. PMID:23945348
Merrison-Hort, Robert; Yousif, Nada; Njap, Felix; Hofmann, Ulrich G; Burylko, Oleksandr; Borisyuk, Roman
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr’s disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient’s disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation.
Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintans, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobricic, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; Garcia-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Jankovic, Milena; Jauma, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kostic, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agnes; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novakovic, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, Joao R. M.; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr's disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient's disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41% of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463
Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L; Lemos, Roberta R; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D; Fullerton, Janice M; Adair, John C; Berner, Jon E; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobrici?, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L; Hopfer, Suellen; Jankovi?, Milena; Jaumŕ, Serge; Jen, Joanna C; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kosti?, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E; Linglart, Agnčs; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Manyam, Bala V; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B; Mueller, Jennifer; Novakovi?, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R; de Oliveira, Joăo R M; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Geschwind, Daniel H; Coppola, Giovanni
We report the case of OTM who presented with dynamic aphasia following a stroke that occurred in the left basal ganglia. He showed drastically reduced spontaneous speech in the context of well preserved naming, repetition and comprehension skills. OTM was particularly impaired in generating words, sentences and phrases when cued by a stimulus allowing many response options. By contrast, when a single response was strongly suggested by a stimulus, he could generate verbal responses adequately. OTM's non-verbal response generation abilities varied across tasks. He performed in the normal range in a motor movement generation test and he produced as many figures as controls when tested on a figural fluency task. He showed, however, many perseverations on this test. Moreover in a random number generation task he produced more responses that were part of ascending and descending series of numbers. The patient's impairments are interpreted as a consequence of two deficits. The first of these consists of an inability to generate verbal responses particularly in situations of high competition and involves the function of left frontal regions. The second deficit is one of impaired novel thought generation as evidenced by perseverations. This second deficit has been proposed to be a function of basal ganglia damage. PMID:18569743
Crescentini, Cristiano; Lunardelli, Alberta; Mussoni, Alessandro; Zadini, Antonietta; Shallice, Tim
The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinso?s disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control. PMID:24223158
Sieger, Tomáš; Bonnet, Cecilia; Serranová, Tereza; Wild, Ji?í; Novák, Daniel; R?ži?ka, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; R?ži?ka, Evžen; Gaymard, Bertrand; Jech, Robert
Nerve growth factor (NGF) has important developmental actions in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Primary cultures of neonatal guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of NGF to stimulate morphological development in enteric neurons. NGF, in the presence of a serum-free medium, produced dose-dependent increases in neurite density, significant at 1 ng/ml and maximal at 100 ng/ml (4.5-fold increase vs. control). Maximum neurite length was also significantly increased at 1 ng/ml, with maximal effects at 100 ng/ml. Coincubation of NGF (50 ng/ml) with monoclonal NGF antibodies abolished increases in both neurite density (128 +/- 19 processes/mm for control, 369 +/- 19 for NGF, 183 +/- 28 for NGF+monoclonal antibodies) and neurite length. Exposure of enteric neurons to low concentrations of NGF (1 ng/ml) was also associated with increased mRNA levels for cytoskeletal genes. alpha-Tubulin mRNA levels were increased 3.9 +/- 0.7 times basal at 48 h. mRNA levels for microtubule-associated protein 2 were increased threefold at 48 h of NGF incubation. NGF demonstrates activities in cultured enteric ganglia that stimulate morphological development. PMID:7943336
Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Lally, K; Simeone, D M
The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity. PMID:18228196
Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A
Cardiac Ganglia, Phrenic Nerve, Coronary Venous System.?There is an increasing need for invasive electrophysiologists to appreciate the exact anatomy of the epicardial space and the coronary veins. The location of the epicardial fat, the complementary relationship with the main cardiac veins, and the location of sensitive structures (arteries, phrenic nerve, esophagus) have become required knowledge for electrophysiologists, and accessing the epicardial space with this thorough knowledge of the pericardial sinuses and recesses is essential to allow radiographic correlation during catheter manipulation. In this review, we briefly describe the anatomy of the pericardial space and then discuss the specific correlation for the invasive electrophysiologist, highlighting epicardial access, catheter navigation, and avoidance of collateral injury, with specific attention to the important recesses of the pericardial space, their regional anatomy, and radiographic correlation when navigating catheters to these locations. We also discuss the anatomy of the main cardiac veins in the context of catheter mapping and ablation of the epicardial substrate through the venous system and without subxiphoid pericardial access. In part II of this series we discuss the detailed regional anatomy of the cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, and coronary venous system. PMID:20807274
Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Habib, Ammar; Kapa, Suraj; Bisco, Susan E; Venkatachalam, K L; Asirvatham, Samuel J
Quantification of acute brain injury in basal ganglia is essential for mechanistic and therapeutic studies in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using conventional counting of degenerating cells based on morphological or immunohistochemical criteria, it is hard to define the boundary of the whole lesion area. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum. We developed new methods for quantifying lesion area by detecting the difference of the DARPP-32 negative area and the hematoma clot, and by measuring DARPP-32 protein level for semi-qualification in rat model of ICH. We found that DARPP-32 negative area around hematoma was present at day-1, peaked at day-3, and decreased at day-14 after ICH, a time course paralleled by DARPP-32 Western blots. The DARPP-32 negative area matched well with the necrotic area determined using propidium iodide. Treatment with an iron chelator, deferoxamine, attenuated the ICH-induced reduction in DARPP-32 protein levels. These results suggest that DARPP-32 is a simple and quantifiable indicator of ICH-induced neuronal death in basal ganglia.
Jin, Hang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F.; Wu, Jiang; Hua, Ya
In this study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) at high field (3T) to track the time course of activation in the entire basal ganglia circuitry, as well as other motor-related structures, during the explicit learning of a sequence of finger movements over a month of training. Fourteen right-handed healthy volunteers had to practice 15 min daily a sequence of eight moves using the left hand. MRI sessions were performed on days 1, 14 and 28. In both putamen, activation decreased with practice in rostrodorsal (associative) regions. In contrast, there was a significant signal increase in more caudoventral (sensorimotor) regions of the putamen. Subsequent correlation analyses between signal variations and behavioral variables showed that the error rate (movement accuracy) was positively correlated with signal changes in areas activated during early learning, whereas reaction time (movement speed) was negatively correlated with signal changes in areas activated during advanced learning stages, including the sensorimotor putamen and globus pallidus. These results suggest the possibility that motor representations shift from the associative to the sensorimotor territories of the striato-pallidal complex during the explicit learning of motor sequences, suggesting that motor skills are stored in the sensorimotor territory of the basal ganglia that supports a speedy performance.
Lehericy, Stephane; Benali, Habib; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Pelegrini-Issac, Melanie; Waechter, Tobias; Ugurbil, Kamil; Doyon, Julien
The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinso?s disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control.
Sieger, Tomas; Bonnet, Cecilia; Serranova, Tereza; Wild, Jiri; Novak, Daniel; Ruzicka, Filip; Urgosik, Dusan; Ruzicka, Evzen; Gaymard, Bertrand; Jech, Robert
Isoprenaline (0.01-1 microM) increased the amount of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in rat isolated superior cervical ganglia by up to 10 times after 10 min application. Cyclic AMP levels returned to control values after 20 min washing. Salbutamol, in concentrations (1-100 microM) that depolarized the ganglion and facilitated submaximal transmission, did not significantly raise ganglionic cyclic AMP levels. The action of isoprenaline was antagonized by butoxamine (apparent KI approximately equal to 0.14 microM) and weakly by practolol (apparent KI approximately equal to 9.1 microM). The effect of 0.1 microM isoprenaline was also inhibited 94% by 100 microM of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 9-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)adenine (SQ 22,536). Exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not replicate the effects of isoprenaline on ganglionic d.c. potentials or submaximal transmission. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors theophylline, isobutylmethylxanthine or 4-(3,4-dibutoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone (Ro 20-1724) did not potentiate these electrical responses to isoprenaline. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22,536, did not inhibit the electrical responses to isoprenaline. It is concluded that available evidence does not support the view that the ganglion depolarization or facilitation of submaximal transmission in rat isolated ganglia produced by isoprenaline are likely to be mediated by cyclic AMP.
Brown, D. A.; Dunn, P. M.
A fundamental issue of neural-crest ontogeny is understanding how different types of cells are created at the right time and in the correct numbers. Sensory ganglia are among the many derivatives of the vertebrate neural crest. Their proper formation requires the regulation of several processes such as cell fate specification, proliferation, survival, and terminal differentiation. The timescale of the occurrence of processes involved in the regulation of cell number and identity, coincides with key morphogenetic events such as cell migration, homing and gangliogenesis. To gain insight into these processes, we characterized the cellular basis of metameric migration of neural-crest cells and of consequent ganglion organization, which are imposed by intrinsic differences within rostral and caudal sclerotomal compartments. We also established a transient requirement for neural tube-derived factors in regulating the proliferation, survival and differentiation of prospective DRG cells. Additionally, we showed that cooperation between the mesodermal cells and the neural tube is necessary for modulating cell number in the nascent ganglia. BDNF, NT-3 and basic FGF were found to mediate this environmental signalling. All the above factors display neurogenic activity for a subset of early-committed sensory neuron progenitors. This observation raises the possibility of an early redundancy in the response of individual neural-crest progenitors to distinct factors. This overlap in responsiveness progressively disappears upon the colonization of specific ganglionic sites and the subsequent establishment of selective innervation patterns by post-mitotic sensory neurons. PMID:8730774
Basal synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity were evaluated in superior cervical sympathetic ganglia (SCG) of amyloid-? rat model of Alzheimer's disease (A? rat) using electrophysiological and molecular techniques. Rats were administered A? peptides (a mixture of 1:1 A?1-40 and A?1-42) by chronic intracerebroventricular infusion via 14-day mini-osmotic pumps (300 pmol/day). Control rats received A?40-1 (inactive reverse peptide: 300 pmol/day). Ganglionic compound action potentials were recorded before (basal) and after repetitive stimulation. In isolated SCG, ganglionic long-term potentiation (gLTP) was generated by a brief train of stimuli (20Hz for 20s) and ganglionic long-term depression (gLTD) was produced with trains of paired pulses. The input/output (I/O) curves of ganglia from A? rats showed a marked downward shift along all stimulus intensities, compared to those of ganglia from control animals, indicating impaired basal synaptic transmission. In addition, repetitive stimulation induced robust gLTP and gLTD in ganglia isolated from control animals, but, the same protocols failed to induce gLTP or gLTD in ganglia from A? rats indicating impairment of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in these animals. Western blotting of SCG homogenate from A? rats revealed reduction in the ratio of phosphorylated-/total-CaMKII and in calcineurin protein levels. Although other mechanisms could be involved, these changes in signaling molecules could represent an important molecular mechanism linked to the failure to express synaptic plasticity in A? rat ganglia. Results of the current study could explain some of the peripheral nervous system manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21453246
Alzoubi, K H; Alhaider, I A; Tran, T T; Mosely, A; Alkadhi, K K
Malarial infection is an important tropical mosquito borne infectious disease. An important unusual manifestation of malaria\\u000a is the abnormal menstruation. In this brief review, the author will focus on the abnormal menstruation in malarial infection.
In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.
Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel
Platelets which have complex membranes and calcium shifts similar to those in muscles were investigated in 14 patients with muscular dystrophy and 20 suitable controls. In 4 Duchenne and one limb-girdle dystrophy aggregations were done and found to be depressed with adrenaline and ADP. Electron microscopic and chemical examinations revealed an increased number of dense bodies, changed permeability and/or binding of cations and elevated intracellular calcium in all the 9 cases of Duchenne dystrophy while the 2 limb-girdle and 3 myotonic dystrophies varied. A two phase polymer separation system applied to fixed platelets of all patients and controls showed no abnormality of surface negative charge. PMID:6308847
Yarom, R; Meyer, S; More, R; Liebergall, M; Eldor, A
The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.
Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.
Today we will learn more about shapes. We will also have a chance to create new shapes out of the shapes we receive! First, click on Sorting. Sort the different shapes by size, color, or shape. You will have to decide which way the shapes are being sorted each time. Sort shapes five times. Next, create some Quadrilaterals. This Quadrilateral can move as you click the vertex with the mouse and move it. ...
The innervation of the Brockmann bodies in the teleost fish, Blennius gattoruggine, was studied using immunocytochemical techniques at both the light and electron microscopy levels. Islet innervation consisted of intrapancreatic ganglia, generally localized inside the rim of the exocrine tissue of the Brockmann bodies, in proximity to the islet, nerve fibres and nerve terminals with synaptic complexes. The intrapancreatic ganglia
R. Putti; M. Maglio; G. Odierna
Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes.
Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G
Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829
Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa
Herein we take advantage of the evolutionary developmental biology approach in order to improve our understanding of both the functional organization and the evolution of the basal ganglia, with a particular focus on the globus pallidus. Therefore, we review data on the expression of developmental regulatory genes (that play key roles in patterning, regional specification and/or morphogenesis), gene function and fate mapping available in different vertebrate species, which are useful to (a) understand the embryonic origin and basic features of each neuron subtype of the basal ganglia (including neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression and connectivity patterns); (b) identify the same (homologous) subpopulations in different species and the degree of variation or conservation throughout phylogeny, and (c) identify possible mechanisms that may explain the evolution of the basal ganglia. These data show that the globus pallidus of rodents contains two major subpopulations of GABAergic projection neurons: (1) neurons containing parvalbumin and neurotensin-related hexapetide (LANT6), with descending projections to the subthalamus and substantia nigra, which originate from progenitors expressing Nkx2.1, primarily located in the pallidal embryonic domain (medial ganglionic eminence), and (2) neurons containing preproenkephalin (and possibly calbindin), with ascending projections to the striatum, which appear to originate from progenitors expressing Islet1 in the striatal embryonic domain (lateral ganglionic eminence). Based on data on Nkx2.1, Islet1, LANT6 and proenkephalin, it appears that both cell types are also present in the globus pallidus/dorsal pallidum of chicken, frog and lungfish. In chicken, the globus pallidus also contains neurons expressing substance P (SP), perhaps originating in the striatal embryonic domain. In ray-finned and cartilaginous fishes, the pallidum contains at least the Nkx2.1 lineage cell population (likely representing the neurons containing LANT6). Based on the presence of neurons containing enkephalin or SP, it is possible that the pallidum of these animals also includes the Islet1 lineage cell subpopulation, and both neuron subtypes were likely present in the pallidum of the first jawed vertebrates. In contrast, lampreys (jawless fishes) appear to lack the pallidal embryonic domain and the Nkx2.1 lineage cell population that mainly characterize the pallidum in jawed vertebrates. In the absence of data in other jawless fishes, the ancestral condition in vertebrates remains to be elucidated. Perhaps, a major event in telencephalic evolution was the novel expression of Nkx2.1 in the subpallium, which has been related to Hedgehog expression and changes in the regulatory region of Nkx2.1. PMID:24776992
Medina, Loreta; Abellán, Antonio; Vicario, Alba; Desfilis, Ester
A single oral dose of crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile induced behavioral abnormalities such as circling, hyperactivity and head twitching. Crotononitrile induced the abnormalities in both olive oil- and CCl4 pretreated mice, whereas 2-pentenenitrile induced the abnormalities only in CCl4-pretreated mice. Seven related compounds induced no behavioral abnormality. The head twitching by crotononitrile and 2-pentenenitrile was either reduced by treatment with serotonin and dopamine antagonists, or enhanced by a serotonin releaser, suggesting that both the serotonin and dopamine systems are involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by these two nitriles. PMID:2616059
Tanii, H; Hayashi, M; Hashimoto, K
How do you name things by color and shape? Lets learn about shapes and colors! 1. Watch this Color Video 2. Play this Color Game 3. Complete this Color Page 4. Watch this Shape Video 5. Watch this Shape Video2 6. Play this Shape Game 7. ...
In the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo, two neuronal populations can be distinguished: large, early differentiating ventrolateral (VL) cells and small, late differentiating dorsomedial (DM) cells. It was found that, beginning with stage 25, the DM cells originate from a narrow band of small, immature cells at the medial border of the ganglion, extending to the dorsolateral border. We
V. HAMBURGER; J. K. BRUNSO-BECHTOLD; J. W. YIP
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is expressed in a population of capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons of small to medium size in the rat. In the present report we have examined the effect of sciatic nerve injury (unilateral transection) on PACAP expression (immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay, in situ hybridization and northern blot analysis) in dorsal root ganglia at the lumbar level and
Y.-Z. Zhang; J. Hannibal; Q. Zhao; K. Moller; N. Danielsen; J. Fahrenkrug; F. Sundler
Cardiac output is regulated by the coordinate interactions of stimulatory sympathetic and inhibitory parasympathetic sig- nals. Intracardiac parasympathetic ganglia are integrative cen- ters of cardiac regulation, and modulation of the parasympa- thetic drive on the heart is accomplished by altering intrinsic cardiac ganglion neuron excitability. The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)\\/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family of peptides modulates cardiac function,
Karen M. Braas; Victor May; Susan A. Harakall; Jean C. Hardwick; Rodney L. Parsons
By using immunocytochemistry method of Strept Avidin-Biotin-Complex, four kinds of antisera raised against rabbits were applied to observe the immunoreactive neurons and neuropils of serotonin (5-HT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and ?-Endorphin (?-Ep) in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that, the 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were located in all the four neuropils of optic ganglia. Immunoreactivity of 5-HT was detected in anterior medial protocerebrum neuropils (AMPN), and the inner and outer lateral beside olfactory lobe (OL) of deutocerebrum. The presence of NPY-immunoreactive cells was found in all the four neuropils of the optic ganglia. NPY-immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior median cell cluster, lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum, and cell cluster beside OL and AMPN. SP-immunoreactivity was found in medulla terminalis (MT) of optic ganglia, and lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum and posterior lateral cell cluster of tritocerebrum. ?-Ep-immunoreactive cells were in MT only. In conclusion, these specific distribution patterns of the four immunoreactive substances can be used as morphological clues for understanding their different neurophysiological functions.
Ye, Haihui; Wang, Guizhong; Jin, Zhuxing; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing
Homozygous grey and white Karakul lambs die after they have reached weaning age. This is due to a lethal gene causing digestive disturbances. Previous studies revealed that grey and white lambs have large, milk-filled rumens; the phenomenon was attributed to a significant decrease in the number of myenteric ganglia and neurons in the rumen wall. This study was undertaken to determine whether any morphological differences exist in the ultrastructure of the myenteric ganglia in the forestomach and abomasum of grey, white and black Karakul lambs. Samples of the forestomach and abomasum of grey, white and black Karakul lambs were prepared routinely for electron microscopy and studied with a Phillips electron microscope. No morphological differences could be detected in the structure of the components of the myenteric ganglia in the forestomachs and abomasums of grey, white and black Karakul lambs. It was therefore concluded that the lethal gene in grey and white Karakul lambs results in a paucity of the myenteric ganglia, but does not affect the ultrastructure of these structures. PMID:7970574
Groenewald, H B
Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…
Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.
Background: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit different brain regions, particularly the basal ganglia and thalamus, components of frontostriatal circuitry thought to
Dara S. Manoach; Randy L. Gollub; Etienne S. Benson; Meghan M. Searl; Donald C. Goff; Elkan Halpern; Clifford B. Saper; Scott L. Rauch
In order to shed light on transcriptional networks involved in adult peripheral nerve repair program, we propose for the first time an organization of the transcriptional dynamics of the mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following a sciatic nerve lesion. This was done by a non-hierarchical bioinformatical clustering of four Serial Analysis of Gene Expression libraries performed on DRG at embryonic
Ilana Méchaly; Steeve Bourane; David Piquemal; Mohammed Al-Jumaily; Stéphanie Ventéo; Sylvie Puech; Frédérique Scamps; Jean Valmier; Patrick Carroll
While serotonin has been shown to play an important role in peripheral pain mechanisms, the specific subtypes of receptors involved and their differential distribution between the sensory and sympathetic nervous system remains poorly understood. In this study, the presence of messenger RNA for rat serotonin receptor subtypes in peripheral sensory and sympathetic ganglia was detected using the method of polymerase
P. A. Pierce; G.-X. Xie; J. D. Levine; S. J. Peroutka
Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in the nervous system. We have recently shown that principal neurons from canine intracardiac ganglia (ICG) express a paxilline- and TEA-sensitive BK current, which increases neuronal excitability. In the present work, we further explore the molecular constituents of the BK current in canine ICG. We found that the ?1 and ?4 regulatory subunits are expressed in ICG. Single channel voltage-dependence at different calcium concentrations suggested that association of the BK? with a particular ? subunit was not enough to explain the channel activity in this tissue. Indeed, we detected the presence of several splice variants of the BK? subunit. In conclusion, BK channels in canine ICG may result from the arrangement of different BK? splice variants, plus accessory ? subunits. The particular combinations expressed in canine IC neurons likely rule the excitatory role of BK current in this tissue.
Selga, Elisabet; Perez-Serra, Alexandra; Moreno-Asso, Alba; Anderson, Seth; Thomas, Kristen; Desai, Mayurika; Brugada, Ramon; Perez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S
Pain is a serious and common problem with patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Very little has been done to investigate the peripheral mechanisms of pain in MS. Here we used a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate the possible contribution of satellite glial cells (SGCs) to pain in MS. EAE mice had reduced pain thresholds 10 days after disease induction. We examined dorsal root ganglia and found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in SGCs, a marker of SGC activation, and increased coupling among SGCs, a known component of activated SGCs. Activated SGCs have previously been shown to contribute to pain in other classical neuropathic pain models, suggesting that pain in multiple sclerosis has a peripheral component. PMID:24686185
Warwick, Rebekah A; Ledgerwood, Craig J; Brenner, Talma; Hanani, Menachem
Our gaze tends to be directed to objects previously associated with rewards. Such object values change flexibly or remain stable. Here we present evidence that the monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the basal ganglia represents stable, rather than flexible, object values. After across-day learning of object–reward association, SNr neurons gradually showed a response bias to surprisingly many visual objects: inhibition to high-valued objects and excitation to low-valued objects. Many of these neurons were shown to project to the ipsilateral superior colliculus. This neuronal bias remained intact even after >100 d without further learning. In parallel with the neuronal bias, the monkeys tended to look at high-valued objects. The neuronal and behavioral biases were present even if no value was associated during testing. These results suggest that SNr neurons bias the gaze toward objects that were consistently associated with high values in one’s history.
Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya; Hikosaka, Okihide
Oscillatory activity in the beta (13-30 Hz) frequency band is widespread in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, and becomes prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we develop the hypothesis that the degree of synchronization in this frequency band is a critical factor in gating computation across a population of neurons, with increases in beta band synchrony entailing a loss of information-coding space and hence computational capacity. Task and context drive this dynamic gating, so that for each state there will be an optimal level of network synchrony, and levels lower or higher than this will impair behavioural performance. Thus, both the pathological exaggeration of synchrony, as observed in PD, and the ability of interventions like deep brain stimulation (DBS) to excessively suppress synchrony can potentially lead to impairments in behavioural performance. Indeed, under physiological conditions, the manipulation of computational capacity by beta activity may itself present a mechanism of action selection and maintenance. PMID:24890470
Brittain, John-Stuart; Sharott, Andrew; Brown, Peter
Structural plasticity in the adult brain is essential for adaptive behavior. We have found a remarkable anatomical plasticity in the basal ganglia of adult mice that is regulated by dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). By modulating neuronal excitability, striatal D2Rs bidirectionally control the density of direct pathway collaterals in the globus pallidus that bridge the direct pathway with the functionally opposing indirect pathway. An increase in bridging collaterals is associated with enhanced inhibition of pallidal neurons in vivo and disrupted locomotor activation after optogenetic stimulation of the direct pathway. Chronic blockade with haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia, decreases the extent of bridging collaterals and rescues the locomotor imbalance. These findings identify a role for bridging collaterals in regulating the concerted balance of striatal output and may have important implications for understanding schizophrenia, a disease involving excessive activation of striatal D2Rs that is treated with D2R blockers. PMID:24411738
Cazorla, Maxime; de Carvalho, Fernanda Delmondes; Chohan, Muhammad O; Shegda, Mariya; Chuhma, Nao; Rayport, Stephen; Ahmari, Susanne E; Moore, Holly; Kellendonk, Christoph
The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ?E mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans.
Ulug, Aziz M.; Vo, An; Argyelan, Miklos; Tanabe, Lauren; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen; Dauer, William T.; Eidelberg, David
The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ?E mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans. PMID:21464304
Ulu?, Aziz M; Vo, An; Argyelan, Miklos; Tanabe, Lauren; Schiffer, Wynne K; Dewey, Stephen; Dauer, William T; Eidelberg, David
Human postural control of upright stance sporadically can show an oscillatory behavior. Based on previous work, we assessed whether an abnormal tendency for such oscillations might contribute to the motor impairments in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated postural control during unperturbed stance in normal control subjects and in PD patients off and under treatment, focusing on stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) of the foot center of pressure (COP) excursions and conventional measures of the sway amplitude and velocity. We found abnormal 1 Hz body sway oscillation in the SDA curves of PD patients that differed significantly from the body sway typically observed in control subjects during quiet stance. The 1 Hz body sway oscillation was associated with abnormally large and fast sway in the patients off treatment. Under treatment with levodopa, with 'deep brain stimulation' (subthalamic nucleus) and even more so with combined treatment, the oscillations in the SDA curves vanished and the sway became slower. The loss of oscillation and reduction of sway velocity were highly correlated with the improvements of patients' clinical motor assessment score. However, sway amplitude was not correlated with the patients' motor assessment score and patients reported clinical improvement under therapy even though sway amplitude increased on average. A simple feedback model of the postural control system with abnormally large internal noise could predict experimental measures both on and off treatment. The off treatment condition was consistent with a high motor gain in the feedback loop, and the on treatment condition with a reduced motor gain. PMID:15007581
Maurer, C; Mergner, T; Peterka, R J
Our current understanding of the basal ganglia (BG) has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the BG, however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations. Motivated by a need for more hardware accessible networks, we replicate four published models of the BG, spanning single neuron and small networks, replacing the more computationally expensive neuron models with an Izhikevich hybrid neuron. This begins with a network modeling action-selection, where the basal activity levels and the ability to appropriately select the most salient input is reproduced. A Parkinson's disease model is then explored under normal conditions, Parkinsonian conditions and during subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS). The resulting network is capable of replicating the loss of thalamic relay capabilities in the Parkinsonian state and its return under DBS. This is also demonstrated using a network capable of action-selection. Finally, a study of correlation transfer under different patterns of Parkinsonian activity is presented. These networks successfully captured the significant results of the originals studies. This not only creates a foundation for neuromorphic hardware implementations but may also support the development of large-scale biophysical models. The former potentially providing a way of improving the efficacy of DBS and the latter allowing for the efficient simulation of larger more comprehensive networks.
Thibeault, Corey M.; Srinivasa, Narayan
According to traditional models of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network of connections, dopamine exerts D2-like receptor (D2LR)-mediated effects through actions on striatal neurons that give rise to the “indirect” pathway, secondarily affecting the activity in the internal and external pallidal segments (GPi and GPe, respectively) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). However, accumulating evidence from the rodent literature suggests that D2LR activation also directly influences synaptic transmission in these nuclei. To further examine this issue in primates, we combined in vivo electrophysiological recordings and local intracerebral microinjections of drugs with electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to study D2LR-mediated modulation of neuronal activities in GPe, GPi, and SNr of normal and MPTP-treated (parkinsonian) monkeys. D2LR activation with quinpirole increased firing in most GPe neurons, likely due to a reduction of striatopallidal GABAergic inputs. In contrast, local application of quinpirole reduced firing in GPi and SNr, possibly through D2LR-mediated effects on glutamatergic inputs. Injections of the D2LR antagonist sulpiride resulted in effects opposite to those of quinpirole in GPe and GPi. D2 receptor immunoreactivity was most prevalent in putative striatal-like GABAergic terminals and unmyelinated axons in GPe, GPi, and SNr, but a significant proportion of immunoreactive boutons also displayed ultrastructural features of glutamatergic terminals. Postsynaptic labeling was minimal in all nuclei. The D2LR-mediated effects and pattern of distribution of D2 receptor immunoreactivity were maintained in the parkinsonian state. Thus, in addition to their preferential effects on indirect pathway striatal neurons, extrastriatal D2LR activation in GPi and SNr also influences direct pathway elements in the primate basal ganglia under normal and parkinsonian conditions.
Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Masilamoni, Gunasingh J.; Smith, Yoland; Wichmann, Thomas
Little is known about the neurobiology of hypokinesia in schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate alterations of white matter motor pathways in schizophrenia and to relate our findings to objectively measured motor activity. We examined 21 schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging and actigraphy. We applied a probabilistic fibre tracking approach to investigate pathways connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), the supplementary motor area proper (SMA-proper), the primary motor cortex (M1), the caudate nucleus, the striatum, the pallidum and the thalamus. Schizophrenia patients had lower activity levels than controls. In schizophrenia we found higher probability indices forming part of a bundle of interest (PIBI) in pathways connecting rACC, pre-SMA and SMA-proper as well as in pathways connecting M1 and pre-SMA with caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum and thalamus and a reduced spatial extension of motor pathways in schizophrenia. There was a positive correlation between PIBI and activity level in the right pre-SMA-pallidum and the left M1-thalamus connection in healthy controls, and in the left pre-SMA-SMA-proper pathway in schizophrenia. Our results point to reduced volitional motor activity and altered motor pathway organisation in schizophrenia. The identified associations between the amount of movement and structural connectivity of motor pathways suggest dysfunction of cortico-basal ganglia pathways in the pathophysiology of hypokinesia in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients may use cortical pathways involving the supplementary motor area to compensate for basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:23276479
Bracht, Tobias; Schnell, Susanne; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Horn, Helge; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian
Our current understanding of the basal ganglia (BG) has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the BG, however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations. Motivated by a need for more hardware accessible networks, we replicate four published models of the BG, spanning single neuron and small networks, replacing the more computationally expensive neuron models with an Izhikevich hybrid neuron. This begins with a network modeling action-selection, where the basal activity levels and the ability to appropriately select the most salient input is reproduced. A Parkinson's disease model is then explored under normal conditions, Parkinsonian conditions and during subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS). The resulting network is capable of replicating the loss of thalamic relay capabilities in the Parkinsonian state and its return under DBS. This is also demonstrated using a network capable of action-selection. Finally, a study of correlation transfer under different patterns of Parkinsonian activity is presented. These networks successfully captured the significant results of the originals studies. This not only creates a foundation for neuromorphic hardware implementations but may also support the development of large-scale biophysical models. The former potentially providing a way of improving the efficacy of DBS and the latter allowing for the efficient simulation of larger more comprehensive networks. PMID:23847524
Thibeault, Corey M; Srinivasa, Narayan
A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of , a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze.
Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa
Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are non-selective cation channels. They are co-expressed, and interact in sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), and are involved in nociception, being activated by nociceptive stimuli. Immunohistological localization of TRPV1 in vestibular ganglion (VG) neurons has been reported. Although TRPA1 is co-expressed with TRPV1 in DRG and TG neurons, it is unclear whether TRPA1 channels are expressed in VG neurons. Moreover, it is unknown whether TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are functional in VG neurons. We investigated the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat VG neurons by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Ca(2+) imaging experiments. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 RT-PCR products were amplified from the mRNA of rat VG neurons. In situ hybridization experiments showed TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression in the majority of VG neurons. Immunohistochemistry experiments confirmed TRPV1 protein expression. In Ca(2+) imaging experiments, capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, induced a significant increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in rat primary cultured VG neurons, which was almost completely blocked by capsazepine, a TRPV1-specific antagonist. Cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which was completely inhibited by HC030031, a TRPA1-specific antagonist. Moreover, in some VG neurons, a [Ca(2+)]i increase was evoked by both capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde in the same neuron. In summary, our histological and physiological studies reveal that TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed in VG neurons. It is suggested that TRPV1 and TRPA1 in VG neurons might participate in vestibular function and/or dysfunction such as vertigo. PMID:23916509
Kamakura, Takefumi; Ishida, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yukiko; Yamada, Takahiro; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Horii, Arata; Uno, Atsuhiko; Imai, Takao; Okazaki, Suzuyo; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi
Because of persistent social problems caused by methamphetamine (METH), new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. Thus, we investigated the response of central nervous system neurotensin (NT) systems to METH self-administration (SA) and their interaction with basal ganglia dopamine (DA) pathways. Neurotensin is a peptide associated with inhibitory feedback pathways to nigrostriatal DA projections. We observed that NT levels decreased in rats during extinction of METH SA when lever pressing resulted in intravenous infusions of saline rather than METH. Thus, 6 h after the first session of extinction, NT levels were 53, 42, and 49% of corresponding controls in the anterior dorsal striatum, posterior dorsal striatum, and globus pallidus, respectively. NT levels were also significantly reduced in corresponding yoked rats in the anterior dorsal striatum (64% of control), but not the other structures examined. The reductions in NT levels in the anterior dorsal striatum particularly correlated with the lever pressing during the first session of extinction (r =s; 0.745). These, and previously reported findings, suggest that the extinction-related reductions in NT levels were mediated by activation of D2 receptors. Finally, administration of the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist [PD149163 [Lys(CH2NH)Lys-Pro,Trp-tert-Leu-Leu-Oet]; 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg] diminished lever pressing during the first extinction session, whereas the NTR1 antagonist [SR48692 [2-[(1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-imethoxyphenyl)pyrazol-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo(220.127.116.11.(3.7))decan-2-carboxylic acid]; 0.3 mg/kg per administration] attenuated the reduction of lever pressing during the second to fourth days of extinction. In summary, these findings support the hypothesis that some of the endogenous basal ganglia NT systems contribute to the elimination of contingent behavior during the early stages of the METH SA extinction process. PMID:23685547
Hanson, Glen R; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Frankel, Paul S; Alburges, Mario E
The basal ganglia and thalamus are involved in processing all physiological behaviors and affected by many diseases. Accurate localization is a crucial issue in neuroimaging, particularly when working with groups of normalized images in a standard stereotaxic space. Here, manual delineation of the central structures (thalamus; nucleus caudatus and accumbens; putamen, pallidum, substantia nigra) was performed on 30 high resolution MRIs of healthy young adults (15 female, median age 31 years) in native space. Protocol inter-rater reliabilities were quantified as structure overlap (similarity indices, SIs). Structural volumes were calculated in native space, and after spatial normalization to stereotaxic space (MNI/ICBM152) and in relation to hemispheric volumes. Spatial extents relative to the anterior commissure (AC) were extracted. The 30 resulting atlases were then used to create probabilistic maps in stereotaxic space. Inter-rater SIs were high at 0.85-0.92 except for the nucleus accumbens. In native space, caudate, nucleus accumbens and putamen were significantly larger on the left, and the globus pallidus larger in males. After normalizing for brain volume, the nucleus accumbens, putamen and thalamus were larger on the left, with the gender difference in the globus pallidus still detectable. Some of these volume differences translated into significantly different distances from the AC. The probabilistic maps showed that overall the central structures' boundaries are relatively unchanged after spatial normalization. We present a comprehensive assessment of thalamic and basal ganglia volumetric and geometric data in both native and stereotaxic spaces. Probabilistic maps in MNI/ICBM152 space will allow accurate localization in group analyses. PMID:17851093
Ahsan, R Laila; Allom, Richard; Gousias, Ioannis S; Habib, Helai; Turkheimer, Federico E; Free, Samantha; Lemieux, Louis; Myers, Ralph; Duncan, John S; Brooks, David J; Koepp, Matthias J; Hammers, Alexander
Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease patients and hypothesized to be antikinetic. The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinson’s disease allows examination of this hypothesis by direct comparison of beta activity in basal ganglia output in non-lesioned and dopamine cell lesioned hemispheres during motor activity. Bilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) recordings of units and local field potentials (LFP) were obtained with EMG activity from the scapularis muscle in control and unilaterally nigrostriatal lesioned rats trained to walk on a rotary treadmill. After left hemispheric lesion, rats had difficulty walking contraversive on the treadmill but could walk in the ipsiversive direction. During inattentive rest, SNpr LFP power in the 12–25 Hz range (low beta) was significantly greater in the dopamine-depleted hemisphere than in non-lesioned and control hemispheres. During walking, low beta power was reduced in all hemispheres, while 25–40 Hz (high beta) activity was selectively increased in the lesioned hemisphere. High beta power increases were reduced by L-DOPA administration. SNpr spiking was significantly more synchronized with SNpr low beta LFP oscillations during rest and high beta LFP oscillations during walking in the dopamine-depleted hemispheres compared with non-lesioned hemispheres. Data show that dopamine loss is associated with opposing changes in low and high beta range SNpr activity during rest and walk and suggest that increased synchronization of high beta activity in SNpr output from the lesioned hemisphere during walking may contribute to gait impairment in the hemiparkinsonian rat.
Avila, Irene; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Brazhnik, Elena; Castaneda, Edward; Bergstrom, Debra A.; Walters, J. R.
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked dominant genodermatosis characterized by typical skin lesions along Blaschko’s lines and associated with ocular, dental, nails, hair, skeletal, central nervous system and cardiovascular anomalies. We report a 5-year-old boy with cutaneous hyperpigmentation along Blaschko’s lines, atrophic streaks, strabismus and mental retardation. He showed the characteristic abnormal dentition seen in IP as partial hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth and un-erupted teeth. The expression of IP in boys is exceptional as the disease is lethal in males.
Afshar, H.; Daneshpazhooh, M.; Kiani, A.; Aref, P.; Baniameri, Z.
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked dominant genodermatosis characterized by typical skin lesions along Blaschko's lines and associated with ocular, dental, nails, hair, skeletal, central nervous system and cardiovascular anomalies. We report a 5-year-old boy with cutaneous hyperpigmentation along Blaschko's lines, atrophic streaks, strabismus and mental retardation. He showed the characteristic abnormal dentition seen in IP as partial hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth and un-erupted teeth. The expression of IP in boys is exceptional as the disease is lethal in males. PMID:23119137
Afshar, H; Daneshpazhooh, M; Kiani, A; Aref, P; Baniameri, Z
Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia is based on an ordered sequence of endocrine and genetic investigations that are predicated on knowledge obtained from a suitable history and detailed examination of the external genital anatomy. Investigations are particularly relevant in 46,XY DSD where the diagnostic yield is less successful than in the 46,XX counterpart. Advantage should be taken of spontaneous activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy rendering measurements of gonadotrophins and sex steroids by sensitive, validated assays key to assessing testicular function. Allied measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone completes a comprehensive testis profile of Leydig and Sertoli cell function. Genetic assessment is dominated by analysis of a plethora of genes that attempts to delineate a cause for gonadal dysgenesis. In essence, this is successful in up to 20% of cases from analysis of SRY and SF1 (NR5A1) genes. In contrast, gene mutation analysis is highly successful in 46,XY DSD due to defects in androgen synthesis or action. The era of next generation sequencing is increasingly being applied to investigate complex medical conditions of unknown cause, including DSD. The challenge for health professionals will lie in integrating vast amounts of genetic information with phenotypes and counselling families appropriately. How tissues respond to hormones is apposite to assessing the range of genital phenotypes that characterise DSD, particularly for syndromes associated with androgen resistance. In vitro methods are available to undertake quantitative and qualitative analysis of hormone action. The in vivo equivalent is some assessment of the degree of under-masculinisation in the male, such as an external masculinisation score, and measurement of the ano-genital distance. This anthropometric marker is effectively a postnatal readout of the effects of prenatal androgens acting during the masculinisation programming window. For investigation of the newborn with abnormal genitalia, a pragmatic approach can be taken to guide the clinician using appropriate algorithms. PMID:23168057
Hughes, I A; Morel, Y; McElreavey, K; Rogol, A
Background Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Methods and Results Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 ?m2; P<0.01) and canine hearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 ?m2; P<0.01) failing secondary to ischemia and neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 ?m2; P<0.01) failing secondary to hypertension reveal significant hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Conclusions Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia.
Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S.; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S.; Nee, Lisa M.; Wurster, Robert D.
Introduction Although it has been hypothesised that metal welding and flame cutting are associated with an increased risk for Parkinson's disease due to manganese released in the welding fume, few rigorous cohort studies have evaluated this risk. Methods The authors examined the relation between employment as a welder and all basal ganglia and movement disorders (ICD?10, G20–26) in Sweden using nationwide and population based registers. All men recorded as welders or flame cutters (n?=?49?488) in the 1960 or 1970 Swedish National Census were identified and their rates of specific basal ganglia and movement disorders between 1964 and 2003 were compared with those in an age and geographical area matched general population comparison cohort of gainfully employed men (n?=?489?572). Results The overall rate for basal ganglia and movement disorders combined was similar for the welders and flame cutters compared with the general population (adjusted rate ratio (aRR)?=?0.91 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.01). Similarly, the rate ratio for PD was 0.89 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.99). Adjusted rate ratios for other individual basal ganglia and movement disorders were also not significantly increased or decreased. Further analyses of Parkinson's disease by attained age, time period of follow up, geographical area of residency, and educational level revealed no significant differences between the welders and the general population. Rates for Parkinson's disease among welders in shipyards, where exposures to welding fumes are higher, were also similar to the general population (aRR?=?0.95; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.28). Conclusion This nationwide record linkage study offers no support for a relation between welding and Parkinson's disease or any other specific basal ganglia and movement disorders.
Fored, C M; Fryzek, J P; Brandt, L; Nise, G; Sjogren, B; McLaughlin, J K; Blot, W J; Ekbom, A
In examining the incidence and progression of electrocardiographic abnormalities in 45 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 26 (58%) of whom at entry had at least 1 electrocardiographic abnormality, we found conduction abnormalities in 17 (38%). In 21 patients (47%), new abnormalities developed during follow-up (mean, 4.6 years). The overall incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities increased to 78%, and the incidence of conduction defects increased to 62%. Second-degree or complete atrioventricular block did not develop in any of the patients. Pseudoinfarction patterns were common at entry and during follow-up and were not correlated with evidence of clinical coronary artery disease. There was no correlation between the presence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and apparent disease severity. Images
Florek, R. C.; Triffon, D. W.; Mann, D. E.; Ringel, S. P.; Reiter, M. J.
Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117
Limdi, J K; Hyde, G M
A computer assisted, minimally invasive method and apparatus for surgically removing abnormal tissue from a patient, for example, from a breast, are disclosed. The method involves imaging of the breast to locate the abnormal tissue, and determining a volume encapsulating the abnormal tissue and including a margin of healthy tissue. Based on the volume, a sequence of movements of a surgical instrument for tissue removal device is planned, so as to predictably excise the desired volume of tissue.
Summary The abnormal cell population in lymphomatoid papulosis was studied by immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy\\u000a in five cases. It resulted in a comprehensive description of all the main variants within the abnormal cell population.\\u000a \\u000a In one of the cases an irreversible intracytoplasmic process in the abnormal lymphocytes made it possible to demonstrate the\\u000a derivation of lymphomatoid cells with cerebriform nuclei
S. C. J. van der Putte; J. Toonstra; W. A. van Vloten; J. A. M. van Unnik
We review the state of observational and theoretical studies of the shaping of planetary nebulae (PNe) and protoplanetary nebulae (pPNe). In the past decade, high-resolution studies of PNe have revealed a bewildering array of morphologies with elaborate symmetries. Recent imaging studies of pPNe exhibit an even richer array of shapes. The variety of shapes, sometimes multiaxial symmetries, carefully arranged systems
Bruce Balick; Adam Frank
Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse.
Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay
In this game, learners use clues to identify mystery shapes. Use everyday objects (like from the pantry) as the shapes. It is important for learners to be able to describe a shape with correct math vocabulary and to be able to visualize a shape in their head.
Houston, Children'S M.
A framework for computing shape statistics in general, and average in particular, for dynamic shapes is introduced in this paper. Given a metric d(-,-) on the set of static shapes, the empirical mean of N static shapes, C(sub 1),...,C(sub N), is defined b...
P. Maurel G. Sapiro
Sixteen patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) were studied using noninvasive cardiovascular techniques. Cardiovascular abnormalities including pericarditis, asymmetric septal hypertrophy, and LV dilatation were found in 38 percent of the study group. Borderline ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities were present in 31 percent of the study group, and the remaining 31 percent were normal by all study techniques. MCTD patients have a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities when studied noninvasively. The most common clinical abnormality is a steroid-responsive pericarditis, present in 25 percent of our series. PMID:6822098
Oetgen, W J; Mutter, M L; Lawless, O J; Davia, J E
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration.
Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei
The orbits and, if readily accessible, the facial profile were visualized as part of a brief fetal anatomy survey during approximately 7100 low-risk and high-risk obstetric sonographic examinations. This examination identified 17 facial abnormalities in 11 fetuses. There were seven abnormalities of the eyes, including three instances of absence of both eyes, two of hypertelorism, one of proptosis, and one of relative prominence. There were seven abnormalities of the nose, including three instances of marked flattening, one of absence, one of a proboscis, one of a single nostril, and one of a sunken appearance. There were two abnormally small chins. There was one marked cleft that involved the nose, lip, and palate. At least two fetuses with abnormal faces were missed entirely and coexistent facial abnormalities were missed in another three fetuses. Of the 11 fetuses with facial abnormalities identified, eight had other structural abnormalities as well, and the other three had either polyhydramnios or a history of teratogen exposure. A brief facial examination done as part of the fetal anatomy survey helps to identify abnormalities in high-risk fetuses but is considerably less productive in low-risk fetuses. PMID:3543386
Hegge, F N; Prescott, G H; Watson, P T
Genetic defects of the zygote, such as chromosome aberrations, are the most frequent causes of abnormal embryonic development and spontaneous abortion. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Chromosome aberrations likely cause changes in placental morphology and function (such as size, shape, vascularity, and the presence of trophoblastic inclusion). We postulated that chromosome aberrations may affect rates of cell proliferation or
M. B. Qumsiyeh; K.-R. Kim; M. N. Ahmed; W. Bradford
The frequency of dental abnormalities, such as delayed dental development, microdontia, hypoplasia, agenesis, V-shaped root and shortened root was evaluated in 76 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) pediatric patients who had been off chemotherapy for 6 months. These children had been subjected to one of the three Brazilian Protocols or the BFM86 Protocol. The patients were divided into three groups: Group
Eliana Maria Minicucci; Luiz Fernando Lopes; Adalberto José Crocci
Summary Aim: To evaluate the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Method: Over 1000 patients with different types of scars were studied and followed up for a period of 20 years. The histochemical and biochemical analysis with respect to the composition of the extracellular matrix of the dermis was conducted. At the ultrastructural level, collagen deposition and assembly were studied using electron microscopy. The rate of proliferation and metabolic activity of the dermal fibroblasts isolated from the normal skin and scar biopsies were studied to assess the cause of excess matrix deposition in scar tissues. Results: Evaluation of different types of scars showed that both keloid and hypertrophic scars have excess matrix deposition in terms of collagen and proteoglycans. Keloid shows a high amount of acid-soluble collagen. The assembly of collagen fibrils is also abnormal in keloids. Studies on the proliferation and metabolic activity showed that keloid fibroblasts have a higher rate of proliferation and metabolic activity than fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and normal skin. Finally, keloid fibroblasts show high and intense staining for the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible reason for high activity of these fibroblasts. Conclusion: Keloids and hypertrophic scars show distinct ultrastructural patterns of both collagen deposition and assembly. These parameters could be refined by further research, and they would thus serve as a useful tool for surgeons to distinguish different types of scars and adopt suitable therapeutic strategies.
Meenakshi, J.; Jayaraman, V.; Ramakrishnan, K.M..; Babu, M.
Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken together, these data reveal three major correspondences between the segmental ganglia of tardigrades and arthropods, including (i) contralateral projections and commissures in each ganglion, (ii) segmentally repeated sets of immunoreactive neurons, and (iii) an anteriorly shifted (parasegmental) position of ganglia. These correspondences support the homology of segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods, suggesting that these structures were either lost in Onychophora or, alternatively, evolved in the tardigrade/arthropod lineage.
The in vivo generation of .OH free radicals in specific brain regions can be measured by intracerebral microdialysis perfusion of salicylate, avoiding many of the pitfalls inherent in systemic administration of salicylate. Direct infusion of salicylate into the brain can minimize the hepatic hydroxylation of salicylate and its contribution to brain levels of 2,5-DHBA. Levels of 2,5-DHBA detected in the brain dialysate may reflect the .OH adduct plus some enzymatic hydroxylation of salicylate in the brain. After minimizing the contribution of enzyme and/or blood-borne 2,5-DHBA, the present data demonstrate the validity of the use of 2,3-DHBA and apparently 2,5-DHBA as indices of .OH formation in the brain. Therefore, intracranial microdialysis of salicylic acid and measurement of 2,3-DHBA appears to be a useful .OH trapping procedure for monitoring the time course of .OH generation in the extracellular fluid of the brain. These results indicate that nonenzymatic and/or enzymatic oxidation of the dopamine released by MPTP analogues in the extracellular fluid may play a key role in the generation of .OH free radicals in the iron-rich basal ganglia. Moreover, a site-specific generation of cytotoxic .OH free radicals and quinone/semiquinone radicals in the striatum may cause the observed lipid peroxidation, calcium overload, and retrograde degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons. This free-radical-induced nigral injury can be suppressed by antioxidants (i.e., U-78517F, DMSO, and deprenyl) and possibly hypothermia as well. In the future, this in vivo detection of .OH generation may be useful in answering some of the fundamental questions concerning the relevance of oxidants and antioxidants in neurodegenerative disorders during aging. It could also pave the way for the research and development of novel neuroprotective antioxidants and strategies for the early or preventive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (Wu et al., this issue), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, head trauma, and possibly Alzheimer's cognitive dysfunction as well. In conclusion, this in vivo free-radical trapping procedure provides evidence to support a current working hypothesis that a site-specific formation of cytotoxic .OH free radicals in the basal ganglia may be one of the neurotoxic mechanisms underlying nigrostriatal degeneration and Parkinsonism caused by the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP. Addendum added in proof: The controversy concerning possible neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective roles of NO. in cell cultures was discussed and debated at the symposium (Wink et al., this issue; Dawson et al., this issue; Lipton et al., this issue).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7832434
Chiueh, C C; Wu, R M; Mohanakumar, K P; Sternberger, L M; Krishna, G; Obata, T; Murphy, D L
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to microvascular thrombosis and thromboembolism. The increased incidence of thrombosis is accompanied by enhanced coagulation and abnormalities in platelet function. Clinical studies have revealed thrombocytosis, alterations in platelet activation, enhanced platelet-leukocyte interactions, and elevated plasma levels of prothrombotic cytokines. This study was directed towards determining whether the thrombocytosis, altered platelet functions, and enhanced platelet-leukocyte interactions observed in IBD patients can be recapitulated in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and T-cell transfer models of murine colonic inflammation. Flow cytometry was used to characterize platelet function in heparin-anticoagulated whole blood of control mice and in mice with colonic inflammation. Platelets were identified by characteristic light scattering and membrane expression of CD41. Thiazole orange (TO) labeling was used to differentiate between immature and mature platelets. Platelet activation was monitored using the expression of an activation epitope of GPIIb/IIIa integrin. The combination of CD41, CD45.2, Gr-1, F4/80 and isotype control antibodies was used to detect and quantify aggregates of leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes with platelets. Our results indicated that colonic inflammation is associated with thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and the appearance of immature platelets. An increased number of circulating activated platelets was detected in colitic mice, along with the formation of aggregates of leukocytes (PLA), neutrophils (PNA) and monocytes (PMA) with platelets. Selectin blockade with fucoidin inhibited DSS-induced PLA formation. The findings of this study indicate that many features of the altered platelet function detected in human IBD can be reproduced in animal models of colonic inflammation.
Yan, Serena LS.; Russell, Janice; Harris, Norman R.; Senchenkova, Elena Y.; Yildirim, Alper; Granger, D. Neil
New universal terminology, classifications, and definitions recommended by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and supported by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to describe abnormal uterine bleeding abnormalities in reproductive women are presented. Identification and management of anovulatory and ovulatory uterine bleeding are explored. PMID:24177024
Twiss, Janice J
PurposeAbnormalities in renal tubular function have been observed in hydronephrotic urinary tract disease, resulting in metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia and excessive free water diuresis. The frequency of these abnormalities, particularly in our infant population, was the impetus for our study.
Jayanthi Chandar; Carolyn Abitbol; Gaston Zilleruelo; Rafael Gosalbez; Brenda Montane; Jose Strauss
Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique
Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron
A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…
Warren, Reed P.; And Others
Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20
K A Waters; F Everett; D Sillence; E Fagan; C E Sullivan
Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...
C. C. Lin K. S. W. Kim P. Y. Wei
Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with
Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla
Objective: To (1) categorize histologic esophageal myenteric plexus abnormalities in patients undergoing surgical treatment for epiphrenic diverticulum, and (2) correlate histologic changes with associated esophageal motility disorders and hiatal hernia. Methods: From January 1987 to May 2008, 40 patients had surgery for epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 29 (73%); 23 (58%) had hiatal hernia. Esophageal muscle specimens were
Thomas W. Rice; John R. Goldblum; Martha M. Yearsley; Steven S. Shay; Scott I. Reznik; Sudish C. Murthy; David P. Mason; Eugene H. Blackstone
Objective: To (1) categorize histologic esophageal myenteric plexus abnormalities in patients undergoing surgical treatment for epiphrenic diverticulum, and (2) correlate histologic changes with associated esophageal motility disorders and hiatal hernia. Methods: From January 1987 to May 2008, 40 patients had surgery for epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 29 (73%); 23 (58%) had hiatal hernia. Esophageal muscle specimens were
Thomas W. Rice; John R. Goldblum; Martha M. Yearsley; Steven S. Shay; Scott I. Reznik; Sudish C. Murthy; David P. Mason; Eugene H. Blackstone
Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization. PMID:19373853
Huser, Thomas; Orme, Christine A; Hollars, Christopher W; Corzett, Michele H; Balhorn, Rod
We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of intrinsic brain activity in 23 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Two different frequency bands were analyzed (slow-5:0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4:0.027-0.073 Hz). In many brain regions, widespread ALFF differences between the two frequency bands were observed, including predominantly the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus (Hip/PHG), insula, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Compared to controls, AD patients showed decreased ALFF values in the bilateral PCC/PCu, inferior parietal lobe, and several temporal regions, and increased ALFF values mainly in the bilateral Hip/PHG, and middle and inferior temporal gyri. Intriguingly, the ALFF abnormalities in the left PCu, left supramarginal gyrus, and several temporal regions were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Moreover, correcting for gray matter volume loss significantly affected the functional analytical results, suggesting that gray matter loss can partially account for the functional imaging analytical results obtained in AD. Finally, we showed that regions with changes in ALFF demonstrated a significant correlation with patient cognitive performance as measured using Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The results also demonstrated a significant correlation between hippocampal volume and the ALFF in slow-5 band in the AD group. This study demonstrated widespread ALFF abnormalities of intrinsic brain activity in AD and revealed that the ALFF abnormalities in severe specific regions were frequency-dependent. Taken together, our findings provided novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanism of AD and may be helpful in the development of imaging biomarkers for disease diagnosis. PMID:24473186
Liu, Xuena; Wang, Siqi; Zhang, Xinqing; Wang, Zhiqun; Tian, Xiaojie; He, Yong
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia is the first human disorder in which deficient tangential migration in the brain has been demonstrated. Male patients with X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia show intractable seizures, especially clonic convulsions or myoclonus from the first day of life, but neither infantile spasms nor hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalograms so far. Brain magnetic resonance imaging shows anterior pachygyria and posterior agyria with a mildly thick cortex, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysplastic basal ganglia. ARX, a paired-class homeobox gene with four polyalanine sequences, is a responsible gene for X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia. The brain of Arx knockout mice shows aberrant tangential migration and differentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. In human X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia, a neuropathologic study has suggested a loss of interneurons. Meanwhile, polyalanine expansion of ARX causes symptomatic or nonsymptomatic West's syndrome and nonsyndromic mental retardation. The striking epileptogenicity of X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia and West's syndrome associated with ARX mutations i s considered to be caused by a disorder of interneurons involving a tangentialmigration disorder. We propose "interneuronopathy" as a term for this. PMID:15921244
Kato, Mitsuhiro; Dobyns, William B
The aim of the present work was to study qualitative and quantitative measures of histological changes in the nucleus ambiguus\\u000a (NA) of the medulla oblongata and the cardiac autonomic ganglia (CAG) in growing animals in conditions of immobilization stress\\u000a of different durations. Experiments were performed on 56 mongrel white rats aged 30 days. Immobilization stress was produced\\u000a by placing rats
A. V. Smirnov; V. B. Pisarev; R. P. Samusev
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has recently been demonstrated in sensory neurons. In the present study on rat 17.5% of all neurons, mainly of small size, contained PACAP in normal dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Transection of the sciatic nerve induced a rapid and strong upregulation in PACAP peptide and mRNA levels which could be seen already after 15 h. After
Qin Zhang; Tie-Jun Shi; Ru-Rong Ji; Yan-then Zhang; F. Sundler; J. Hannibal; J. Fahrenkrug; T. Hökfelt
Background and aimsThe gene(s) encoding for endomorphin precursor(s) is\\/are still unknown. We have raised the possibility of and did find some evidence for a potential de novo biosynthetic route starting from Tyr-Pro precursor. To pursue further this possibility we measured the generation of immunoreactive endomorphin-2 (E2-IR) in adult rat isolated L4,5 dorsal root ganglia.
András Z. Rónai; Kornél Király; Andrea Szebeni; Erzsébet Szemenyei; Zoltán Prohászka; Zsuzsanna Darula; Géza Tóth; Ibolya Till; Balázs Szalay; Erzsébet Kató; István Barna
The morphology and distribution of the sensory neurones of the pudendal nerve within the spinal ganglia of rats were investigated by use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The labelling was visualized in diaminobenzidine (DAB) or tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB)-stained sections. Injection of HRP directly into the pudendal nerve labelled perikarya predominantly in the sixth lumbar DRG (L6). Following injection of HRP into the
D. C. M. Taylor; H.-W. Korf; Fr.-K. Pierau
We comparatively investigated predictive and reactive grip force behaviour in 12 subjects with basal ganglia dysfunction (six subjects with Parkinson’s disease, six subjects with writer’s cramp), two subjects chronically lacking all tactile and proprioceptive sensory feedback and 16 sex- and age-matched control subjects. Subjects held an instrumented receptacle between the index finger and thumb. A weight was dropped into the
Dennis A. Nowak; Joachim Hermsdörfer
NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) is a histochemical marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), widely used to identify nitric oxide\\u000a (NO) producing cells in the nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Using NADPH-d histochemistry and semi-quantitative\\u000a optical densitometry, we characterized the NO-producing neurons in the pedal ganglia of young and adult Megalobulimus abbreviatus, subjected to aversive thermal stimulus. The animals were killed
Paula Rigon; Juliana de Castilhos; Lisiani Saur; Mariana F. Rodrigues; Matilde Achaval; Léder L. Xavier
Previous work using visual feedback has identified two distinct sensorimotor circuits in the basal ganglia (BG): one that scaled with the duration of force and one that scaled with the rate of change of force. The present study compared functional MRI signal changes in the BG during a grip force task using either visual or auditory feedback to determine whether the BG nuclei process auditory and visual feedback similarly. We confirmed the same two sensorimotor circuits in the BG. Activation in the striatum and external globus pallidus (GPe) scaled linearly with the duration of force under visual and auditory feedback conditions, with similar slopes and intercepts across feedback type. The pattern of signal change for the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) was nonlinear and parameters of the exponential function were altered by feedback type. Specifically, GPi and STN activation decreased exponentially with the rate of change of force. The rate constant and asymptote of the exponential functions for GPi and STN were greater during auditory than visual feedback. In a comparison of the BOLD signal between BG regions, GPe had the highest percentage of variance accounted for and this effect was preserved for both feedback types. These new findings suggest that neuronal activity of specific BG nuclei is affected by whether the feedback is derived from visual or auditory inputs. Also, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the GPe has a high level of information convergence from other BG nuclei, which is preserved across different sensory feedback modalities. PMID:18287549
Prodoehl, Janey; Yu, Hong; Wasson, Pooja; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E
Objective: Sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) undergo apoptosis after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to investigate sensory neuron death and the mechanism involved in the death of these neurons in cultured DRG. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, L5 DRG from adult mouse were dissected and incubated in culture medium for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Freshly dissected and cultured DRG were then fixed and sectioned using a cryostat. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis were investigated using fluorescent staining (Propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342) and the terminal Deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method respectively. To study the role of caspases, general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD.fmk, 100 ?M) and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were used. Results: After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in culture, sensory neurons not only displayed morphological features of apoptosis but also they appeared TUNEL positive. The application of Z-VAD.fmk inhibited apoptosis in these neurons over the same time period. In addition, intense activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was found both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of these neurons after 24 and 48 hours. Conclusion: Results of the present study show caspase-dependent apoptosis in the sensory neurons of cultured DRG from adult mouse.
Momeni, Hamid Reza; Soleimani Mehranjani, Malek; Shariatzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Haddadi, Mahnaz
Although many authors have suggested that dopamine and its metabolites producing free radicals have an harmful effect in the substantia nigra, experimental evidence has not been shown. Using a newly established enzyme immunoassay of the neurofilament protein, a reliable index for the number of survived neurons in tissue culture, we evaluate the effects of Dopa on the neurons of dorsal root ganglia from mice. Neurons were destroyed by the exposure of 0.5 mM Dopa with or without superoxide dismutase and catalase, but they were saved by the pretreatment with 1.0 mM deferoxamine mesylate, a powerful iron-chelating agent. Formation of malondialdehyde, an index of lipid peroxidation, was also observed in the reaction of 0.5 mM Dopa and cerebral cortical neurons from new-born rats only when iron was present. These results indicate that Dopa initiates lipid peroxidation of cell membrane in the presence of a small amount of iron in the culture with little or no participation of reactive oxygen species, leading to the destruction of the neurons. In Parkinson's disease, the cytotoxic mechanism of Dopa and iron may involve the neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra abundant in iron and dopaminergic neurons. PMID:2117513
Tanaka, M; Sotomatsu, A; Kanai, H; Hirai, S
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is associated with a variety of movement disorders and neurobehavioral and cognitive manifestations. Despite numerous clinical, pathological, and biochemical investigations, its etiology remains unknown. We have identified a multigenerational family with dominantly inherited IBGC and, in 24 members of this family, performed a whole-genome scan using polymorphic microsatellite markers to identify the first chromosomal locus for this disorder (IBGC1). A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.37 was obtained at marker D14S1014, and a maximum multipoint LOD score of 4.95 was obtained between D14S75 and D14S306. The minimal haplotype shared by affected patients extended over a 17.1-cM region bounded by D14S70 and D14S66, which is potentially further narrowed to a 13.3-cM region by a recombination observed in a patient with probable affected status. The age at onset appeared to be decreasing by an average of >20 years with each transmission, which is consistent with genetic anticipation.
Geschwind, D H; Loginov, M; Stern, J M
Chick embryo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures were used to explore early pathological events associated with exposure to neuropathy-inducing organophosphorus (OP) compounds. This approach used an in vitro neuronal system from the species that provides the animal model for OP-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). DRG were obtained from 9-day-old chick embryos, and grown for 14 days in minimal essential medium (MEM) supplemented with bovine and human placental sera and growth factors. Cultures were then exposed to 1 microM of the OP compounds phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) or mipafox, which readily elicit OPIDN in hens, paraoxon, which does not cause OPIDN, or the DMSO vehicle. The medium containing these toxicants was removed after 12 h, and cultures maintained for 4-7 days post-exposure. Morphometric analysis of neurites was performed by inverted microscopy, which demonstrated that neurites of cells treated with mipafox or PSP but not with paraoxon had decreased length-to-diameter ratios at day 4 post-exposure. Ultrastructural alterations of neurons treated with PSP and mipafox included dissolution of microtubules and neurofilaments and degrading mitochondria. Paraoxon-treated and DMSO control neuronal cell cultures did not show such evident ultrastructural changes. This study demonstrates that chick DRG show pathological changes following exposure to neuropathy-inducing OP compounds. PMID:14637373
Massicotte, Christiane; Jortner, Bernard S; Ehrich, Marion
The Basal Ganglia, in particular the striatum, are central to theories of behavioral control, and often identified as a seat of action selection. Reinforcement Learning (RL) models - which have driven much recent experimental work on this region - cast striatum as a dynamic controller, integrating sensory and motivational information to construct efficient and enriching behavioral policies. Befitting this informationally central role, the BG sit at the nexus of multiple anatomical “loops” of synaptic projections, connecting a wide range of cortical and sub-cortical structures. Numerous pioneering anatomical studies conducted over the past several decades have meticulously catalogued these loops, and labeled them according to the inferred functions of the connected regions. The specific cotermina of the projections are highly localized to several different subregions of the striatum, leading to the suggestion that these subregions perform complementary but distinct functions. However, until recently, the dominant computational framework outlined only a bipartite, dorsal/ventral, division of striatum. We review recent computational and experimental advances that argue for a more finely fractionated delineation. In particular, experimental data provides extensive insight on unique functions subserved by the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). These functions appear to correspond well to theories of a “model-based” RL subunit, and may also shed light on the suborganization of ventral striatum. Finally, we discuss the limitations of these ideas and how they point the way toward future refinements of neurocomputational theories of striatal function, bringing them into contact with other areas of computational theory and other regions of the brain.
Bornstein, Aaron M; Daw, Nathaniel D
We elucidated the effects of parkinsonian degeneration on trafficking of AAV2-GDNF in the nigro-striatum (nigro-ST) of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Vector infused into striatum (ST) was transported to substantia nigra (SN), both pars compacta (SNc), and pars reticulata (SNr). In the lesioned hemisphere, glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) immunoreactivity was only found in SNr consistent with elimination of SNc dopaminergic (DA) neurons by 6-OHDA. Further analysis showed that striatal delivery of AAV2-GDNF resulted in GDNF expression in globus pallidus (GP), entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in both lesioned and unlesioned hemispheres. Injection of vector into SN, covering both SNc and SNr, resulted in striatal expression of GDNF in the unlesioned hemisphere but not in the lesioned hemisphere. No expression was seen in GP or EPN. We conclude that adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) is transported throughout the nigro-ST exclusively by anterograde transport. This transport phenomenon directs GDNF expression throughout the basal ganglia in regions that are adversely affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) in addition to SNc. Delivery of vector to SN, however, does not direct expression of GDNF in ST, EPN, or GP. On this basis, we believe that striatal delivery of AAV2-GDNF is the preferred course of action for trophic rescue of DA function.
Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Mittermeyer, Gabriele; Hadaczek, Piotr; Kells, Adrian P; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S
We elucidated the effects of parkinsonian degeneration on trafficking of AAV2-GDNF in the nigro-striatum (nigro-ST) of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Vector infused into striatum (ST) was transported to substantia nigra (SN), both pars compacta (SNc), and pars reticulata (SNr). In the lesioned hemisphere, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) immunoreactivity was only found in SNr consistent with elimination of SNc dopaminergic (DA) neurons by 6-OHDA. Further analysis showed that striatal delivery of AAV2-GDNF resulted in GDNF expression in globus pallidus (GP), entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in both lesioned and unlesioned hemispheres. Injection of vector into SN, covering both SNc and SNr, resulted in striatal expression of GDNF in the unlesioned hemisphere but not in the lesioned hemisphere. No expression was seen in GP or EPN. We conclude that adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) is transported throughout the nigro-ST exclusively by anterograde transport. This transport phenomenon directs GDNF expression throughout the basal ganglia in regions that are adversely affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) in addition to SNc. Delivery of vector to SN, however, does not direct expression of GDNF in ST, EPN, or GP. On this basis, we believe that striatal delivery of AAV2-GDNF is the preferred course of action for trophic rescue of DA function. PMID:21102559
Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Mittermeyer, Gabriele; Hadaczek, Piotr; Kells, Adrian P; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S
The basal ganglia (BG) have repeatedly been linked to emotional speech processing in studies involving patients with neurodegenerative and structural changes of the BG. However, the majority of previous studies did not consider that (i) emotional speech processing entails multiple processing steps, and the possibility that (ii) the BG may engage in one rather than the other of these processing steps. In the present study we investigate three different stages of emotional speech processing (emotional salience detection, meaning-related processing, and identification) in the same patient group to verify whether lesions to the BG affect these stages in a qualitatively different manner. Specifically, we explore early implicit emotional speech processing (probe verification) in an ERP experiment followed by an explicit behavioral emotional recognition task. In both experiments, participants listened to emotional sentences expressing one of four emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness) or neutral sentences. In line with previous evidence patients and healthy controls show differentiation of emotional and neutral sentences in the P200 component (emotional salience detection) and a following negative-going brain wave (meaning-related processing). However, the behavioral recognition (identification stage) of emotional sentences was impaired in BG patients, but not in healthy controls. The current data provide further support that the BG are involved in late, explicit rather than early emotional speech processing stages.
Paulmann, Silke; Ott, Derek V. M.; Kotz, Sonja A.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with Parkinsons disease, but its impact on basal ganglia nuclei is not fully understood. DBS applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects neurons in the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) through direct projections, as well as indirectly through the Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe). Since traditional statistical analyses of electrophysiological data provide too coarse a view of circuit dynamics, and mesoscopic biophysical dynamic models contain an intractable number of state variables for small populations of neurons, we apply a modular approach and treat each region in the STN-GPe-GPi circuit as a multi-input multi-output point process system. We use microelectrode recordings of a normal primate with DBS applied to STN at 100 and 130 Hz to estimate point process models (PPMs) for recorded regions in GPi. Our PPMs uncovered distinct dependencies between regions of GPe and GPi neurons, separated by the position of the GPi neurons, and showed normal refractory periods, inhibition from projecting neurons in the GPe, and DBS-induced oscillatory effects. The PPMs also showed the relative impact of the above factors, which traditional statistics fail to capture. Our PPM framework suggests a useful approach for understanding dynamics of complex neural circuits. PMID:21096637
Saxena, Shreya; Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B; Gale, John T; Sarma, Sridevi V
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important mitogens for various types of mesenchymal cells, and as such, they exert critical functions during organogenesis in mammalian embryonic and early postnatal development. Increased or ectopic PDGF activity may also cause or contribute to diseases such as cancer and tissue fibrosis. Until recently, no loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PDGF or PDGF receptor genes were reported as causally linked to a human disease. This changed in 2013 when reports appeared on presumed LOF mutations in the genes encoding PDGF-B and its receptor PDGF receptor-beta (PDGF-R?) in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), a brain disease characterized by anatomically localized calcifications in or near the blood microvessels. Here, we review PDGF-B and PDGF-R? biology with special reference to their functions in brain-blood vessel development, pericyte recruitment and the regulation of the blood-brain barrier. We also discuss various scenarios for IBGC pathogenesis suggested by observations in patients and genetically engineered animal models of the disease. PMID:24946076
Betsholtz, Christer; Keller, Annika
The development of bladder and bowel neuroprostheses may benefit from the use of sensory feedback. We evaluated the use of high-density penetrating microelectrode arrays in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for recording bladder and perineal afferent activity. Arrays were inserted in S1 and S2 DRG in three anesthetized cats. Neural signals were recorded while the bladder volume was modulated and mechanical stimuli were applied to the perineal region. In two experiments, 48 units were observed that tracked bladder pressure with their firing rates (79% from S2). At least 50 additional units in each of the three experiments (274 total; 60% from S2) had a significant change in their firing rates during one or more perineal stimulation trials. This study shows the feasibility of obtaining bladder-state information and other feedback signals from the pelvic region with a sacral DRG electrode interface located in a single level. This natural source of feedback would be valuable for providing closed-loop control of bladder or other pelvic neuroprostheses.
Bruns, Tim M.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.
Myosin-Va, widely distributed throughout the developing nervous system, is involved in the transport of vesicles and other intracellular components with its globular tail domain (GTD) implicated in cargo recognition/interaction. Inactivation of myosin-Va in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of chick embryos, in vitro, decreases the rate of filopodial extension. MYO5A mutant mice have severe neurological defects. We have found that the overexpression of GTD in DRG cultures reduces the number of neurons with long neurites (above fourfold cell body length) and increased the number of neurons with short or no neurites. However, if transfection occurred after the onset of neuritogenesis, this was not seen. In embryo, we characterized the expression pattern of myosin-Va during neuritogenesis of TrkA-positive cells at different stages of chick DRG development. Myosin-Va expression was detected starting from HH25. At this stage, it was present in cells both with and without neurites. The presence of myosin-Va in DRG neurites persisted throughout the last stage analysed (HH34). The data suggest that Myosin Va can participate in embryonic DRG neuritogenesis. PMID:24302658
Kanno, Tatiane Y N; Espreafico, Enilza M; Yan, Chao Yun Irene
Understanding the neural basis of poor impulse control in Internet addiction (IA) is important for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of this syndrome. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways implicated in response inhibition were affected in IA using a Go-Stop paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three control subjects aged 15.2 ± 0.5 years (mean ± S.D.) and eighteen IA subjects aged 15.1 ± 1.4 years were studied. Effective connectivity within the response inhibition network was quantified using (stochastic) dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed that the indirect frontal-basal ganglia pathway was engaged by response inhibition in healthy subjects. However, we did not detect any equivalent effective connectivity in the IA group. This suggests the IA subjects fail to recruit this pathway and inhibit unwanted actions. This study provides a clear link between Internet addiction as a behavioral disorder and aberrant connectivity in the response inhibition network. PMID:24848380
Li, Baojuan; Friston, Karl J; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guopeng; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yao, Shuqiao; Lu, Hongbing; Hu, Dewen
Manganese is an essential nutrient, integral to proper metabolism of amino acids, proteins and lipids. Excessive environmental exposure to manganese can produce extrapyramidal symptoms similar to those observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We used in vivo and in vitro models to examine cellular and circuitry alterations induced by manganese exposure. Primary mesencephalic cultures were treated with 10–00µM manganese chloride (MnCl2) which resulted in dramatic changes in the neuronal cytoskeleton even at subtoxic concentrations. Using cultures from mice with red fluorescent protein (RFP) driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we found that dopaminergic neurons were more susceptible to manganese toxicity. To understand the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to chronic manganese exposure, mice were given IP injections of MnCl2 for 30 days. We observed a 20% reduction in TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) following manganese treatment. Quantification of Nissl bodies revealed a widespread reduction in SNpc cell numbers. Other areas of the basal ganglia were also altered by manganese as evidenced by the loss of GAD67 in the striatum. These studies suggest that acute manganese exposure induces cytoskeletal dysfunction prior to degener