These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

ARCHIVAL REPORT Basal Ganglia Shape Abnormalities in the Unaffected  

E-print Network

�11), and motor abnor- malities can occur in neuroleptic-na�ve schizophrenia patients (12). Basal ganglia of schizophrenia patients (25�27), but there have been relatively few studies of basal ganglia structureARCHIVAL REPORT Basal Ganglia Shape Abnormalities in the Unaffected Siblings of Schizophrenia

2

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

3

Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in

Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

2013-01-01

4

Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients With Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings  

PubMed Central

Objective The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), their healthy siblings, and healthy volunteers. Method Two hundred twenty-five anatomic brain magnetic resonance images were obtained from 103 patients with COS, 169 from their 79 healthy siblings, and 255 from 101 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (age range = 929 years). The hippocampus was segmented using Free-Surfer automated image analysis software, and hippocampal shape was evaluated by comparing subjects at more than 6,000 vertices on the left and right hippocampal surfaces. Longitudinal data were examined using mixed model regression analysis. Results Patients with COS showed significant bilateral inward deformation in the anterior hippocampus. Healthy siblings also showed a trend for anterior inward deformation. However, the trajectory of shape change did not differ significantly between the groups. Inward deformations in the anterior hippocampus were positively related to positive symptom severity, whereas outward surface displacement was positively related to overall functioning. Conclusion This is the first and largest longitudinal three-way analysis of subregional hippocampal shape abnormalities in patients with COS and their healthy siblings compared with healthy controls. The anterior hippocampal abnormalities in COS suggest the pathophysiologic importance of this subregion in schizophrenia. The trend level and overlapping shape abnormalities in the healthy siblings suggest a more subtle, subregionally specific neuroanatomic endophenotype. PMID:23622854

Johnson, Sarah L.M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

2013-01-01

5

Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 626 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., positive controls), and healthy controls (i.e., negative controls). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

2013-01-01

6

Affect of Shape Abnormality in Foot and Toenail on Tumbling of Aged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the tumbling of the aged. The study of the static, as well as dynamic aspects, such as the muscular strength of the lower-limb and the postural stability, should be developed, especially from the viewpoint of the aged. This paper focuses on the external observation of the foot and toenail, as being correlated to the physical functions of the lower-limb against tumbling. The lower-limb functions are evaluated in terms of the 10 m walking time, the toe-gap force and single-foot standing period. The correlation to the personal tumbling experiences is also examined. It is seen that the groups, which exhibit external abnormalities in the foot and the toenail, generally decline in the muscular strength and postural stability. They also have more frequent tumbling experiences and express in their concern of the danger of tumbling. It seems that those shapes abnormalities can indicate, to some extent, the tumbling danger of the aged.

Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Nomoto, Yohei; Umezawa, Jun; Miyagawa, Haruki; Kawasumi, Masashi; Koyama, Hironori; Saito, Masao

7

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

Womer, Fay Y; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Smith, Matthew J; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M; Mamah, Daniel

2014-08-30

8

Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjgren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjgren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

2014-05-01

9

Abnormal high-$Q$ modes of coupled stadium-shaped microcavities  

E-print Network

It is well known that the strongly deformed microcavity with fully chaotic ray dynamics cannot support high-Q modes due to its fast chaotic diffusion to the critical line of refractive emission. Here, we investigate how the Q factor is modified when two chaotic cavities are coupled, and show that some modes, whose Q factor is about 10 times higher than that of the corresponding single cavity, can exist. These abnormal high-Q modes are the result of an optimal combination of coupling and cavity geometry. As an example, in the coupled stadium-shaped microcavities, the mode pattern extends over both cavities such that it follows a whispering-gallery-type mode at both ends, whereas a big coupling spot forms at the closest contact of the two microcavities. The pattern of such a 'rounded bow tie' mode allows the mode to have a high-Q factor. This mode pattern minimizes the leakage of light at both ends of the microcavities as the pattern at both ends is similar to whispering gallery mode.

Jung-Wan Ryu; Soo-Young Lee; Inbo Kim; Muhan Choi; Martina Hentschel; Sang Wook Kim

2014-08-20

10

Abnormal high-$Q$ modes of coupled stadium-shaped microcavities  

E-print Network

It is well known that the strongly deformed microcavity with fully chaotic ray dynamics cannot support high-Q modes due to its fast chaotic diffusion to the critical line of refractive emission. Here, we investigate how the Q factor is modified when two chaotic cavities are coupled, and show that some modes, whose Q factor is about 10 times higher than that of the corresponding single cavity, can exist. These abnormal high-Q modes are the result of an optimal combination of coupling and cavity geometry. As an example, in the coupled stadium-shaped microcavities, the mode pattern extends over both cavities such that it follows a whispering-gallery-type mode at both ends, whereas a big coupling spot forms at the closest contact of the two microcavities. The pattern of such a 'rounded bow tie' mode allows the mode to have a high-Q factor. This mode pattern minimizes the leakage of light at both ends of the microcavities as the pattern at both ends is similar to whispering gallery mode.

Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Inbo; Choi, Muhan; Hentschel, Martina; Kim, Sang Wook

2014-01-01

11

Ar I and Ne I spectral line shapes for an abnormal glow discharge diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of an Ar I and Ne I line shape study in an abnormal glow discharge operating in argon and neon. The spectral lines were observed along the axis of a cylindrical glow discharge parallel (side-on) and perpendicular (end-on) to the cathode surface. The side-on spectra show spectral line shifting and sometimes simultaneous shifting and splitting in the cathode fall region of the glow discharge. The results of the measured line shift with available data for the dc Stark effect are used for measurement of electric field strength in the cathode fall region of the glow discharge. Electron temperatures of 2860 K and 4770 K in the negative glow region of argon and neon discharges, respectively, were determined from the relative intensities of Ar I or Ne I lines using the Boltzmann plot technique. An electron number density of ?1020 m-3 (25%) in the negative glow region of the argon discharge was determined from the widths of two plasma-broadened Ar I lines using theoretical Stark broadening data. The end-on recorded line profiles show 10-40% larger half-widths than the side-on recorded line profiles from the negative glow. This effect is a result of the superposition of line emission in the cathode fall region under the influence of the dc Stark effect on the line profile from the negative glow.

Majstorovi?, G. Lj; Ivanovi?, N. V.; iovi?, N. M.; Djurovi?, S.; Konjevi?, N.

2013-08-01

12

Basal Ganglia and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.

2009-04-14

13

THE BASAL GANGLIA: FOCUSED SELECTION AND INHIBITION OF COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these abnormalities. However, it has not

JONATHAN W MINK

1996-01-01

14

[Sensory input and basal ganglia].  

PubMed

Non-motor symptoms including sensory signs have recently been stressed in basal ganglia (BG) disorders. Why do sensory symptoms appear in BG disorders? Four closed loops have been shown between cortex and BG, but no sensory cortical-BG loops. I review two points: fiber connections between the somatosensory cortex and BG to explain sensory symptoms, and pain and basal ganglia. Somatosensory system and BG Many animal studies have shown somatosensory cortex- striatum- globus pallidus- motor thalamus connections, but no connections to the sensory thalamus. This indicates that sensory system may modulate four closed loops between the cortices and BG (motor loop, oculomotor loop, prefrontal loop and limbic loop) as an open loop system. Based on the above findings, two possible mechanisms may explain somatosensory symptoms in BG disorders. Motor modulation abnormalities may be considered as sensory symptoms in patients with BG disorders. Some sensory cognition abnormalities due to abnormal modulation of the prefrontal- BG loop may be considered as sensory symptoms. Pain and dopamine Two systems contribute to pain signs in patients with BG disorders. Descending pain modulation system: several brainstem nuclei send descending pain modulation fibers to the spinal cord mediated by serotonin or noradrenalin. These nuclei are facilitated by D2 neurons from the striatum. Striatal dopamine must suppress the pain information input at the spinal cord. Ascending pain relief system D2 neurons from the ventral tegmental area to anterior cingulate cortex, accumbens and amygdala may reduce pain feeling at the association cortices. In summary, dopamine system will reduce pain at the spinal cord and association cortices. Dopamine depletion, therefore, will enhance the pain sensation. PMID:23196445

Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2012-01-01

15

The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

2014-08-01

16

Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia.  

PubMed

An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign cystic lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Bilateral and symmetrical lesions of the wrist are rare. Intraosseous ganglia of the carpal bones are uncommon causes of chronic wrist pain. Isolated cases of intraosseous ganglion have been reported most commonly in the lunate and scaphoid. The lunate was most frequently affected, followed by the capitate, scaphoid, and triquetrum bones. Radiolucent lesions in the carpal bones are not uncommon and are often seen incidentally in asymptomatic patients. The differential diagnosis of a lytic lesion in a carpal bone includes unicameral bone cyst, degenerative cyst, fibrous developmental defect, osteomyelitis, and intraosseous ganglion cyst. This article describes a case of bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia. A review of the literature revealed that bilateral and symmetrical intraosseous ganglia of the wrist are rare, with only 3 other reported cases of bilateral lunate lesions. PMID:20608626

Kural, Cemal; Sungur, Ibrahim; Cetinus, Ercan

2010-07-01

17

Branching sites and morphological abnormalities behave as ectopic poles in shape-defective Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Certain mutants in Escherichia coli lacking multiple penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) produce misshapen cells containing kinks, bends and branches. These deformed regions exhibit two structural characteristics of normal cell poles: the peptidoglycan is inert to dilution by new synthesis or turnover, and a similarly stable patch of outer membrane caps the sites. To test the premise that these aberrant sites represent biochemically functional but misplaced cell poles, we assessed the intracellular distribution of proteins that localize specifically to bacterial poles. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) hybrids containing polar localization sequences from the Shigella flexneri IcsA protein or from the Vibrio cholerae EpsM protein formed foci at the poles of wild-type E. coli and at the poles and morphological abnormalities in PBP mutants. In addition, secreted wild-type IcsA localized to the outer membrane overlying these aberrant domains. We conclude that the morphologically deformed sites in these mutants represent fully functional poles or pole fragments. The results suggest that prokaryotic morphology is driven, at least in part, by the controlled placement of polar material, and that one or more of the low-molecular-weight PBPs participate in this process. Such mutants may help to unravel how particular proteins are targeted to bacterial poles, thereby creating important biochemical and functional asymmetries. PMID:15130123

Nilsen, Trine; Ghosh, Anindya S; Goldberg, Marcia B; Young, Kevin D

2004-05-01

18

Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

2014-03-01

19

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

20

Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome! Let\\'s explore the world of shapes. At Kids Online Resources (OLR) Learning is Fun, click on Shapes and see what types of everyday items are made of different simple shapes. Here is a game to play using shapes in patterns.Crack hacker's cafe If you want to make shapes into 3D forms, go to this site 2D to 3D morphing : flat 2D shapes rise up to make 3D forms and follow the directions. You may need a parent to ...

Fletcher, Ms.

2007-10-23

21

Structural analysis of the basal ganglia in schizophrenia Daniel Mamah a,, Lei Wang a  

E-print Network

mapping; Shape analysis 1. Introduction The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei deep within, emotional and cognitive dysfunction has been Schizophrenia Research xx (2006) xxx­xxx + MODEL SCHRES-02933

22

Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This exploration-exploitation trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamines involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglias input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglias output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamines effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

2012-01-01

23

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

Lanciego, Jos L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, Jos A.

2012-01-01

24

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) without neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms is not linked to the IBGC1 locus on chromosome 14q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterised by radiological, neurological, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. The associations between these abnormal phenotypes and abnormal genes remain unclear despite the recent mapping to chromosome 14q of a susceptibility locus for IBGC (IBGC1). We identified two siblings, from a large multigenerational pedigree, who had both been diagnosed with radiological IBGC, dementia, bipolar affective disorder

Henry Brodaty; Philip Mitchell; Georgina Luscombe; John B. J. Kwok; Renee F. Badenhop; Rod McKenzie; Peter R. Schofield

2002-01-01

25

Basal ganglia activity patterns in parkinsonism and computational modeling of their downstream effects  

PubMed Central

The availability of suitable animal models and of the opportunity to record electrophysiologic data in movement disorder patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures has allowed researchers to investigate parkinsonism-related changes in neuronal firing patterns in the basal ganglia and associated areas of thalamus and cortex. These studies have shown that parkinsonism is associated with increased activity in the basal ganglia output nuclei, along with an increase in burst discharges, oscillatory firing, and synchronous firing patterns throughout the basal ganglia. Computational approaches have the potential to play an important role in the interpretation of these data. Such efforts can provide a formalized view of neuronal interactions in the network of connections between basal ganglia, thalamus and cortex, allow for the exploration of possible contributions of particular network components to parkinsonism, and potentially result in new conceptual frameworks and hypotheses that can be subjected to biological testing. It has proven very difficult, however, to integrate the wealth of the experimental findings into coherent models of the disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the abnormalities in neuronal activity that have been associated with parkinsonism. Subsequently, we discuss some particular efforts to model the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link abnormal basal ganglia activity to the cardinal parkinsonian motor signs and may help explain the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of deep brain stimulation for Parkinsons disease. We emphasize the logical structure of these computational studies, making clear the assumptions from which they proceed and the consequences and predictions that follow from these assumptions. PMID:22805066

Rubin, Jonathan E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Turner, Robert S.; Wichmann, Thomas

2012-01-01

26

The cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebral cortex is interconnected with two major subcortical structures: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. How and where cerebellar circuits interact with basal ganglia circuits has been a longstanding question. Using transneuronal transport of rabies virus in macaques, we found that a disynaptic pathway links an output stage of cerebellar processing, the dentate nucleus, with an input stage of

Eiji Hoshi; Lon Tremblay; Jean Fger; Peter L Carras; Peter L Strick

2005-01-01

27

Multiple Output Channels in the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural circuits that link the basal ganglia with the cerebral cortex are critically involved in the generation and control of voluntary movement. Retrograde transneuronal transport or herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to examine the organization of connections in the cebus monkey between an output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi),

John E. Hoover; Peter L. Strick

1993-01-01

28

A pilot study of basal ganglia and thalamus structure by high dimensional mapping in children with Tourette syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Prior brain imaging and autopsy studies have suggested that structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia (BG) nuclei may be present in Tourette Syndrome (TS). These studies have focused mainly on the volume differences of the BG structures and not their anatomical shapes. Shape differences of various brain structures have been demonstrated in other neuropsychiatric disorders using large-deformation, high dimensional brain mapping (HDBM-LD). A previous study of a small sample of adult TS patients demonstrated the validity of the method, but did not find significant differences compared to controls. Since TS usually begins in childhood and adult studies may show structure differences due to adaptations, we hypothesized that differences in BG and thalamus structure geometry and volume due to etiological changes in TS might be better characterized in children. Objective: Pilot the HDBM-LD method in children and estimate effect sizes. Methods: In this pilot study, T1-weighted MRIs were collected in 13 children with TS and 16 healthy, tic-free, control children. The groups were well matched for age. The primary outcome measures were the first 10 eigenvectors which are derived using HDBM-LD methods and represent the majority of the geometric shape of each structure, and the volumes of each structure adjusted for whole brain volume. We also compared hemispheric right/left asymmetry and estimated effect sizes for both volume and shape differences between groups. Results: We found no statistically significant differences between the TS subjects and controls in volume, shape, or right/left asymmetry. Effect sizes were greater for shape analysis than for volume. Conclusion: This study represents one of the first efforts to study the shape as opposed to the volume of the BG in TS, but power was limited by sample size. Shape analysis by the HDBM-LD method may prove more sensitive to group differences. PMID:24715957

Black, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

29

Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia  

PubMed Central

Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia and how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication? are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

Huang, Li-Yen M.; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

2013-01-01

30

Shapes, Shapes, Shapes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s practice identifying our shapes! Look at all the choices and find the one that can Match that Shape. Help Pauly! Drag and drop to Match the Shapes! Listen closely to what color we should Paint the Shapes. ...

Stringfield, Miss

2008-11-17

31

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

32

Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is processed within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical premotor regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic integration of functionally diverse information derived from the cortex. It is concluded that the essential concept of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia remains intact but that the role of the indirect pathway is more complex than previously suggested and that neurons of the globus pallidus are in a position to control the activity of virtually the whole of the basal ganglia. PMID:10923985

BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

2000-01-01

33

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

34

Shapes, shapes, shapes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shapes are awesome! Can you Assemble the Square? Play this game and find out! Slide, flip, and rotate the shapes in RoboPacker! Practice your geometry vocabulary and use the Flash Cards for Geometry!! ...

Johnson, Ms.

2008-04-30

35

The basal ganglias contributions to perceptual decision-making  

PubMed Central

Perceptual decision-making is a computationally demanding process that requires the brain to interpret incoming sensory information in the context of goals, expectations, preferences, and other factors. These integrative processes engage much of cortex but also require contributions from subcortical structures to affect behavior. Here we summarize recent evidence supporting specific computational roles of the basal ganglia in perceptual decision-making. These roles likely share common mechanisms with the basal ganglias other, more well-established functions in motor control, learning, and other aspects of cognition and thus can provide insights into the general roles of this important subcortical network in higher brain function. PMID:23972593

Ding, Long; Gold, Joshua I.

2013-01-01

36

Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Reviews Clinical summary OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive ...

37

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease Ann M. Graybiel As the search for molecular therapies for basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, accelerates, new-9822 The motor symptoms of basal ganglia disorders fall at two extremes. In Parkinson's disease and related

Graybiel, Ann M.

38

Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,

Andr Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

1995-01-01

39

Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar

Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

2005-01-01

40

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

41

Modulation of the basal ganglia dopaminergic system in a transgenic mouse exhibiting dystonia-like features  

PubMed Central

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice exhibiting hyperkinesia (affected) transgenic mice not showing movement abnormalities (unaffected), and non-transgenic littermates A decrease in the density of striatal D2 binding sites, measured by [3H]raclopride binding, and D2 mRNA expression in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was revealed in affected an unaffected transgenic mice when compared with non-transgenic. No difference in D1 receptor binding and DAT binding, measured by [3H]SCH23390 and [3H]WIN35428 binding, respectively, was found in striatum of transgenic animals. In SNpc, increased levels of DAT binding sites were observed in affected and unaffected animals compared to non-transgenic, whereas no change in DAT mRNA expression was found. Our results show selective neurochemical changes in the basal ganglia dopaminergic system, suggesting a possible involvement in the pathophysiology of dystonialike motor hyperactivity. PMID:21136125

Giannakopoulou, D.; Armata, I. A.; Mitsacos, A.; Shashidharan, P.; Giompres, P.

2011-01-01

42

Asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation and basal ganglia calcification in a child with Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is rare. Here, we have reported a case of Down syndrome in a 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression, and basal ganglia calcification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Down syndrome, in a child, which was accompanied by these 3 neurologic complications simultaneously. As seen in this case, patients with Down syndrome may have neurologic conditions without any obvious neurologic symptoms; hence, patients with Down syndrome should be carefully examined for the presence of neurologic conditions. PMID:24416050

Lee, Kun-Soo; Weon, Young Cheol

2013-01-01

43

A syndrome of bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia lesions in diabetic dialysis patients.  

PubMed

A rare syndrome of acute symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic dialysis patients that manifests clinically with headache, dysarthria, and gait and movement disorder has been described almost exclusively in patients of Asian descent. The pathophysiology of this condition has not been established. Of the 28 cases reported, 3 patients have been from North America. In the context of magnetic resonance imaging showing dramatic resolution of lesions of the basal ganglia, this report describes a fourth case from North America of a 47-year-old Hispanic woman with diabetes on dialysis therapy who presented with headache, unsteady gait, and slurred speech. We also consider presymptomatic metabolic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24183109

Finelli, Pasquale F; Singh, Joseph U

2014-02-01

44

Dopamine release in the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action-potential and Ca2+ dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release, by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinsons disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA and aceylcholie (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

2011-01-01

45

A selective role for right insula--basal ganglia circuits in appetitive stimulus processing  

PubMed Central

Hemispheric lateralization of hedonic evaluation (liking) and incentive motivation (wanting) in neural networks connecting the basal ganglia and insula (BG-I) in humans was examined. Participants with brain damage restricted to the BG-I of the right (n = 5) or left (n = 5) hemisphere, and 26 healthy participants matched on age, sex and intelligence quotient were tested on positively and negatively valenced pictures drawn from varied stimulus categories (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2008). Liking was assessed with explicit ratings of pleasantness using a nine-point Likert scale. Wanting was quantified as the amount of work (via repeated keypresses) that participants expended to increase (approach) or decrease (withdraw) viewing time. Right-lesion patients showed abnormally low viewing times and liking ratings for positive images. For a subset of positive images depicting sexual content, right-lesion patients exhibited active withdrawal, while the other two groups approached such stimuli. These results suggest that the right basal gangliainsula complex plays a greater role than the left in supporting hedonic evaluation and motivational approach to positively valenced stimuli. The finding that active avoidance of stimuli that were not liked was spared in both right- and left-sided lesion subjects suggests that unilateral damage to insula/basal ganglia circuits may not be sufficient to affect general incentive motivation independent of preference. PMID:22798397

Vijayaraghavan, Lavanya; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Cassell, Martin; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio

2013-01-01

46

Bidirectional Control of Absence Seizures by the Basal Ganglia: A Computational Evidence  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy is believed to be associated with the abnormal interactions between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Besides the direct coupling, anatomical evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex and thalamus also communicate indirectly through an important intermediate bridgebasal ganglia. It has been thus postulated that the basal ganglia might play key roles in the modulation of absence seizures, but the relevant biophysical mechanisms are still not completely established. Using a biophysically based model, we demonstrate here that the typical absence seizure activities can be controlled and modulated by the direct GABAergic projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to either the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) or the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus, through different biophysical mechanisms. Under certain conditions, these two types of seizure control are observed to coexist in the same network. More importantly, due to the competition between the inhibitory SNr-TRN and SNr-SRN pathways, we find that both decreasing and increasing the activation of SNr neurons from the normal level may considerably suppress the generation of spike-and-slow wave discharges in the coexistence region. Overall, these results highlight the bidirectional functional roles of basal ganglia in controlling and modulating absence seizures, and might provide novel insights into the therapeutic treatments of this brain disorder. PMID:24626189

Wang, Tiebin; Jing, Wei; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Luo, Cheng; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Yao, Dezhong

2014-01-01

47

A selective role for right insula--basal ganglia circuits in appetitive stimulus processing.  

PubMed

Hemispheric lateralization of hedonic evaluation ('liking') and incentive motivation ('wanting') in neural networks connecting the basal ganglia and insula (BG-I) in humans was examined. Participants with brain damage restricted to the BG-I of the right (n = 5) or left (n = 5) hemisphere, and 26 healthy participants matched on age, sex and intelligence quotient were tested on positively and negatively valenced pictures drawn from varied stimulus categories (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2008). Liking was assessed with explicit ratings of pleasantness using a nine-point Likert scale. Wanting was quantified as the amount of work (via repeated keypresses) that participants expended to increase (approach) or decrease (withdraw) viewing time. Right-lesion patients showed abnormally low viewing times and liking ratings for positive images. For a subset of positive images depicting sexual content, right-lesion patients exhibited active withdrawal, while the other two groups approached such stimuli. These results suggest that the right basal ganglia-insula complex plays a greater role than the left in supporting hedonic evaluation and motivational approach to positively valenced stimuli. The finding that active avoidance of stimuli that were not 'liked' was spared in both right- and left-sided lesion subjects suggests that unilateral damage to insula/basal ganglia circuits may not be sufficient to affect general incentive motivation independent of preference. PMID:22798397

Vijayaraghavan, Lavanya; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P; Cassell, Martin; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio

2013-10-01

48

The basal ganglia and cerebellum interact in the expression of dystonic movement  

PubMed Central

Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements or abnormal posturing. Traditional views place responsibility for dystonia with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits, yet recent evidence has pointed towards cerebellar circuits as well. In the current studies we used two strategies to explore the hypothesis that the expression of dystonic movements depends on influences from a motor network that includes both the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The first strategy was to evaluate the consequences of subthreshold lesions of the striatum in two different animal models where dystonic movements are thought to originate from abnormal cerebellar function. The second strategy employed microdialysis to search for changes in striatal dopamine release in these two animal models where the cerebellum has been already implicated. One of the animal models involved tottering mice, which exhibit paroxysmal dystonia due to an inherited defect affecting calcium channels. In keeping with prior results implicating the cerebellum in this model, surgical removal of the cerebellum eliminated their dystonic attacks. In contrast, subclinical lesions of the striatum with either 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) exaggerated their dystonic attacks. Microdialysis of the striatum revealed dystonic attacks in tottering mice to be associated with a significant reduction in extracellular striatal dopamine. The other animal model involved the induction of dystonia via pharmacological excitation of the cerebellar cortex by local application of kainic acid in normal mice. In this model the site of stimulation determines the origin of dystonia in the cerebellum. However, subclinical striatal lesions with either 6OHDA or QA again exaggerated their generalized dystonia. When dystonic movements were triggered by pharmacological stimulation of the cerebellum, microdialysis revealed significant reductions in striatal dopamine release. These results demonstrate important functional relationships between cerebellar and basal ganglia circuits in two different animal models of dystonia. They suggest that expression of dystonic movements depends on influences from both basal ganglia and cerebellum in both models. These results support the hypothesis that dystonia may result from disruption of a motor network involving both the basal ganglia and cerebellum, rather than isolated dysfunction of only one motor system. PMID:18669484

Neychev, Vladimir K.; Fan, Xueliang; Mitev, V. I.; Hess, Ellen J.

2008-01-01

49

The basal ganglia and cerebellum interact in the expression of dystonic movement.  

PubMed

Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements or abnormal posturing. Traditional views place responsibility for dystonia with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits, yet recent evidence has pointed towards cerebellar circuits as well. In the current studies we used two strategies to explore the hypothesis that the expression of dystonic movements depends on influences from a motor network that includes both the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The first strategy was to evaluate the consequences of subthreshold lesions of the striatum in two different animal models where dystonic movements are thought to originate from abnormal cerebellar function. The second strategy employed microdialysis to search for changes in striatal dopamine release in these two animal models where the cerebellum has been already implicated. One of the animal models involved tottering mice, which exhibit paroxysmal dystonia due to an inherited defect affecting calcium channels. In keeping with prior results implicating the cerebellum in this model, surgical removal of the cerebellum eliminated their dystonic attacks. In contrast, subclinical lesions of the striatum with either 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) exaggerated their dystonic attacks. Microdialysis of the striatum revealed dystonic attacks in tottering mice to be associated with a significant reduction in extracellular striatal dopamine. The other animal model involved the induction of dystonia via pharmacological excitation of the cerebellar cortex by local application of kainic acid in normal mice. In this model the site of stimulation determines the origin of dystonia in the cerebellum. However, subclinical striatal lesions with either 6OHDA or QA again exaggerated their generalized dystonia. When dystonic movements were triggered by pharmacological stimulation of the cerebellum, microdialysis revealed significant reductions in striatal dopamine release. These results demonstrate important functional relationships between cerebellar and basal ganglia circuits in two different animal models of dystonia. They suggest that expression of dystonic movements depends on influences from both basal ganglia and cerebellum in both models. These results support the hypothesis that dystonia may result from disruption of a motor network involving both the basal ganglia and cerebellum, rather than isolated dysfunction of only one motor system. PMID:18669484

Neychev, Vladimir K; Fan, Xueliang; Mitev, V I; Hess, Ellen J; Jinnah, H A

2008-09-01

50

Nodose ganglia-modulatory effects on respiration.  

PubMed

The key role of the vagus nerves in the reflex control of breathing is generally accepted. Cardiopulmonary vagal receptors and their afferent connection with the medullary respiratory centers secures the proper regulatory feedback. Section of the vagi at the midcervical level interrupts primary vagal reflexes and those due to activation of lung afferents by neuroactive substances. In this context the present review focuses on the reflex contribution of the inferior (nodose) vagal ganglia to the respiratory pattern, considering that this structure contains perikarya of vagal afferent neurons which house neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and neurochemical substances. In experimental animals with removed sensory input from the lungs (midcervical vagotomy) the following evidence was reported. Transient respiratory suppression in the form of apnoea, occurring after systemic injection of serotonin, adenosine triphosphate and anandamide (N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine-endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter), which was abrogated by nodose ganglionectomy. Preserved nodose-NTS connection conditioned respiratory depression affecting the timing component of the breathing pattern evoked by N-6-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CPA) and inhibition of both respiratory constituents induced by NPY. Stimulatory effect of NPY13-36 on tidal volume required nodosal connection. The cardiovascular effects of majority of the tested substances occurred beyond the nodose ganglia (with exclusion of serotonin and anandamide). PMID:23489183

Kaczy?ska, K; Szereda-Przestaszewska, M

2013-07-18

51

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

E-print Network

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Fay Y. Womer a,n , Lei of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using Free

52

Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. One of the pivotal reasons for this reappraisal has been new information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex. In essence, recent anatomical studies have revealed that these connections are organized into discrete circuits

Frank A Middleton; Peter L Strick

2000-01-01

53

Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT.

F. Illum

1980-01-01

54

Sensory and cognitive functions of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found that the basal ganglia are involved in diverse behavioral activities and suggest that they have executive functions. Highlights from the past year include anatomical and clinical studies that have used sophisticated, novel methods to confirm a role for the basal ganglia in somatosensory discrimination, visual perception, spatial working memory and habit learning.

Lucy L Brown; Jay S Schneider; Theodore I Lidsky

1997-01-01

55

Sensory and cognitive functions of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Recent studies have found that the basal ganglia are involved in diverse behavioral activities and suggest that they have executive functions. Highlights from the past year include anatomical and clinical studies that have used sophisticated, novel methods to confirm a role for the basal ganglia in somatosensory discrimination, visual perception, spatial working memory and habit learning. PMID:9142758

Brown, L L; Schneider, J S; Lidsky, T I

1997-04-01

56

Body Shape Changes with HIV  

MedlinePLUS

... body shape and appearance. This condition is called lipodystrophy (pronounced "li-po-dis-tro-fee"). "Lipo" means fat, "dystrophy" means abnormal growth or change. So, lipodystrophy means abnormal changes in fat. These changes can ...

57

Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia  

PubMed Central

Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor use may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes linking etiology to pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:20005952

Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

2010-01-01

58

Calcium Signaling in Intact Dorsal Root Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Background Ca2+ is the dominant second messenger in primary sensory neurons. In addition, disrupted Ca2+ signaling is a prominent feature in pain models involving peripheral nerve injury. Standard cytoplasmic Ca2+ recording techniques use high K+ or field stimulation and dissociated neurons. To compare findings in intact dorsal root ganglia, we used a method of simultaneous electrophysiologic and microfluorimetric recording. Methods Dissociated neurons were loaded by bath-applied Fura-2-AM and subjected to field stimulation. Alternatively, we adapted a technique in which neuronal somata of intact ganglia were loaded with Fura-2 through an intracellular microelectrode that provided simultaneous membrane potential recording during activation by action potentials (APs) conducted from attached dorsal roots. Results Field stimulation at levels necessary to activate neurons generated bath pH changes through electrolysis and failed to predictably drive neurons with AP trains. In the intact ganglion technique, single APs produced measurable Ca2+ transients that were fourfold larger in presumed nociceptive C-type neurons than in nonnociceptive A?-type neurons. Unitary Ca2+ transients summated during AP trains, forming transients with amplitudes that were highly dependent on stimulation frequency. Each neuron was tuned to a preferred frequency at which transient amplitude was maximal. Transients predominantly exhibited monoexponential recovery and had sustained plateaus during recovery only with trains of more than 100 APs. Nerve injury decreased Ca2+ transients in C-type neurons, but increased transients in A?-type neurons. Conclusions Refined observation of Ca2+ signaling is possible through natural activation by conducted APs in undissociated sensory neurons and reveals features distinct to neuronal types and injury state. PMID:20526180

Gemes, Geza; Rigaud, Marcel; Koopmeiners, Andrew S.; Poroli, Mark J.; Zoga, Vasiliki; Hogan, Quinn H.

2013-01-01

59

Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

2014-12-01

60

ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia A group of subcortical nuclei  

E-print Network

;6 Cerebellar dysfunction · Review,Gross anatomy: Cerebellar nuclei · Information passes through these between1 ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia · A group of subcortical nuclei · caudate, putamen, globus pallidus

Sergio, Lauren E.

61

Synaptic dimorphism in Onychophoran cephalic ganglia.  

PubMed

The taxonomic location of the Onychophora has been controversial because of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, related to both annelids and arthropods. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the neurons and their synapses in the cephalic ganglion of a poorly known invertebrate, the velvet worm Peripatus sedgwicki, from the mountainous region of El Valle, Mrida, Venezuela. Cephalic ganglia were dissected, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. The animal has a high degree of neurobiological development, as evidenced by the presence of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses, as well as the existence of glial cell processes in a wide neuropile zone. The postsynaptic terminals were seen to contain subsynaptic cisterns formed by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum beneath the postsynaptic density, whereas the presynaptic terminal showed numerous electron transparent synaptic vesicles. From the neurophylogenetic perspectives, the ultrastructural characteristics of the central nervous tissue of the Onychophora show important evolutionary acquirements, such as the presence of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, indicating functional synaptic transmission, and the appearance of mature glial cells. PMID:18457135

Pea-Contreras, Z; Mendoza-Briceo, R V; Miranda-Contreras, L; Palacios-Pr, E L

2007-03-01

62

Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

2014-01-01

63

Cognitive impairment and dementia in basal ganglia disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an update focusing on research from the past 2 years on cognitive impairment and dementia in basal ganglia disorders,\\u000a including Huntingtons disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinsons disease, Parkinsons disease dementia, and dementia\\u000a with Lewy bodies. In addition to the many recent papers that aim to refine descriptions of the cognitive phenotypes in the\\u000a basal ganglia disorders, the current

Julie C. Stout; Shannon A. Johnson

2005-01-01

64

Abnormal Cerebral Activation Associated with a Motor Task in Tourette Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, PET scanning and EEG suggest an abnormal organization of the sensorimotor cortex and basal ganglia. The purpose of this study was to use functional MR imaging to study activation in the sensorimotor cortex in patients with Tourette syndrome. METHODS: From echo-planar images acquired during intermittent performance of a finger- tapping task,

Bharat Biswal; John L. Ulmer; Robert L. Krippendorf; Harold H. Harsch; David L. Daniels; James S. Hyde; Victor M. Haughton

65

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The primary manifestations of Parkinsons disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limbs position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinsons disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortes, Juan Camilo

2012-01-01

66

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

67

Hyperpolarizing `?2'-adrenoceptors in rat sympathetic ganglia  

PubMed Central

1 Receptors mediating catecholamine-induced hyperpolarization of isolated superior cervical sympathetic ganglia of the rat have been characterized by means of an extracellular recording method. 2 (-)-Noradrenaline (EC50, 1.7 0.6 ?M) produced an immediate low-amplitude (< 400 ?V) hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarization was increased on removal of external Ca2+ or on reduction of external K+ from 6 to 2 mM. Hyperpolarization was unaffected by changing the temperature from 25 to 37C. 3 Hyperpolarization was also produced by the following agonists (potencies relative to (-)-noradrenaline): (-)-noradrenaline 1; ()-isoprenaline 0.41; (-)-phenylephrine 0.40; (+)-noradrenaline 0.13; 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy tetrahydronaphthalene (ADTN) 0.25; dopamine 0.1; methoxamine 0.012; amidephrine 0.0015. 4 Responses were antagonized by phentolamine (1 ?M) but not by ()-propranolol (1 ?M), haloperidol (10 ?M) or ?-flupenthixol (1 ?M). This suggested that hyperpolarization was mediated solely through ?-receptor stimulation not through stimulation of ?-receptors or dopamine-receptors. 5 Dose-ratio shifts produced by phentolamine varied with different agonists. The shift increased in inverse proportion to the ability of the agonists to inhibit [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline uptake, suggesting that uptake of agonists limited the dose-ratio shift. Cocaine and nortriptyline reduced catecholamine-induced hyperpolarization in concentrations (10 ?M and 1 ?M respectively) necessary to inhibit [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline uptake. 6 Clonidine (0.01 to 1 ?M), oxymetazoline (0.01 to 1 ?M) and ergometrine (0.1 to 10 ?M) produced a persistent, low-amplitude hyperpolarization, as though they were partial agonists. Responses to the agonists were blocked by yohimbine (1 ?M) but not be prazosin (1 ?M). 7 It is concluded that the adrenergic cell bodies in the ganglion were hyperpolarized through activation of the same type of ?-receptor (`?2-receptors') as those present at adrenergic nerve terminals. PMID:218668

Brown, D.A.; Caulfield, M.P.

1979-01-01

68

Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography  

SciTech Connect

The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

1990-01-01

69

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

70

Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation  

PubMed Central

A typical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). Neurally impaired versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands, and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllables motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286

Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H.

2013-01-01

71

Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation.  

PubMed

Atypical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). "Neurally impaired" versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable's motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286

Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H

2013-09-01

72

Dopaminergic dysbalance in distinct basal ganglia neurocircuits: implications for the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia form a forebrain system that collects signals from a large part of the neocortex, redistributes these cortical inputs both with respect to one another and with respect to inputs from the limbic system, and then focuses the inputs of this redistributed, integrated signals into particular regions of the frontal lobes and brainstem involved in aspects of motor planning and motor memory. Movement disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction comprise a spectrum of abnormalities that range from the hypokinetic disorder (from which Parkinson's disease, PD, is the best-known-example) at one extreme to the hyperkinetic disorder (exemplified by Huntington's disease and hemiballism) at the other. In addition to disorders of movement, major mental disorders including schizophrenic-like states and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been linked to abnormalities in the basal ganglia and their allied nuclei. In this paper we discuss recent evidence indicating that a dopamine-induced dysbalance of basal ganglia neurocircuitries may be an important pathophysiological component in PD, schizophrenia and ADHD. According to our model, the deprivation of dopaminergic nigro-striatal input, as in PD, reduces the positive feedback via the direct system, and increases the negative feedback via the indirect system. The critical consequences are an overactivity of the basal ganglia output sites with the resulting inhibition of thalamo-cortical drive. In schizophrenia the serious cognitive deficits might be partly a result of a hyperactivity of the inhibitory dopamine D(2) transmission system. Through this dysinhibition, the thalamus exhibits hyperactivity that overstimulates the cortex resulting in dysfunctions of perception, attention, stimulus distinction, information processing and affective regulation (inducing hallucinations and delusions) and motor disabilities. Recent studies have strongly suggested that a disturbance of the dopaminergic system is also involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. The most convincing evidence comes from the demonstration of the efficacy of psychostimulants such as the dopamine transporter (DAT) blocker methylphenidate in the symptomatic treatment of ADHD. Genetic studies have shown an association between ADHD and genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission (for example the dopamine receptor genes DRD4 and DRD5, and the DAT gene DAT1). DAT knockout mice display a phenotype with increased locomotor activity, which is normalized by psychostimulant treatment. Finally, imaging studies demonstrated an increased density of DAT in the striatum of ADHD patients. Which system is disturbed and whether this system is hyper- or hypoactive is not unambiguously known yet. PMID:17197367

Mehler-Wex, C; Riederer, P; Gerlach, M

2006-12-01

73

Altered functional connectivity of basal ganglia circuitry in dental phobia.  

PubMed

Recent symptom provocation studies that compared patients suffering from dental phobia with healthy controls identified hyperactivation of basal ganglia structures, but none have assessed striatal functional connectivity. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on dental phobia. Patients (20 men, 25 women) and healthy controls (18 men, 23 women) had been exposed to pictures showing dental treatment, and neutral contents. We conducted connectivity analyses via psychophysiological interactions (PPIs). Relative to non-phobic controls, the patients showed decreased connectivity between prefrontal and basal ganglia regions. Moreover, the clinical group was characterized by increased internal basal ganglia connectivity, which was more pronounced in female compared with male patients. This study provides first evidence for an altered information flow within a fronto-striatal network in dentophobic individuals during visual symptom provocation, which can be considered a neuromarker of this disorder. PMID:24084590

Scharmller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schnganer, Florian; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Schienle, Anne

2014-10-01

74

A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research. PMID:21909324

Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

2011-01-01

75

Rhythmic Cortical Neurons Increase their Oscillations and Sculpt Basal Ganglia Signaling During Motor Learning  

PubMed Central

The function and modulation of neural circuits underlying motor skill may involve rhythmic oscillations (Feller, 1999; Marder and Goaillard, 2006; Churchland et al., 2012). In the proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the cortical nucleus HVC, the frequency and power of oscillatory bursting during singing increases with development (Crandall et al., 2007; Day et al., 2009). We examined the maturation of cellular activity patterns that underlie these changes. Single unit ensemble recording combined with antidromic identification (Day et al., 2011) was used to study network development in anesthetized zebra finches. Autocovariance quantified oscillations within single units. A subset of neurons oscillated in the theta/alpha/mu/beta range (820 Hz), with greater power in adults compared to juveniles. Across the network, the normalized oscillatory power in the 820 Hz range was greater in adults than juveniles. In addition, the correlated activity between rhythmic neuron pairs increased with development. We next examined the functional impact of the oscillators on the output neurons of HVC. We found that the firing of oscillatory neurons negatively correlated with the activity of cortico-basal ganglia neurons (HVCXs), which project to Area X (the song basal ganglia). If groups of oscillators work together to tonically inhibit and precisely control the spike timing of adult HVCXs with coordinated release from inhibition, then the activity of HVCXs in juveniles should be decreased relative to adults due to uncorrelated, tonic inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, HVCXs had lower activity in juveniles. These data reveal network changes that shape cortical-to-basal ganglia signaling during motor learning. PMID:23776169

Day, Nancy F.; Nick, Teresa A.

2014-01-01

76

The basal ganglia's contributions to perceptual decision making.  

PubMed

Perceptual decision making is a computationally demanding process that requires the brain to interpret incoming sensory information in the context of goals, expectations, preferences, and other factors. These integrative processes engage much of cortex but also require contributions from subcortical structures to affect behavior. Here we summarize recent evidence supporting specific computational roles of the basal ganglia in perceptual decision making. These roles probably share common mechanisms with the basal ganglia's other, more well-established functions in motor control, learning, and other aspects of cognition and thus can provide insights into the general roles of this important subcortical network in higher brain function. PMID:23972593

Ding, Long; Gold, Joshua I

2013-08-21

77

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

78

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

79

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

80

The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds  

E-print Network

The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

Andalman, Aaron Samuel

2009-01-01

81

A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds  

E-print Network

The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia to the cortex and is critical for motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the basal ganglia, ...

Goldberg, Jesse H.

82

Evidence for Glutamate as a Neuroglial Transmitter within Sensory Ganglia  

PubMed Central

This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 m) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold. PMID:23844184

Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T.; Jasmin, Luc

2013-01-01

83

Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were

Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

2005-01-01

84

CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA  

E-print Network

and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder,8 both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

Berridge, Kent

85

CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA  

E-print Network

and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder8 , both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

Berridge, Kent

86

Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.  

PubMed

Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

2014-08-01

87

ROLE OF A LATERALIZED PARIETAL-BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUIT IN HIERARCHICAL PATTERN PERCEPTION  

PubMed Central

The role of corticostriatal circuits in hierarchical pattern perception was examined in Parkinsons disease. The hypothesis was tested that patients with right-side onset of motor symptoms (RPD, left hemisphere dysfunction) would be impaired at local level processing because the left posterior temporoparietal junction (TP) emphasizes processing of local information. By contrast, left-side onset patients (LPD; right hemisphere dysfunction) would show impaired global processing because right TP emphasizes global processing. Participants identified targets at local or global levels without and with attention biased toward those levels. Despite normal attentional control between levels, LPD patients showed a single dissociation, demonstrating abnormal global level processing under all conditions, whereas RPD patients showed abnormal local level processing mainly when attention was biased toward the local level. These findings link side of motor symptom onset to visuospatial cognitive abilities that depend upon the contralateral TP, highlighting that side of onset can predict visuospatial impairments, and provide evidence that an inferior parietal - basal ganglia pathway involving the caudate head and the hemispherically asymmetrical TP region is necessary for hierarchical pattern perception. PMID:19170437

Schendan, Haline E.; Amick, Melissa M.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

2009-01-01

88

Hyporesponsive reward anticipation in the basal ganglia following severe institutional deprivation early in life.  

PubMed

Severe deprivation in the first few years of life is associated with multiple difficulties in cognition and behavior. However, the brain basis for these difficulties is poorly understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have implicated limbic system structures as dysfunctional, and one functional imaging study in a heterogeneous group of maltreated individuals has confirmed the presence of abnormalities in the basal ganglia. Based on these studies and known dopaminergic abnormalities from studies in experimental animals using social isolation, we used a task of monetary reward anticipation to examine the functional integrity of brain regions previously shown to be implicated in reward processing. Our sample included a group of adolescents (n = 12) who had experienced global deprivation early in their lives in Romania prior to adoption into UK families. In contrast to a nonadopted comparison group (n = 11), the adoptees did not recruit the striatum during reward anticipation despite comparable performance accuracy and latency. These results show, for the first time, an association between early institutional deprivation and brain reward systems in humans and highlight potential neural vulnerabilities resulting from such exposures. PMID:19929329

Mehta, Mitul A; Gore-Langton, Emma; Golembo, Nicole; Colvert, Emma; Williams, Steven C R; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2010-10-01

89

Physiological evidence for a trans-basal ganglia pathway linking extrastriate visual cortex and the superior colliculus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Visually responsive regions along the cat's lateral suprasylvian (LS) sulcus provide excitatory inputs to the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC). It is via this direct cortico-collicular route that LS cortex is thought to enhance the visual activity of SC output neurons and thereby facilitate SC-mediated orientation behaviours. However, it has long been suggested that LS also might influence the SC via an indirect route through the basal ganglia. Such a multi-synaptic route would ultimately modulate SC activity via basal ganglia output neurons in substantia nigra, pars reticulata. Using cortical electrical stimulation, the present experiments in the anaesthetized cat provide a physiological confirmation of this indirect route. Moreover, the patterns of activity evoked in antidromically identified nigro-collicular neurons indicate the involvement of multiple trans-basal ganglia pathways. The most complex evoked patterns consisted of a variable period of inhibition preceded and followed by periods of excitation. Although many neurons displayed only components of this triphasic response, these electrically evoked responses generally matched the characteristics of their responses to natural visual stimuli. Cortical stimulation evoked excitation in all of crossed nigro-collicular neurons and inhibition in the majority of uncrossed nigro-collicular neurons. These data suggest that LS activity accesses multiple trans-basal ganglia circuits that shape nigro-collicular responses that are appropriate for their SC targets. In this way, visual stimuli in one hemifield can be selected as targets for SC-mediated orientation, while simultaneously inhibiting activity in the opposite SC that might generate responses to competing targets. PMID:21986209

Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E; McHaffie, John G

2011-01-01

90

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.  

PubMed

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-01-01

91

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds  

PubMed Central

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

2014-01-01

92

Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

2013-01-01

93

Focal Hand Dystonia Secondary to Basal Ganglia Germinoma  

PubMed Central

Descriptions of symptomatic focal dystonia caused by focal lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare in the literature. We report a 9-year-old child who experienced sudden-onset left-hand dystonia for 6 months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion involving the putamen, globus pallidus, head of caudate, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Histopathological and immunocytochemical examinations of the mass revealed features characteristic of malignant germinoma. CNS germinoma in the basal ganglia is very rare. Combining previous reports in the literature with the anatomical and clinical presentation of our case suggests that this phenomenon results from disruption of the pathways within and adjacent to the basal ganglia. PMID:19513283

Kim, Joong-Seok; Han, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Woojun; Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Yeong-In

2007-01-01

94

Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in Basal Ganglia function.  

PubMed

Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction. Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders. PMID:21344017

Bonsi, Paola; Cuomo, Dario; Martella, Giuseppina; Madeo, Graziella; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Puglisi, Francesca; Ponterio, Giulia; Pisani, Antonio

2011-01-01

95

Adenosine A1 receptor activation inhibits LTP in sympathetic ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of adenosine on long-term potentiation of sympathetic ganglia was studied in the isolated superior cervical ganglion of the rat, using extracellularly recorded compound action potential as an index of synaptic transmission. Adenosine in a small concentration (2 ?M) blocked the post-tetanic potentiation without affecting long-term potentiation. Higher concentrations blocked both responses with no significant effect on basal transmission.

Yvonne H Hogan; Rollin Hawkins; Karim A Alkadhi

1998-01-01

96

The structure of tonic flexor motoneurons in crayfish abdominal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The tonic flexor motoneurons were filled with cobalt dye via the cut ends of their axons. All six physiologically defined cells were identified anatomically (Figs. 24).2.The cell somata are widely scattered in the ventral rind of the ganglia; three cells have ipsilateral and three cells have contralateral somata in reference to their axons; cells with contralateral somata tend to be

Jeffrey J. Wine; Jay E. Mittenthal; Donald Kennedy

1974-01-01

97

Proactive Selective Response Suppression Is Implemented via the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway. PMID:23946385

Majid, D. S. Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody

2013-01-01

98

Facial nerve parasympathetic preganglionic afferents to the accessory otic ganglia by way of the chorda tympani nerve in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of accessory otic ganglia and connections between the ganglia and the chorda tympani nerve were investigated\\u000a in the cat in order to determine the parasympathetic preganglionic facial nerve afferents to the otic ganglia using whole\\u000a mount acetylthiocholinesterase (WATChE) histochemistry. The otic ganglia consist of a sigle main prominent ganglion and many\\u000a small accessory ganglia lying on a plexus

Satoshi Kuchiiwa; T. Kuchiiwa; Satoru Nonaka; Shiro Nakagawa

1998-01-01

99

Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmuller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schobel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Gunter

2013-01-01

100

Shape Savvy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help your students identify these different shapes! Learn your shapes with Big Bird s Shapes and then Make Designs with Shapes to create objects! You better know your colors to Paint the Shapes correctly! ...

Popwell, Ms.

2010-09-22

101

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum: further delineation of the phenotype and genotype-phenotype correlation.  

PubMed

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a rare leukoencephalopathy that was identified using magnetic resonance imaging in 2002. In 2013, whole exome sequencing of 11 patients with the disease revealed that they all had the same de novo mutation in TUBB4A, which encodes tubulin ?-4A. We investigated the mutation spectrum in a cohort of 42 patients and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities that are indicative of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Genetic testing and a clinical inventory were performed, and sequential magnetic resonance images were evaluated using a standard protocol. The heterozygous TUBB4A mutation observed in the first 11 patients was the most common (25 patients). Additionally, 13 other heterozygous mutations were identified, located in different structural domains of tubulin ?-4A. We confirmed that the mutations were de novo in all but three patients. In two of these three cases we lacked parental DNA and in one the mutation was also found in the mother, most likely due to mosaicism. Patients showed a phenotypic continuum ranging from neonatal to childhood disease onset, normal to delayed early development and slow to more rapid neurological deterioration. Neurological symptomatology consisted of extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, spasticity, ataxia, cognitive deficit and sometimes epilepsy. Three patients died and the oldest living patient was 29 years of age. The patients' magnetic resonance images showed an absent or disappearing putamen, variable cerebellar atrophy and highly variable cerebral atrophy. Apart from hypomyelination, myelin loss was evident in several cases. Three severely affected patients had similar, somewhat atypical magnetic resonance image abnormalities. The study results were strongly suggestive of a genotype-phenotype correlation. The 25 patients with the common c.745G>A mutation generally had a less rapidly progressive disease course than the 17 cases with other TUBB4A mutations. Overall, this work demonstrates that the distinctive magnetic resonance imaging pattern for hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum defines a homogeneous clinical phenotype of variable severity. Patients almost invariably have prominent extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, which are rarely seen in patients with hypomyelination of different origin. A dominant TUBB4A mutation is also associated with dystonia type 4, in which magnetic resonance images of the brain seem normal. It is highly likely that there is a disease continuum associated with TUBB4A mutations, of which hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum and dystonia type 4 are the extremes. This would indicate that extrapyramidal movement abnormalities constitute the core feature of the disease spectrum related to dominant TUBB4A mutations and that all other features are variable. PMID:24785942

Hamilton, Eline M; Polder, Emiel; Vanderver, Adeline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Schiffmann, Raphael; Fisher, Kate; Ragu, Ana Boban; Blumkin, Luba; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J; Abbink, Truus E M; Wolf, Nicole I; van der Knaap, Marjo S

2014-07-01

102

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

103

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

104

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

105

A putative hyperglycemic factor from the cerebral ganglia of Otala lactea (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mantle tissue pieces from adult Otala lactea continuously synthesized glycogen over a 72-h incubation period. Acid-saline extract of the cerebral ganglia inhibited glycogen\\u000a synthesis by mantle tissue in vitro. This effect was dose-dependent. The glycogen reduction factor from the cerebral ganglia\\u000a was heat stable, protease sensitive, and relatively hydrophobic. The cerebral ganglia extract also stimulated mantle glycogen\\u000a phosphorylase in vitro

A. M. Abdraba; A. S. M. Saleuddin

2000-01-01

106

Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia  

SciTech Connect

Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA)); Murray, R.S. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO (USA))

1988-04-01

107

Subclinical Visuospatial Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: The Role of Basal Ganglia and Limbic System  

PubMed Central

Background: Visual perception deficits are a recurrent manifestation in Parkinsons disease (PD). Recently, structural abnormalities of fronto-parietal areas and subcortical regions, implicated in visual stimuli analysis, have been observed in PD patients with cognitive decline and visual hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salient aspects of visual perception in cognitively unimpaired PD patients. Methods: Eleven right-handed non-demented right-sided onset PD patients without visuospatial impairment or hallucinations and 11 healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a specific visuoperceptual/visuospatial paradigm that allowed to highlight the specific process underlying visuospatial judgment. Results: Significant changes in both cortical areas and subcortical regions involved in visual stimuli processing were observed. In particular, PD patients showed a reduced activation for the right insula, left putamen, bilateral caudate, and right hippocampus, as well as an over-activation of the right dorso-lateral prefrontal and of the posterior parietal cortices, particularly in the right hemisphere. Conclusions: We found that both loss of efficiency and compensatory mechanisms occur in PD patients, providing further insight into the pathophysiological role of the functional alterations of basal ganglia and limbic structures in the impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions observed in PD. PMID:25157239

Caproni, Stefano; Muti, Marco; Di Renzo, Antonio; Principi, Massimo; Caputo, Nevia; Calabresi, Paolo; Tambasco, Nicola

2014-01-01

108

Extensive basal ganglia edema caused by a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: a rare presentation related to a basal vein of Rosenthal anatomical variation.  

PubMed

The authors report a very rare presentation of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) with extensive edema of the basal ganglia and brainstem because of an anatomical variation of the basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR). A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' institution for left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and a comatose state caused by right orbital trauma from a thin metal rod. Brain MRI showed a right CCF and vasogenic edema of the right side of the brainstem, right temporal lobe, and basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed a high-flow direct CCF and revealed a hypoplastic second segment of the BVR responsible for the hypertension in inferior striate veins and venous congestion. Endovascular treatment was performed on an emergency basis. One month after treatment, the patient's symptoms and MRI signal abnormalities almost totally disappeared. Basal ganglia and brainstem venous congestion may occur in traumatic CCF in cases of a hypoplastic or agenetic second segment of the BVR and may provoke emergency treatment. PMID:24527815

Ract, Isabelle; Drier, Aurlie; Leclercq, Delphine; Sourour, Nader; Gabrieli, Joseph; Yger, Marion; Nouet, Aurlien; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Clarenon, Frdric

2014-07-01

109

[Walking abnormalities in children].  

PubMed

Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional specialization of the cortex through the spinal stepping generator-fastigial nucleus-thalamus-cortex pathway. Early detection of locomotion failure and early adjustment of this condition through environmental factors can prevent the development of higher cortical dysfunction. PMID:21068458

Segawa, Masaya

2010-11-01

110

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

111

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

112

Monitoring Temperature and Fan Speed Using Ganglia and Winbond Chips  

SciTech Connect

Effective monitoring is essential to keep a large group of machines, like the ones at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), up and running. SLAC currently uses Ganglia Monitoring System to observe about 2000 machines, analyzing metrics like CPU usage and I/O rate. However, metrics essential to machine hardware health, such as temperature and fan speed, are not being monitored. Many machines have a Winbond w83782d chip which monitors three temperatures, two of which come from dual CPUs, and returns the information when the sensor command is invoked. Ganglia also provides a feature, gmetric, that allows the users to monitor their own metrics and incorporate them into the monitoring system. The programming language Perl is chosen to implement a script that invokes the sensors command, extracts the temperature and fan speed information, and calls gmetric with the appropriate arguments. Two machines were used to test the script; the two CPUs on each machine run at about 65 Celsius, which is well within the operating temperature range (The maximum safe temperature range is 77-82 Celsius for the Pentium III processors being used). Installing the script on all machines with a Winbond w83782d chip allows the SLAC Scientific Computing and Computing Services group (SCCS) to better evaluate current cooling methods.

McCaffrey, Cattie; /SLAC

2006-09-27

113

Cytotoxic responses of selected insecticides in chick ganglia cultures.  

PubMed Central

Various agricultural chemicals, e.g. pesticides, are known to cause different toxic effects in man and animals. Some of these produce responses involving the nervous tissue. Total of 52 such chemicals, representing organophosphates, carbamates and other miscellaneous insecticides were evaluated to determine their relative cytotoxic effects in avian dorsal root ganglia cultures. Many of these chemicals caused a slight stimulation of cellular growth at very low concentrations. At toxic concentrations, a dose-related but nonspecific inhibition of cell growth occurred. The cytotoxic changes included the decreased migration of cells from the culture implant, varicosities in and shortening of various cells and vacuolization and rounding of neuroglial cells. At high concentrations, pigmentary degeneration and complete abolition of cell growth were observed. The toxic effects were numerically scored in a random blind fashion and the concentrations of individual chemicals to produce a half maximal effect (IC50) in culture were determined from the dose-response curves. The IC50 values for various chemicals ranged from approximately 10(-6) M for compounds like methylparathion, diazinon, paraoxon and Vendex to greater than 10(-2) M for chlorpyriphos and methylchlorpyriphos. No significant correlations of nerve fiber or glial cell cytotoxicity were apparent with other toxic or physico-chemical properties such as lethal dose in animals, cholinesterase inhibition, lipophilicity or water solubility of chemicals. Clinically neurotoxic and nonneurotoxic compounds caused similar cytotoxic effects in ganglia cultures. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7272842

Sharma, R P; Obersteiner, E J

1981-01-01

114

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277

Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

2014-07-01

115

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

116

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

117

Symbolic Reasoning in Spiking Neurons: A Model of the Cortex/Basal Ganglia/Thalamus Loop  

E-print Network

Symbolic Reasoning in Spiking Neurons: A Model of the Cortex/Basal Ganglia/Thalamus Loop Terrence C of the cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus. The model is a general- purpose neural controller which plays a role for selecting between a set of inferences. When an inference rule is selected, it commands the thalamus

Anderson, Charles H.

118

The Evolution of the Terminology of the Basal Ganglia, or are they Nuclei?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal ganglia have been generally used to refer to some subcortical nuclei. However, it is a misnomer since ganglion is a group of nerve cells especially located outside of the brain or spinal cord. We evaluated the terminology of the basal ganglia from historical and terminological points of view.

Levent Sarikcioglu; Ummuhan Altun; Bikem Suzen; Nurettin Oguz

2008-01-01

119

Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when

Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

2009-01-01

120

Task-Set Switching Deficits in Early-Stage Huntington's Disease: Implications for Basal Ganglia Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functions are likely mediated by interconnected circuits including frontal lobe and basal ganglia structures. We assessed the executive function of task switching in patients with early-stage Huntington' s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease affecting the basal ganglia. In two experiments, the HD patients had greater difficulty when switching than when repeating a task than matched controls, and this was

Adam R. Aron; Laura Watkins; Barbara J. Sahakian; Stephen Monsell; Roger A. Barker; Trevor W. Robbins

2003-01-01

121

Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium  

E-print Network

L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

Boyer, Edmond

122

MORPHOLOGY OF IDENTIFIED NEURONES IN THE BUCCAL GANGLIA OF LYMNAEA STAGNALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The morphology of seven types of identified neurones in buccal ganglia of Lymnaea was investigated by intracellular injection of Procion Yellow and retrograde injection of cobaJtous chloride into the nerve roots of the buccal ganglia. The results provided anatomical support for the electrophysiological findings that some cells are motoneurones for muscles of the buccal mass (type 4-group cells, types

P. R. BENJAMIN; R. M. ROSE; CAROLE T. SLADE

1979-01-01

123

Targeting optimal biopsy location in basal ganglia germinoma using 11C-methionine positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApproximately 5% to 10% of intracranial germinomas arise from the basal ganglia or thalamus. Diagnosis is usually made by stereotactic biopsy, and precise location of the biopsy target is crucial because germinoma in these sites is potentially curable. We herein describe a case with germinoma in the basal ganglia that showed nonspecific clinical and radiological findings. The usefulness of MET-PET

Nobuyuki Kawai; Keisuke Miyake; Yoshihiro Nishiyama; Yuka Yamamoto; Akihiro Miki; Reiji Haba; Tadashi Imai; Takashi Tamiya; Seigo Nagao

2008-01-01

124

Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin  

PubMed Central

Summary The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an anti-reward signal. Our demonstration of an excitatory projection from the basal ganglia to the LHb explains how LHb-projecting basal ganglia neurons can have similar encoding properties as LHb neurons themselves. Our results also provide a link between anti-reward excitatory synapses and serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in depression. PMID:22578499

Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T.; Malinow, Roberto

2012-01-01

125

Basal ganglia-cortical interactions in Parkinsonian patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is a common and debilitating condition, caused by aberrant activity in a complex basal gangliathalamocortical circuit. Therapeutic advances rely on characterising interactions in this circuit. However, recording electrophysiological responses over the entire circuit is impractical. Dynamic causal modelling offers large-scale models of predictive value based on a limited or partial sampling of complex networks. Using dynamic causal modelling, we determined the network changes underlying the pathological excess of beta oscillations that characterise the Parkinsonian state. We modelled data from five patients undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation of more than one target. We found that connections to and from the subthalamic nucleus were strengthened and promoted beta synchrony, in the untreated compared to the treated Parkinsonian state. Dynamic causal modelling was able to replicate the effects of lesioning this nucleus and may provide a new means of directing the search for therapeutic targets. PMID:23153964

Marreiros, Andre C.; Cagnan, Hayriye; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.; Brown, Peter

2013-01-01

126

Influences of the basal ganglia on the medullary reticular formation.  

PubMed

Units were recorded extracellularly in the medullary reticular formation of chloralose-anesthetized cats during electrical stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG). Stimulating portions of the BG (caudate nucleus, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra) evoked unit responses in a considerable proportion of these neurons. The majority of reticular cells that were affected by the BG were also receptive to somatic sensory inputs from the face. These units' sensory properties were influenced by BG stimulation. Cells exclusively responsive to either BG or facial inputs were uncommon. The areas of the reticular formation affected by the BG give rise to portions of the reticulospinal tracts and thereby afford the BG access to the final common path. PMID:3587734

Manetto, C; Lidsky, T I

1987-04-10

127

Disconnection syndromes of basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebrocerebellar systems  

PubMed Central

Disconnection syndromes were originally conceptualized as a disruption of communication between different cerebral cortical areas. Two developments mandate a re-evaluation of this notion. First, we present a synopsis of our anatomical studies in monkey elucidating principles of organization of cerebral cortex. Efferent fibers emanate from every cortical area, and are directed with topographic precision via association fibers to ipsilateral cortical areas, commissural fibers to contralateral cerebral regions, striatal fibers to basal ganglia, and projection subcortical bundles to thalamus, brainstem and/or pontocerebellar system. We note that cortical areas can be defined by their patterns of subcortical and cortical connections. Second, we consider motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with lesions restricted to basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, and recognize that these lesions mimic deficits resulting from cortical lesions, with qualitative differences between the manifestations of lesions in functionally related areas of cortical and subcortical nodes. We consider these findings on the basis of anatomical observations from tract tracing studies in monkey, viewing them as disconnection syndromes reflecting loss of the contribution of subcortical nodes to the distributed neural circuits. We introduce a new theoretical framework for the distributed neural circuits, based on general, and specific, principles of anatomical organization, and on the architecture of the nodes that comprise these systems. We propose that neural architecture determines function, i.e., each architectonically distinct cortical and subcortical area contributes a unique transform, or computation, to information processing; anatomically precise and segregated connections between nodes define behavior; and association fiber tracts that link cerebral cortical areas with each other enable the cross-modal integration required for evolved complex behaviors. This model enables the formulation and testing of future hypotheses in investigations using evolving magnetic resonance imaging techniques in humans, and in clinical studies in patients with cortical and subcortical lesions. PMID:18614161

Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Pandya, Deepak N.

2013-01-01

128

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

129

Shape Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will go on a shape hunt in the classroom or designated area. During the shape hunt, students will draw pictures of the shapes they find and the object that it is found by, in order to show the position of the shape. After the shape hunt, students will use Timed-Pair-Share to explain to peers what shapes they found and their relative positions.

Hauptli, Meghan

2012-06-11

130

Vocal babbling in songbirds requires the basal ganglia-recipient motor thalamus but not the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Young songbirds produce vocal babbling, and the variability of their songs is thought to underlie a process of trial-and-error vocal learning. It is known that this exploratory variability requires the cortical component of a basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical loop, but less understood is the role of the BG and thalamic components in this behavior. We found that large bilateral lesions to the songbird BG homolog Area X had little or no effect on song variability during vocal babbling. In contrast, lesions to the BG-recipient thalamic nucleus DLM (medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamus) largely abolished normal vocal babbling in young birds and caused a dramatic increase in song stereotypy. These findings support the idea that the motor thalamus plays a key role in the expression of exploratory juvenile behaviors during learning. PMID:21430276

Goldberg, Jesse H.

2011-01-01

131

Vocal babbling in songbirds requires the basal ganglia-recipient motor thalamus but not the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Young songbirds produce vocal "babbling," and the variability of their songs is thought to underlie a process of trial-and-error vocal learning. It is known that this exploratory variability requires the "cortical" component of a basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical loop, but less understood is the role of the BG and thalamic components in this behavior. We found that large bilateral lesions to the songbird BG homolog Area X had little or no effect on song variability during vocal babbling. In contrast, lesions to the BG-recipient thalamic nucleus DLM (medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamus) largely abolished normal vocal babbling in young birds and caused a dramatic increase in song stereotypy. These findings support the idea that the motor thalamus plays a key role in the expression of exploratory juvenile behaviors during learning. PMID:21430276

Goldberg, Jesse H; Fee, Michale S

2011-06-01

132

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

133

Microcircuitry of the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the organization of the basal ganglia has advanced markedly over the last 10 years, mainly due to increased knowledge of their anatomical, neurochemical and physiological organization. These developments have led to a unifying model of the functional organization of the basal ganglia in both health and disease. The hypothesis is based on the so-called "direct" and "indirect" pathways of the flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia and has profoundly influenced the field of basal ganglia research, providing a framework for anatomical, physiological and clinical studies. The recent introduction of powerful techniques for the analysis of neuronal networks has led to further developments in our understanding of the basal ganglia. The objective of this commentary is to build upon the established model of the basal ganglia connectivity and review new anatomical findings that lead to the refinement of some aspects of the model. Four issues will be discussed. (1) The existence of several routes for the flow of cortical information along "indirect" pathways. (2) The synaptic convergence of information flowing through the "direct" and "indirect" pathways at the single-cell level in the basal ganglia output structures. (3) The convergence of functionally diverse information from the globus pallidus and the ventral pallidum at different levels of the basal ganglia. (4) The interconnections between the two divisions of the pallidal complex and the subthalamic nucleus and the characterization of the neuronal network underlying the indirect pathways. The findings summarized in this commentary confirm and elaborate the models of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia and provide a morphological framework for future studies. PMID:9881853

Smith, Y; Bevan, M D; Shink, E; Bolam, J P

1998-09-01

134

Chondrogenic and Gliogenic Subpopulations of Neural Crest Play Distinct Roles during the Assembly of Epibranchial Ganglia  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, the sensory neurons of the epibranchial (EB) ganglia transmit somatosensory signals from the periphery to the CNS. These ganglia are formed during embryogenesis by the convergence and condensation of two distinct populations of precursors: placode-derived neuroblasts and neural crest- (NC) derived glial precursors. In addition to the gliogenic crest, chondrogenic NC migrates into the pharyngeal arches, which lie in close proximity to the EB placodes and ganglia. Here, we examine the respective roles of these two distinct NC-derived populations during development of the EB ganglia using zebrafish morphant and mutants that lack one or both of these NC populations. Our analyses of mutant and morphant zebrafish that exhibit deficiencies in chondrogenic NC at early stages reveal a distinct requirement for this NC subpopulation during early EB ganglion assembly and segmentation. Furthermore, restoration of wildtype chondrogenic NC in one of these mutants, prdm1a, is sufficient to restore ganglion formation, indicating a specific requirement of the chondrogenic NC for EB ganglia assembly. By contrast, analysis of the sox10 mutant, which lacks gliogenic NC, reveals that the initial assembly of ganglia is not affected. However, during later stages of development, EB ganglia are dispersed in the sox10 mutant, suggesting that glia are required to maintain normal EB ganglion morphology. These results highlight novel roles for two subpopulations of NC cells in the formation and maintenance of EB ganglia: chondrogenic NC promotes the early-stage formation of the developing EB ganglia while glial NC is required for the late-stage maintenance of ganglion morphology. PMID:21931719

Culbertson, Maya D.; Lewis, Zachary R.; Nechiporuk, Alexei V.

2011-01-01

135

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi, W. J. Russell, M. Komatsuda, S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

136

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMany chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsDetailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ResultsIn some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

137

learning shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify, descirbe, and create simple geometric figures. This is a fun way to introduce the basic shapes to students through interactive activities. Find out about different shaes from the following link: draw me shapes Have fun with shapes with the following links: puzzle draw shapes Sesame Street Finish up the day by making some books: book ...

Grimnes, Mrs.

2007-10-17

138

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

139

Adenosine A1 receptor activation inhibits LTP in sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed

The effects of adenosine on long-term potentiation of sympathetic ganglia was studied in the isolated superior cervical ganglion of the rat, using extracellularly recorded compound action potential as an index of synaptic transmission. Adenosine in a small concentration (2 microM) blocked the post-tetanic potentiation without affecting long-term potentiation. Higher concentrations blocked both responses with no significant effect on basal transmission. The inhibitory effect appears to be due to activation of adenosine A1 receptors. This was indicated by results from experiments with the A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (1 microM) which caused inhibition of the basal transmission as well as long-term potentiation and post-tetanic potentiation. This inhibition was readily antagonized by 8-phenyltheophylline (1 microM), an A1 receptor antagonist. A small enhancement of basal transmission was seen on treatment with 8-phenyltheophylline. The inhibitory effect of N6-cyclopentyladenosine on long-term potentiation was totally prevented when the Ca2+ concentration in the superfusate was doubled (from 2.2 to 4.4 mM). The adenosine A2 receptor agonist 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (1 microM), although caused a slight potentiation of basal transmission, had no significant effect on the post-tetanic potentiation or long-term potentiation. The adenosine transport inhibitors, dipyridamole (2 microM) and S-(4-nitorobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (2 microM) caused significant inhibition of the basal ganglionic transmission without affecting post-tetanic potentiation or long-term potentiation. The effect of dipyradimole on basal transmission was not antagonized in the presence of 8-phenyltheophylline suggesting a non-specific action. The results suggest that exogenous adenosine can inhibit both post-tetanic potentiation and long-term potentiation in sympathetic ganglia, probably by activation of presynaptic A1 receptors. The results also suggest that endogenous adenosine, which is probably released in minute amounts, may only modulate basal transmission without influencing induction or maintenance of long-term potentiation in the superior cervical ganglion. PMID:9756986

Hogan, Y H; Hawkins, R; Alkadhi, K A

1998-10-01

140

Modeling the role of the basal ganglia in motor control and motor programming  

E-print Network

The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of highly interconnected nuclei buried deep in the brain. They are involved in an important range of brain functions, including both lower-level movement control and higher-level cognitive ...

Mao, Zhi-Hong, 1972-

2005-01-01

141

Anatomy of a songbird basal ganglia circuit essential for vocal learning and plasticity  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning in songbirds requires an anatomically discrete and functionally dedicated circuit called the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). The AFP is homologous to cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops in mammals. The basal ganglia portion of this pathway, Area X, shares many features characteristic of the mammalian striatum and pallidum, including cell-types and connectivity. The AFP also deviates from mammalian basal ganglia circuits in fundamental ways. In addition, the microcircuitry, role of neuromodulators, and function of Area X are still unclear. Elucidating the mechanisms by which both mammalian-like and unique features of the AFP contribute to vocal learning may help lead to a broad understanding of the sensorimotor functions of basal ganglia circuits. PMID:19596062

Gale, Samuel D.; Perkel, David J.

2009-01-01

142

The involvement of the primate frontal cortex-basal ganglia system in arbitrary visuomotor association learning  

E-print Network

It is the goal of this thesis to examine the frontal cortex-basal ganglia system during arbitrary visuomotor association learning, the forming of arbitrary links between visual stimuli and motor responses (e.g. red means ...

Machon, Michelle S

2009-01-01

143

Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation in Parkinsonism  

E-print Network

Available online 31 July 2012 Keywords: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Parkinson's disease Primate of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in human patients of different disorders may result in differentChanges in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation

Bar-Gad, Izhar

144

A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors  

E-print Network

In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown. It has recently been shown ...

Andalman, Aaron S.

145

Neurobiology of Disease Thalamic Shape Abnormalities in Individuals with  

E-print Network

, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 Deficits in the volume of the thalamus have been observed in both deformation of the anterior and posterior thalamus that was present between schizophrenia probands and their siblings. Inward deformation of the anterior and posterior regions of the thalamus represents a potential

146

Mechanism of parkinsonian neuronal oscillations in the primate basal ganglia: some considerations based on our recent work  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia (BG) contribute to the manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms. In this article, we would like to summarize our recent work on the mechanism underlying abnormal oscillations in the parkinsonian state and discuss its significance in pathophysiology of Parkinsons disease. We recorded neuronal activity in the BG of parkinsonian monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Systemic administration of L-DOPA alleviated parkinsonian motor signs and decreased abnormal neuronal oscillations (815 Hz) in the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Inactivation of the STN by muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist) injection also ameliorated parkinsonian signs and suppressed GPi oscillations. The blockade of glutamatergic inputs to the STN by local microinjection of a mixture of 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) suppressed neuronal oscillations in the STN. STN oscillations were also attenuated by the blockade of GABAergic neurotransmission from the GPe to the STN by muscimol inactivation of the GPe. These results suggest that cortical glutamatergic inputs to the STN and reciprocal GPe-STN interconnections are both important for the generation and amplification of the oscillatory activity of GPe and STN neurons in the parkinsonian state. The oscillatory activity in the STN is subsequently transmitted to the GPi and may contribute to manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms. PMID:24904309

Nambu, Atsushi; Tachibana, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

147

Analysis of T Cell Responses during Active Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation in Human Ganglia  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). During varicella, the virus establishes latency within the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster, but the immune responses that occur in ganglia during herpes zoster have not previously been defined. We examined ganglia obtained from individuals who, at the time of death, had active herpes zoster. Ganglia innervating the site of the cutaneous herpes zoster rash showed evidence of necrosis, secondary to vasculitis, or localized hemorrhage. Despite this, there was limited evidence of VZV antigen expression, although a large inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Characterization of the infiltrating T cells showed a large number of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and cytolytic CD8+ T cells. Many of the infiltrating T cells were closely associated with neurons within the reactivated ganglia, yet there was little evidence of T cell-induced neuronal apoptosis. Notably, an upregulation in the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II molecules was observed on satellite glial cells, implying these cells play an active role in directing the immune response during herpes zoster. This is the first detailed characterization of the interaction between T cells and neuronal cells within ganglia obtained from patients suffering herpes zoster at the time of death and provides evidence that CD4+ and cytolytic CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in controlling VZV replication in ganglia during active herpes zoster. IMPORTANCE VZV is responsible for both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). During varicella, the virus establishes a life-long dormant infection within the sensory ganglia and can reawaken to cause herpes zoster, but the immune responses that occur in ganglia during herpes zoster have not previously been defined. We examined ganglia obtained from individuals who, at the time of death, had active herpes zoster. We found that specific T cell subsets are likely to play an important role in controlling VZV replication in ganglia during active herpes zoster. PMID:24352459

Steain, Megan; Sutherland, Jeremy P.; Rodriguez, Michael; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Slobedman, Barry

2014-01-01

148

What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective.  

PubMed

Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of functions. Computational models of BG have focused on individual functions and fail to give an integrative picture of BG function. A major breakthrough in our understanding of BG function is perhaps the insight that activities of mesencephalic dopaminergic cells represent some form of 'reward' to the organism. This insight enabled application of tools from 'reinforcement learning,' a branch of machine learning, in the study of BG function. Nevertheless, in spite of these bright spots, we are far from the goal of arriving at a comprehensive understanding of these 'mysterious nuclei.' A comprehensive knowledge of BG function has the potential to radically alter treatment and management of a variety of BG-related neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, etc.) and neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, etc.) also. In this article, we review the existing modeling literature on BG and hypothesize an integrative picture of the function of these nuclei. PMID:20644953

Chakravarthy, V S; Joseph, Denny; Bapi, Raju S

2010-09-01

149

ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE IN FROG SYMPATHETIC AND DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA  

PubMed Central

The localization and chemical determination of acetylcholin esterase in the frog sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia were studied by a combination of the methods of electron microscopy, histochemistry, and microgasometric analysis with the magnetic diver. The Koelle-Friedenwald copper thiocholine histochemical method was modified by eliminating the sulfide conversion and by treatment of the tissue with potassium permanganate. In fixed tissue, enzymatic activity was demonstrated on the inner surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope, subsurface cisternae, and agranular reticulum of the perikaryon and axon. In briefly fixed tissue, end product appeared also at the axon-sheath and the sheath-sheath interface. Activity at the synaptic junction was most readily obtained in unfixed tissue. Isolated neurons recovered from the diver following chemical analysis were studied with the electron microscope. Cells having a high enzyme activity showed a badly ruptured or absent neural plasmalemma and sheath. In this case the measured activity was apparently due to the enzyme present in the endoplasmic reticulum. Neurons having low activity exhibited an intact plasmalemma and sheath. This may reflect the effectiveness of the neural plasmalemma and sheath as a penetration barrier. The effects of fixation on enzyme activity are discussed. Electron microscopic examination of cells following microgasometric analysis is shown to be essential for the interpretation of the biochemical data. PMID:19866698

Brzin, Miro; Tennyson, Virginia M.; Duffy, Philip E.

1966-01-01

150

MRI-identified abnormalities and wrist range of motion in asymptomatic versus symptomatic computer users  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work has shown an association between restricted wrist range of motion (ROM) and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. We compared the prevalence of MRI-identified wrist abnormalities and wrist ROM between asymptomatic and symptomatic computer users. Methods MR images at 1.5 T of both wrists were obtained from 10 asymptomatic controls (8 F, 2 M) and 14 computer users (10 F, 4 M) with chronic wrist pain (10 bilateral; 4 right-side). Maximum wrist range of motion in flexion and radioulnar deviation was measured with an electrogoniometer. Results Extraosseous ganglia were identified in 66.6% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists. Intraosseous ganglia were identified in 45.8% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists, and were significantly (p < .05) larger in the symptomatic wrists. Distal ECU tendon instability was identified in 58.4% of both asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Dominant wrist flexion was significantly greater in the asymptomatic group (68.8 6.7 deg.) compared to the symptomatic group (60.7 7.3 deg.), p < .01. There was no significant correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden (p = .09) Conclusions This appears to be the first MRI study of wrist abnormalities in computer users. This study demonstrates that a variety of wrist abnormalities are common in computer users and that only intraosseous ganglia prevalence and size differed between asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Flexion was restricted in the dominant wrist of the symptomatic group, but the correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden did not reach significance. Flexion restriction may be an indicator of increased joint loading, and identifying the cause may help to guide preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21108817

2010-01-01

151

Involvement of the suboesophageal and thoracic ganglia in the control of antennal movements in crickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In crickets (Gryllus campestris, Gryllus bimaculatus) the contribution of the suboesophageal ganglia (SOG) and thoracic ganglia to the generation of antennal movements during\\u000a visual tracking, walking and flight was investigated by the transection of connectives. Transection of one circumoesophageal\\u000a connective abolished the movements and postures of the antenna ipsilateral to the lesion, while the contralateral antenna\\u000a behaved normally. Simple antennal

B. G. Horseman; M. J. Gebhardt; H. W. Honegger

1997-01-01

152

Quantitation of Latent Varicella-Zoster Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes in Human Trigeminal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using real-time fluorescence PCR, we quantitated the numbers of copies of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) genomes in 15 human trigeminal ganglia. Eight (53%) and 1 (7%) of 15 ganglia were PCR positive for HSV-1 or -2 glycoprotein G genes, with means of 2,902 6 1,082 (standard error of the

STEPHANIE R. PEVENSTEIN; RICHARD K. WILLIAMS; DANIEL MCCHESNEY; ERIK K. MONT; JOHN E. SMIALEK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

1999-01-01

153

The basal ganglia are hyperactive during the discrimination of tactile stimuli in writer's cramp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writer's cramp is a focal hand dystonia that specifically affects handwriting. Though writer's cramp has been attributedto adysfunctionof thebasal ganglia,theroleof thebasal ganglia inthepathogenesisofwriter'scramp remains to be determined. Seventeen patients with writer's cramp (nine females; age range: 24-71 years) and 17 healthy individuals (six females; age range: 27-68 years) underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while they dis- criminated the orientation of gratings

M. Peller; K. E. Zeuner; A. Munchau; A. Quartarone; M. Weiss; A. Knutzen; M. Hallett; G. Deuschl; H. R. Siebner

2006-01-01

154

MHC class II antigen-expressing cells in cardiac ganglia of the rat.  

PubMed

Cardiac ganglia develop destructive ganglionitis in chronic Chagas' disease and rheumatic heart disease. This ganglionitis is associated with periganglionic infiltrations and is suspected of developing secondary to epicardial inflammation. If so, it would be expected that cardiac ganglia (1) are equipped with an inventory of immune competent cells allowing the initiation of inflammatory processes, and (2) are not effectively protected from the milieu of the surrounding tissue by metabolically active diffusion barriers. These problems were addressed in specified pathogen-free rats by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry with markers for dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and perineurial barriers. In contrast to nerve fascicles, cardiac ganglia are only partially enveloped by perineurial cells. Inside the ganglia, ramified cells with major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (reacting with monoclonal antibody OX6) on their surface and exhibiting an ultrastructure typical of dendritic cells are numerous, comprising nearly 5% of all cells within ganglia. The ratio of the number of these cells to that of neurons is 1:2. Cells reacting with monoclonal antibodies ED1 and ED2, markers for monocytes/macrophages, constitute 1.8% and 1.6% of the ganglionic cell population, respectively. Such cells are less frequent in the cervical trunk of the vagus nerve. Thus, the inventory of immune competent cells in rat cardiac ganglia is consistent with the view that the abundance of antigen-presenting cells correlates with the permeability of the barriers providing protection from blood-borne and tissue-borne factors. PMID:15517402

Kummer, Wolfgang; Stommel, Carolin; Grau, Veronika

2005-01-01

155

Shape Builder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students either create a shape, or the applet creates a random shape constructed of squares on a coordinate plane. Then the student computes the area and perimeter of the shape. This activity allows students to explore and compare the area and perimeter of simple shapes. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

156

Cognitive deficits in animal models of basal ganglia disorders.  

PubMed

The two most common neurological disorders of the basal ganglia are Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). The most overt symptoms of these diseases are motoric, reflecting the loss of the striatal medium spiny neurons in HD and ascending substantia nigra dopaminergic cells in PD. However, both disease processes induce insidious psychiatric and cognitive syndromes that can manifest well in advance of the onset of motor deficits. These early deficits provide an opportunity for prophylactic therapeutic intervention in order to retard disease progression from the earliest possible point. In order to exploit this opportunity, animal models of HD and PD are being probed for the specific cognitive deficits represented in the disease states. At the neuronal level, these deficits are typically, but not exclusively, mediated by disruption of parallel corticostriatal loops that integrate motor information with sensory and higher order, "executive" cognitive functions. Dysfunction in these systems can be probed with sensitive behavioural tests that selectively probe these cognitive functions in mouse models with focal lesions of striatal or cortical regions, or of specific neurotransmitter systems. Typically these tests were designed and validated in rats. With the advent of genetically modified mouse models of disease, validated tests provide an opportunity to screen mouse models of disease for early onset cognitive deficits. This review seeks to draw together the literature on cognitive deficits in HD and PD, to determine the extent to which these deficits are represented in the current animal models of disease, and to evaluate the viability of selecting cognitive deficits as potential therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Animal Models'. PMID:22588013

Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B

2013-03-01

157

Clinico-radiological Characteristics of Spontaneous Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage, According to Regional Classification  

PubMed Central

Objective The clinico-radiologic features of the spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) may often differ one from another, according to its regional location. Therefore, we attempted to classify the BGH into regional subgroups, and to extrapolate the distinct characteristics of each group of BGH. Materials and Methods A total of 103 BGHs were analyzed by retrospective review of medical records. BGH was classified according to four subgroups; anterior BGH; posterior BGH; lateral BGH; massive BGH. Results The most common BGH was the posterior BGH (56, 54.4%), followed by the lateral BGH (26, 25.2%), the massive BGH (12, 11.7%), and the anterior BGH (9, 8.7%). The shape of hemorrhage tended to be round in anterior, irregular in posterior, and ovoid in lateral BGH. A layered density of hematoma on initial computed tomography showed correlation with hematoma expansion (p = 0.016), which was observed more often in the postero-lateral group of BGH than in the anterior BGH group. Relatively better recovery from the initial insult was observed in the lateral BGH group than in the other regional BGH groups. The proportion of poor outcome (modified Rankin scale 4, 5, 6) was 100% in the massive, 41.1% in the posterior, 34.6% in the lateral, and 0% in the anterior BGH group. Conclusion We observed that BGH can be grouped according to its regional location and each group may have distinct characteristics. Thus, a more sophisticated clinical strategy tailored to each group of BGHs can be implemented. PMID:25340023

Kim, Do Young; Choo, Yeon Soo; Jang, E Wook; Chung, Joonho; Joo, Jin Yang

2014-01-01

158

Modiolus-Hugging Intracochlear Electrode Array with Shape Memory Alloy  

PubMed Central

In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

Min, Kyou Sik; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

2013-01-01

159

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

160

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

161

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

162

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

163

Validation of probabilistic anatomical shape atlases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Registration of anatomical images is useful for many applications including image segmentation, characterization of normal and abnormal shape, and creating deformable anatomical shape atlases. The usefulness of the information derived from image registration depends on the degree of anatomically meaningful correspondence between the images. We assume that an ideal image registration algorithm can determine an unique correspondence mapping between any

Hans J. Johnson; Gary E. Christensen; Jeffrey L. Marsh; Michael W. Vannier

2000-01-01

164

A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ganglia in particular. The aim of our review is to explore some of these basal ganglia pathologies and provide image illustrations. PMID:24900164

Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

2014-01-01

165

Shape Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on lesson, students will become Shape Detectives as they identify the two-dimensional shapes, such as triangles, squares and rectangles, needed to build three-dimensional figures including rectangular prisms, square pyramids and cubes. The students will gain an understanding of how two-dimensional shapes are joined together to form three-dimensional figures as well as creating an edible example!

Ward, Stan

2012-07-31

166

Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus  

PubMed Central

Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their hosts behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the hosts nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

2014-01-01

167

Type I IFN suppresses Cxcr2 driven neutrophil recruitment into the sensory ganglia during viral infection.  

PubMed

Infection induces the expression of inflammatory chemokines that recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Whereas tissues such as the intestine and skin express unique chemokines during homeostasis, whether different tissues express distinct chemokine profiles during inflammation remains unclear. With this in mind, we performed a comprehensive screen of the chemokines expressed by two tissues (skin and sensory ganglia) infected with a common viral pathogen (herpes simplex virus type 1). After infection, the skin and ganglia showed marked differences in their expression of the family of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands. Specifically, Cxcl1/2/3, which in turn controlled neutrophil recruitment, was up-regulated in the skin but absent from the ganglia. Within the ganglia, Cxcl2 expression and subsequent neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by type I interferon (IFN). Using a combination of bone marrow chimeras and intracellular chemokine staining, we show that type I IFN acted by directly suppressing Cxcl2 expression by monocytes, abrogating their ability to recruit neutrophils to the ganglia. Overall, our findings describe a novel role for IFN in the direct, and selective, inhibition of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands, which results in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment to neuronal tissue. PMID:24752295

Stock, Angus T; Smith, Jeffrey M; Carbone, Francis R

2014-05-01

168

Shape Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative allows you to create geometric shapes. Squares, triangles, rhombi, trapezoids and hexagons can be created, colored, enlarged, shrunk, rotated, reflected, sliced, and glued together.

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-01-15

169

Abnormal Activation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of unknown pathophysiology, characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speaking. Our aim was to identify symptom-specific functional brain activation abnormalities in adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) and abductor spasmodic dysphonia (ABSD). Both SD groups showed increased activation extent in the primary sensorimotor cortex, insula, and superior temporal gyrus during symptomatic and asymptomatic tasks and decreased activation extent in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum during asymptomatic tasks. Increased activation intensity in SD patients was found only in the primary somatosensory cortex during symptomatic voice production, which showed a tendency for correlation with ADSD symptoms. Both SD groups had lower correlation of activation intensities between the primary motor and sensory cortices and additional correlations between the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum during symptomatic and asymptomatic tasks. Compared with ADSD patients, ABSD patients had larger activation extent in the primary sensorimotor cortex and ventral thalamus during symptomatic task and in the inferior temporal cortex and cerebellum during symptomatic and asymptomatic voice production. The primary somatosensory cortex shows consistent abnormalities in activation extent, intensity, correlation with other brain regions, and symptom severity in SD patients and, therefore, may be involved in the pathophysiology of SD. PMID:20194686

Ludlow, Christy L.

2010-01-01

170

Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain  

PubMed Central

We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure. PMID:18991959

Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

2009-01-01

171

Strong Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is a square stronger than a triangle? Use tongue depressors to build simple shapes. Then apply a little weight to them and see what happens! This activity comes with useful tips for building the shapes, like how to drill the wood without cracking it, and what drill works best.

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

172

Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatmentcomplete obliteration without new neurological deficitsis often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS) with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30?Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended. PMID:24307961

Nanda, Ashish; Litofsky, N. Scott

2013-01-01

173

Sonography-Assisted Arthroscopic Resection of Volar Wrist Ganglia: A New Technique  

PubMed Central

Although satisfactory arthroscopic resection of volar wrist ganglia has been reported recently, the risk of damage to arteries, nerves, and tendons remains. Furthermore, ganglia and their stalks cannot be visualized arthroscopically in many cases, and surgeons must perform a blind resection of the joint capsule until ganglion cysts or their stalks appear. Sonography has limited resolution, but recent improvements in hardware and software have made it an excellent noninvasive and dynamic imaging technique for assessing the musculoskeletal system. Ganglia, tendons, nerves, and vessels around the lesion can be clearly observed by sonography. Furthermore, the cyclic motion of the arthroscopic shaver tip makes identification by sonography easy and assists in guiding the surgeon to the lesion. PMID:23766971

Yamamoto, Michiro; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Okui, Nobuyuki; Tatebe, Masahiro; Shinohara, Takaaki; Hirata, Hitoshi

2012-01-01

174

Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinsons disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinsons disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of the basal ganglia associated with the control of habitual behaviour. These patients may therefore be forced into a progressive reliance on the goal-directed mode of action control that is mediated by comparatively preserved processing in the rostromedial striatum. Thus, many of their behavioural difficulties may reflect a loss of normal automatic control owing to distorting output signals from habitual control circuits, which impede the expression of goal-directed action. PMID:20944662

Redgrave, Peter; Rodriguez, Manuel; Smith, Yoland; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Lehericy, Stephane; Bergman, Hagai; Agid, Yves; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Obeso, Jose A.

2011-01-01

175

1H MRS of basal ganglia and thalamus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have evaluated motor and extramotor cerebral cortical regions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using 1H MRS, but none have evaluated the thalamus or basal ganglia. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the subclinical involvement of the basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with ALS using 1H MRS. Fourteen patients (52 7 years) with sporadic definite ALS and 17 age-matched controls were studied using volumetric MRSI on a 3-T scanner. The concentration of the metabolites N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and their ratio (NAA/Cho) were obtained bilaterally from the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, caudate) and thalamus. The maximum rates of finger and foot tap and lip and tongue movements were obtained to assess extrapyramidal and pyramidal tract function. In patients with ALS, relative to controls, the NAA concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.02) in the basal ganglia and thalamus, and the Cho concentration was higher (p < 0.01) in these structures, except in the caudate (p = 0.04). Correspondingly, the NAA/Cho ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in these structures, except in the caudate (p = 0.03), in patients than in controls. There were mild to strong correlations (r = 0.40.7) between the metabolites of the basal ganglia and finger tap, foot tap and lip and tongue movement rates. In conclusion, decreased NAA in the basal ganglia and thalamus and increased Cho and decreased NAA/Cho in the lentiform nucleus and thalamus are indicative of neuronal loss or dysfunction and alterations in choline-containing membranes in these structures. PMID:21404355

Sharma, Khema R.; Saigal, Gaurav; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Govind, Varan

2011-01-01

176

An entropy-based model for basal ganglia dysfunctions in movement disorders.  

PubMed

During this last decade, nonlinear analyses have been used to characterize the irregularity that exists in the neuronal data stream of the basal ganglia. In comparison to linear parameters for disparity (i.e., rate, standard deviation, and oscillatory activities), nonlinear analyses focus on complex patterns that are composed of groups of interspike intervals with matching lengths but not necessarily contiguous in the data stream. In light of recent animal and clinical studies, we present a review and commentary on the basal ganglia neuronal entropy in the context of movement disorders. PMID:23762856

Darbin, Olivier; Dees, Daniel; Martino, Anthony; Adams, Elizabeth; Naritoku, Dean

2013-01-01

177

Motor functions of cerebellum and basal ganglia: the cerebellocortical saccadic (ballistic) clock, the cerebellonuclear hold regulator, and the basal ganglia ramp (voluntary speed smooth movement) generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of the motor functions of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia is presented. It is based on the following observations:1.Dysmetria of saccadic eye and rapid arm movements as well as adiadochokinesis as a consequence of cerebellar cortical lesions.2.Holding tremor of the arm and eyes (pendular nystagmus) due to lesions of the cerebellar nuclei.3.The precentral motor cortex is unnecessary

H. H. Kornhuber

1971-01-01

178

Basal ganglia dopamine loss due to defect in purine recycling.  

PubMed

Several rare inherited disorders have provided valuable experiments of nature highlighting specific biological processes of particular importance to the survival or function of midbrain dopamine neurons. In both humans and mice, deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) is associated with profound loss of striatal dopamine, with relative preservation of other neurotransmitters. In the current studies of knockout mice, no morphological signs of abnormal development or degeneration were found in an exhaustive battery that included stereological and morphometric measures of midbrain dopamine neurons, electron microscopic studies of striatal axons and terminals, and stains for degeneration or gliosis. A novel culture model involving HPRT-deficient dopaminergic neurons also exhibited significant loss of dopamine without a morphological correlate. These results suggest that dopamine loss in HPRT deficiency has a biochemical rather than anatomical basis and imply that purine recycling to be a biochemical process of particular importance to the function of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:17374562

Egami, Kiyoshi; Yitta, Silaja; Kasim, Suhail; Lewers, J Chris; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Lehar, Mohamed; Jinnah, H A

2007-05-01

179

Shedding new light on the role of the basal ganglia-superior colliculus pathway in eye movements  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A large body of work spanning 25+ years provides compelling evidence for the involvement of the basal ganglia-superior colliculus pathway in the initiation of rapid, orienting movements of the eyes, called saccades. The role of this pathway in saccade control is similar to the role of the basal ganglia-thalamic pathway in the control of skeletal movement: a transient cessation in tonic inhibition supplied by the basal ganglia to motor structures releases movements via the direct pathway whereas a transient increase in inhibition by the basal ganglia to motor structures prevents movements via the indirect pathway. In parallel with recent advances in the study and treatment of patients with basal ganglia disease and in animal experiments in the skeletal motor system, the results of studies exploring the role of the basal ganglia-superior colliculus pathway in saccades highlight the need for a revisiting of our understanding of the role of this pathway in saccades. The discovery of many different response profiles of neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the basal ganglia and in the superior colliculus, coupled with advances in experimental and statistical techniques including sophisticated behavioral procedures and multiple neuron recording and analysis, point toward a role for the basal ganglia-superior colliculus pathway in cognitive events intervening between vision and action, such as memory, target selection and saccade choice and valuation. PMID:20829033

Shires, Joel; Joshi, Siddhartha; Basso, Michele A.

2010-01-01

180

Anatomy of giant serotonin-containing neurones in the cerebral ganglia of Helix pomatia and Limax maximus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a giant serotonin-containing neurone (GSC) in each cerebral ganglion of Helix pomatia and Limax maximus. In Helix, presynaptic endings of the GSCs are located in the buccal ganglia and peripheral musculature. Dense-cored vesicles of mean diameter 100 nm were observed in the perikarya and the axon branches of the GSCs within the cerebral ganglia. Evidence is presented which

V. W. Pentreath; N. N. Osborne; G. A. Cottrell

1973-01-01

181

Balancing Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Students will balance shapes on the pan balance applet to study equality, essential to understanding algebra. Equivalent relationships will be recognized when the pans balance, demonstrating the properties of equality." (from NCTM's Illuminations)

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-10-26

182

Shape A Shape B Shape C Shape D Wave Structure  

E-print Network

be derived from recorded sounds. The shape of the segment affects the smoothness of the transient segment's starting amplitude is the previous segment's ending amplitude. This amplitude transient lasts

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

183

Singing-Related Neural Activity Distinguishes Two Putative Pallidal Cell Types in the Songbird Basal Ganglia: Comparison to the Primate Internal and External Pallidal Segments  

E-print Network

The songbird area X is a basal ganglia homolog that contains two pallidal cell typeslocal neurons that project within the basal ganglia and output neurons that project to the thalamus. Based on these projections, it has ...

Goldberg, Jesse H.

184

Stuttering and the Basal Ganglia Circuits: A Critical Review of Possible Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible relation between stuttering and the basal ganglia is discussed. Important clues to the pathophysiology of stuttering are given by conditions known to alleviate dysfluency, like the rhythm effect, chorus speech, and singing. Information regarding pharmacologic trials, lesion studies, brain imaging, genetics, and developmental changes

Alm, Per A.

2004-01-01

185

The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia: models for the study of neuronal networks and basic neuronal properties.  

PubMed

The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia regulate various visceral functions and in particular the digestive tract motility. Several integrative properties of these ganglia have been described: convergence of central inputs, projection of visceral inputs at the pre- and post synaptic level and pacemaker activity of the neurones. This review presents the results obtained on another integrative property which has been widely studied over the last 10 years: the modulation of the fast central inputs by neuromodulators such as nitric oxide, ceramide and GABA. These substances facilitate or inhibit the fast central inputs through complex interrelated actions. We also present striking results recently obtained during the study of a regulatory reflex of the digestive tract motility organized by the prevertebral ganglia: the gastro-duodenal inhibitory reflex. During this reflex, the neurotransmitter released by the visceral afferent fibres to activate the ganglionic neurones is gaseous: nitric oxide. Moreover, the mechanism conducting the excitation along the afferent and efferent fibres is independent of action potentials. This mechanism requires the integrity of the membrane lipid rafts and the activation in cascade of the following second messenger sequence: ceramide, calcium, nitric oxide and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate. The existence of this mechanism gives grounds for rethinking one of the central dogmas in neuroscience according to which excitation is only conducted along nerves by an electrical phenomenon, the action potential. All these results strengthen the role of the prevertebral ganglia as a model for the study of neuronal networks and basic neuronal properties. PMID:19581130

Fasano, Caroline; Niel, Jean-Pierre

2009-10-01

186

Point process models show temporal dependencies of basal ganglia nuclei under Deep Brain Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with Parkinsons disease, but its impact on basal ganglia nuclei is not fully understood. DBS applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects neurons in the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) through direct projections, as well as indirectly through the Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe). Since traditional statistical analyses of electrophysiological

Shreya Saxena; Sabato Santaniello; Erwin B. Montgomery; John T. Gale; Sridevi V. Sarma

2010-01-01

187

TOPIC 9: The Basal Ganglia -group of subcortical nuclei (4 main parts)  

E-print Network

) Output from Basal Ganglia To motor areas via the thalamus --> from Globus Pallidus (int.) and To eye mvt, Sinauer Associates Inc: Massachusetts, 2001. Motor cortex Caudate Thalamus Subthalamic nucleus Substantia (tonic) Motor cortex Caudate Thalamus Subthalamic nucleus Substantia nigra pars reticulata GP -int GP

Sergio, Lauren E.

188

The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many

van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2009-01-01

189

The corticostriatal projection: from synaptic plasticity to dysfunctions of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticostriatal transmission has an important function in the regulation of the neuronal activity of the basal ganglia. The firing activity of corticostriatal neurones excites striatal cells via the release of glutamate. Presynaptic receptors that are located on corticostriatal terminals and that regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum have been postulated for dopamine and glutamate. Activation of these receptors

Paolo Calabresi; Antonio Pisani; Nicola B. Mercuri; Giorgio Bernardi

1996-01-01

190

The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched

Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

2006-01-01

191

The Basal Ganglia and Cortex Implement Optimal Decision Making Between Alternative Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurophysiological studies have identified a number of brain regions critically involved in solving the problem of action selection or decision making. In the case of highly practiced tasks, these regions include cortical areas hypothesized to integrate evidence supporting alternative actions and the basal ganglia, hypothesized to act as a central switch in gating behavioral requests. However, despite our relatively detailed

Rafal Bogacz; Kevin N. Gurney

2007-01-01

192

CONTRAST BETWEEN OSMIUM-FIXED AND PERMANGANATE-FIX ED TOAD SPINAL GANGLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chains of vesicles are prominent near the plasma membranes of both the neurons and satellite cells of osmium-fixed toad spinal ganglia. In permanganate-fixed specimens, how- ever, such vesicles are absent, and in their place are continuous invaginations of the plasma membranes of these ceils. The discrepancy suggests that the serried vesicles seen in osmium- fixed preparations arise through disintegration of

JACK ROSENBLUTH

2009-01-01

193

Direct NK Cell-Mediated Lysis of Syngenic Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons In Vitro1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to extensive studies on the role of T and B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the nervous system, little is known about NK cells and their potential role in the destruction of neural tissue. NK cells have been implicated in the selective death of sympathetic neurons resident in the superior cervical ganglia of rats after

Eva Backstrom; Benedict J. Chambers; Krister Kristensson; Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren

2000-01-01

194

Lumbar spinal ganglia enhancement after Gadolinium chelate administration: a radio-histological correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of enhancement of lumbar spinal ganglia after Gadolinium chelate injection in patients without radiculopathy, and to correlate the enhancement with histology. This study is based on the analysis of MR lumbar examinations conducted on 18 patients without radicular symptoms, or previous surgery of the lumbar spine, or disease

X. Demondion; X. Leroy; F. Lapgue; A. Drizenko; J.-P. Francke; A. Cotten

2002-01-01

195

Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia with schizophrenia. Acquired equivalence is a phenomenon in which prior training to treat two stimuli as equivalent generalization. Forty-three patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 28 matched healthy controls participated

Gluck, Mark

196

Upregulation of Ryk expression in rat dorsal root ganglia after peripheral nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study changes of Ryk expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury, we set up an animal model of unilateral sciatic nerve lesioned rats. Changes of Ryk protein expression in DRG neurons after unilateral sciatic nerve injury were investigated by immunostaining. Changes of Ryk mRNA were also tested by semi-quantitative PCR concurrently. We found, both at the

Xin Li; Yao-hua Li; Shun Yu; Yaobo Liu

2008-01-01

197

The prefrontallimbic network in depression: Modulation by hypothalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and hippocampus form part of an interconnected prefrontal neocortical and limbic archicortical network that is dysregulated in major depressive disorders (MDD). Modulation of this prefrontallimbic network (PLN) is principally through the hypothalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain. Here the likely mechanisms by which these modulations are affected are described and the implications of their failure for

M. R. Bennett

2011-01-01

198

Basal Ganglia-Thalamic Hemorrhage in Young Adults: A Hospital-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The causes of basal ganglia-thalamic hemorrhage in the young are not well established. Therefore, its clinical profile, etiology, and risk factors were studied. Methods: Retrospectively, collected data were evaluated using the ?2 test and logistic regression analysis. Results: Gender differences occurred in the clinical profile, risk factors, and etiological spectrum. Large hematoma, Glasgow Coma Scale ?10 on admission, and

Yi-Chun Chen; Yih-Ru Wu; Wen-Chuin Hsu; Chiung-Mei Chen; Tsong-Hai Lee; Sien-Tsong Chen

2006-01-01

199

Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral

Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

2011-01-01

200

Basal Ganglia Atrophy in Prodromal Huntington's Disease Is Detectable Over One Year Using Automated Segmentation  

E-print Network

Basal Ganglia Atrophy in Prodromal Huntington's Disease Is Detectable Over One Year Using Automated disorders. VC 2011 Movement Disorder Society Key Words: Huntington's disease; prodromal HD; lon- gitudinal that modify the course of Huntington's disease (HD).1 For example, methods such as RNA interfer- ence have

Aron, Adam

201

Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later

Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

2010-01-01

202

Seizure-induced brain lesions: a wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities.  

PubMed

Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p=0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p=0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention. PMID:23787273

Cianfoni, A; Caulo, M; Cerase, A; Della Marca, G; Falcone, C; Di Lella, G M; Gaudino, S; Edwards, J; Colosimo, C

2013-11-01

203

Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

Schneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2011-12-01

204

Functional properties of AMPA and NMDA receptors expressed in identified types of basal ganglia neurons.  

PubMed

AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia and may contribute to excitotoxic injury. We investigated the functional properties of AMPARs and NMDARs expressed by six main types of basal ganglia neurons in acute rat brain slices (principal neurons and cholinergic interneurons of striatum, GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra, globus pallidus neurons, and subthalamic nucleus neurons) using fast application of glutamate to nucleated and outside-out membrane patches. AMPARs in different types of basal ganglia neurons were functionally distinct. Those expressed in striatal principal neurons exhibited the slowest gating (desensitization time constant tau = 11.5 msec, 1 mM glutamate, 22 degrees C), whereas those in striatal cholinergic interneurons showed the fastest gating (desensitization time constant tau = 3.6 msec). The lowest Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs was observed in nigral dopaminergic neurons (PCa/PNa = 0.10), whereas the highest Ca2+ permeability was found in subthalamic nucleus neurons (PCa/PNa = 1.17). NMDARs of different types of basal ganglia neurons were less variable in their functional properties; those expressed in nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited the slowest gating (deactivation time constant of predominant fast component tau1 = 150 msec, 100 microM glutamate), and those of globus pallidus neurons showed the fastest gating (tau1 = 67 msec). The Mg2+ block of NMDARs was similar; the average chord conductance ratio g-60mV/g+40mV was 0.18-0.22 in 100 microM external Mg2+. Hence, AMPARs expressed in different types of basal ganglia neurons are markedly diverse, whereas NMDARs are less variable in functional properties that are relevant for excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal vulnerability. PMID:8987749

Gtz, T; Kraushaar, U; Geiger, J; Lbke, J; Berger, T; Jonas, P

1997-01-01

205

Decreased Basal Ganglia Activation in Subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Association with Symptoms of Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks. PMID:24858857

Miller, Andrew H.; Jones, James F.; Drake, Daniel F.; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

206

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

207

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest individual waves in sea states which identify abnormal waves did not show any clear trend, and such waves occurred during the development stage and not when the significant wave height was the largest. It is argued that the present criteria of identification of abnormal waves are not satisfactory, as they do not take into account the nature of the sea states in which the waves occur.

Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; AntO, E. M.

2004-08-01

208

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-09-01

209

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

210

[Hematological abnormalities in rheumatic diseases].  

PubMed

Haematological abnormalities are present in 25-50% patients with rheumatic diseases. The most common finding is anaemia of chronic disease which is driven by inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin plays key role in iron homeostasis. It reduces iron absorption from duodenum and iron release from reticuloendothelial cells. Anaemia of chronic disease could be successfully treated by recombinant erythropoietin in combination with iron supplementation. Various abnormalities can be observed in the leukocyte and platelets counts. Other haematological disturbances are considered as part of autoimmune disease. Prolonged antigen stimulation can induce lymphomagenesis and lymphoma incidence in patients with rheumatic diseases is 5 to 6-fold increased compared to normal population. PMID:17580549

Radman, Ivo

2006-01-01

211

Doppler spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium Balmer alpha line in an abnormal glow discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of hydrogen and deuterium Balmer alpha line shapes and line intensities study in an abnormal glow discharge are reported and analyzed. The Doppler shifts along line wings are used to determine energies of excited hydrogen and deuterium atoms. For 12 different cathodes, intensity and shape of line wings are examined and dependence upon cathode material is determined. Tentative

M. R. Gemisic Adamov; Bratislav M. Obradovic; Milorad M. Kuraica; N. Konjevic

2003-01-01

212

Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

2012-02-01

213

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

214

Abnormalities of human sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytogenetic and molecular studies in patients with abnormalities of sex determination have been the key to the isolation and investigation of candidates for the primary testis determining factor (TDF). A gene, SRY, isolated from the sex determining region of the Y chromosome within 5 kilobases of the pairing segment boundary, has been characterized recently which fulfils the expectations of

M. A. Ferguson-Smith

1992-01-01

215

Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

2003-01-01

216

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

217

Endoscopic Evacuation of Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage via Keyhole Approach Using an Adjustable Cannula in Comparison with Craniotomy  

PubMed Central

Neuroendoscopic (NE) surgery as a minimal invasive treatment for basal ganglia hemorrhage is a promising approach. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NE approach using an adjustable cannula to treat basal ganglia hemorrhage. In this study, we analysed the clinical and radiographic outcomes between NE group (21 cases) and craniotomy group (30 cases). The results indicated that NE surgery might be an effective and safe approach for basal ganglia haemorrhage, and it is also suggested that NE approach may improve good functional recovery. However, NE approach only suits the selected patient, and the usefulness of NE approach needs further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate. PMID:24949476

Zhang, Heng-Zhu; Li, Yu-Ping; Yan, Zheng-cun; Wang, Xing-dong; She, Lei; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Lun

2014-01-01

218

Unusual ciliary abnormalities in three 9/11 response workers.  

PubMed

After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York in 2001, thousands of response workers were exposed to complex mixtures of toxins, pollutants, and carcinogens. Many developed illnesses involving the respiratory tract. We report unusual ultrastructural ciliary abnormalities in 3 response workers that corresponded to their respiratory and ciliary functional abnormalities. Each patient had respiratory cilia biopsies that were evaluated for motility and ultrastructural changes. Impaired ciliary motility was seen in 2 of the 3 patients. Each of the patients showed monomorphic ultrastructural abnormalities. Two of the patients showed identical triangular disarray of axonemal microtubules with peripheral doublets 1,4, and 7 forming the corners of the triangle and doublet 9 always more medially displaced than doublets 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. Two workers had cilia in which axonemes were replaced by homogeneously dense cores. One of these also had cilia with triangular axonemes as previously described. The other had cilia with a geometric triangular to pentagonal shape. The ciliary abnormalities described here may represent a new class of primary ciliary dyskinesia in which abnormalities may have a genetic basis and a phenotypic expression that is prompted at the cellular level by local environmental conditions. PMID:21370679

McMahon, James T; Aslam, Rizwan; Schell, Stephen E

2011-01-01

219

Widespread abnormality of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome may conceivably underlie the symptoms of motor disinhibition presenting as tics and psychiatric manifestations, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessivecompulsive disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify a possible dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette patients, especially involving the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits and the cerebellum. We studied 11 patients with Tourette syndrome and 11 healthy controls. Positron emission tomography procedure: after injection of 20?mCi of [11C]flumazenil, dynamic emission images of the brain were acquired. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained to provide an anatomical framework for the positron emission tomography data analysis. Images of binding potential were created using the two-step version of the simplified reference tissue model. The binding potential images then were spatially normalized, smoothed and compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping. We found decreased binding of GABAA receptors in Tourette patients bilaterally in the ventral striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus, amygdala and right insula. In addition, the GABAA receptor binding was increased in the bilateral substantia nigra, left periaqueductal grey, right posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral cerebellum. These results are consistent with the longstanding hypothesis that circuits involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are disinhibited in Tourette syndrome patients. In addition, the abnormalities in GABAA receptor binding in the insula and cerebellum appear particularly noteworthy based upon recent evidence implicating these structures in the generation of tics. PMID:22577221

Bagic, Anto; Simmons, Janine M.; Mari, Zoltan; Bonne, Omer; Xu, Ben; Kazuba, Diane; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Drevets, Wayne C.; Hallett, Mark

2012-01-01

220

Evidence for a causal inverse model in an avian cortico-basal ganglia circuit.  

PubMed

Learning by imitation is fundamental to both communication and social behavior and requires the conversion of complex, nonlinear sensory codes for perception into similarly complex motor codes for generating action. To understand the neural substrates underlying this conversion, we study sensorimotor transformations in songbird cortical output neurons of a basal-ganglia pathway involved in song learning. Despite the complexity of sensory and motor codes, we find a simple, temporally specific, causal correspondence between them. Sensory neural responses to song playback mirror motor-related activity recorded during singing, with a temporal offset of roughly 40 ms, in agreement with short feedback loop delays estimated using electrical and auditory stimulation. Such matching of mirroring offsets and loop delays is consistent with a recent Hebbian theory of motor learning and suggests that cortico-basal ganglia pathways could support motor control via causal inverse models that can invert the rich correspondence between motor exploration and sensory feedback. PMID:24711417

Giret, Nicolas; Kornfeld, Joergen; Ganguli, Surya; Hahnloser, Richard H R

2014-04-22

221

Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease  

SciTech Connect

We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis.

Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

1989-04-01

222

Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions  

PubMed Central

Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

McMurtray, Aaron; Tseng, Ben; Diaz, Natalie; Chung, Julia; Mehta, Bijal; Saito, Erin

2014-01-01

223

Satellite glial cell proliferation in the trigeminal ganglia after chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve.  

PubMed

We have examined satellite glial cell (SGC) proliferation in trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve. Using BrdU labeling combined with immunohistochemistry for SGC specific proteins we positively confirmed proliferating cells to be SGCs. Proliferation peaks at approximately 4 days after injury and dividing SGCs are preferentially located around neurons that are immunopositive for ATF-3, a marker of nerve injury. After nerve injury there is an increase GFAP expression in SGCs associated with both ATF-3 immunopositive and immunonegative neurons throughout the ganglia. SGCs also express the non-glial proteins, CD45 and CD163, which label resident macrophages and circulating leukocytes, respectively. In addition to SGCs, we found some Schwann cells, endothelial cells, resident macrophages, and circulating leukocytes were BrdU immunopositive. PMID:24123473

Donegan, Macayla; Kernisant, Melanie; Cua, Criselda; Jasmin, Luc; Ohara, Peter T

2013-12-01

224

Computational models of basal-ganglia pathway functions: focus on functional neuroanatomy  

PubMed Central

Over the past 15 years, computational models have had a considerable impact on basal-ganglia research. Most of these models implement multiple distinct basal-ganglia pathways and assume them to fulfill different functions. As there is now a multitude of different models, it has become complex to keep track of their various, sometimes just marginally different assumptions on pathway functions. Moreover, it has become a challenge to oversee to what extent individual assumptions are corroborated or challenged by empirical data. Focusing on computational, but also considering non-computational models, we review influential concepts of pathway functions and show to what extent they are compatible with or contradict each other. Moreover, we outline how empirical evidence favors or challenges specific model assumptions and propose experiments that allow testing assumptions against each other. PMID:24416002

Schroll, Henning; Hamker, Fred H.

2013-01-01

225

Evidence for a causal inverse model in an avian cortico-basal ganglia circuit  

PubMed Central

Learning by imitation is fundamental to both communication and social behavior and requires the conversion of complex, nonlinear sensory codes for perception into similarly complex motor codes for generating action. To understand the neural substrates underlying this conversion, we study sensorimotor transformations in songbird cortical output neurons of a basal-ganglia pathway involved in song learning. Despite the complexity of sensory and motor codes, we find a simple, temporally specific, causal correspondence between them. Sensory neural responses to song playback mirror motor-related activity recorded during singing, with a temporal offset of roughly 40 ms, in agreement with short feedback loop delays estimated using electrical and auditory stimulation. Such matching of mirroring offsets and loop delays is consistent with a recent Hebbian theory of motor learning and suggests that cortico-basal ganglia pathways could support motor control via causal inverse models that can invert the rich correspondence between motor exploration and sensory feedback. PMID:24711417

Giret, Nicolas; Kornfeld, Joergen; Ganguli, Surya; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

2014-01-01

226

Using point process models to determine the impact of visual cues on basal ganglia activity and behavior of Parkinson's patients  

E-print Network

Deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that has enabled microelectrode recordings from single-unit cells in the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. This rare data is important ...

Brown, Emery N.

227

Allergic Inflammation in Isolated Vagal Sensory Ganglia Unmasks Silent NK2 Tachykinin Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroplastic changes in vagal afferents inflicted by allergic inflammation were examined in nodose ganglia (NG) removed from guinea pigs immunized to chick ovalbumin. In control NG neurons, substance P (SP; 0.1-10 mM) produces no discernable changes in membrane electrophysiological properties or (Ca 21)i. After exposing NG from immunized animals to the sensitizing antigen in vitro, 83% of the neurons were

Daniel Weinreich; Kimberly A. Moore; Glen E. Taylor

1997-01-01

228

Gene expression for peptides in neurons of the petrosal and nodose ganglia in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ hybridization was used to determine whether genes for neuropeptides [substance P\\/neurokinin A (SP\\/NKA), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)] are expressed in inferior ganglia of the vagus (nodose) and glossopharyngeal (petrosal) nerves. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides, complementary to the cognate, mRNAs were labeled with [32P] or [35S], and hybridized to 10 m thick sections

M. F. Czyzyk-Krzeska; D. A. Bayliss; K. B. Seroogy; D. E. Millhorn

1991-01-01

229

Herpes simplex virus-1 and varicella-zoster virus latency in ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two human alpha-herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and varicella zoster virus (VZV), account for the most frequent\\u000a and serious neurologic disease caused by any of the eight human herpesviruses. Both HSV-1 and VZV become latent in ganglia.\\u000a In this review, the authors describe features of latency for these viruses, such as distribution, prevalence, abundance, and\\u000a configuration of viral DNA in

Bradley M. Mitchell; David C. Bloom; Randall J. Cohrs; Donald H. Gilden; Peter G. E. Kennedy

2003-01-01

230

Role of synaptic integration of dopaminergic and cholinergic transmissions in basal ganglia function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies concern the mechanisms of synaptic transmission and integration in the basal ganglia network, using immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting. We generated transgenic mice that expressed the human interleukin-2 receptor (hIL-2R)\\/GFP fusion protein under the control of the mGluR2 promoter. The immunotoxin that was composed of the monoclonal hIL-2R antibody fused to bacterial toxin was injected into the striatum. Immunotoxin injection

Shigetada Nakanishi; Satoshi Kaneko; Takatoshi Hikida; Dai Watanabe; Ira Pastan

2003-01-01

231

Interleukin 1 Induces Substance P in Sympathetic Ganglia through the Induction of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become increasingly clear that immune cytokines per- form growth and differentiation functions in the nervous sys- tem similar to those performed in the immune system. In previous studies we have shown that interleukin-l\\/3 (IL-ID) raises substance P (SP) and the mRNA coding for its pre- protachykinin precursor in cultured sympathetic superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Jonakait and Schotland, 1990;

Annette M. Shadiack; Ronald P. Hart; Christopher D. Carlson; G. Miller Jonakait

1993-01-01

232

An Ultrastructural Study of the Cardiac Ganglia in the Bulbar Plexus of the Developing Chick Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the chick bulbar cardiac ganglia has been studied ultrastructurally from the 3rd day of incubation to hatching. For descriptive purposes, their development has been divided into three phases. The first phase includes migration and aggregation of undifferentiated neuroblasts, stages 2126 (day 3.55). Cardiac branches of the vagus first grow toward the heart at 3.5 days of incubation.

Margaret L. Kirby; Thomas A. Weidman; John W. McKenzie

1980-01-01

233

Processing of temporal information and the basal ganglia: new evidence from fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Temporal information processing is a fundamental brain function, which might include central timekeeping mechanisms independent\\u000a of sensory modality. Psychopharmacological and patient studies suggest a crucial role of the basal ganglia in time estimation.\\u000a In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was applied in 15 healthy right-handed male subjects performing\\u000a an auditory time estimation task (duration discrimination of tone

Igor Nenadic; Christian Gaser; Hans-Peter Volz; Thomas Rammsayer; Frank Hger; Heinrich Sauer

2003-01-01

234

Basal ganglia germinoma: Diagnostic value of MR spectroscopy and 11C-methionine positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We herein report a 12-year-old girl with a basal ganglia germinoma who presented with right-sided hemiparesis after a minor head trauma. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a minimally enhanced lesion involving the left putamen, thalamus, and corona radiata. The lesion showed low-signal intensity on T1-, and high intensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging. The MR signal in the adjacent globus

Yuji Fujii; Yoshiaki Saito; Toshihide Ogawa; Shinya Fujii; Hideki Kamitani; Shinji Kondo; Yasushi Horie; Masami Togawa; Michio Senda; Yoshihiro Maegaki; Kousaku Ohno

2008-01-01

235

Deregulation of Mitochondria-Shaping Proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in Manganese-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial ??m disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may provide new therapeutic tools for the treatment of Manganism and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24632637

Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M.; Beauquis, Juan; Munoz, Manuel J.; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Monica L.

2014-01-01

236

Deregulation of mitochondria-shaping proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in manganese-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial ??m disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may provide new therapeutic tools for the treatment of Manganism and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24632637

Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Beauquis, Juan; Muoz, Manuel J; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mnica L

2014-01-01

237

Connections of the basal ganglia with the limbic system: implications for neuromodulation therapies of anxiety and affective disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia are best known for their role in motor planning and execution. However, it is currently widely accepted\\u000a that they are also involved in cognitive and emotional behaviors. Parts of the basal ganglia play a key role in reward and\\u000a reinforcement, addictive behaviors and habit formation. Pathophysiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders such\\u000a as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and

P. Stathis; I. G. Panourias; M. S. Themistocleous; Damianos E. Sakas

238

Evidence for Altered Basal Ganglia-Brainstem Connections in Cervical Dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients. Conclusions/Significance These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. PMID:22384048

Blood, Anne J.; Kuster, John K.; Woodman, Sandra C.; Kirlic, Namik; Makhlouf, Miriam L.; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Makris, Nikos; Parent, Martin; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Sjalander, Greta; Breiter, Henry

2012-01-01

239

Direct NK cell-mediated lysis of syngenic dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro.  

PubMed

In contrast to extensive studies on the role of T and B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the nervous system, little is known about NK cells and their potential role in the destruction of neural tissue. NK cells have been implicated in the selective death of sympathetic neurons resident in the superior cervical ganglia of rats after exposure to the drug guanethidine. This observation suggests that NK cells may function as principle effectors in immunological diseases of the nervous system. However, the direct mechanism of action of NK cells in this model is not known. In particular, it is not known whether NK cells can kill autologous neurons directly. The aim of the present study was to examine whether NK cells can kill directly dorsal root ganglia neurons cultured in vitro. We demonstrate that C57BL/6 (B6)-derived dorsal root ganglia neurons can be killed directly by syngenic IL-2-activated NK cells, and that this nerve cell lysis is dependent on the expression of perforin in the NK cells. NK cells were less effective in destroying neurons grown in the presence of glial cells. These observations indicate a potential role for NK cells in nerve cell degeneration in inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. PMID:11046014

Backstrm, E; Chambers, B J; Kristensson, K; Ljunggren, H G

2000-11-01

240

Peripheral inflammation augments gap junction-mediated coupling among satellite glial cells in mouse sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed

Intercellular coupling by gap junctions is one of the main features of glial cells, but very little is known about this aspect of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sympathetic ganglia. We used the dye coupling method to address this question in both a prevertebral ganglion (superior mesenteric) and a paravertebral ganglion (superior cervical) of mice. We found that in control ganglia, the incidence of dye coupling among SGCs that form the envelope around a given neuron was 10-20%, and coupling between SGCs around different envelopes was rare (1.5-3%). The dye injections also provided novel information on the structure of SGCs. Following peripheral inflammation, both types of coupling were increased, but most striking was the augmentation of coupling between SGCs forming envelopes around different neurons, which rose by 8-14.6-fold. This effect appeared to be non-systemic, and was blocked by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. These changes in SGCs may affect signal transmission and processing in sympathetic ganglia. PMID:20202288

Hanani, Menachem; Caspi, Anna; Belzer, Vitali

2010-02-01

241

Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents.  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

2014-12-01

242

Altered basal ganglia echogenicity early in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by conformational alteration of the ubiquitous prion protein. Sporadic CJD appears to progress faster if the basal ganglia are shown to be affected on magnetic resonance imaging. Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) enables visualization of differences in tissue echogenicity, which can be associated with changes in the cerebral metabolism of various metals. These metabolic changes are considered 1 of the potential mechanisms of the brain damage in CJD; TCS hyperechogenicity may reflect changes in metal homeostasis in CJD. We report a 63-year-old woman who presented with typical sporadic CJD. One month after she fell ill, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of her brain showed diffuse cortical but no obvious basal ganglia involvement. However, TCS revealed moderate hyperechogenicity of both lentiform nuclei. The patient's disease progressed quickly and she died 2 months later. TCS may show basal ganglia alteration early in the disease course of patients with quickly progressing CJD, thus aiding in premortem diagnosis. PMID:24674965

Veselinovic, Nikola; Pavlovic, Aleksandra M; Petrovic, Boris; Ristic, Aleksandar; Novakovic, Ivana; Svabic Medjedovic, Tamara; Pavlovic, Dragan; Sternic, Nada

2014-03-01

243

Synapse formation among developing sensory neurones from rat nodose ganglia grown in tissue culture.  

PubMed Central

Sensory neurones from new-born rat nodose ganglia were grown in tissue culture, either with or without the ganglionic satellite cells, in order to investigate influences of satellite cells on sensory neurone development. To learn more about the post-natal development of nodose ganglia in rats neuronal counts of the ganglion were made at three different developmental stages. There were no significant differences of neuronal number in nodose ganglia in new-born rats, rats 3 weeks of age, and adult rats. Up to 60% of the neurones formed synapses with each other when they developed in culture without ganglion satellite cells. Pharmacological experiments indicated that the transmitter at these synapses was ACh and the post-synaptic receptors were nicotinic. Neurones co-cultured with satellite cells rarely formed functional synapses and most (85%) were not sensitive to ACh: 75% of neurones cultured without satellite cells were ACh sensitive. These results provide evidence that mammalian sensory neurones form synapses among each other in culture. The results also suggest that ganglionic satellite cells prevent functional synapses among these neurones from occurring, in part because the neurones do not express ACh sensitivity when co-cultured with satellite cells. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:6146714

Cooper, E

1984-01-01

244

Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities.

Wolkin, A.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.; Rotrosen, J.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Cancro, R.

1985-05-01

245

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

246

Central nervous system abnormalities in asymptomatic young patients with Sbeta-thalassemia.  

PubMed

Twenty-one children and young adults with sickle/beta-thalassemia without overt stroke were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and angiography (MRA), transcranial Doppler (TCD), visual (VEP) and median nerve somatosensory (SEP)-evoked potential recordings, and neuropsychological testing (Wechsler Intelligence Scale [WISC-III]). Eight (38%) had silent infarction in the parietooccipital cortex, deep white matter, or basal ganglia, including two of three with previous seizures. Of 17 undergoing TCD, none had maximum middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocities greater than 126cm/sec, but 9 were abnormal, with low velocities and difficulty in tracking the MCA and/or asymmetry. Three patients had abnormal MRA, one of whom also had silent infarction. One patient had pathological VEP recordings, whereas all SEP recordings were normal. WISC-III was performed in all 11 children, 4 with silent infarction: all but 1 had IQ scores greater than 85 (mean, 97.7; standard deviation, 14.2). We conclude that Greek children and young adults with Sbeta-thalassemia and no history of clinical stroke have TCD abnormalities and silent infarction similar to those reported in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia, but cognitive function is not necessarily compromised. International collaboration is needed to establish the risk factors for central nervous system sequelae in patients with sickle cell disease, including Sbeta-thalassemia, leading to evidence-based prevention. PMID:15174017

Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Prengler, Mara; Gombakis, Nikos; Kouskouras, Konsantinos; Economou, Marina; Kardoulas, Achileas; Tsantali, Chaido; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Athanasiou, Miranta; Kirkham, Fenella J

2004-06-01

247

Abnormal Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotransmission during Rest and Task Production in Spasmodic Dysphonia  

PubMed Central

Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal gangliathalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [11C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ?BP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ?BP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ?BP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ?BP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

Berman, Brian D.; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

2013-01-01

248

Symphalangism with metacarpophalangeal fusions and elbow abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three generations of a family manifest similar skeletal abnormalities: proximal symphalangism with several unusual features, metacarpophalangeal synostoses, massive tarsal and carpal fusions and abnormalities of the elbows (radial head dislocation, radiohumetal synosfosis).

E. G. Kassner; I. Katz; Q. H. Qazi

1976-01-01

249

Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

1962-01-01

250

A model of abnormal gastric electrical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of abnormal gastric electrical activity is presented and used to investigate the accuracy of surface EGGs in the detection of gastric electrical abnormalities. The results show that current surface electrode configurations, cannot detect abnormalities that are not widespread. Substantial improvements can be obtained by using electrode arrays. Surface maps of the slow waves and the signal-to-noise ratio

B. O. Familoni; T. L. Abell; R. Praturu; S. Katragadda; P. Sabourin

1989-01-01

251

The profile of body abnormalities of bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational abnormalities usually occur due to the non-standard use of body which leads in the deformity of body and has lost of side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the type and incidence of skeletal abnormalities in bodybuilders. Situational abnormality of 118 bodybuilders were assessed via posture screen and inserted in examination form. ?2 Test was used

Mahdi Rostami Haji-Abadi; Nader Rahnama

2010-01-01

252

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

253

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

254

Dyskinesia associated with hyperglycemia and basal ganglia hyperintensity: report of a rare diabetic complication.  

PubMed

The syndrome of dyskinesia associated with hyperglycemia and basal ganglia hyperintensity on T1 - weighted MR images is rare and most often affects elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. We report a case of a 79year-old female patient who presented to the ED with a 12h history of a left sided hemichoreoathetosis. Laboratory results revealed pronounced nonketotic hyperglycemia [27mmol/L (486mg/dL); HbA1c 140mmol/mol (15%)] and brain MRI showed bilateral T1 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia, more noticeable on the right side. One week before she had been admitted with a diagnosis of transient ischemic attack consisting in left hemiparesthesia, also with nonketotic hyperglycemia [38.9mmol/L (700mg/dL)] and was discharged home with partial correction of her metabolic disturbance. The movement disorder did not improve with adequate glycemic control so haloperidol was started. Six weeks later she was seen on an outpatient basis. She still had minimal residual involuntary movements of the left arm and leg. Laboratory exams revealed a well controlled diabetes mellitus [glycemia 6.0mmol/L (109mg/dL), HbA1c 57mmol/mol (7.4%)]. In conclusion, the syndrome of dyskinesia associated to hyperglycemia and hyperintensity in the basal ganglia on T1 - weighted MR images is a rare, intriguing and yet incompletely understood complication of diabetes mellitus. The increasing number of reported cases may help to better understand its peculiarities such as the existence of a clear clinical radiological dissociation and to unveil pathophysiological aspects. We suggest the possibility that the metabolic disturbances unmask a previous established asymptomatic striatum vasculopathy. PMID:23154926

Taboada, Giselle F; Lima, Giovanna A B; Castro, Jos E C; Liberato, Bernardo

2013-03-01

255

The basal ganglia in perceptual timing: Timing performance in Multiple System Atrophy and Huntington's disease?  

PubMed Central

The timing of perceptual events depends on an anatomically and functionally connected network comprising basal ganglia, cerebellum, pre-frontal cortex and supplementary motor area. Recent studies demonstrate the cerebellum to be involved in absolute, duration-based timing, but not in relative timing based on a regular beat. Conversely, functional involvement of the striatum is observed in relative timing, but its role in absolute timing is unclear. This work tests the specific role of the basal ganglia in the perceptual timing of auditory events. It aims to distinguish the hypothesised unified model of time perception (Teki, Grube, & Griffiths, 2012), in which the striatum is a mandatory component for all timing tasks, from a modular system in which they subserve relative timing, with absolute timing processed by the cerebellum. Test groups comprised individuals with Multiple System Atrophy, a disorder in which similar pathology can produce clinical deficits associated with dysfunction of the cerebellum (MSA-C, n=8) or striatum (MSA-P, n=10), and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (HD, n=14). Individuals with chronic autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (n=11) acted as controls. Six adaptive tasks were carried out to assess perceptual thresholds for absolute timing through duration discrimination for sub- and supra-second time intervals, and relative timing through the detection of beat-based regularity and irregularity, detection of a delay within an isochronous sequence, and the discrimination of sequences with metrical structure. All three patient groups exhibited impairments in performance in comparison with the control group for all tasks, and severity of impairment was significantly correlated with disease progression. No differences were demonstrated between MSA-C and MSA-P, and the most severe impairments were observed in those with HD. The data support an obligatory role for the basal ganglia in all tested timing tasks, both absolute and relative, as predicted by the unified model. The results are not compatible with models of a brain timing network based upon independent modules. PMID:24135486

Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon; Singh, Baldev; Burn, David J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2014-01-01

256

Depolarizing actions of ?-aminobutyric acid and related compounds on rat superior cervical ganglia in vitro  

PubMed Central

1 Potential changes in rat superior cervical ganglia were recorded in vitro with surface electrodes. 2 ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced a transient, low-amplitude ganglion depolarization at rest, and a transient hyperpolarization in ganglia depolarized by carbachol. Depolarization was not prevented by preganglionic denervation. The log dose-response curve for depolarization was sigmoid with a mean ED50 of 12.5 ?M. 3 The ganglion was depolarized in similar manner by the following compounds (mean molar potencies relative to GABA (=1) in brackets): 3-aminopropane sulphonic acid (3.4), ?-amino-?-hydroxybutyric acid (0.27), ?-guanidino-propionic acid (0.12), guanidinoacetic acid (0.057), ?-aminovaleric acid (0.048), ?-alanine (0.01), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, ?-guanidinobutyric acid, taurine and N-methyl-GABA (all <0.01). The following compounds did not depolarize the ganglion at 10 mM concentrations: ?- and ?-amino-n-butyric acids, ?-amino-iso-butyric acid, glycine and glutamic acid. 4 Depolarization declined in the continued presence of GABA. Ganglia thus `desensitized' to GABA showed a diminished response to other amino acids but not to carbachol. 5 The effect of GABA was not antagonized by hyoscine and hexamethonium in combination, in concentrations sufficient to block responses to carbachol. 6 Responses to GABA were blocked more readily than those to carbachol by bicuculline (IC50, 14 ?M) and picrotoxin (IC50, 37 ?M). Strychnine (IC50, 73 ?M) was a relatively weak and less selective GABA-antagonist. 7 It is concluded that sympathetic ganglion cells possess receptors for GABA and related amino acids which are (a) different from the acetylcholine receptors and (b) similar to GABA receptors in the central nervous system. PMID:4154116

Bowery, N.G.; Brown, D.A.

1974-01-01

257

Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) act as a cohesive functional unit that regulates motor function, habit formation, and reward/addictive behaviors; but the debate has only recently started on how the BG maintain wakefulness and suppress sleep to achieve all these fundamental functions of the BG. Neurotoxic lesioning, pharmacological approaches, and the behavioral analyses of genetically modified animals revealed that the striatum and globus pallidus are important for the control of sleep and wakefulness. Here, we discuss anatomical and molecular mechanisms for sleep-wake regulation in the BG and propose a plausible model in which the nucleus accumbens integrates behavioral processes with wakefulness through adenosine and dopamine receptors. PMID:23465424

Lazarus, Michael; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

2013-01-01

258

Functional correlates of exaggerated oscillatory activity in basal ganglia output in hemiparkinsonian rats.  

PubMed

Exaggerated beta range (13-30Hz) synchronized activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes and is thought to contribute to the motor symptoms of this disorder. To explore the translational potential of similar activity observed in a rat model of PD, local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in basal ganglia output were characterized in rats with unilateral dopamine cell lesion during a range of behaviors. A circular treadmill was used to assess activity during walking; hemiparkinsonian rats could maintain a steady gait when oriented ipsiversive to the lesioned hemisphere, but were less effective at walking when oriented contraversive to lesion. Dramatic increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) LFP oscillatory activity and spike-LFP synchronization were observed within the beta/low gamma range (12-40Hz) in the lesioned hemisphere, relative to the non-lesioned hemisphere, with the dominant frequency of spike-LFP entrainment and LFP power varying with behavioral state. At 3weeks postlesion, the mean dominant entrainment frequency during ipsiversive treadmill walking and grooming was 34Hz. Other behaviors were associated with lower mean entrainment frequencies: 27-28Hz during alert non-walking and REM, 17Hz during rest and 21Hz during urethane anesthesia with sensory stimulation. SNpr spike-LFP entrainment frequency was stable during individual treadmill walking epochs, but increased gradually over weeks postlesion. In contrast, SNpr LFP power in the 25-40Hz range was greatest at the initiation of each walking epoch, and decreased during walking to stabilize by 6min at 49% of initial values. Power was further modulated in conjunction with the 1.5s stepping rhythm. Administration of l-dopa improved contraversive treadmill walking in correlation with a reduction in SNpr 25-40Hz LFP power and spike synchronization in the dopamine cell lesioned hemisphere. These effects were reversed by the serotonergic 1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT. While the prominent spike-LFP phase locking observed during ongoing motor activity in the hemiparkinsonian rats occurs at frequencies intriguingly higher than in PD patients, the synchronized activity in the SNpr of this animal model has much in common with oscillatory activity recorded from the basal ganglia of the PD patients. Results support the potential of this model for providing insight into relationships between synchronization of basal ganglia output induced by loss of dopamine and motor symptoms in PD. PMID:25084518

Brazhnik, Elena; Novikov, Nikolay; McCoy, Alex J; Cruz, Ana V; Walters, Judith R

2014-11-01

259

Differentiation of silver-enhanced mercury and gold in tissue sections of rat dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Autometallography was used in conjunction with light and electron microscopy to detect traces of gold and mercury in the dorsal root ganglia of rats treated with sodium aurothiomalate and mercuric chloride. In order to differentiate between gold and mercury in tissue sections, the gold accumulations were removed by potassium cyanide, leaving mercury sulphides/selenides as the only possible catalysts for autometallographic development. With this technique, it is now possible to differentiate between all tissue metals capable of initiating the autometallographic process, i.e. gold, vesicular zinc, and sulphides and selenides of mercury and silver. PMID:8468184

Schinning, J D; Danscher, G; Christensen, M M; Ernst, E; Mller-Madsen, B

1993-02-01

260

IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice  

PubMed Central

The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

261

Basal ganglia and kinematics modulation: insights from Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases.  

PubMed

Movement kinematic variables related to force production can be modulated to respond appropriately to different contexts. We previously showed that in a choice-reaction time and a predictable timed-response task, normal subjects perform reaching movements to the same targets with two different kinematic patterns, a marker of flexibility. Here, we used the two tasks to determine whether basal ganglia are involved in the selection and modulation of movement kinematics and therefore in flexible force production. We tested seventeen patients in the early stages of Parkinson's disease, eleven pre-symptomatic Huntington's disease carriers and sixteen age-matched normal controls with the above-mentioned motor tasks. In both patient groups, the difference in kinematics (movement duration, peak velocity and acceleration) between the two tasks was significantly reduced compared to controls, indicating a limited range of choices or flexibility. However, this reduction was skewed in opposite directions in the two disorders, with force production being generally higher in Huntington's carriers and lower in Parkinson's patients compared to controls. We conclude that basal ganglia are involved in adapting movement to different contexts and selecting the appropriate movement force. The opposite trends in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease suggest that such regulation might depend on the balance between the outputs of direct and indirect pathways. PMID:21764625

Moisello, Clara; Perfetti, Bernardo; Marinelli, Lucio; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Bove, Marco; Feigin, Andrew; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Eidelberg, David; Ghilardi, M F

2011-09-01

262

Identification of bladder and colon afferents in the nodose ganglia of male rats.  

PubMed

The sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder and distal colon project to similar regions of the central nervous system and often are affected simultaneously by various diseases and disorders, including spinal cord injury. Anatomical and physiological commonalities between the two organs involve the participation of shared spinally derived pathways, allowing mechanisms of communication between the bladder and colon. Prior electrophysiological data from our laboratory suggest that the bladder also may receive sensory innervation from a nonspinal source through the vagus nerve, which innervates the distal colon as well. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether anatomical evidence exists for vagal innervation of the male rat urinary bladder and to assess whether those vagal afferents also innervate the colon. Additionally, the relative contribution to bladder and colon sensory innervation of spinal and vagal sources was determined. By using lipophilic tracers, neurons that innervated the bladder and colon in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and L6/S1 and L1/L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were quantified. Some single vagal and spinal neurons provided dual innervation to both organs. The proportions of NG afferents labeled from the bladder did not differ from spinal afferents labeled from the bladder when considering the collective population of total neurons from either group. Our results demonstrate evidence for vagal innervation of the bladder and colon and suggest that dichotomizing vagal afferents may provide a neural mechanism for cross-talk between the organs. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3667-3682, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24845615

Herrity, April N; Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Hubscher, Charles H

2014-11-01

263

Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis  

SciTech Connect

The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)] [and others

1994-05-01

264

Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus: MR and CT evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: to describe MR and CT features of germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus and to discuss the roles of each modality for its diagnosis. Methods: MR and CT studies of six cases of germinomas, five of which were histologically proved, were retrospectively reviewed. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted conventional spin-echo images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were evaluated. Results: Typically, the tumor consisted of an irregular solid area with contrast enhancement and various-size cysts. Cystic components were found in five cases and calcification in four. Intratumoral hemorrhage was noted in one. Ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and brain stem hemiatrophy were noted in three cases each. MR was superior to CT in evaluating precise tumor extension, cystic components, and intratumoral hemorrhage, although in one case, extension of the tumor was better defined on CT in its early stage. Calcification was difficult to identify by MR alone. The solid components of the tumors generally showed slightly high density on CT, which seemed to be characteristic compared with nonspecific intensity pattern on MR. Conclusion: The combination of CT and MR findings allows early detection and appropriate diagnosis of the mass in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Shuichi Higano; Shoki Takahashi; Kiyoshi Ishii [Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

1994-09-01

265

Immunohistochemical demonstration of cholinergic structures in central ganglia of the slug (Limax maximus, Limax valentianus).  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distribution of cholinergic neurons containing choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine, in the central nervous system of the slug Limax maximus and Limax valentianus. Because the antiserum applied here was raised against a recombinant protein encoded by exons 7 and 8 of the rat gene for ChAT, three methods were used in order to validate antibody specificity for the Limax counterpart enzyme. Western blot combined with ChAT activity assay following native gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation analysis both indicated that immunoreactive Limax brain molecules were capable of synthesizing acetylcholine. Western blot after denatured gel electrophoresis of Limax brain extracts revealed a single band of about 67kDa. All findings obtained with these three methods clearly indicated that the antiserum effectively recognized Limax cChAT. 1400 neuronal cell bodies positive for cChAT, mainly small to medium-sized, were found in various brain regions in the buccal, cerebral, pleural, parietal, visceral and pedal ganglia. cChAT immunoreactive nerve fibers were distributed extensively in the neuropil, connectives and commissures of these central ganglia. The map of cChAT-positive cells provided here are valuable for understanding the cholinergic mechanism in the slug brain, as well as giving an important hint to clarifying the mechanisms of learning and memory in higher vertebrates including humans. PMID:21315127

D'Este, Loredana; Casini, Arianna; Kimura, Shin; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Ito, Etsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Renda, Tindaro G

2011-04-01

266

Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification  

PubMed Central

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahrs disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patients disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobrici?, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; Garca-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Jankovi?, Milena; Jaum, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kosti?, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agns; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novakovi?, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, Joo R. M.; Sobrido, Mara-Jess

2014-01-01

267

Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the dorsal root ganglia. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modeled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main Results Overall, firing-rate based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (4813%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development. PMID:23928579

Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Mushahwar, V K; Stein, R B

2013-01-01

268

Cortical-basal ganglia imbalance in schizophrenia patients and unaffected first-degree relatives.  

PubMed

Structural brain changes are amongst the most robust biological alterations in schizophrenia, and their investigation in unaffected relatives is important for an assessment of the contribution of genetic factors. In this cross-sectional morphometry study we investigated whether volume changes in SZ are linked with genetic vulnerability and whether these effects are separated from secondary illness effects. We compared density of grey and white matter using high-resolution 3D-anatomical MRI imaging data in 31 SZ patients, 29 first-degree relatives and 38 matched healthy controls, using Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) with SPM8. Volume of basal ganglia was also compared by manual segmentation. We found increased grey matter in the striatum, globus pallidus internus and thalamus and decreased grey matter in the parahippocampal and cingulate gyri both in SZ patients and relatives. Additionally, SZ patients had decreased volume of temporal, frontal and limbic grey and white matter in comparison with relatives and controls. Relatives showed intermediate values in many of these areas. Increased volume in the thalamus and parts of the basal ganglia and decreased volume of cortical areas and underlying white matter were thus associated with schizophrenia and its genetic vulnerability. These results suggest that brain morphological changes associated with SZ are in part determined by genetic risk factors and are not entirely explained by effects of medication or changes secondary to illness. PMID:22464726

Oertel-Knchel, V; Knchel, C; Matura, S; Rotarska-Jagiela, A; Magerkurth, J; Prvulovic, D; Haenschel, C; Hampel, H; Linden, D E J

2012-07-01

269

An Interactive Channel Model of the Basal Ganglia: Bifurcation Analysis Under Healthy and Parkinsonian Conditions  

PubMed Central

Oscillations in the basal ganglia are an active area of research and have been shown to relate to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease. We study oscillations in a multi-channel mean field model, where each channel consists of an interconnected pair of subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus sub-populations. To study how the channels interact, we perform two-dimensional bifurcation analysis of a model of an individual channel, which reveals the critical boundaries in parameter space that separate different dynamical modes; these modes include steady-state, oscillatory, and bi-stable behaviour. Without self-excitation in the subthalamic nucleus a single channel cannot generate oscillations, yet there is little experimental evidence for such self-excitation. Our results show that the interactive channel model with coupling via pallidal sub-populations demonstrates robust oscillatory behaviour without subthalamic self-excitation, provided the coupling is sufficiently strong. We study the model under healthy and Parkinsonian conditions and demonstrate that it exhibits oscillations for a much wider range of parameters in the Parkinsonian case. In the discussion, we show how our results compare with experimental findings and discuss their possible physiological interpretation. For example, experiments have found that increased lateral coupling in the rat basal ganglia is correlated with oscillations under Parkinsonian conditions. PMID:23945348

2013-01-01

270

Molecular microcircuitry underlies functional specification in a basal ganglia circuit dedicated to vocal learning  

PubMed Central

Summary Similarities between speech and birdsong make songbirds advantageous for investigating the neurogenetics of learned vocal communication; a complex phenotype likely supported by ensembles of interacting genes in cortico-basal ganglia pathways of both species. To date, only FoxP2 has been identified as critical to both speech and birdsong. We performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis on microarray data from singing zebra finches to discover gene ensembles regulated during vocal behavior. We found ~2,000 singing-regulated genes comprising 3 co-expression groups unique to area X, the basal ganglia subregion dedicated to learned vocalizations. These contained known targets of human FOXP2 and potential avian targets. We validated novel biological pathways for vocalization. Higher order gene co-expression patterns, rather than expression levels, molecularly distinguish area X from the ventral striato-pallidum during singing. The previously unknown structure of singing-driven networks enables prioritization of molecular interactors that likely bear on human motor disorders, especially those affecting speech. PMID:22325205

Hilliard, Austin T.; Miller, Julie E.; Fraley, Elizabeth; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

271

Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury.  

PubMed

This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identified whose expression was significantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3'-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization verified that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that microRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection. PMID:25206756

Lu, Anjie; Huang, Zufa; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhang, Xianfang; Zhao, Jiuhong; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Quanpeng; Wu, Song; Yi, Xinan

2014-05-15

272

Stem Cells from Wildtype and Friedreich's Ataxia Mice Present Similar Neuroprotective Properties in Dorsal Root Ganglia Cells  

PubMed Central

Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common susceptibility to oxidative stress, including Alzheimers, Parkinson Disease, Huntington Disease and Friedreichs ataxia. In a previous work, we proved that stem cell-conditioned medium increased the survival of cells isolated from Friedreichs ataxia patients, when submitted to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to confirm this same effect in dorsal root ganglia cells isolated from YG8 mice, a mouse model of Friedreichs ataxia. In this disorder, the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are the first to degenerate. Also, in this work we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from YG8 mice, in order to compare them with their wildtype counterpart. To this end, dorsal root ganglia primary cultures isolated from YG8 mice were exposed to oxidative stress and cultured with conditioned medium from either wildtype or YG8 stem cells. As a result, the conditioned medium increased the survival of the dorsal root ganglia cells. This coincided with an increase in oxidative stress-related markers and frataxin expression levels. BDNF, NT3 and NT4 trophic factors were detected in the conditioned medium of both wild-type and YG8 stem cells, all which bind to the various neuronal cell types present in the dorsal root ganglia. No differences were observed in the stem cells isolated from wildtype and YG8 mice. The results presented confirm the possibility that autologous stem cell transplantation may be a viable therapeutic approach in protecting dorsal root ganglia neurons of Friedreichs ataxia patients. PMID:23671637

Jones, Jonathan; Estirado, Alicia; Redondo, Carolina; Martinez, Salvador

2013-01-01

273

Hippocampal abnormalities and age in chronic schizophrenia: morphometric study across the adult lifespan.  

PubMed

Background Hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these abnormalities worsen with age, and whether they affect cognition and function. Aims To determine whether hippocampal abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia are associated with age, cognition and socio-occupational function. Method Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging we scanned 100 persons aged 19-82 years: 51 were out-patients with stable schizophrenia at least 2 years after diagnosis and 49 were healthy volunteers matched for age and gender. Automated analysis was used to determine hippocampal volume and shape. Results There were differential effects of age in the schizophrenia and control samples on total hippocampal volume (groupage interaction: F(1,95) = 6.57, P = 0.012), with steeper age-related reduction in the schizophrenia group. Three-dimensional shape analysis located the age-related deformations predominantly in the mid-body of the hippocampus. In the schizophrenia group similar patterns of morphometric abnormalities were correlated with impaired cognition and poorer socio-occupational function. Conclusions Hippocampal abnormalities are associated with age in people with chronic schizophrenia, with a steeper decline than in healthy individuals. These abnormalities are associated with cognitive and functional deficits, suggesting that hippocampal morphometry may be a biomarker for cognitive decline in older patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25213158

Pujol, N; Penads, R; Junqu, C; Dinov, I; Fu, C H Y; Cataln, R; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N; Bargall, N; Bernardo, M; Toga, A; Howard, R J; Costafreda, S G

2014-11-01

274

On detecting abnormalities in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in many countries all over the world. Early detection of cancer, in either diagnosis or screening programs, decreases the mortality rates. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) is software that aids radiologists in detecting abnormalities in medical images. In this article we present our approach in detecting abnormalities in mammograms using digital mammography. Each mammogram

Waleed A. Yousef; Waleed A. Mustafa; Ali A. Ali; Naglaa A. Abdelrazek; Ahmed M. Farrag

2010-01-01

275

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 2030% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl

2007-01-01

276

Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?  

PubMed Central

Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

2006-01-01

277

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

278

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

279

Predicting Abnormal Returns Using Debt Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the ability of the company capital structures to be used as a predictor for abnormal returns in the US stock market in the long run. The relationship between debt level and abnormal return over a three-year holding period is investigated. Robustness tests are carried out to determine the predictive ability of debt ratios when controlling for size

Brian Baturevich; Gulnur Muradoglu

280

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

281

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology  

E-print Network

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011 Instructor: Dennis P. Saccuzzo, Ph: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories.D., J.D. Meeting Times: Wednesday:-6:40pm Professor of Psychology E-Mail: dsaccuzz

Gallo, Linda C.

282

The present status of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the content of fifteen representative textbooks in abnormal psychology and seven textbooks in psychiatry. It is found that abnormal psychology is a dumping ground for miscellaneous topics left over from general psychology, including sleep, dreams, suggestion, etc. The most conspicuous defect is the lack of experimental material, of which there is only .8%. Another is the

W. A. Hunt; C. Landis

1935-01-01

283

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

284

Phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes in neuronal perikarya in the septum, mesencephalon and dorsal root ganglia of mammals and birds.  

PubMed

We and other researchers have previously described the presence of axon-specific phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes in the cell bodies of three neuronal types in the rat: bipolar septofimbrial neurons and the large light A-type cells in the dorsal root ganglia and the mesencephalic nucleus of the Vth nerve. This spontaneous presence of phosphorylated neurofilaments at the level of the perikaryon contrasts with the induced appearance of these epitopes in axotomized neurons. We have undertaken a study of this phenomenon in rat, mouse, gerbil, rabbit, pig and chicken to analyse its species distribution. Phosphorylated neurofilament positive perikarya could be detected in the dorsal root ganglia and mesencephalic nucleus of the Vth nerve in all analysed species. Although this labelling has been shown to be specific for A-type cells in rat, in pig small cells were preferentially labelled, whereas the largest cells were mostly completely devoid of label. In the septofimbrial nucleus, phosphorylated neurofilament positive perikarya were seen in rat, mouse, gerbil and rabbit. In the pig, only a phosphatase-insensitive neurofilament antibody labelled these neurons. In the chicken, the labelling was completely absent. These observations establish the widespread species distribution of perikaryal phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes in the dorsal root ganglia and mesencephalic nucleus of the Vth nerve. In the septofimbrial nucleus however, this phenomenon seems to be restricted to rodents and lagomorphs. We discuss possible explanations for these cytoskeletal singularities in dorsal root ganglia, the mesencephalic nucleus of the Vth nerve and septofimbrial neurons. PMID:7522268

Klosen, P; Van den Bosch de Aguilar, P

1994-05-01

285

Using point process models to determine the impact of visual cues on basal ganglia activity and behavior of Parkinson's patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that has enabled microelectrode recordings from single-unit cells in the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. This rare data is important to develop detailed characterizations of spiking activity to understand the pathophysiology of PD. Despite the point process nature of neuronal spiking activity, point process (PP) methods are

Sridevi V. Sarma; Uri T. Eden; Ming L. Cheng; Ziv Williams; Emad N. Eskandar; Emery N. Brown

2009-01-01

286

Effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone on the accumulation of cAMP by parietal ganglia of a gastropod.  

PubMed

1. We had previously shown that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) can stimulate the in vitro accumulation of cAMP by the parietal ganglia of the pond snail Lymnaea emarginata (Grimm-Jrgensen, 1980). 2. The mechanism by which TRH affects cAMP metabolism in parietal ganglia was further studied. 3. The TRH-induced accumulation of cAMP is preceded by a lag period and is of long duration. 4. TRH does not stimulate basal or guanylylimidodiphosphate-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and is unable to cause an increase in cAMP accumulation when the incubation is carried out in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. 5. This finding is compatible with the hypothesis that TRH may cause an increase in cAMP accumulation by means of decreasing phosphodiesterase activity. 6. When the ganglia were incubated with 3H-TRH and the localization of the labeled TRH examined by autoradiographic techniques, reduced silver grains were present only over glial and connective tissue elements. 7. The observed effect of TRH on the cAMP metabolism in parietal ganglia may be due to its action on non-neuronal cells. PMID:6188574

Grimm-Jorgensen, Y

1983-01-01

287

Regulation of neuronal pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide expression during culture of guinea-pig cardiac ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) increases in many different neuron types following injury; a response postulated to support cell survival and regeneration. In acutely isolated cardiac ganglia, approximately 1% of the cardiac neurons exhibited PACAP immunoreactivity whereas after 72 h in culture, ?25% of the neurons were PACAP immunoreactive. In contrast, there was no increase in vasoactive

B. M. Girard; B. A. Young; T. R. Buttolph; S. L. White; R. L. Parsons

2007-01-01

288

Basal Ganglia, Dopamine and Temporal Processing: Performance on Three Timing Tasks on and off Medication in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pervasive hypothesis in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine. This hypothesis was investigated by testing 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication, and 20 healthy controls on three timing tasks.

Jones, Catherine R. G.; Malone, Tim J. L.; Dirnberger, Georg; Edwards, Mark; Jahanshahi, Marjan

2008-01-01

289

Presynaptic Depression of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by D1Like Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Avian Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocal behavior in songbirds exemplifies a rich integration of motor, cognitive, and social functions that are shared among vertebrates. As a part of the underlying neural substrate, the song system, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) is required for song learning and maintenance. The AFP resembles the mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop in its macroscopic organization, neuronal intrinsic properties, and microcircuitry. Area

Long Ding; David J. Perkel; Michael A. Farries

2003-01-01

290

NEURONAL DEATH IN THE SPINAL GANGLIA OF THE CHICK EMBRYO AND ITS REDUCTION BY NERVE GROWTH FACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo, two neuronal populations can be distinguished: large, early differentiating ventrolateral (VL) cells and small, late differentiating dorsomedial (DM) cells. It was found that, beginning with stage 25, the DM cells originate from a narrow band of small, immature cells at the medial border of the ganglion, extending to the dorsolateral border. We

V. HAMBURGER; J. K. BRUNSO-BECHTOLD; J. W. YIP

1981-01-01

291

Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

f MRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During f MRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation

BRUCE CROSSON; HOPE BENEFIELD; M. ALLISON CATO; JOSEPH R. SADEK; ANNA BACON MOORE; CHRISTINA E. WIERENGA; KAUNDINYA GOPINATH; DAVID SOLTYSIK; RUSSELL M. BAUER; EDWARD J. AUERBACH; DIDEM GKAY; CHRISTIANA M. LEONARD; RICHARD W. BRIGGS

2003-01-01

292

Immunocytochemical localization of neuropeptide Y, serotonin, substance P and ?-endorphin in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using immunocytochemistry method of Strept Avidin-Biotin-Complex, four kinds of antisera raised against rabbits were applied to observe the immunoreactive neurons and neuropils of serotonin (5-HT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and ?-Endorphin (?-Ep) in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that, the 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were located in all the four neuropils of optic ganglia. Immunoreactivity of 5-HT was detected in anterior medial protocerebrum neuropils (AMPN), and the inner and outer lateral beside olfactory lobe (OL) of deutocerebrum. The presence of NPY-immunoreactive cells was found in all the four neuropils of the optic ganglia. NPY-immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior median cell cluster, lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum, and cell cluster beside OL and AMPN. SP-immunoreactivity was found in medulla terminalis (MT) of optic ganglia, and lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum and posterior lateral cell cluster of tritocerebrum. ?-Ep-immunoreactive cells were in MT only. In conclusion, these specific distribution patterns of the four immunoreactive substances can be used as morphological clues for understanding their different neurophysiological functions.

Ye, Haihui; Wang, Guizhong; Jin, Zhuxing; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing

2006-12-01

293

Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of

Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

2012-01-01

294

Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to

Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2012-01-01

295

A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds  

PubMed Central

The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia (BG) to the cortex and plays a critical role motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the BG, but the role of non-pallidal inputs, such as excitatory inputs from cortex, is unclear. We have recorded simultaneously from presynaptic pallidal axon terminals and postsynaptic thalamocortical neurons in a BG-recipient thalamic nucleus necessary for vocal variability and learning in zebra finches. We found that song-locked rate modulations in the thalamus could not be explained by pallidal inputs alone, and persisted following pallidal lesion. Instead, thalamic activity was likely driven by inputs from a motor cortical nucleus also necessary for singing. These findings suggest a role for cortical inputs to the pallido-recipient thalamus in driving premotor signals important for exploratory behavior and learning. PMID:22327474

Goldberg, Jesse H.

2012-01-01

296

Hereditary haemochromatosis: a case of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia associated with a parkinsonian syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Hereditary haemochromatosis is characterised by excessive parenchymal iron deposition, particularly in the liver. Usually hereditary haemochromatosis is not associated with neurological symptoms and iron deposition in the brain has not previously been described as a pathological phenomenon. A patient is reported with hereditary haemochromatosis and a syndrome of dementia, dysarthria, a slowly progressive gait disturbance, imbalance, muscle weakness, rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, ataxia, and dyssynergia. The findings on MRI of a large signal decrease in the basal ganglia, consistent with excessive iron accumulation, indicate a causal relation to the symptoms. Although the neurological symptoms did not improve in our patient, hereditary haemochromatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes, because complications of iron induced organ injury may be prevented by phlebotomy. Images PMID:7673967

Nielsen, J E; Jensen, L N; Krabbe, K

1995-01-01

297

Limb apraxia in patients with damage confined to the left basal ganglia and thalamus.  

PubMed Central

Limb apraxia was investigated with standardised tests in 14 patients whose CT scan provided evidence of a vascular lesion confined to the left basal ganglia, or the thalamus, or both, and not involving the cortex or adjacent white matter. Five patients were severely impaired in imitating movements and pantomiming object use. Four of them also performed poorly when tested with real objects. In two patients the lesion was primarily thalamic and in three the lesion was primarily in the lenticular nucleus and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Patients without apraxia generally had smaller injuries, but there were exceptions. Apraxia is currently conceived of as due to damage of cortical areas and their cortico-cortical connections, but the present data suggest that the model should be enlarged to include the deep nuclei and the pathways running through them. Images PMID:3760891

De Renzi, E; Faglioni, P; Scarpa, M; Crisi, G

1986-01-01

298

Learning to Select Actions with Spiking Neurons in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

We expand our existing spiking neuron model of decision making in the cortex and basal ganglia to include local learning on the synaptic connections between the cortex and striatum, modulated by a dopaminergic reward signal. We then compare this model to animal data in the bandit task, which is used to test rodent learning in conditions involving forced choice under rewards. Our results indicate a good match in terms of both behavioral learning results and spike patterns in the ventral striatum. The model successfully generalizes to learning the utilities of multiple actions, and can learn to choose different actions in different states. The purpose of our model is to provide both high-level behavioral predictions and low-level spike timing predictions while respecting known neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. PMID:22319465

Stewart, Terrence C.; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

2012-01-01

299

Movement disorders in astrocytomas of the basal ganglia and the thalamus.  

PubMed Central

In a series of 225 patients with astrocytomas (grades I-IV) of the basal ganglia and the thalamus, 20 had a movement disorder. In all patients the histological diagnosis was verified by stereotactic biopsy. Tremor was observed in twelve patients, dystonia in eight, chorea in three, and chorea/ballismus and myoclonus in one. The tumour involved the thalamus in 16 patients. Corticospinal tract dysfunction was evident in 70% of the patients with movement disorders and in 73% of those without. Demographic, clinical, histological and neuroradiological data of the patients with a movement disorder were compared with the data of patients without. CT data yielded no differences with respect to the involvement of anatomical structures. Movement disorders were significantly associated with low-grade astrocytomas. Images PMID:1479396

Krauss, J K; Nobbe, F; Wakhloo, A K; Mohadjer, M; Vach, W; Mundinger, F

1992-01-01

300

Lipopolysaccharide-induced Pulpitis Up-regulates TRPV1 in Trigeminal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Tooth pain often accompanies pulpitis. Accumulation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a product of Gram-negative bacteria, is associated with painful clinical symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying LPS-induced tooth pain are not clearly understood. TRPV1 is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and hyperalgesia under inflammation or injury. Although TRPV1 is expressed in pulpal afferents, it is not known whether the application of LPS to teeth modulates TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors. By assessing the levels of protein and transcript of TRPV1 in mouse trigeminal ganglia, we demonstrate that dentinal application of LPS increases the expression of TRPV1. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors following bacterial infection could contribute to hyperalgesia under pulpitis conditions. PMID:21712529

Chung, M.-K.; Lee, J.; Duraes, G.; Ro, J.Y.

2011-01-01

301

The highs and lows of beta activity in cortico-basal ganglia loops.  

PubMed

Oscillatory activity in the beta (13-30Hz) frequency band is widespread in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, and becomes prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we develop the hypothesis that the degree of synchronization in this frequency band is a critical factor in gating computation across a population of neurons, with increases in beta band synchrony entailing a loss of information-coding space and hence computational capacity. Task and context drive this dynamic gating, so that for each state there will be an optimal level of network synchrony, and levels lower or higher than this will impair behavioural performance. Thus, both the pathological exaggeration of synchrony, as observed in PD, and the ability of interventions like deep brain stimulation (DBS) to excessively suppress synchrony can potentially lead to impairments in behavioural performance. Indeed, under physiological conditions, the manipulation of computational capacity by beta activity may itself present a mechanism of action selection and maintenance. PMID:24890470

Brittain, John-Stuart; Sharott, Andrew; Brown, Peter

2014-06-01

302

The basal ganglia is necessary for learning spectral, but not temporal features of birdsong  

PubMed Central

Executing a motor skill requires the brain to control which muscles to activate at what times. How these aspects of control - motor implementation and timing - are acquired, and whether the learning processes underlying them differ, is not well understood. To address this we used a reinforcement learning paradigm to independently manipulate both spectral and temporal features of birdsong, a complex learned motor sequence, while recording and perturbing activity in underlying circuits. Our results uncovered a striking dissociation in how neural circuits underlie learning in the two domains. The basal ganglia was required for modifying spectral, but not temporal structure. This functional dissociation extended to the descending motor pathway, where recordings from a premotor cortex analogue nucleus reflected changes to temporal, but not spectral structure. Our results reveal a strategy in which the nervous system employs different and largely independent circuits to learn distinct aspects of a motor skill. PMID:24075977

Ali, Farhan; Fantana, Antoniu L.; Burak, Yoram; Olveczky, Bence P.

2013-01-01

303

Efferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes.  

PubMed

The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes that receives substantial vomeronasal afferents through projections from the nucleus sphericus. In a preceding article, the olfactostriatum of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) was characterized on the basis of chemoarchitecture (distribution of serotonin, neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase) and pattern of afferent connections [Martinez-Marcos, A., Ubeda-Banon, I., Lanuza, E., Halpern, M., 2005. Chemoarchitecture and afferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 29, 49-69]. In the present study, its efferent connections have been investigated. The olfactostriatum projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, septal complex, ventral pallidum, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in the nucleus accumbens proper, a structure closely associated with the olfactostriatum, result in a similar pattern of efferent connections with the exception of those reaching the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data, therefore, help to characterize the olfactostriatum, an apparently specialized area of the nucleus accumbens. Double labeling experiments after tracer injections in the nucleus sphericus and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus demonstrate a pathway between these two structures through the olfactostriatum. Injections in the olfactostriatum and in the medial amygdala show parallel projections to the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the olfactostriatum may mediate vomeronasal influence on tongue-flick behavior. PMID:15820623

Martinez-Marcos, Alino; Ubeda-Baon, Isabel; Lanuza, Enrique; Halpern, Mimi

2005-05-01

304

Distinct Neurogenomic States in Basal Ganglia Subregions Relate Differently to Singing Behavior in Songbirds  

PubMed Central

Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X) to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP), our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain regions during distinct behavioral states. PMID:23144607

Hilliard, Austin T.; Miller, Julie E.; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

305

Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function. PMID:22982590

Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

2012-10-30

306

[A case of large basal ganglia AVM totally removed by staged operation].  

PubMed

Large basal ganglia AVMs have been deemed inoperable because of their location in critical structures. Nonetheless, the unfavorable natural history of an untreated ruptured AVM in a young patient induced us to approach these lesions. We presented a case of a large basal ganglia AVM totally removed by a three-staged operation. A 26-year-old man who had twice experienced intracranial hemorrhage was admitted for examination. On admission, mild left hemiparesis, hypesthesia and left hemianopsia were disclosed. CT scan showed the AVM was located in the posterior thalamus with the hematoma cavity laterally. Right carotid and vertebral angiograms demonstrated a large AVM, 5cm in diameter, supplied by the anterior choroidal artery (AchoA), the lateral lenticulostriate arteries (I-LSAs), the lateral posterior choroidal artery (LPchoA) and the thalamo-perforating artery. Drainage was via the internal cerebral vein and the basal vein of Rosenthal. MRI demonstrated more clearly the anatomical relationship of the nidus and surrounding structures. The patient underwent a three staged operation. At the first operation AchoA was interrupted in the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle (IHL) via the hematoma cavity using the trans-sylvian approach. The anterior part of the nidus was dissected with all except one of the I-LSAs being disconnected. At the next operation by occipital interhemispheric approach, some feeders from the posterior cerebral artery were coagulated and disconnected. The medial and posterior part of the nidus was dissected from the thalamus along with the choroid plexus of the trigone of the lateral ventricle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2234310

Tsutsumi, K; Shiokawa, Y; Kubota, M; Aoki, N; Mizutani, H

1990-09-01

307

Deep Arteriovenous Malformations in the Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, and Insula: Microsurgical Management, Techniques, and Results  

PubMed Central

Background Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and insula are considered inoperable given their depth, eloquence, and limited surgical exposure. While many neurosurgeons opt for radiosurgery or observation, others have challenged the belief that deep AVMs are inoperable. Further discussion of patient selection, technique, and multimodality management is needed. Objective To describe and discuss the technical considerations of microsurgical resection for deep-seated AVMs. Methods Patients with deep AVMs who underwent surgery during a 14-year period were reviewed using a prospective AVM registry. Results Microsurgery was performed in 48 patients with AVMs in the basal ganglia (n=10), thalamus (n=13), or insula (n=25). The most common Spetzler-Martin grade was III- (68%). Surgical approaches included transsylvian (67%), transcallosal (19%), and transcortical (15%). Complete resection was achieved in 34 patients (71%), and patients with incomplete resection were treated with radiosurgery. Forty-five patients (94%) were improved or unchanged (mean follow-up 1.6 years). Conclusion This experience advances the notion that select deep AVMs may be operable lesions. Patients were highly selected for small size, hemorrhagic presentation, young age, and compactness factors embodied in the Spetzler-Martin and Supplementary grading systems. Overall, 10 different approaches were used, exploiting direct, transcortical corridors created by hemorrhage or maximizing anatomical corridors through subarachnoid spaces and ventricles that minimize brain transgression. The same cautious attitude exercised in selecting patients for surgery was also exercised in deciding extent of resection, opting for incomplete resection and radiosurgery more than with other AVMs to prioritize neurological outcomes. PMID:23728451

Potts, Matthew B.; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

2014-01-01

308

Region of Interest Template for the Human Basal Ganglia: Comparing EPI and Standardized Space Approaches  

PubMed Central

Identifying task related activation in the basal ganglia (BG) is an important area of interest in normal motor systems and cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in brain activation in the BG using results obtained from two different masking methods: a mask drawn in standardized space from a T1 weighted anatomical image and individual region of interest (ROI) masks drawn from each subjects echo-planar (EPI) image from different tasks with reference to the high resolution fast spin echo image of each subject. Two standardized masks were used: a mask developed in Talairach space (Basal Ganglia Human Area Template (BGHAT)) and a mask developed in Montreal Neurological Institute space (MNI mask). Ten subjects produced fingertip force pulses in five separate contraction tasks during fMRI scanning. ROIs were the left caudate, putamen, external and internal portions of the globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus. ANOVA revealed a similar average number of voxels in the EPI mask across tasks in each BG region. The percent signal change (PSC) was consistent within each region regardless of which mask was used. Linear regression analyses between PSC in BGHAT and EPI masks and MNI and EPI masks yielded r values between 0.740.99 and 0.700.99 across regions, respectively. In conclusion, PSC in different BG ROIs can be compared across studies using these different masking methods. The masking method used does not affect the overall interpretation of results with respect to the effect of task. Use of a mask drawn in standardized space is a valid and time saving method of identifying PSC in the small nuclei of the BG. PMID:17988895

Janey Prodoehl, PT; Yu, Hong; Little, Deborah M.; Abraham, Ivy; Vaillancourt, David E.

2008-01-01

309

Basal Ganglia Volume Is Associated with Aerobic Fitness in Preadolescent Children  

PubMed Central

The present investigation is the first to explore the association between childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia structure and function. Rodent research has revealed that exercise influences the striatum by increasing dopamine signaling and angiogenesis. In children, higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volumes, superior performance on tasks of attentional and interference control, and elevated event-related brain potential indices of executive function. The present study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate if higher-fit and lower-fit 9- and 10-year-old children exhibited differential volumes of other subcortical brain regions, specifically the basal ganglia involved in attentional control. The relationship between aerobic fitness, dorsal and ventral striatum volumes and performance on an attention and inhibition Eriksen flanker task was also examined. The results indicated that higher-fit children showed superior flanker task performance compared to lower-fit children. Higher-fit children also showed greater volumes of the dorsal striatum, and dorsal striatum volume was negatively associated with behavioral interference. The results support the claim that the dorsal striatum is involved in cognitive control and response resolution and that these cognitive processes vary as a function of aerobic fitness. No relationship was found between aerobic fitness, the volume of the ventral striatum and flanker performance. The findings suggest that increased childhood aerobic fitness is associated with greater dorsal striatal volumes and that this is related to enhanced cognitive control. Because children are becoming increasingly overweight, unhealthy and unfit, understanding the neurocognitive benefits of an active lifestyle during childhood has important public health and educational implications. PMID:20693803

Chaddock, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; VanPatter, Matt; Voss, Michelle W.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2010-01-01

310

Beta Frequency Synchronization in Basal Ganglia Output during Rest and Walk in a Hemiparkinsonian Rat  

PubMed Central

Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinsons disease patients and hypothesized to be antikinetic. The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinsons disease allows examination of this hypothesis by direct comparison of beta activity in basal ganglia output in non-lesioned and dopamine cell lesioned hemispheres during motor activity. Bilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) recordings of units and local field potentials (LFP) were obtained with EMG activity from the scapularis muscle in control and unilaterally nigrostriatal lesioned rats trained to walk on a rotary treadmill. After left hemispheric lesion, rats had difficulty walking contraversive on the treadmill but could walk in the ipsiversive direction. During inattentive rest, SNpr LFP power in the 1225 Hz range (low beta) was significantly greater in the dopamine-depleted hemisphere than in non-lesioned and control hemispheres. During walking, low beta power was reduced in all hemispheres, while 2540 Hz (high beta) activity was selectively increased in the lesioned hemisphere. High beta power increases were reduced by L-DOPA administration. SNpr spiking was significantly more synchronized with SNpr low beta LFP oscillations during rest and high beta LFP oscillations during walking in the dopamine-depleted hemispheres compared with non-lesioned hemispheres. Data show that dopamine loss is associated with opposing changes in low and high beta range SNpr activity during rest and walk and suggest that increased synchronization of high beta activity in SNpr output from the lesioned hemisphere during walking may contribute to gait impairment in the hemiparkinsonian rat. PMID:19948166

Avila, Irene; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Brazhnik, Elena; Castaneda, Edward; Bergstrom, Debra A.; Walters, J. R.

2012-01-01

311

Cerebellar abnormalities in Huntington's disease: A role in motor and psychiatric impairment?  

PubMed

The cerebellum has received limited attention in Huntington's disease (HD), despite signs of possible cerebellar dysfunction, including motor incoordination and impaired gait, which are currently attributed to basal ganglia atrophy and disrupted fronto-striatal circuits. This study is the first to investigate a potential contribution of macro- and microstructural cerebellar damage to clinical manifestations of HD. T1- and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 12 controls and 22 early-stage HD participants. Manual delineation and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess between-group differences in cerebellar volume, and diffusion metrics were compared between groups within the cerebellar gray and white matter. Associations between these imaging measures and clinical scores were examined within the HD group. Reduced paravermal volume was detected in HD compared with controls using voxel-based morphometry (P?abnormalities were detected in both cerebellar gray matter and white matter. Smaller cerebellar volumes, although not significantly reduced, were significantly associated with impaired gait and psychiatric morbidity and of borderline significance with pronate/supinate-hand task performance. Abnormal cerebellar diffusion was associated with increased total motor score, impaired saccade initiation, tandem walking, and timed finger tapping. In conclusion, atrophy of the paravermis, possibly encompassing the cerebellar nuclei, and microstructural abnormalities within the cerebellum may contribute to HD neuropathology. Aberrant cerebellar diffusion and reduced cerebellar volume together associate with impaired motor function and increased psychiatric symptoms in stage I HD, potentially implicating the cerebellum more centrally in HD presentation than previously recognized. 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25123926

Rees, Elin M; Farmer, Ruth; Cole, James H; Haider, Salman; Durr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Hobbs, Nicola Z

2014-11-01

312

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

313

Hereditary abnormalities in pigs L. OLLIVIER  

E-print Network

to a single autosomal recessive gene,5to one autosomal dominant gene and I to a sexlinked recessive gene in production traits compensating for the disadvantages due to the abnormality itself; this is for instance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears  

MedlinePLUS

... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

315

Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences  

SciTech Connect

Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

316

Abnormal Glucose Levels Found in Transportation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal glucose levels, ...

D. V. Canfield, A. K. Chaturvedi, H. K. Boren, S. J. H. Veronneau, V. L. White

2000-01-01

317

Structural abnormality of the carburized layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The tendency toward abnormality is characterized by the rate of decomposition of austentite into ferrite at definite temperatures.2.The horophilic elements (AI, V, W, Mn) increase the tendency toward abnormality; the horophobic substances (Mn, Cr, Ni) are conducive to the formation of a normal structure.3.By selecting the chemical composition it is possible in the process of melting to control the degree

B. S. Natapov

1962-01-01

318

3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

2011-03-01

319

Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods  

PubMed Central

Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken together, these data reveal three major correspondences between the segmental ganglia of tardigrades and arthropods, including (i) contralateral projections and commissures in each ganglion, (ii) segmentally repeated sets of immunoreactive neurons, and (iii) an anteriorly shifted (parasegmental) position of ganglia. These correspondences support the homology of segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods, suggesting that these structures were either lost in Onychophora or, alternatively, evolved in the tardigrade/arthropod lineage. PMID:24152256

2013-01-01

320

Inhibition of neurally-evoked transmitter release by calcium channel antagonists in rat parasympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed Central

1. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.ps) were recorded from the submandibular parasympathetic ganglia of newborn rats (10-20 days old), by intracellular microelectrode recording and a suction electrode to deliver stimulus trains to the lingual nerve (15 stimuli at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 Hz, 22 degrees C). Only evoked responses without voltage-dependent action potentials were analyzed (observed at membrane potentials negative to -70 mV), and e.p.s.p. amplitudes were determined for the plateau responses during each train (5-15th response). 2. Cadmium, an inorganic calcium channel antagonist, reduced e.p.s.p. amplitudes in a dose-dependent manner (Kd 74 microM, P less than 0.01). Nickel (1-300 microM) did not attenuate the amplitude of evoked responses. 3. Verapamil (0.1-30 microM), a phenylamine, had no significant effects upon e.p.s.p. amplitudes at any frequency examined. Higher concentrations of verapamil (100 microM) blocked neurally evoked responses in a manner consistent with the antagonism of voltage-sensitive sodium currents. 4. Diltiazem, a benzothiazepine, reduced e.p.s.p. amplitudes in a dose-dependent manner, the depression being accentuated at high stimulation frequencies (80% block at 30 microM and 10 Hz). The pure (-)-cis enantiomer of diltiazem (10-30 microM) was without effect. 5. Amlodipine, a 1,4-dihydropyridine, did not antagonize synaptic transmission at any stimulus frequency examined (10-30 microM, 0.1-10 Hz, n = 3). 6. Amiloride, a potassium-sparing diuretic, depressed the amplitudes of evoked responses in a dose-dependent manner (one-site Kd 31 microM, P less than 0.005), although the extent of the block was alleviated with high stimulus frequencies. The effects of 30 microM amiloride were unlikely to be of post-synaptic origin as both the amplitudes of miniature e.p.s.ps, and the iontophoretic potentials induced by exogenous acetylcholine, were not attenuated by treatment with this compound. The amiloride derivative, 3',4'-dichlorobenzamil was ineffective in reducing the amplitude of e.p.s.ps (30-100 microM). 7. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a marine neurotoxin, which depressed whole cell calcium currents recorded from cultured rat parasympathetic cardiac neurones (up to 90% block at 10 nM), was ineffective at blocking synaptic transmission in submandibular ganglia (0.1-1 microM). 8. The differential effects of these calcium channel antagonists upon synaptic transmission in rat parasympathetic ganglia, suggest that either more than one type of calcium channel may be involved in transmitter release, or that the presynaptic calcium channels possess pharmacological sensitivities different from those of channel types described in ne PMID:2571381

Seabrook, G. R.; Adams, D. J.

1989-01-01

321

Resting state EEG abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex and heterogeneous developmental disorders involving multiple neural system dysfunctions. In an effort to understand neurophysiological substrates, identify etiopathophysiologically distinct subgroups of patients, and track outcomes of novel treatments with translational biomarkers, EEG (electroencephalography) studies offer a promising research strategy in ASD. Resting-state EEG studies of ASD suggest a U-shaped profile of electrophysiological power alterations, with excessive power in low-frequency and high-frequency bands, abnormal functional connectivity, and enhanced power in the left hemisphere of the brain. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings, discuss limitations in available research that may contribute to inconsistencies in the literature, and offer suggestions for future research in this area for advancing the understanding of ASD. PMID:24040879

2013-01-01

322

The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.  

PubMed

The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

2014-06-01

323

Detection by Complementation of Defective or Uninducible (Herpes Simplex Type 1) Virus Genomes Latent in Human Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction experiments have shown that temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (Glasgow strain 17) grow, complement, and recombine with similar efficiency in human nerve ganglion cells, human brain cells, normal human fibroblasts (WI38), and baby hamster kidney (BHK) 21\\/C13 hamster cells. Cultures of human trigeminal, superior cervical, and vagus ganglia that had failed to release herpes

S. Moira Brown; J. H. Subak-Sharpe; K. G. Warren; Z. Wroblewska; H. Koprowski

1979-01-01

324

Receptorreceptor interactions as studied with microdialysis. Focus on NTR\\/D 2 interactions in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.Using mono and dualprobe(s) microdialysis in the basal ganglia of the freely moving rat evidence has been obtained that neurotensin\\u000a (NT) in threshold concentrations can counteract the D2 agonist (intrastriatally perfused) induced inhibition of striatal dopamine (DA) release and of pallidal GABA release from\\u000a the striato-pallidal GABA pathway, effects that are blocked by a NTR1 antagonist SR48692. These results indicate

T. Antonelli; M. C. Tomasini; K. Fuxe; L. F. Agnati; S. Tanganelli; L. Ferraro

2007-01-01

325

Increased expression of TRPV1 receptor in dorsal root ganglia by acid insult of the rat gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

It is still unknown which receptors of peripheral sensory pathways encode and integrate an acid-induced nociceptive event in the gastric mucosa. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and the acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) are two nociception-related receptors. Here we investigated (i) to what extent these receptors are distributed in stomach-innervating neurons of dorsal root and nodose ganglia, using immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing, and (ii) whether their expression is altered in response to a noxious acid challenge of the stomach. We also explored the presence of TRPV1 in the gastric enteric nervous system because of its possible expression by intrinsic sensory neurons. Most stomach-innervating neurons in nodose ganglia were immunoreactive for TRPV1 (80%) and ASIC3 (75%), these results being similar in the dorsal root ganglia (71 and 82%). RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed up to 6 h after oral application of 0.5 m HCl to conscious rats. TRPV1 protein was increased in dorsal root but not in nodose ganglia whereas TRPV1 and ASIC3 mRNAs remained unchanged. TRPV1 mRNA was detected in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations of control stomachs and was not altered by the acid challenge. Combined vagotomy and ganglionectomy abolished expression of TRPV1, indicating that it may derive from an extrinsic source. In summary, noxious acid challenge of the stomach increased TRPV1 protein in spinal but not vagal or intrinsic sensory afferents. The TRPV1 receptor may be a key molecule in the transduction of acid-induced nociception of the gastric mucosa and a mediator of visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:15078554

Schicho, Rudolf; Florian, Waltraud; Liebmann, Ingrid; Holzer, Peter; Lippe, Irmgard Th

2004-04-01

326

Age-related changes of the functional architecture of the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry during motor task execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal human aging is associated with declining motor control and function. It is thought that dysfunction of the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry may contribute to age-related sensorimotor impairment, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of age-related changes in the functional architecture of these circuits. Fifty-nine subjects, consisting of a young,

William R. Marchand; James N. Lee; Yana Suchy; Cheryl Garn; Susanna Johnson; Nicole Wood; Gordon Chelune

2011-01-01

327

Ganglionectomy without Repairing the Bursal Defect: Long-term Results in a Series of 124 Wrist Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Background Some surgeons consider the abscission of a part of the articular bursa around the point of the input of ganglion's nape (average 1-2 cm diameter) to be very important with excellent results. However, a literature search revealed disagreement as to whether it is essential to repair a bursa defect. This study examined the effectiveness of this method without repairing the articular defect. An attempt was made to identify the anatomical origin of wrist ganglia during the surgical procedure. Methods This study evaluated 124 wrist ganglia that had been treated surgically during 2004-2009 using this technique and without repairing the bursa defect (1-2 cm in diameter). The variables studied were age, gender, time from the occurrence till abscission of the ganglia, former surgical interventions, preoperative and postoperative pain, insertion of the ganglion's nape and complications. Sixty-six patients with a mean follow-up of 42 months and minimum 12 months were examined. Results At the time of the follow-up, 80.3% had no pain whereas 92.2% showed a remarkable improvement. Seven cases of recurrence (10.6%) were found 2 to 85 months after surgery, of which most appeared during the first year (71.4%). It is important to mention that the majority of the dorsal ganglia (42.8%) originated from the capitate-lunate joint. None of the patients presented with scapholunate or other instability. Conclusions This surgical method is a simple and safe with excellent long-term results and a lower recurrence rate compared to other surgical approaches. Overall, repair of the articular bursa is unnecessary. PMID:21629477

Dermon, Antonios; Fiska, Aliki; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Kazakos, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

328

Microsurgical treatment assisted by intraoperative ultrasound localization: a controlled trial in patients with hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage.  

PubMed

This study investigated the clinical value of performing microsurgical treatment on hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage assisted by intraoperative ultrasound localization (IUL). A total of 107 patients with hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage were randomly separated into two groups for this controlled clinical trial. In the IUL group, 51 patients with hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage were operated on with the support of ultrasonic imaging; 56 patients underwent conventional microsurgery to evacuate the hemorrhage. The results of the two methods were evaluated according to the rate of hematoma evacuation, re-hemorrhage, mortality, complications, and activities of daily living (ADL). A greater quantity of the hemorrhage was removed from patients in the IUL group, with over 90% of masses being eliminated from the brain in 78.43% of these patients (40 out of 51 patients) compared with 60.71% of patients in the control group (34 out of 56 patients). The IUL group experienced a lower rate of re-hemorrhage after the operation (7.84%, 4 out of 51 patients) compared with the control group (17.86%, 10 out of 56 patients). A significant difference in the ADL score was recorded between the two groups, with ADL scores of the IUL group exceeding 60 (indicating good recovery) at 6 months after the operative procedure (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the microsurgical treatment of hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage assisted by IUL improved the precision of the operation. This procedure removed the hemorrhage and reduced the changes of re-occurrence, as well as elevated the quality of life of patients after the operation. PMID:24350736

Miao, Zeng Li; Jiang, Li; Xu, Xing; Chen, Kai Lai; Lu, Xiao Jie

2014-08-01

329

High Uptake on 11C-methionine Positron Emission Tomographic Scan of Basal Ganglia Germinoma with Cerebral Hemiatrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We herein describe a 12-year-old male patient with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis. MR imaging showed ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy predominantly in the left basal gan- glia, whereas no mass or enhancement was depicted. Single photon emission CT revealed no significant uptake of thal- lium, whereas 11C-methionine positron emission tomogra- phy showed clearly discernible

Akira Sudo; Tohru Shiga; Maki Okajima; Kyoko Takano; Satoshi Terae; Yutaka Sawamura; Akiko Ohnishi; Kazuo Nagashima; Shinji Saitoh

330

Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction  

PubMed Central

Understanding the neural basis of poor impulse control in Internet addiction (IA) is important for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of this syndrome. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways implicated in response inhibition were affected in IA using a Go-Stop paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three control subjects aged 15.2 0.5 years (mean S.D.) and eighteen IA subjects aged 15.1 1.4 years were studied. Effective connectivity within the response inhibition network was quantified using (stochastic) dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed that the indirect frontal-basal ganglia pathway was engaged by response inhibition in healthy subjects. However, we did not detect any equivalent effective connectivity in the IA group. This suggests the IA subjects fail to recruit this pathway and inhibit unwanted actions. This study provides a clear link between Internet addiction as a behavioral disorder and aberrant connectivity in the response inhibition network. PMID:24848380

Li, Baojuan; Friston, Karl J.; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guopeng; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yao, Shuqiao; Lu, Hongbing; Hu, Dewen

2014-01-01

331

Radiation absorbed dose to the basal ganglia from dopamine transporter radioligand 18F-FPCIT.  

PubMed

Our previous dosimetry studies have demonstrated that for dopaminergic radiotracers, (18)F-FDOPA and (18)F-FPCIT, the urinary bladder is the critical organ. As these tracers accumulate in the basal ganglia (BG) with high affinity and long residence times, radiation dose to the BG may become significant, especially in normal control subjects. We have performed dynamic PET measurements using (18)F-FPCIT in 16 normal adult subjects to determine if in fact the BG, although not a whole organ, but a well-defined substructure, receives the highest dose. Regions of interest were drawn over left and right BG structures. Resultant time-activity curves were generated and used to determine residence times for dosimetry calculations. S-factors were computed using the MIRDOSE3 nodule model for each caudate and putamen. For (18)F-FPCIT, BG dose ranged from 0.029 to 0.069 mGy/MBq. In half of all subjects, BG dose exceeded 85% of the published critical organ (bladder) dose, and in three of those, the BG dose exceeded that for the bladder. The BG can become the dose-limiting organ in studies using dopamine transporter ligands. For some normal subjects studied with F-18 or long half-life radionuclide, the BG may exceed bladder dose and become the critical structure. PMID:25093172

Robeson, William; Dhawan, Vijay; Ma, Yilong; Bjelke, David; Margouleff, Claude; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David

2014-01-01

332

[Gamma knife treatment of AVM of the basal ganglia and thalamus].  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformatios (AVMs) in the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus (Thal) are difficult to treat by microsurgery or intravascular embolization alone, and the role of stereotactic gamma radiosurgery (gamma knife) of these AVMs is discussed. We have treated 324 cases of AVM with gamma knife since May 1991, and in 71 of these cases (19%) the AVM was in the BG or Thal. The results of gamma radiosurgery on AVMs of the BG and Thal were compared with the results of treating AVMs at other intracranial locations by gamma radiosurgery. The nidi were small (mean diameter: 16.4 mm), and they were treated with a mean maximum dose of 36.4 Gy and marginal dose of 19.9 Gy. The results were evaluated angiographically in 39 (55%) of the 71 cases, with a mean follow-up period of 23 months. The complete obliteration rate of AVMs in the BG and Thal 1 and 2 years after treatment was 54.3% and 92.0%, respectively, and the rate at the other locations was 42.9% and 76.0%, respectively. Adverse effects of this treatment in the AVM cases overall were rebleeding from the nidus in 5 cases (1.5%) and radiation necrosis in 4 cases (1.2%). In conclusion, AVMs of the BG and Thal were effectively and safely treated with the gamma knife, and stereotactic radiosurgery is a definitive alternative treatment for deep seated AVMs. PMID:8679332

Kobayashi, T; Tanaka, T; Kida, Y; Oyama, H; Niwa, M; Maesawa, S

1996-04-01

333

Multiplicity of control in the basal ganglia: computational roles of striatal subregions.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia, in particular the striatum, are central to theories of behavioral control, and often identified as a seat of action selection. Reinforcement learning (RL) models--which have driven much recent experimental work on this region--cast striatum as a dynamic controller, integrating sensory and motivational information to construct efficient and enriching behavioral policies. Befitting this informationally central role, the BG sit at the nexus of multiple anatomical 'loops' of synaptic projections, connecting a wide range of cortical and subcortical structures. Numerous pioneering anatomical studies conducted over the past several decades have meticulously catalogued these loops, and labeled them according to the inferred functions of the connected regions. The specific cotermina of the projections are highly localized to several different subregions of the striatum, leading to the suggestion that these subregions perform complementary but distinct functions. However, until recently, the dominant computational framework outlined only a bipartite, dorsal/ventral, division of striatum. We review recent computational and experimental advances that argue for a more finely fractionated delineation. In particular, experimental data provide extensive insight into unique functions subserved by the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). These functions appear to correspond well with theories of a 'model-based' RL subunit, and may also shed light on the suborganization of ventral striatum. Finally, we discuss the limitations of these ideas and how they point the way toward future refinements of neurocomputational theories of striatal function, bringing them into contact with other areas of computational theory and other regions of the brain. PMID:21429734

Bornstein, Aaron M; Daw, Nathaniel D

2011-06-01

334

Sildenafil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in pelvic Ganglia neurons after bilateral cavernosal nerve damage.  

PubMed

Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) ?, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF?1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

Garcia, Leah A; Hlaing, Su M; Gutierrez, Richard A; Sanchez, Maria D; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N; Ferrini, Monica G

2014-01-01

335

Morphological and morphometric study of the opossum's dorsal root ganglia neurons.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural characteristics and the morphometric evaluation of the different types of neurons present in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) were studied. Four adult male animals were used and the neurons from cervical and lumbar DRG were removed and processed for histological and transmission electron microscopy observations. The morphometric data were obtained from serial sections stained by H/E and Masson's trichrome. The number of neurons in cervical and lumbar DRG was 22?300 and 31?000, respectively. About 68% of the cervical neurons and 62.5% of the lumbar neurons presented areas up to 1300?m(2) and were considered as the small neurons of the DRG. The ultrastructural observations revealed two morphological types of neurons: clear large neurons and dark small neurons. The nuclei of both cell types are spherical and the chromatin is disperse and rarefected. The cytoplasm of the dark small neuron is more electron dense and shows a regular distribution of small mitochondria and many rough reticulum cisterns in the periphery. A small Golgi apparatus was close to the nucleus and many disperse neurofilaments occupy most parts of the cytoplasm. Smooth reticulum cisterns are rare and lipofucsin-like inclusions are present at some points. In the clear large neurons, the organelles are homogenously scattered through the cytoplasm. The neurofilaments are close packed forming bundles and small mitochondria and rough reticulum cisterns are disperse. Lipofucsin-like inclusions are more frequent in these cells. PMID:22500566

Soares, J C; Francia-Farje, L A D; Horta-Junior, J A C; Matheus, S M M

2012-01-01

336

Neurocomputational models of basal ganglia function in learning, memory and choice  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) are critical for the coordination of several motor, cognitive, and emotional functions and become dysfunctional in several pathological states ranging from Parkinson's disease to Schizophrenia. Here we review principles developed within a neurocomputational framework of BG and related circuitry which provide insights into their functional roles in behavior. We focus on two classes of models: those that incorporate aspects of biological realism and constrained by functional principles, and more abstract mathematical models focusing on the higher level computational goals of the BG. While the former are arguably more realistic, the latter have a complementary advantage in being able to describe functional principles of how the system works in a relatively simple set of equations, but are less suited to making specific hypotheses about the roles of specific nuclei and neurophysiological processes. We review the basic architecture and assumptions of these models, their relevance to our understanding of the neurobiological and cognitive functions of the BG, and provide an update on the potential roles of biological details not explicitly incorporated in existing models. Empirical studies ranging from those in transgenic mice to dopaminergic manipulation, deep brain stimulation, and genetics in humans largely support model predictions and provide the basis for further refinement. Finally, we discuss possible future directions and possible ways to integrate different types of models. PMID:18950662

Cohen, Michael X; Frank, Michael J.

2009-01-01

337

Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) ?, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF?1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

Garcia, Leah A.; Hlaing, Su M.; Gutierrez, Richard A.; Sanchez, Maria D.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N.; Ferrini, Monica G.

2014-01-01

338

Manganese Exposure is Cytotoxic and Alters Dopaminergic and GABAergic Neurons within the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Manganese is an essential nutrient, integral to proper metabolism of amino acids, proteins and lipids. Excessive environmental exposure to manganese can produce extrapyramidal symptoms similar to those observed in Parkinsons disease (PD). We used in vivo and in vitro models to examine cellular and circuitry alterations induced by manganese exposure. Primary mesencephalic cultures were treated with 1000M manganese chloride (MnCl2) which resulted in dramatic changes in the neuronal cytoskeleton even at subtoxic concentrations. Using cultures from mice with red fluorescent protein (RFP) driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we found that dopaminergic neurons were more susceptible to manganese toxicity. To understand the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to chronic manganese exposure, mice were given IP injections of MnCl2 for 30 days. We observed a 20% reduction in TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) following manganese treatment. Quantification of Nissl bodies revealed a widespread reduction in SNpc cell numbers. Other areas of the basal ganglia were also altered by manganese as evidenced by the loss of GAD67 in the striatum. These studies suggest that acute manganese exposure induces cytoskeletal dysfunction prior to degeneration and that chronic manganese exposure results in neurochemical dysfunction with overlapping features to PD. PMID:19457100

Stanwood, Gregg D.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Savchenko, Valentina; Wu, Jane; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Anderson, Douglas J.; Stankowski, Jeannette N.; Aschner, Michael; McLaughlin, BethAnn

2009-01-01

339

A hypothesis for basal ganglia-dependent reinforcement learning in the songbird  

PubMed Central

Most of our motor skills are not innately programmed, but are learned by a combination of motor exploration and performance evaluation, suggesting that they proceed through a reinforcement learning (RL) mechanism. Songbirds have emerged as a model system to study how a complex behavioral sequence can be learned through an RL-like strategy. Interestingly, like motor sequence learning in mammals, song learning in birds requires a basal ganglia (BG)-thalamocortical loop, suggesting common neural mechanisms. Here we outline a specific working hypothesis for how BG-forebrain circuits could utilize an internally computed reinforcement signal to direct song learning. Our model includes a number of general concepts borrowed from the mammalian BG literature, including a dopaminergic reward prediction error and dopamine mediated plasticity at corticostriatal synapses. We also invoke a number of conceptual advances arising from recent observations in the songbird. Specifically, there is evidence for a specialized cortical circuit that adds trial-to-trial variability to stereotyped cortical motor programs, and a role for the BG in biasing this variability to improve behavioral performance. This BG-dependent premotor bias may in turn guide plasticity in downstream cortical synapses to consolidate recently-learned song changes. Given the similarity between mammalian and songbird BG-thalamocortical circuits, our model for the role of the BG in this process may have broader relevance to mammalian BG function. PMID:22015923

Fee, Michale S.; Goldberg, Jesse H.

2011-01-01

340

Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate further the role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway, we examined neuronal activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in high- and low-stereotypy mice. CO activity in STN was significantly lower in high-stereotypy mice and negatively correlated with the frequency of stereotypy. In addition, exposure to environmental enrichment, which attenuated stereotypy, normalized the activity of STN. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 and the A(1) receptor agonist CPA attenuated stereotypy dose-dependently. The significant reduction associated with the lowest dose of the drug combination tested was due to its effects on mice with lower baseline levels of stereotypy. Higher doses of the drug combination were required to show robust behavioral effects, and presumably requisite activation of the indirect pathway, in high-stereotypy mice. These findings support that decreased indirect pathway activity is linked to the expression of high levels of stereotypy in deer mice and that striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20178817

Tanimura, Yoko; Vaziri, Sasha; Lewis, Mark H

2010-06-26

341

A de novo nonsense PDGFB mutation causing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with laryngeal dystonia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by brain calcification and a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In families with autosomal dominant inheritance, three causative genes have been identified: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, and, very recently, PDGFB. Whereas in clinical practice sporadic presentation of IBGC is frequent, well-documented reports of true sporadic occurrence are rare. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented laryngeal dystonia revealing IBGC. Her healthy parents' CT scans were both normal. We identified in the proband a new nonsense mutation in exon 4 of PDGFB, c.439C>T (p.Gln147*), which was absent from the parents' DNA. This mutation may result in a loss-of-function of PDGF-B, which has been shown to cause IBGC in humans and to disrupt the blood-brain barrier in mice, resulting in brain calcification. The c.439C>T mutation is located between two previously reported nonsense mutations, c.433C>T (p.Gln145*) and c.445C>T (p.Arg149*), on a region that could be a hot spot for de novo mutations. We present the first full demonstration of the de novo occurrence of an IBGC-causative mutation in a sporadic case. PMID:24518837

Nicolas, Gal; Jacquin, Agns; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Rouaud, Olivier; Pottier, Cyril; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hlne; Rousseau, Stphane; Wallon, David; Duvillard, Christian; Bjot, Yannick; Frbourg, Thierry; Giroud, Maurice; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier

2014-10-01

342

Evaluation of basal ganglia, brainstem raphe and ventricles in bipolar disorder by transcranial sonography.  

PubMed

Transcranial brain sonography (TCS) has become a reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrapyramidal movement disorders. Alterations of brainstem raphe (BR) have been depicted by TCS in major depression but not in bipolar disorder. The aim of our study was to evaluate BR echogenicity depending on the different conditions of bipolar patients. Echogenicities of dopaminergic basal ganglia structures were assessed for the first time in bipolar disorder. Thirty-six patients with bipolar I disorder (14 depressed, 8 manic, 14 euthymic) were compared to 35 healthy controls. Echogenicities were investigated according to the examination protocol for extrapyramidal disorders using a Siemens Sonoline Elegra system. The sonography examiner was blinded for clinical rating scores. Six patients (16.7%) showed hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra. The raphe was hypoechogenic in 13 (36.1%) of the patients. No significant differences were seen between the subgroups. Compared to the control group, frequency of altered echogenicities did not reach statistical significance. The width of third ventricle was significantly larger in the patient group (3.8-2.1 mm vs. 2.71.2 mm). Depressed bipolar patients with reduced BR echogenicity showed significantly higher scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as well as the Montgomery-sberg Depression Rating Scale. In contrast to unipolar depression, sonographic findings of bipolar patients may generally indicate structural integrity of mesencephalic raphe structures. If bipolar disorder coexists with hypoechogenic raphe structure, depressive symptoms are more severe. PMID:21958513

Krogias, Christos; Hoffmann, Kija; Eyding, Jens; Scheele, Dirk; Norra, Christine; Gold, Ralf; Juckel, Georg; Assion, Hans-Jrg

2011-11-30

343

Synchronization of Pancreatic Islet Oscillations by Intrapancreatic Ganglia: A Modeling Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Plasma insulin measurements from mice, rats, dogs, and humans indicate that insulin levels are oscillatory, reflecting pulsatile insulin secretion from individual islets. An unanswered question, however, is how the activity of a population of islets is coordinated to yield coherent oscillations in plasma insulin. Here, using mathematical modeling, we investigate the feasibility of a potential islet synchronization mechanism, cholinergic signaling. This hypothesis is based on well-established experimental evidence demonstrating intrapancreatic parasympathetic (cholinergic) ganglia and recent invitro evidence that a brief application of a muscarinic agonist can transiently synchronize islets. We demonstrate using mathematical modeling that periodic pulses of acetylcholine released from cholinergic neurons is indeed able to coordinate the activity of a population of simulated islets, even if only a fraction of these are innervated. The role of islet-to-islet heterogeneity is also considered. The results suggest that the existence of cholinergic input to the pancreas may serve as a regulator of endogenous insulin pulsatility invivo. PMID:19651030

Fendler, B.; Zhang, M.; Satin, L.; Bertram, R.

2009-01-01

344

Effects of bilateral vagotomy on the ultrastructure of the cardiac ganglia in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).  

PubMed Central

This study describes the effects of bilateral vagotomy on the ultrastructure of the cardiac ganglia of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). One to three days after bilateral vagotomy there is widespread glycogen accumulation in the cytoplasm of the principal cardiac neurons. This is associated with distension of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the loss of ribosomes from the cisternae. Between five and ten days after operation, about 10% of the neuronal profiles show an overall increase in electron density and intense darkening of the dendrites. From twenty one to twenty eight days postoperatively, the majority of the neuronal profiles have pale cytoplasm with reduction in granular endoplasmic reticulum and polyribosomes. The plasma membrane of the neuron is ruffled over the major portion of its surface. The satellite cells, which are reactive throughout the course of the experiments, exhibit a phagocytic capacity at this stage by removing portions of the neuronal cytoplasm. Vacuolation of the neuronal cytoplasm to a variable degree occurs in a small number of profiles between five to twenty eight days. The results suggest that bilateral vagotomy causes a widespread disturbance in the metabolic activity of the cardiac neurons. This is followed by transneuronal degenerative changes that are of a prolonged nature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:3654342

Wong, W C; Ling, E A; Yick, T Y; Tay, S S

1987-01-01

345

Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach. In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the DRG. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modelled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main results. Overall, firing-rate-based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48 13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance. Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development.

Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Mushahwar, V. K.; Stein, R. B.

2013-10-01

346

A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged. PMID:7935262

Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

1994-01-01

347

Technical Integration of Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia and Physical Models for Spatial Navigation  

PubMed Central

Computational neuroscience is increasingly moving beyond modeling individual neurons or neural systems to consider the integration of multiple models, often constructed by different research groups. We report on our preliminary technical integration of recent hippocampal formation, basal ganglia and physical environment models, together with visualisation tools, as a case study in the use of Python across the modelling tool-chain. We do not present new modeling results here. The architecture incorporates leaky-integrator and rate-coded neurons, a 3D environment with collision detection and tactile sensors, 3D graphics and 2D plots. We found Python to be a flexible platform, offering a significant reduction in development time, without a corresponding significant increase in execution time. We illustrate this by implementing a part of the model in various alternative languages and coding styles, and comparing their execution times. For very large-scale system integration, communication with other languages and parallel execution may be required, which we demonstrate using the BRAHMS framework's Python bindings. PMID:19333376

Fox, Charles; Humphries, Mark; Mitchinson, Ben; Kiss, Tamas; Somogyvari, Zoltan; Prescott, Tony

2008-01-01

348

Differential effects of HIV infected macrophages on dorsal root ganglia neurons and axons  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated distal-symmetric neuropathy (HIV-DSP) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection. The pathophysiology of HIV-DSP is poorly understood and no treatment is available for this entity. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the principal sites of neuronal damage and are associated with reactive mononuclear phagocytes as well as HIV-infected macrophages. To determine the role of HIV-infected macrophages in the pathogenesis of HIV-DSP, we developed a technique for culturing human DRGs. When the dissociated DRG neurons were exposed to supernatants from macrophages infected with CXCR4 or CCR5 tropic HIV-1 strains axonal retraction was observed without neuronal cell death but there was mitochondrial dysfunction in the neuronal cell body. Even though CXCR4 and CCR5 were expressed on the DRG neurons, the effects were independent of these receptors. Antioxidants rescued the neuronal cell body but not the axon from the toxic effects of the culture supernatants. Further, peripheral nerves of HIV-infected patients obtained at autopsy did not show evidence of increased oxidative stress. These observations suggest a differential effect on the axon and cell body. Different mechanisms of injury may be operative in these two structures. PMID:18177640

Hahn, Katrin; Robinson, Barry; Anderson, Caroline; Li, Wenxue; Pardo, Carlos A.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; Nath, Avindra

2008-01-01

349

Circulating herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1)-specific CD8 + T cells do not access HSV1 latently infected trigeminal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTherapeutic vaccines can be designed to enhance existing T cell memory populations for increased protection against re-infection.\\u000a In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1, recurrent disease results from reactivation of latent virus in sensory ganglia,\\u000a which is controlled in part by a ganglia-resident HSV-specific memory CD8+ T cell population. Thus, an important goal of a therapeutic HSV-1 vaccine

Susanne Himmelein; Anthony J St Leger; Jared E Knickelbein; Alexander Rowe; Michael L Freeman; Robert L Hendricks

2011-01-01

350

[Idiopathic bilateral basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) presenting with psychotic depression and criminal violence: a case report with forensic aspect].  

PubMed

Fahr's disease is a rare neuropsychiatric disease characterized by bilateral intracranial calcification, primarily in the basal ganglia. The more general term, Fahr's syndrome, is used for primary and secondary basal ganglia calcification, regardless of the etiology, but the term Fahr's disease is used to describe primary, idiopathic cases. Fahr's disease may present with neurological symptoms, such as parkinsonism and extrapyramidal symptoms, dysarthria, paresis, convulsion, and syncope. Psychiatric disorders, including behavioral disorders, psychosis, and mood disorders, as well as cognitive disorders can occur. CT is useful for the diagnosis of Fahr's disease. Herein we present a patient diagnosed as Fahr's disease that presented with symptoms of depression, delusions, and auditory hallucinations. The 47-year-old male patient was hospitalized in a forensic psychiatry inpatient clinic due to aggressive behavior and was subsequently diagnosed with major depressive disorder with psychotic features. While hospitalized he was treated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, as well as electroconvulsive therapy, resulting in significant improvement in his symptoms. As bilateral basal ganglia calcification was observed via CT, the patient was diagnosed as Fahr's disease. This case report emphasizes the importance of cranial imaging and detailed laboratory examination when evaluating patients with psychosis and affective symptoms. Pathologies such as Fahr's disease must be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in cases with neurological symptoms and cranial imaging findings. PMID:24936761

zer, rn; Grgl, Yasemin; Can Gngr, Ferda; Gentrk, Mert

2014-01-01

351

Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions by manipulating separately the selection of sources and destinations of information transfers. We suggest that such a mechanism provides an account for several cognitive functions of the basal ganglia. The model also incorporates a possible mechanism by which subsequent transfers of information control the release of dopamine. This signal is used to produce novel stimulusresponse associations by internalizing transferred cortical representations in the striatum. We discuss how the model is related to production systems and cognitive architectures. A series of simulations is presented to illustrate how the model can perform simple stimulusresponse tasks, develop automatic behaviors, and provide an account of impairments in Parkinsons and Huntingtons diseases. PMID:20438237

Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

2010-01-01

352

[Potential mechanisms of effects of endogenous neuromodulators on the interdependent activity of neurons in various nuclei of the basal ganglia].  

PubMed

A possible mechanism of influence of neuromodulators on interdependent activity of neurons in the diverse basal ganglia nuclei is suggested. According to modulation rules, an activation of postsynaptic Gs- or Gq/11-(Gi/0-) protein coupled receptors promotes induction of long-term potentiation (depression) of excitatory inputs to different neurons and augmentation (lowering) of their activity; an activation of presynaptic Gs- or Gq/11-(Gi/0-) protein coupled receptors promotes a rise (decrease) of release of GABA and co-peptides from striatal terminals and glutamate release from subthalamic terminals in the globus pallidus and output nuclei. It follows from the modulation rules that, since identical receptors are present on striatal neuron and their axon terminals, effects of neuromodulator action in diverse basal ganglia nuclei can be summarized. Neuromodulators released from striato-nigral and striato-pallidal fibers could promote interdependent activity of neurons in "direct" and "indirect" pathways through the basal ganglia due to convergence of these fibers on cholinergic interneurons and pallido-striatal cells. PMID:15152564

Sil'kis, I G

2004-03-01

353

Spastic paraplegia associated with brachydactyly and cone shaped epiphyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male uniovular twins presented at the age of 20 years with spastic paraplegia which had been slowly progressing over the years. Both have skeletal anomalies of their hands and feet with brachydactyly, cone shaped epiphyses, and an abnormal metaphyseal phalangeal pattern profile. In addition, they have a non-specific dysarthria and low-normal intellectual ability.

J S Fitzsimmons; P R Guilbert

1987-01-01

354

Basal ganglia oscillations: the role of delays and external excitatory nuclei  

E-print Network

in the beta band (13-30Hz) is known to be linked to Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. In this paper, we in connection with a variety of pathological observations such as Parkinson's disease [23]. Some evidence suggests that the advance of parkinsonism is highly correlated to the presence of abnormal oscillations

Boyer, Edmond

355

Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

2013-01-01

356

The Princeton Shape Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many shape representations and geomet- ric algorithms have been proposed for matching 3D shapes. Usually, each algorithm is tested on a different (small) database of 3D models, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. In this paper, we describe the Princeton Shape Bench- mark (PSB), a publicly available database of polygonal models collected from

Philip Shilane; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Thomas A. Funkhouser

2004-01-01

357

The Hue of Shapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not

Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

2013-01-01

358

3D Shapes Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This upbeat music video reviews 3D shapes including the sphere, cylinder, cube, and cone. As each 3D shape is presented, examples of things we see every day that have the same shape are also shown for reinforcement. (Length: 3:18)

Kindergarten, Harry

2011-06-17

359

Bacterial cell shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain largely unresolved. The field has recently taken an important step forward with the discovery that eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologues in bacteria that affect cell shape. Here, we discuss how

Matthew T. Cabeen; Christine Jacobs-Wagner

2005-01-01

360

Querying Shapes of Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a shape definition language, called SDC, for retrieving objects based on shapes contained in the histories associated with these objects. It is a small, yet powerful, language that allows a rich variety of queries about the shapes found in historical time sequences. An interesting feature of SDC is its ability to perform blurry matching. A \\

Rakesh Agrawal; Giuseppe Psaila; Edward L. Wimmers; Mohamed Zat

1995-01-01

361

Familial congenital symmastia: ultrastructurally abnormal breast tissue.  

PubMed

Reports about congenital symmastia and its surgical treatment are few. We report two patients - a mother and daughter - with congenital symmastia in whom breast and fatty tissue was found to be mobile adhering poorly to the chest wall. Although histological examination showed no abnormality of the tissue bridge between the breasts, ultrastructural investigation of breast tissue (including Cooper's ligaments) showed an abnormal arrangement of collagen fibres. Satisfying aesthetic results were achieved by resection of excess soft tissue in the cleavage area through a submammary incision and fixation of the skin with subcutaneous interrupted sutures to the sternal periosteum. PMID:19995254

Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Engelhardt, Timm Oliver; Steiner, Hans-Jrg; Zelger, Bettina

2009-01-01

362

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

363

Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

1986-01-01

364

Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by frataxin deficiency is associated with cellular senescence and abnormal calcium metabolism  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia is considered a neurodegenerative disorder involving both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the major target tissue structures. This neuropathy is caused by mutations in the FXN gene that encodes frataxin. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial and cell consequences of frataxin depletion in a cellular model based on frataxin silencing in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line that has been used widely as in vitro models for studies on neurological diseases. We showed that the reduction of frataxin induced mitochondrial dysfunction due to a bioenergetic deficit and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the mitochondria that were associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. The depletion of frataxin did not cause cell death but increased autophagy, which may have a cytoprotective effect against cellular insults such as oxidative stress. Frataxin silencing provoked slow cell growth associated with cellular senescence, as demonstrated by increased SA-?gal activity and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. We postulate that cellular senescence might be related to a hypoplastic defect in the DRG during neurodevelopment, as suggested by necropsy studies. PMID:24860428

Bolinches-Amoros, Arantxa; Molla, Belen; Pla-Martin, David; Palau, Francesc; Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar

2014-01-01

365

Enteric nervous system abnormalities are present in human necrotizing enterocolitis: potential neurotransplantation therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intestinal dysmotility following human necrotizing enterocolitis suggests that the enteric nervous system is injured during the disease. We examined human intestinal specimens to characterize the enteric nervous system injury that occurs in necrotizing enterocolitis, and then used an animal model of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis to determine whether transplantation of neural stem cells can protect the enteric nervous system from injury. Methods Human intestinal specimens resected from patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (n?=?18), from control patients with bowel atresia (n?=?8), and from necrotizing enterocolitis and control patients undergoing stoma closure several months later (n?=?14 and n?=?6 respectively) were subjected to histologic examination, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to examine the myenteric plexus structure and neurotransmitter expression. In addition, experimental necrotizing enterocolitis was induced in newborn rat pups and neurotransplantation was performed by administration of fluorescently labeled neural stem cells, with subsequent visualization of transplanted cells and determination of intestinal integrity and intestinal motility. Results There was significant enteric nervous system damage with increased enteric nervous system apoptosis, and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in myenteric ganglia from human intestine resected for necrotizing enterocolitis compared with control intestine. Structural and functional abnormalities persisted months later at the time of stoma closure. Similar abnormalities were identified in rat pups exposed to experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Pups receiving neural stem cell transplantation had improved enteric nervous system and intestinal integrity, differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells into functional neurons, significantly improved intestinal transit, and significantly decreased mortality compared with control pups. Conclusions Significant injury to the enteric nervous system occurs in both human and experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Neural stem cell transplantation may represent a novel future therapy for patients with necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:24423414

2013-01-01

366

Common procedural execution failure modes during abnormal situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abnormal Situation Management Consortium11This research study was sponsored by the Abnormal Situation Management (ASM) Consortium. ASM and Abnormal Situation Management are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc. funded a study to investigate procedural execution failures during abnormal situations. The study team analyzed 20 publically available and 12 corporate confidential incident reports using the TapRoot methodology to identify root causes

Peter T. Bullemer; Liana Kiff; Anand Tharanathan

2011-01-01

367

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

368

Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of

Rapport, Zachary

2011-01-01

369

ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late

Alison Leaf; Jon Dorling; Steve Kempley; Kenny McCormick; Paul Mannix; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

370

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

371

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

372

Imaging management of palpable breast abnormalities.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Women commonly present to imaging departments with a palpable breast abnormality. However, widespread confusion remains regarding the most appropriate sequence and extent of imaging required. The purpose of this article is to discuss the evidence informing current management guidelines for the care of patients with palpable breast abnormalities. CONCLUSION. Ultrasound is a highly effective imaging tool for guiding effective evaluation of women with palpable breast abnormalities and should be used for all women with suspicious findings at clinical breast examination. The exception is cases in which mammography shows a clearly benign correlate or a normal, fatty area of breast tissue in the location of the palpable finding. Breast ultrasound should be the primary imaging tool for women with palpable lumps who are pregnant, lactating, or younger than 30 years. For women 40 years old and older, mammography, followed in most cases by ultrasound, is recommended. For women 30-39 years old, ultrasound or mammography may be performed first at the discretion of the radiologist or referring provider. There is little to no role for breast MRI or other advanced imaging technologies in the routine diagnostic evaluation of palpable breast abnormalities. PMID:25341156

Lehman, Constance D; Lee, Amie Y; Lee, Christoph I

2014-11-01

373

Emergency Abnormal Conditions Injury and Illness  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Injury and Illness a. If you become aware of a seriously ill with the person until the police or emergency medical personnel arrive. (5) If the injured person is an employee immediately and contact the HR Office at 393-7226 before seeking medical treatment. c. The `Accident Report

Davis, Lloyd M.

374

NEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and  

E-print Network

of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimedNEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and Connectivity in Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Words: ADHD, amygdala, effective connectivity, fear, stimulant medication A lthough attention-deficit/hyperactivity

375

Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design  

E-print Network

and Abnormal Checklist Design Smoke, Fire, and Fumes Checklists and Procedures #12;Smoke, Fire, and Fumes of fires are ignited, fed, and spread · Regulations, Advisory Circulars, etc. #12;Smoke, Fire, and Fumes Checklists and Procedures Ambiguity of cues / level of certainty about situation Conflicting warnings / cues

376

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Clinical characterization of cardiovascular abnormalities  

E-print Network

: As affected animals increased in age, more cardiac abnormalities were found with increasing severity not recognized. MPS I and MPS VI cats have similar cardiovascular findings to those seen in children and constitute important models for testing new MPS therapies. Abbreviations 2D two-dimensional ECG

Ponder, Katherine P.

377

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Influence of Cerebral Palsy Subtype, Age, and Previous Surgery Tishya A. L. Wren, PhD,* Susan Rethlefsen, PT. These findings provide important information for counsel- ing ambulatory children with cerebral palsy

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

378

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood  

E-print Network

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders: Similarities in schizophrenia. This work has led to an increased emphasis on identifying and evaluating treatments that enhance cognition in schizophrenia, with the hope that this would translate into a better quality of life

379

William McDougall and abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In William McDougall psychology had a staunch systematist able to integrate the abnormal and the normal within a single conceptual whole. He was not greatly interested in the classification of mental diseases, except as he found it necessary to consider \\

J. Q. Holsopple

1939-01-01

380

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-05-01

381

Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

2013-01-01

382

Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for

Wahl, Otto F.

1989-01-01

383

Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

Brewster, JoAnne

1996-01-01

384

Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

2012-03-01

385

Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions  

PubMed Central

Motor thalamus (Mthal) is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG). The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarizes anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily driven by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new super-integrator theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum), which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs in the Mthal. PMID:24273509

Bosch-Bouju, Clementine; Hyland, Brian I.; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.

2013-01-01

386

Integration of cortical and pallidal inputs in the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus of singing birds  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia-recipient thalamus receives inhibitory inputs from the pallidum and excitatory inputs from cortex, but it is unclear how these inputs interact during behavior. We recorded simultaneously from thalamic neurons and their putative synaptically connected pallidal inputs in singing zebra finches. We find, first, that each pallidal spike produces an extremely brief (?5 ms) pulse of inhibition that completely suppresses thalamic spiking. As a result, thalamic spikes are entrained to pallidal spikes with submillisecond precision. Second, we find that the number of thalamic spikes that discharge within a single pallidal interspike interval (ISI) depends linearly on the duration of that interval but does not depend on pallidal activity prior to the interval. In a detailed biophysical model, our results were not easily explained by the postinhibitory rebound mechanism previously observed in anesthetized birds and in brain slices, nor could most of our data be characterized as gating of excitatory transmission by inhibitory pallidal input. Instead, we propose a novel entrainment mechanism of pallidothalamic transmission that highlights the importance of an excitatory conductance that drives spiking, interacting with brief pulses of pallidal inhibition. Building on our recent finding that cortical inputs can drive syllable-locked rate modulations in thalamic neurons during singing, we report here that excitatory inputs affect thalamic spiking in two ways: by shortening the latency of a thalamic spike after a pallidal spike and by increasing thalamic firing rates within individual pallidal ISIs. We present a unifying biophysical model that can reproduce all known modes of pallidothalamic transmissionrebound, gating, and entrainmentdepending on the amount of excitation the thalamic neuron receives. PMID:22673333

Goldberg, Jesse H.; Farries, Michael A.

2012-01-01

387

Age-related gene expression analysis in enteric ganglia of human colon after laser microdissection  

PubMed Central

The enteric nervous system (ENS) poses the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a critical role for all stages of postnatal life. There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in acquired or age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions that can be manifested in diseases such as gut constipation or fecal incontinence. In this study, we sought to analyze age-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of the human ENS, particularly in the myenteric plexus. Therefore, we used the laser microdissection technique which has been proven as a feasible tool to analyze distinct cell populations within heterogeneously composed tissues. Full biopsy gut samples were prepared from children (412 months), middle aged (4858 years) and aged donors (7095 years). Cryosections were histologically stained with H&E, the ganglia of the myenteric plexus identified and RNA isolated using laser microdissection technique. Quantitative PCR was performed for selected neural genes, neurotransmitters and receptors. Data were confirmed on protein level using NADPH-diaphorase staining and immunohistochemistry. As result, we demonstrate age-associated alterations in site-specific gene expression pattern of the ENS. Thus, in the adult and aged distal parts of the colon a marked decrease in relative gene expression of neural key genes like NGFR, RET, NOS1 and a concurrent increase of CHAT were observed. Further, we detected notable regional differences of RET, CHAT, TH, and S100B comparing gene expression in aged proximal and distal colon. Interestingly, markers indicating cellular senescence or oxidative stress (SNCA, CASP3, CAT, SOD2, and TERT) were largely unchanged within the ENS. For the first time, our study also describes the age-dependent expression pattern of all major sodium channels within the ENS. Our results are in line with previous studies showing spatio-temporal differences within the mammalian ENS.

Hetz, Susan; Acikgoez, Ali; Moll, Corinna; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Robitzki, Andrea A.; Metzger, Roman; Metzger, Marco

2014-01-01

388

Developmental Changes in the Organization of Functional Connections between the Basal Ganglia and Cerebral Cortex  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) comprise a set of subcortical nuclei with sensorimotor, cognitive, and limbic subdivisions, indicative of functional organization. BG dysfunction in several developmental disorders suggests the importance of the healthy maturation of these structures. However, few studies have investigated the development of BG functional organization. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), we compared human child and adult functional connectivity of the BG with rs-fcMRI-defined cortical systems. Because children move more than adults, customized preprocessing, including volume censoring, was used to minimize motion-induced rs-fcMRI artifact. Our results demonstrated functional organization in the adult BG consistent with subdivisions previously identified in anatomical tracing studies. Group comparisons revealed a developmental shift in bilateral posterior putamen/pallidum clusters from preferential connectivity with the somatomotor face system in childhood to preferential connectivity with control/attention systems (frontoparietal, ventral attention) in adulthood. This shift was due to a decline in the functional connectivity of these clusters with the somatomotor face system over development, and no change with control/attention systems. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, we were able to reliably classify individuals as children or adults based on BGcortical system functional connectivity. Interrogation of the features driving this classification revealed, in addition to the somatomotor face system, contributions by the orbitofrontal, auditory, and somatomotor hand systems. These results demonstrate that BGcortical functional connectivity evolves over development, and may lend insight into developmental disorders that involve BG dysfunction, particularly those involving motor systems (e.g., Tourette syndrome). PMID:24760844

Laumann, Timothy O.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Ihnen, S. Katie; Neta, Maital; Power, Jonathan D.; Pruett, John R.; Black, Kevin J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2014-01-01

389

Developmental changes in the organization of functional connections between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia (BG) comprise a set of subcortical nuclei with sensorimotor, cognitive, and limbic subdivisions, indicative of functional organization. BG dysfunction in several developmental disorders suggests the importance of the healthy maturation of these structures. However, few studies have investigated the development of BG functional organization. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), we compared human child and adult functional connectivity of the BG with rs-fcMRI-defined cortical systems. Because children move more than adults, customized preprocessing, including volume censoring, was used to minimize motion-induced rs-fcMRI artifact. Our results demonstrated functional organization in the adult BG consistent with subdivisions previously identified in anatomical tracing studies. Group comparisons revealed a developmental shift in bilateral posterior putamen/pallidum clusters from preferential connectivity with the somatomotor "face" system in childhood to preferential connectivity with control/attention systems (frontoparietal, ventral attention) in adulthood. This shift was due to a decline in the functional connectivity of these clusters with the somatomotor face system over development, and no change with control/attention systems. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, we were able to reliably classify individuals as children or adults based on BG-cortical system functional connectivity. Interrogation of the features driving this classification revealed, in addition to the somatomotor face system, contributions by the orbitofrontal, auditory, and somatomotor hand systems. These results demonstrate that BG-cortical functional connectivity evolves over development, and may lend insight into developmental disorders that involve BG dysfunction, particularly those involving motor systems (e.g., Tourette syndrome). PMID:24760844

Greene, Deanna J; Laumann, Timothy O; Dubis, Joseph W; Ihnen, S Katie; Neta, Maital; Power, Jonathan D; Pruett, John R; Black, Kevin J; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2014-04-23

390

Rule-Based Categorization Deficits in Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion and Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with basal ganglia (BG) pathology are consistently found to be impaired on rule-based category learning tasks in which learning is thought to depend upon the use of an explicit, hypothesis-guided strategy. The factors that influence this impairment remain unclear. Moreover, it remains unknown if the impairments observed in patients with degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) are also observed in those with focal BG lesions. In the present study, we tested patients with either focal BG lesions or PD on two categorization tasks that varied in terms of their demands on selective attention and working memory. Individuals with focal BG lesions were impaired on the task in which working-memory demand was high and performed similarly to healthy controls on the task in which selective-attention demand was high. In contrast, individuals with PD were impaired on both tasks, and accuracy rates did not differ between on- and off-medication states for a subset of patients who were also tested after abstaining from dopaminergic medication. Quantitative, model-based analyses attributed the performance deficit for both groups in the task with high working-memory demand to the utilization of suboptimal strategies, whereas the PD-specific impairment on the task with high selective-attention demand was driven by the inconsistent use of an optimal strategy. These data suggest that the demands on selective attention and working memory affect the presence of impairment in patients with focal BG lesions and the nature of the impairment in patients with PD. PMID:20600196

Ell, Shawn W.; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B.

2010-01-01

391

Expression and regulation of cholecystokinin and cholecystokinin receptors in rat nodose and dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important satiety factor, acting via the vagus nerve to influence central feeding centers. CCK binding sites have been demonstrated in the vagal sensory nodose ganglion and within the nerve proper. Using in situ hybridization, expression of the CCK(A) and (B) receptors (Rs), as well as of CCK itself, was studied in the normal nodose ganglion (NG), and after vagotomy, starvation and high-fat diet. CCK(A)-R mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was also explored. In the NG, 33% of the neuron profiles (NPs) contained CCK(A)-R mRNA and in 9% we observed CCK(B)-R mRNA. CCK mRNA was not found in normal NGs. Peripheral vagotomy decreased the number of CCK(A)-R mRNA-expressing NPs, dramatically increased the number of CCK(B)-R mRNA, and induced CCK mRNA and preproCCK-like immunoreactivity in nodose NPs. No significant differences in the number of NPs labelled for either mRNA species were detected following 48 h food deprivation or in rats fed a high-fat content diet. In DRGs, 10% of the NPs expressed CCK(A)-R mRNA, a number that was not affected by either axotomy or inflammation. This cell population was distinct from neurons expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide mRNA. These results demonstrate that the CCK(A)-R is expressed by both viscero- and somatosensory primary sensory neurons, supporting a role for this receptor as a mediator both of CCK-induced satiety and in sensory processing at the spinal level. The stimulation of CCK and CCK(B)-R gene expression following vagotomy suggests a possible involvement in the response to injury for these molecules. PMID:11382396

Broberger, C; Holmberg, K; Shi, T J; Dockray, G; Hkfelt, T

2001-06-01

392

Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia and related structures  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for Parkinson's disease and other related disorders, involving the surgical placement of electrodes in the deeply situated basal ganglia or thalamic structures. Good clinical outcome requires accurate targeting. However, due to limited visibility of the target structures on routine clinical MR images, direct targeting of structures can be challenging. Non-clinical MR scanners with ultra-high magnetic field (7T or higher) have the potential to improve the quality of these images. This technology report provides an overview of the current possibilities of visualizing deep brain stimulation targets and their related structures with the aid of ultra-high field MRI. Reviewed studies showed improved resolution, contrast- and signal-to-noise ratios at ultra-high field. Sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility such as T2* and susceptibility weighted imaging and their maps in general showed the best visualization of target structures, including a separation between the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra, the lamina pallidi medialis and lamina pallidi incompleta within the globus pallidus and substructures of the thalamus, including the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). This shows that the visibility, identification, and even subdivision of the small deep brain stimulation targets benefit from increased field strength. Although ultra-high field MR imaging is associated with increased risk of geometrical distortions, it has been shown that these distortions can be avoided or corrected to the extent where the effects are limited. The availability of ultra-high field MR scanners for humans seems to provide opportunities for a more accurate targeting for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

Plantinga, Birgit R.; Temel, Yasin; Roebroeck, Alard; Uluda?, Kmil; Ivanov, Dimo; Kuijf, Mark L.; ter Haar Romenij, Bart M.

2014-01-01

393

Prolonged sympathetic innervation of sensory neurons in rat thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglia during chronic colitis  

PubMed Central

Background Peripheral irritation-induced sensory plasticity may involve catecholaminergic innervation of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Methods Catecholaminergic fiber outgrowth in the thoracolumbar DRG (T13-L2) was examined by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining, or by sucrosepotassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid histofluorescence method. TH level was examined by Western blot. Colonic afferent neurons were labeled by retrograde neuronal tracing. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Key Results The catecholaminergic fibers formed basket-like structures around the DRG cells. At 7 days following TNBS treatment, the number of DRG neurons surrounded by TH-immunoreactive fibers and the protein levels of TH were significantly increased in T13, L1, and L2 DRGs (two- to threefold, P < 0.05). The DRG neurons that were surrounded by TH immunoreactivity were 200 kDa neurofilament-positive, but not isolectin IB4-positve or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive. The TH-immunoreactive fibers did not surround but adjoin the specifically labeled colonic afferent neurons, and was co-localized with glial marker S-100. Comparison of the level of TH and the severity of colonic inflammation showed that following TNBS treatment, the degree of colonic inflammation was most severe at day 3, subsided at day 7, and significantly recovered by day 21. However, the levels of TH in T13-L2 DRGs were increased at both 3 days and 7 days post TNBS treatment and persisted up to 21 days (two- to fivefold increase, P < 0.05) as examined. Conclusions & Inferences Colonic inflammation induced prolonged catecholaminergic innervation of sensory neurons, which may have relevance to colitis-induced chronic visceral hypersensitivity and/or referred pain. PMID:21605284

XIA, C.-M.; COLOMB, D. G.; AKBARALI, H. I.; QIAO, L.-Y.

2012-01-01

394

Lack of depotentiation at basal ganglia output neurons in PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease which produces bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-Dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of PD signs and symptoms, but long-term administration can lead to disabling motor fluctuations and L-Dopa-induced dyskinesias. In animal models of PD, a form of plasticity called depotentiation, or the reversal of previous potentiation, is selectively lost after the development of dyskinetic movements following L-Dopa treatment. We investigated whether low frequency stimulation (LFS) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) could induce depotentiation at synapses that had already undergone high frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced potentiation. To do so, we measured the field potentials (fEPs) evoked by stimulation from a nearby microelectrode in 28 patients undergoing implantation of deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or GPi. We found that GPi and SNr synapses in patients with less severe dyskinesia underwent greater depotentiation following LFS than in patients with more severe dyskinesia. This demonstration of impaired depotentiation in basal ganglia output nuclei in PD patients with dyskinesia is an important validation of animal models of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The ability of a synapse to reverse previous potentiation may be crucial to the normal function of the BG, perhaps by preventing saturation of the storage capacity required in motor learning and optimal motor function. Loss of this ability at the output nuclei may underlie, or contribute to the cellular basis of dyskinetic movements. PMID:25116960

Prescott, I A; Liu, L D; Dostrovsky, J O; Hodaie, M; Lozano, A M; Hutchison, W D

2014-11-01

395

Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions.  

PubMed

Motor thalamus (Mthal) is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG). The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarizes anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily "driven" by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new "super-integrator" theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum), which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs in the Mthal. PMID:24273509

Bosch-Bouju, Clmentine; Hyland, Brian I; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

2013-01-01

396

Neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, vasculopathic changes, intracerebral granulomas and basal ganglia infarction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. Case presentation A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%), high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G positivity by standard tube agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (the tests had been negative until that day). He was treated successfully with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, doxycyline and rifampicin for six months. Conclusions Our patient illustrates the importance of suspecting brucellosis as a cause of meningoencephalitis, even if cultures and serological tests are negative at the beginning of the disease. As a result, in patients who have a history of residence or travel to endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurologic symptoms. If initial tests fail, repetition of these tests at appropriate intervals along with complementary investigations are indicated. PMID:20973948

2010-01-01

397

Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters  

E-print Network

Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of ...

Dalca, Adrian Vasile

398

Keynote lecture: shape interrogation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape interrogation is the process of extraction of informationfrom a geometric model. It is a fundamental component of CAD\\/CAMsystems. In this lecture, we focus on shape interrogation ofgeometric models bounded by free-form or sculptured surfaces. Suchsurfaces are widely used in the bodies of ships, automobiles,aircraft, propeller and turbine blades, and various consumerdevices. Our basic thesis is that shape interrogation problems

Nicholas M. Patrikalakis

2003-01-01

399

Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

2002-01-01

400

Hippocampal shape analysis: surface-based representation and classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-based representation and classification techniques are studied for hippocampal shape analysis. The goal is twofold: (1) develop a new framework of salient feature extraction and accurate classification for 3D shape data; (2) detect hippocampal abnormalities in schizophrenia using this technique. A fine-scale spherical harmonic expansion is employed to describe a closed 3D surface object. The expansion can then easily be transformed to extract only shape information (i.e., excluding translation, rotation, and scaling) and create a shape descriptor comparable across different individuals. This representation captures shape features and is flexible enough to do shape modeling, identify statistical group differences, and generate similar synthetic shapes. Principal component analysis is used to extract a small number of independent features from high dimensional shape descriptors, and Fisher's linear discriminant is applied for pattern classification. This framework is shown to be able to perform well in distinguishing clear group differences as well as small and noisy group differences using simulated shape data. In addition, the application of this technique to real data indicates that group shape differences exist in hippocampi between healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

Shen, Li; Ford, James; Makedon, Fillia; Saykin, Andrew

2003-05-01

401

Abnormal Selective Attention in Psychopathic Female Offenders  

PubMed Central

Research on psychopathy in women has generated equivocal laboratory findings. This study examined the performance of psychopathic women in 2 laboratory tasks designed to assess abnormal selective attention associated with response modulation deficits: a computerized pictureword (PW) task, and a pictureword Stroop (PW Stroop) task. Consistent with data from psychopathic men, women receiving high scores on the Psychopathy ChecklistRevised (Hare, 1991) displayed reduced Stroop interference on the PW and PW Stroop tasks. Results suggest that despite some differences in the expression of psychopathy across gender, psychopathic women are characterized by selective attention abnormalities predicted by the response modulation hypothesis and similar to those exhibited by psychopathic men. PMID:17484593

Vitale, Jennifer E.; Brinkley, Chad A.; Hiatt, Kristina D.; Newman, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

402

[Epilepsy in patient with structural autosomal abnormality].  

PubMed

Few cases have been reported on the structural autosomal abnormality (SAA) focusing on epilepsy excluding those of Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. We investigated patients who had SAA with special reference to epilepsy. Various types of epilepsy were observed in its severity in our cases as well as previously reported cases. There was no correlation between the degree of mental retardation, motor dysfunction, brain damage on CT scan, and severity of epilepsy. Some cases had brain dysplasia, such as agenesis of corpus callosum, pachygyria, and mega cisterna magna. No correlation was found between these brain dysplasia and severity of epilepsy. It is important for a pediatrician to find a common epileptic syndrome or EEG abnormality in a SAA. An observation of symptoms in patients with the same chromosomal deletion or duplication will lead to identification of responsible gene for an epileptic symptom. PMID:7803078

Sugama, S; Atsukawa, K; Kusano, K; Akatsuka, A; Ochiai, Y; Tsuzura, S; Maekawa, K

1994-11-01

403

Molecular profiling of murine sensory neurons in the nodose and dorsal root ganglia labeled from the peritoneal cavity.  

PubMed

Vagal afferent neurons are thought to convey primarily physiological information, whereas spinal afferents transmit noxious signals from the viscera to the central nervous system. To elucidate molecular identities for these different properties, we compared gene expression profiles of neurons located in nodose ganglia (NG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of Alexa Fluor-488-conjugated cholera toxin B allowed enrichment for neurons projecting to the viscera. Fluorescent neurons in DRG (from T10 to T13) and NG were isolated using laser-capture microdissection. Gene expression profiles of these afferent neurons, obtained by microarray hybridization, were analyzed using multivariate spectral map analysis, significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) algorithm, and fold-difference filtering. A total of 1,996 genes were differentially expressed in DRG vs. NG, including 41 G protein-coupled receptors and 60 ion channels. Expression profiles obtained on laser-captured neurons were contrasted to those obtained on whole ganglia, demonstrating striking differences and the need for microdissection when studying visceral sensory neurons because of dilution of the signal by somatic sensory neurons. Furthermore, we provide a detailed catalog of all adrenergic and cholinergic, GABA, glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine receptors; voltage-gated potassium, sodium, and calcium channels; and transient receptor potential cation channels present in afferents projecting to the peritoneal cavity. Our genome-wide expression profiling data provide novel insight into molecular signatures that underlie both functional differences and similarities between NG and DRG sensory neurons. Moreover, these findings will offer novel insight into mode of action of pharmacological agents modulating visceral sensation. PMID:16303873

Peeters, Pieter J; Aerssens, Jeroen; de Hoogt, Ronald; Stanisz, Andrzej; Ghlmann, Hinrich W; Hillsley, Kirk; Meulemans, Ann; Grundy, David; Stead, Ronald H; Coulie, Bernard

2006-02-14

404

Neurod1 Suppresses Hair Cell Differentiation in Ear Ganglia and Regulates Hair Cell Subtype Development in the Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Background At least five bHLH genes regulate cell fate determination and differentiation of sensory neurons, hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Cross-regulation of Atoh1 and Neurog1 results in hair cell changes in Neurog1 null mice although the nature and mechanism of the cross-regulation has not yet been determined. Neurod1, regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1, could be the mediator of this cross-regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Tg(Pax2-Cre) to conditionally delete Neurod1 in the inner ear. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the absence of Neurod1 results in formation of hair cells within the inner ear sensory ganglia. Three cell types, neural crest derived Schwann cells and mesenchyme derived fibroblasts (neither expresses Neurod1) and inner ear derived neurons (which express Neurod1) constitute inner ear ganglia. The most parsimonious explanation is that Neurod1 suppresses the alternative fate of sensory neurons to develop as hair cells. In the absence of Neurod1, Atoh1 is expressed and differentiates cells within the ganglion into hair cells. We followed up on this effect in ganglia by demonstrating that Neurod1 also regulates differentiation of subtypes of hair cells in the organ of Corti. We show that in Neurod1 conditional null mice there is a premature expression of several genes in the apex of the developing cochlea and outer hair cells are transformed into inner hair cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the long noted cross-regulation of Atoh1 expression by Neurog1 might actually be mediated in large part by Neurod1. We suggest that Neurod1 is regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1 and provides a negative feedback for either gene. Through this and other feedback, Neurod1 suppresses alternate fates of neurons to differentiate as hair cells and regulates hair cell subtypes. PMID:20661473

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2010-01-01

405

Full-field optical coherence microscopy is a novel technique for imaging enteric ganglia in the gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Background Noninvasive methods are needed to improve the diagnosis of enteric neuropathies. Full-field optical coherence microscopy (FFOCM) is a novel optical microscopy modality that can acquire 1 ?m resolution images of tissue. The objective of this research was to demonstrate FFOCM imaging for the characterization of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Methods Normal mice and EdnrB?/? mice, a model of Hirschsprungs disease (HD), were imaged in three-dimensions ex vivo using FFOCM through the entire thickness and length of the gut. Quantitative analysis of myenteric ganglia was performed on FFOCM images obtained from whole-mount tissues and compared with immunohistochemistry imaged by confocal microscopy. Key Results Full-field optical coherence microscopy enabled visualization of the full thickness gut wall from serosa to mucosa. Images of the myenteric plexus were successfully acquired from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum. Quantification of ganglionic neuronal counts on FFOCM images revealed strong interobserver agreement and identical values to those obtained by immunofluorescence microscopy. In EdnrB?/? mice, FFOCM analysis revealed a significant decrease in ganglia density along the colorectum and a significantly lower density of ganglia in all colorectal segments compared with normal mice. Conclusions & Inferences Full-field optical coherence microscopy enables optical microscopic imaging of the ENS within the bowel wall along the entire intestine. FFOCM is able to differentiate ganglionic from aganglionic colon in a mouse model of HD, and can provide quantitative assessment of ganglionic density. With further refinements that enable bowel wall imaging in vivo, this technology has the potential to revolutionize the characterization of the ENS and the diagnosis of enteric neuropathies. PMID:23106847

CORON, E.; AUKSORIUS, E.; PIERETTI, A.; MAHE, M. M.; LIU, L.; STEIGER, C.; BROMBERG, Y.; BOUMA, B.; TEARNEY, G.; NEUNLIST, M.; GOLDSTEIN, A. M.

2013-01-01

406

Cortical thickness abnormality in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on gray matter concentration changes in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are inconsistent.\\u000a To investigate cortical abnormality in JME differently, we measured the cortical thickness in 19 JME patients and 18 normal\\u000a controls. Results showed that the cortical thicknesses of superior\\/middle\\/medial frontal gyri, and superior\\/middle\\/ inferior\\u000a temporal gyri were decreased in JME patients. Moreover, cortical thicknesses of

Woo Suk Tae; Sun Hyung Kim; Eun Yun Joo; Sun Jung Han; I. Y. Kim; S. I. Kim; J.-M. Lee; S. B. Hong

2008-01-01

407

Urinary abnormalities in non gonococcal urethritis.  

PubMed Central

The association between urinary abnormalities detected by the two-glass urine test and objective urethritis was investigated in a study of 221 male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. A strong correlation existed between urinary threads and urethritis, but use of the test for diagnosis and in the assessment of cure is limited by its poor predictive value in both treated and untreated patients. PMID:7326552

Munday, P E; Altman, D G; Taylor-Robinson, D

1981-01-01

408

Sonic Hedgehog Genetic Abnormalities and Tissue Donations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study about a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly, students explore the “Sonic hedgehog” gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. The assignment involves students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality. Designed for an upper-level undergraduate biology course, the case could also be used in a cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, or other related upper-level course.

Yaich, Lauren E.

2001-01-01

409

CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

1984-04-01

410

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barretts esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

411

Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

2010-01-01

412

Reversible abnormalities of myocardial relaxation in hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Fifteen selected hypothyroid patients without symptoms or signs of cardiovascular disease and an equal number of matched control subjects underwent simultaneous recording of electrocardiogram and phono-, apex-, and echocardiography to assess dynamic systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Both the systolic preejection period and the isovolumic relaxation period were significantly increased in the hypothyroid group. However, whereas the rate of myocardial contraction, assessed from the echocardiograph of the left ventricular posterior wall, was identical in patients and control subjects, the diastolic thinning rate of the muscle was markedly slowed in the hypothyroid individuals. The abnormalities demonstrated were in the main completely reversed after 3 months of T4 therapy. These results demonstrate a relatively selective and readily reversible disturbance of the rate of myocardial relaxation in hypothyroidism, suggesting an intrinsic abnormality of cardiac muscle. This allows an intriguing parallel to be drawn with the delayed relaxation phase of voluntary muscle contraction, long recognized as a direct measure of tissue thyroid function in hypothyroidism. The abnormality of diastolic function we have described is of similar character to that found in patients with other cardiomyopathies and which has been shown to be a major cause of disturbance of global cardiac action. PMID:4008607

Vora, J; O'Malley, B P; Petersen, S; McCullough, A; Rosenthal, F D; Barnett, D B

1985-08-01

413

Alcohol and abnormal outcomes of pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Heavy alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy has long been suspected of being a risk factor for abnormalities in the fetus or infant. Only during the last decade have these assumptions been supported by scientific studies. A clustering of fetal defects observed in some cases has been labelled the fetal alcohol syndrome. The syndrome involves prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, central nervous system involvement and craniofacial abnormalities, some of which are characteristic of the syndrome. Fetal alcohol syndrome is relatively rare, affecting from 1 in 300 to 1 in 2000 infants; approximately 450 cases have been reported since the syndrome was identified. Despite this rarity, however, heavy alcohol consumption is an important risk factor during pregnancy. A review of the current literature indicates that in animals alcohol in high doses is embryotoxic and teratogenic, the heavy drinking is not uncommon before and during pregnancy and that the fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects on the fetus associated with alcohol abuse appear with significant frequency among mothers who drink heavily. Heavy alcohol consumption is a perinatal risk factor that not only can be detected by the physician, but also can be reduced in concerned, cooperative patients. Thus, awareness of this problem gives health care personnel an opportunity to help in the prevention of abnormal outcomes of pregnancy. Images FIG. 1 PMID:7023637

Sokol, R. J.

1981-01-01

414

Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 1718?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

2006-01-01

415

Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation  

E-print Network

We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

2013-01-01

416

Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered. PMID:24629711

Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

2014-05-30

417

Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fishers exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

2014-01-01

418

Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.  

PubMed

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

419

Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.  

PubMed

Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

2014-01-01

420

Abnormal Pitch Perception Produced by Cochlear Implant Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 12 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the mean shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large variance of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

2014-01-01

421

Antagonism of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Attenuates Chemical Ischemia-Induced Injury in Rat Primary Cultured Myenteric Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Alterations of the enteric glutamatergic transmission may underlay changes in the function of myenteric neurons following intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) contributing to impairment of gastrointestinal motility occurring in these pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether glutamate receptors of the NMDA and AMPA/kainate type are involved in myenteric neuron cell damage induced by I/R. Primary cultured rat myenteric ganglia were exposed to sodium azide and glucose deprivation (in vitro chemical ischemia). After 6 days of culture, immunoreactivity for NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors subunits, GluN1 and GluA14, GluK13 respectively, was found in myenteric neurons. In myenteric cultured ganglia, in normal metabolic conditions, -AP5, an NMDA antagonist, decreased myenteric neuron number and viability, determined by calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 assay, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, measured with hydroxyphenyl fluorescein. CNQX, an AMPA/kainate antagonist exerted an opposite action on the same parameters. The total number and viability of myenteric neurons significantly decreased after I/R. In these conditions, the number of neurons staining for GluN1 and GluA14 subunits remained unchanged, while, the number of GluK13-immunopositive neurons increased. After I/R, -AP5 and CNQX, concentration-dependently increased myenteric neuron number and significantly increased the number of living neurons. Both -AP5 and CNQX (100500 M) decreased I/R-induced increase of ROS levels in myenteric ganglia. On the whole, the present data provide evidence that, under normal metabolic conditions, the enteric glutamatergic system exerts a dualistic effect on cultured myenteric ganglia, either by improving or reducing neuron survival via NMDA or AMPA/kainate receptor activation, respectively. However, blockade of both receptor pathways may exert a protective role on myenteric neurons following and I/R damage. The neuroprotective effect may depend, at least in part, on the ability of both receptors to increase intraneuronal ROS production. PMID:25419700

Carpanese, Elisa; Moretto, Paola; Filpa, Viviana; Marchet, Silvia; Moro, Elisabetta; Crema, Francesca; Frigo, Gianmario; Giaroni, Cristina

2014-01-01

422

Elevated Expression of Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Fractalkine Receptor (CX3CR1) in the Dorsal Root Ganglia and Spinal Cord in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Implications in Multiple Sclerosis-Induced Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) disease resulting from a targeted autoimmune-mediated attack on myelin proteins in the CNS. The release of Th1 inflammatory mediators in the CNS activates macrophages, antibodies, and microglia resulting in myelin damage and the induction of neuropathic pain (NPP). Molecular signaling through fractalkine (CX3CL1), a nociceptive chemokine, via its receptor (CX3CR1) is thought to be associated with MS-induced NPP. An experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS was utilized to assess time dependent gene and protein expression changes of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1. Results revealed significant increases in mRNA and the protein expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) 12 days after EAE induction compared to controls. This increased expression correlated with behavioural thermal sensory abnormalities consistent with NPP. Furthermore, this increased expression correlated with the peak neurological disability caused by EAE induction. This is the first study to identify CX3CL1 signaling through CX3CR1 via the DRG /SC anatomical connection that represents a critical pathway involved in NPP induction in an EAE model of MS. PMID:24175290

Intrater, Howard; Gong, Yuewen; Namaka, Mike

2013-01-01

423

Chronic recruitment of primary afferent neurons by microstimulation in the feline dorsal root ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. This study describes results of primary afferent neural microstimulation experiments using microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of four cats. The goal was to test the stability and selectivity of these microelectrode arrays as a potential interface for restoration of somatosensory feedback after damage to the nervous system such as amputation. Approach. A five-contact nerve-cuff electrode implanted on the sciatic nerve was used to record the antidromic compound action potential response to DRG microstimulation (2-15 A biphasic pulses, 200 s cathodal pulse width), and the threshold for eliciting a response was tracked over time. Recorded responses were segregated based on conduction velocity to determine thresholds for recruiting Group I and Group II/A? primary afferent fibers. Main results. Thresholds were initially low (5.1 2.3 A for Group I and 6.3 2.0 A for Group II/A?) and increased over time. Additionally the number of electrodes with thresholds less than or equal to 15 A decreased over time. Approximately 12% of tested electrodes continued to elicit responses at 15 A up to 26 weeks after implantation. Higher stimulation intensities (up to 30 A) were tested in one cat at 23 weeks post-implantation yielding responses on over 20 additional electrodes. Within the first six weeks after implantation, approximately equal numbers of electrodes elicited only Group I or Group II/A? responses at threshold, but the relative proportion of Group II/A? responses decreased over time. Significance. These results suggest that it is possible to activate Group I or Group II/A? primary afferent fibers in isolation with penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in the DRG, and that those responses can be elicited up to 26 weeks after implantation, although it may be difficult to achieve a consistent response day-to-day with currently available electrode technology. The DRG are compelling targets for sensory neuroprostheses with potential to achieve recruitment of a range of sensory fiber types over multiple months after implantation.

Fisher, Lee E.; Ayers, Christopher A.; Ciollaro, Mattia; Ventura, Valrie; Weber, Douglas J.; Gaunt, Robert A.

2014-06-01

424

Long-term potentiation of transmitter release induced by adrenaline in bull-frog sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation (l.t.p.) of transmitter release induced by adrenaline in bull-frog sympathetic ganglia was studied using intracellular recording techniques. The quantal content of the fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fast e.p.s.p.s: evoked by the nicotinic action of acetylcholine) was potentiated for more than several hours after treatment with adrenaline (1-100 microM). A similar l.t.p. of quantal content was produced consistently by isoprenaline (10 microM) and only in a certain fraction of cells by dopamine (10 microM). The l.t.p. induced by adrenaline (10 microM) was blocked by a beta-antagonist, propranolol (1 microM), but not by an alpha-antagonist, phenoxybenzamine (1 microM). Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-phosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) (0.8-1.0 mM), adenosine 3',5'-phosphate (cyclic AMP) (4 mM), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (10 microM), caffeine (1-2 mM), and cholera toxin (2 micrograms ml-1) applied for 20-30 min, all caused the l.t.p. of quantal content. By contrast, adenosine 5'-phosphate (AMP) (4 mM) and adenosine (4 mM) had no potentiating action. Treatment of the ganglion with adrenaline (2.5-160 microM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (4 mM) for 15-30 min resulted in the l.t.p. of the frequency of miniature e.p.s.p.s. The l.t.p. of quantal content induced by adrenaline was markedly suppressed by lowering temperature from 20-25 degrees C to 11-13 degrees C, and blocked by dibutyryl guanosine 3',5'-phosphate (dibutyryl cyclic GMP) (100 microM) consistently when applied together, but inconsistently when given after adrenaline. The post-synaptic sensitivity to acetylcholine was unchanged for at least 1 h after exposure to adrenaline (2.5-160 microM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.8-4 mM). It can be concluded that adrenaline produces l.t.p. of transmitter release by activating a cyclic-AMP-dependent metabolic process through the activation of beta-adrenoceptors, and that this mechanism is presumably regulated by a process involving endogenous guanosine 3',5'-phosphate (cyclic GMP). PMID:2427705

Kuba, K; Kumamoto, E

1986-01-01

425

Action Alters Shape Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments show that action alters the shape categories formed by 2-year-olds. Experiment 1 shows that moving an object horizontally (or vertically) defines the horizontal (or vertical) axis as the main axis of elongation and systematically changes the range of shapes seen as similar. Experiment 2 shows that moving an object symmetrically (or

Smith, Linda B.

2005-01-01

426

Numbers as Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students are asked to relate the numbers 1- 20 to rectangular shapes. Learners use unit squares or cubes to sort numbers by their 'shapes,' either squares, rectangles or sticks (rectangles of unit width). Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included.