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1

Basal Ganglia Shape Abnormalities in the Unaffected Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Abnormalities of basal ganglia structure in schizophrenia have been attributed to the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities of basal ganglia structure are intrinsic features of schizophrenia, by assessing basal ganglia volume and shape in the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia subjects. Method The study involved 25 pairs of schizophrenia subjects and their unaffected siblings and 40 pairs of healthy controls and their siblings. Large deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain surface representations of the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. Surfaces were derived from transformations of anatomical templates and shapes were analyzed using reduced-dimensional measures of surface variability (i.e. principal components and canonical analysis). Canonical functions were derived using schizophrenia and control groups, and were then used to compare shapes in the sibling groups. To visualize shape differences, maps of the estimated surface displacement between groups were created. Results In the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus, the degree of shape abnormality observed in the siblings of the schizophrenia subjects was intermediate between the schizophrenia subjects and the controls. In the schizophrenia subjects, significant correlations were observed between measures of caudate, putamen and globus pallidus structure and the selected measures of lifetime psychopathology. Conclusions Attenuated abnormalities of basal ganglia structure are present in the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia subjects. This finding implies that basal ganglia structural abnormalities observed in subjects with schizophrenia are at least in part an intrinsic feature of the illness. PMID:18295189

Mamah, Daniel; Harms, Michael P.; Wang, Lei; Barch, Deanna; Thompson, Paul; Kim, Jaeyun; Miller, Michael I.; Csernansky, John G.

2008-01-01

2

Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

2010-01-01

3

Abnormal "Shape Activity" Detection and Tracking Namrata Vaswani  

E-print Network

of activity, e.g. person taller/shorter · Scaled orthographic camera motion ­ Small field of view PTZ camera in traffic ­ Abnormal Human Action detection, e.g. motion disorders · Sequence Id & Tracking ­ Sequence, view invariant approaches, multiple levels of zoom, DBN, co-occurrence statistics Abnormal "Shape

Vaswani, Namrata

4

Abnormal Nuclear Shape in Solid Tumors Reflects Mitotic Instability  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in nuclear morphology are frequently observed in malignant tissues but the mechanisms behind these phenomena are still poorly understood. In this study, the relation between abnormal nuclear shape and chromosomal instability was explored in short-term tumor cell cultures. Mitotically unstable ring and dicentric chromosomes were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization at metaphase and subsequently localized in interphase nuclei from five malignant soft tissue tumors. The vast majority (71 to 86%) of nuclear blebs, chromatin strings, and micronuclei contained material from the unstable chromosomes, whereas few (<11%) were positive for stable chromosomes. Nuclear morphology was also evaluated in fibroblasts and an osteosarcoma cell line exposed to irradiation. A linear correlation was found between the frequency of abnormalities in nuclear shape, on one hand, and cells with unstable chromosomes (r = 0.87) and anaphase bridge configurations (r = 0.98), on the other hand. The relation between nuclear shape and karyotypic pattern was investigated further in cultures from 58 tumors of bone, soft tissue, and epithelium. Blebs, strings, and micronuclei were significantly more frequent in tumors that contained rings, dicentrics, or telomeric associations than in those exhibiting only stable aberrations (P < 0.001) and a positive correlation (r = 0.78) was found between the frequency of such nuclear abnormalities and the intratumor heterogeneity of structural chromosome aberrations. These results indicate that the formation of nuclear blebs, chromatin strings, and micronuclei in malignant tissues is closely related to the breakage-fusion-bridge type of mitotic disturbances. Abnormalities in nuclear shape may thus primarily be regarded as an indicator of genetic instability and intratumor heterogeneity, independent of cytogenetic complexity and the grade of malignancy. PMID:11141493

Gisselsson, David; Björk, Jonas; Höglund, Mattias; Mertens, Fredrik; Dal Cin, Paola; Åkerman, Måns; Mandahl, Nils

2001-01-01

5

Regional shape abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) based shape analysis provides an opportunity to detect regional specificity of volumetric changes that may distinguish mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) from healthy elderly controls (CON), and predict future conversion to AD. We assessed the surface deformation of seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, body and temporal horn of the lateral ventricles) in 383 MRI volumes, based on data shared through the publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), to identify regionally-specific shape abnormalities in MCI and AD. Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) was used to generate the shapes of seven structures based on template shapes injected into segmented subcortical volumes. LDDMM then constructed the surface deformation maps encoding the local shape variation of each subject relative to the template. Hierarchical models were developed to detect differences in local shape in MCI and AD relative to CON. Our findings revealed that surface inward-deformation in MCI and AD is most prominent in the anterior hippocampal segment and the basolateral complex of the amygdala. Most pronounced surface outward-deformation in MCI and AD occurs in the lateral ventricles. Mild surface inward-deformation in MCI and AD occurs in the anterior-lateral and ventral-lateral aspects of the thalamus, with no evidence of regionally-specific deformation in the putamen or globus pallidus. Although the locations of the shape abnormalities in MCI and AD are primarily within the mesial temporal region, analyses support distinct components of correlated shape variation that may help predict future MCI conversion. PMID:19280688

Qiu, Anqi; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Dale, Anders M; Miller, Michael I

2009-04-15

6

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

7

Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in…

Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

2013-01-01

8

Toxicological effects of ziram, thiram, and dithane M-45 assessed by sperm shape abnormalities in mice.  

PubMed

The three commonly used dithiocarbamate fungicides ziram, thiram, and dithane M-45 were investigated for their mutagenic and carcinogenic potency using sperm shape abnormalities in mice. The fungicides were administered intraperitoneally in single and cumulative doses. All three of the fungicides tested were found to induce significant increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm at all the doses, and a linear dose effect was observed. PMID:8478981

Hemavathi, E; Rahiman, M A

1993-04-01

9

Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients With Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings  

PubMed Central

Objective The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), their healthy siblings, and healthy volunteers. Method Two hundred twenty-five anatomic brain magnetic resonance images were obtained from 103 patients with COS, 169 from their 79 healthy siblings, and 255 from 101 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (age range = 9–29 years). The hippocampus was segmented using Free-Surfer automated image analysis software, and hippocampal shape was evaluated by comparing subjects at more than 6,000 vertices on the left and right hippocampal surfaces. Longitudinal data were examined using mixed model regression analysis. Results Patients with COS showed significant bilateral inward deformation in the anterior hippocampus. Healthy siblings also showed a trend for anterior inward deformation. However, the trajectory of shape change did not differ significantly between the groups. Inward deformations in the anterior hippocampus were positively related to positive symptom severity, whereas outward surface displacement was positively related to overall functioning. Conclusion This is the first and largest longitudinal three-way analysis of subregional hippocampal shape abnormalities in patients with COS and their healthy siblings compared with healthy controls. The anterior hippocampal abnormalities in COS suggest the pathophysiologic importance of this subregion in schizophrenia. The trend level and overlapping shape abnormalities in the healthy siblings suggest a more subtle, subregionally specific neuroanatomic endophenotype. PMID:23622854

Johnson, Sarah L.M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

2013-01-01

10

Effect of diesel exhaust on sperm-shape abnormalities in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sperm-shape abnormality bioassay in mice was used to determine whether chemical mutagens in diesel exhaust reach the testes. Strain A male mice (30 per group from 4 to 6 weeks of age) were exposed for 31 or 39 weeks to either diesel exhaust or clean air. After exposure, Eosin y-stained, air-dried smears of cauda epididymal sperm were scored for

M. A. Pereira; P. S. Sabharwal; L. Gordon; A. Wyrobek

1979-01-01

11

Demonstration of sperm head shape abnormality and clastogenic potential of cypermethrin.  

PubMed

Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered ip. suspension solution of cypermethrin in 0.15% DMSO at the doses of 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 5 days. Another group of animals was injected cyclophosphamide ip. (60 mg/kg b. wt.) in similar manner which served as positive control. Effect of cypermethrin on body and testes weight and sperm head morphology was studied. Clastogenic potential of cypermethrin was studied by using modified Allium test. The cytological changes were studied in the root tip cells of Allium cepa after 3 days treatment with three different concentration of cypermethrin (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg/ml). The results revealed that body weight gain was considerably reduced in higher dose groups, but the testicular weight did not change significantly in any of the cypermethrin treated groups. However, a significant elevation in the number of abnormal shape of sperm head was noticed in higher dose groups as compared to control. It was observed that the abnormality in the shape of sperm head was dose-dependent. The cytological changes in the root tip cells of Allium cepa indicated that cypermethrin is having toxic effects on the root tip cells in the form of stickiness of chromosomes and also affect the mitotic activity. This study suggest that cypermethrin may have the potential to induce adverse effects on sperm head shape morphology of mouse as well as clastogenic effects on root tip cells of Allium cepa. PMID:15529877

Kumar, S; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K R; Shah, B A; Saiyad, H N

2004-04-01

12

Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6–26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., “positive controls”), and healthy controls (i.e., “negative controls”). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

2013-01-01

13

Bilateral basal ganglia calcifications visualised on CT scan.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-eight cases of basal ganglia calcification imaged on computed axial tomography were reviewed. Most cases were felt to represent senescent calcification. The possibility of a vascular aetiology in this group is discussed. A less common group of patients was identified with calcification secondary to abnormalities in calcium metabolism or radiation therapy. Three cases of basal ganglia calcifications were detected in juvenile epileptic patients receiving chronic anticonvulsants. These cases may be related to abnormalities in calcium metabolism and alkaline phosphatase activity. Clinical evidence of basal ganglia abnormality was generally absent demonstrating the preservation of neuronal pathways in most cases. PMID:7420090

Brannan, T S; Burger, A A; Chaudhary, M Y

1980-01-01

14

Abnormal high-Q modes of coupled stadium-shaped microcavities.  

PubMed

It is well known that the strongly deformed microcavity with fully chaotic ray dynamics cannot support high-Q modes due to its fast chaotic diffusion to the critical line of refractive emission. Here, we investigate how the Q factor is modified when two chaotic cavities are coupled, and show that some modes, whose Q factor is about 10 times higher than that of the corresponding single cavity, can exist. These abnormal high-Q modes are the result of an optimal combination of coupling and cavity geometry. As an example, in the coupled stadium-shaped microcavities, the mode pattern extends over both cavities such that it follows a whispering-gallery-type mode at both ends, whereas a big coupling spot forms at the closest contact of the two microcavities. The pattern of such a "rounded bow tie" mode allows the mode to have a high-Q factor. This mode pattern minimizes the leakage of light at both ends of the microcavities as the pattern at both ends is similar to the whispering gallery mode. PMID:25121685

Ryu, Jung-Wan; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Inbo; Choi, Muhan; Hentschel, Martina; Kim, Sang Wook

2014-07-15

15

Basal Ganglia Volumes in Patients With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite strong circumstantial evidence that the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from relatively small in vivo TS imaging studies have supported contradictory conclu- sions concerning the role of abnormal anatomical charac- teristics of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of TS. Methods: Basal ganglia volumes

Bradley S. Peterson; Prakash Thomas; Michael J. Kane; Lawrence Scahill; Heping Zhang; Richard Bronen; Robert A. King; James F. Leckman; Lawrence Staib

2003-01-01

16

THE BASAL GANGLIA: FOCUSED SELECTION AND INHIBITION OF COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these abnormalities. However, it has not

JONATHAN W MINK

1996-01-01

17

Basal Ganglia and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.

2009-04-14

18

Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

2014-03-01

19

Linear Branching Echogenicities in the Basal Ganglia and Thalami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic vasculature in the basal ganglia and thalami of neonatal brain have been associated with congeni- tal infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, and syphilis, trisomy 13 syndrome, Down syndrome, maternal drug use, neonatal asphyxia, nonimmune hydrops, and fetal alcohol syndrome. This abnormality is believed to result from necrotizing vasculitis with subsequent mineralization. In our study, we encountered 8 small

Han-Hsi Wang; Chih-Hao Chien; Min-Hou Liao; Yu-Nian Wu; Yu-Hsien Su

1998-01-01

20

Observation on the distribution of ganglia in the ganglionated plexus of guinea-pig gallbladder.  

PubMed

In order to investigate how the ganglia in ganglionated plexus were distributed throughout the overall region of the gallbladder, the gallbladder was dissected from guinea-pig and washed with Krebs solution via the cystic duct. This gallbladder was distended with 2 ml of the mixed solution of OsO4 and ZnI2 injected with a syringe via the cystic duct and the cystic duct was immediately tied with a thread. The gallbladder was placed in excess of the mixed solution for 7-10 hours. The gallbladder was longitudinally divided into two approximately equal parts and each was prepared for microscopic investigation. The one preparation was the ventral side of the gallbladder and the other preparation was its dorsal side. These preparations were viewed through a photomicroscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Ganglia which involved several nerve cells were observed. Ganglia and nerve bundles connecting the fellow ganglia formed an irregular network, that is, the so-called ganglionated plexus. These nerve bundles were connected with the perivascular nerves which ran parallel to and around blood vessels in several places of the wall of the gallbladder. 2. Ganglia were full of variety in size and shape. That is to say, the shape of ganglia is arranged in various patterns such as oval, spherical, triangular, square and so on. When the size of ganglia were shown by surface area of ganglia which were viewed within the sweep of photomicroscope, the size of ganglia were divided into three large groups, the small ganglia in the range of 1,400 microns2-3,500 microns 2, the large ganglia in the range of 3,500 microns2-10,000 microns2 and the extra-large ganglia in the range of 10,000 microns2-38,000 microns2. Per one gallbladder, 240 +/- 41 (n = 3) small ganglia, 263 +/- 28 (n = 3) large ganglia and 8 +/- 1 (n = 3) extra-large ganglia were found. And these ganglia were irregularly scattered all over the wall of gallbladder. Small ganglia were found more numerous than large ganglia in the cervical portion of the gallbladder. On the other hand, small ones were slightly fewer than large ganglia in the remainder portion of the gallbladder. 3. The ganglionated plexus contained 511 +/- 69 (n = 3) ganglia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3244212

Yoshida, M; Tsuruta, Y

1988-05-01

21

Basal ganglia echogenicity in tauopathies.  

PubMed

Accumulating data confirm the usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The relevance of basal ganglia abnormalities depicted by TCS in atypical parkinsonian syndromes still needs further assessment. In the present study, 20 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 13 patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) were studied with the use of transcranial sonography. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) and lenticular nucleus (LN) were assessed. 0/20 patients with PSP and 8/12 (66.6 %) patients with CBS were characterized with SN hyperechogenicity. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 9/20 patients diagnosed with PSP and 0/11 of CBS patients. The combination of SN isoechogenicity and LN hyperechogenicity reached 100 % sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of PSP. The results of this study point out that CBS has to be taken into consideration when SN hyperechogenicity is depicted in a patient with parkinsonian syndrome. Normal echogenicity of the SN coexisting with LN hyperechogenicity practically excludes CBS. PMID:25204278

Sadowski, Krzysztof; Serafin-Król, Ma?gorzata; Szlachta, Karol; Friedman, Andrzej

2014-09-10

22

Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.  

PubMed

The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, El?bieta

2013-05-01

23

Distinct basal ganglia hyperechogenicity in idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We report a 67-year-old patient with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). He presented with progressive cognitive impairment, frontal lobe dysfunction, mild leg spasticity, and levodopa (L-dopa)-responsive parkinsonism. Transcranial sonography (TCS) revealed marked hyperechogenicity of the basal ganglia and periventricular spaces bilaterally. The detected signal alterations showed a fairly symmetric distribution and corresponded to the hyperintense calcifications depicted on the computer tomography brain scan. The combination of symmetric hyperechogenic areas adjacent to the lateral ventricles and of the basal ganglia may serve as an imaging marker characteristic of IBGC. Hyperechogenicity due to extended basal ganglia calcification as presented here is distinct from the pattern of hyperechogenicity caused by heavy metal accumulation, which is described to be less striking. In addition to atypical parkinsonian syndromes such as progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy, IBGC is thus another differential diagnosis of parkinsonism with basal ganglia hyperechogenicity. PMID:20803519

Brüggemann, Norbert; Schneider, Susanne A; Sander, Thurid; Klein, Christine; Hagenah, Johann

2010-11-15

24

Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson’s disease patients  

PubMed Central

Functional changes in basal ganglia circuitry are responsible for the major clinical features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Current models of basal ganglia circuitry can only partially explain the cardinal symptoms in PD. We used functional MRI to investigate the causal connectivity of basal ganglia networks from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in PD in the movement and resting state. In controls, SNc activity predicted increased activity in the supplementary motor area, the default mode network, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but, in patients, activity predicted decreases in the same structures. The SNc had decreased connectivity with the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, default mode network, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and pons in patients compared to controls. Levodopa administration partially normalized the pattern of connectivity. Our findings show how the dopaminergic system exerts influences on widespread brain networks, including motor and cognitive networks. The pattern of basal ganglia network connectivity is abnormal in PD secondary to dopamine depletion, and is more deviant in more severe disease. Use of functional MRI with network analysis appears to be a useful method to demonstrate basal ganglia pathways in vivo in human subjects. PMID:22813979

Wu, Tao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Chaodong; Hallett, Mark; Zang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Chan, Piu

2014-01-01

25

The significance of the incidental finding of basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography.  

PubMed Central

Basal ganglia calcification was found as an incidental finding in 42 out of 7000 patients who underwent computed tomography. The calcification showed on plain skull radiography when the maximum density on computed tomography exceeded 100 Hounsfield units. The 26 patients with basal ganglia calcification detected on computed tomography who were available for follow-up, were investigated with matched controls. No clinical features of basal ganglia calcification were noted. Twenty-four patients had no significant metabolic abnormality and two patients had parathyroid disorder identified. PMID:7334414

Harrington, M G; Macpherson, P; McIntosh, W B; Allam, B F; Bone, I

1981-01-01

26

Determining normal and abnormal lip shapes at border positions for use as a longitudinal surgical outcome measure.  

PubMed

Objective measures of facial movement are important for interventions where surgical repositioning of facial structures can influence soft tissue mobility and include the management of patients with cleft lip, facial nerve palsy and orthognathic surgery. As such, the aim of this study is to present a method for determining the outcome of surgical procedures on lip shape during speech. A control group (CG) of 115 average subjects and 30 patients with a Class 3 malocclusion requiring bimaxillary surgery performed four reproducible verbal utterances during image capture using a non-invasive, three-dimensional (3D) motion scanner (3dMDFace™ Dynamic System). Landmark coordinates around the lips of the 3D facial shells were extracted and subjected to discriminant analysis and principal component analysis to statistically differentiate lip shapes between the CG and the patient group (PG) pre- and post-surgery. Pre-surgically, the PG showed statistically significant differences in lip shape during speech in the lateral and vertical dimensions, preferring a wider, shorter lip shape when compared with the CG for all the utterances. The shape differences normalised towards the CG post-surgery. The method presented utilises pre-existing statistical shape analyses and can be reproduced in the clinical setting to provide a diagnostic and functional outcome tool. In this example, correction of the Class 3 skeletal disproportions appeared to normalise lip shape during speech. PMID:23397893

Popat, H; Zhurov, A I; Richmond, S; Marshall, D; Rosin, P L

2013-05-01

27

Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Welcome! Let\\'s explore the world of shapes. At Kids Online Resources (OLR) Learning is Fun, click on Shapes and see what types of everyday items are made of different simple shapes. Here is a game to play using shapes in patterns.Crack hacker's cafe If you want to make shapes into 3D forms, go to this site 2D to 3D morphing : flat 2D shapes rise up to make 3D forms and follow the directions. You may need a parent to ...

Ms. Fletcher

2007-10-23

28

Abnormal filtering property based on the divergence of the impedance in ladder-shape network consisting of inductors and capacitors  

E-print Network

consisting of inductors and capacitors Guoan Zheng1 , Fang Cai 2 , Mingwu Gao 2 1. Department of Optical, 310027 Abstract: The total impedance of a ladder-shape network consisting of inductors and capacitors of inductors and capacitors, as shown in Fig.2, we simply substitute in Eq.3 iwL for 2 r , 1/i C for 1r and n

Boyer, Edmond

29

Shape Abnormalities of the Caudate Nucleus Correlate With Poorer Gait and Balance: Results from a Subset of the LADIS Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Functional deficits seen in several neurodegenerative disorders have been linked with dysfunction in fronto-striatal circuits and with associated shape alterations in striatal structures. The severity of visible white matter changes (WMC) on MRI has been found to correlate with poorer performance on measures of gait and balance. This study aimed to determine whether striatal volume and shape changes were correlated with gait dysfunction. Method MRI scans and clinical gait/balance data (scores from the SPPB - Short Physical Performance Battery) were sourced from 66 subjects in the previously-published LADIS trial, which was performed in >65 y.o. non-disabled individuals with WMC at study entry. Data were obtained at study entry and at three-year follow-up. Caudate nuclei and putamina were manually traced using a previously published method, and volumes calculated. The relationships between volume and physical performance on the SPPB were investigated with shape analysis utilising the SPHARM toolkit. Results There was no correlation between the severity of WMC and striatal volumes. Caudate nuclei volume correlated with performance on the SPPB at baseline, but not at follow-up, with subsequent shape analysis showing regionalisation of left caudate changes in areas corresponding to inputs of the dorsolateral prefrontal, premotor and motor cortex. There was no correlation between putamen volumes and performance on the SPPB. Conclusion Disruption in frontostriatal circuits may play a role in mediating poorer physical performance in individuals with white matter changes. Striatal volume and shape changes may be suitable biomarkers for functional changes in this population. PMID:23916546

Macfarlane, Matthew D.; Looi, Jeffrey C.L.; Walterfang, Mark; Spulber, Gabriela; Velakoulis, Dennis; Styner, Martin; Crisby, Milita; Örndahl, Eva; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hennerici, Michael G.; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Blahak, Christian; Wallin, Anders; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

2014-01-01

30

Basal ganglia intensity indices and diffusion weighted imaging in manganese-exposed welders  

PubMed Central

Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p?0.05). Combined basal ganglia (?=0.610), caudate (?=0.645), anterior (?=0.595) and posterior putamen (?=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (?=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions. PMID:22447645

Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

2013-01-01

31

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) without neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms is not linked to the IBGC1 locus on chromosome 14q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterised by radiological, neurological, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. The associations between these abnormal phenotypes and abnormal genes remain unclear despite the recent mapping to chromosome 14q of a susceptibility locus for IBGC (IBGC1). We identified two siblings, from a large multigenerational pedigree, who had both been diagnosed with radiological IBGC, dementia, bipolar affective disorder

Henry Brodaty; Philip Mitchell; Georgina Luscombe; John B. J. Kwok; Renee F. Badenhop; Rod McKenzie; Peter R. Schofield

2002-01-01

32

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2014-10-01

33

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

34

Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.  

PubMed

Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

2013-10-01

35

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

36

The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

Mehler, William R.

1981-01-01

37

Shapes, Shapes, Shapes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s practice identifying our shapes! Look at all the choices and find the one that can Match that Shape. Help Pauly! Drag and drop to Match the Shapes! Listen closely to what color we should Paint the Shapes. ...

Stringfield, Miss

2008-11-17

38

Computer Modeling in Basal Ganglia Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have witnessed an increasing interest in the use of computational modeling and mathematical analysis\\u000a as tools to unravel the complex neural mechanisms and computational algorithms underlying the function of the basal ganglia\\u000a and related structures under normal and neurological conditions (1–3). Computational modeling of basal ganglia disorders has until recently been focused on Parkinson’s disease (PD),

José Luis Contreras-Vidal

39

Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative\\u000a biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1\\u000a relaxation rates

Stephen Correia; Emily Hubbard; Jason Hassenstab; Agustin Yip; Josef Vymazal; Vit Herynek; Jay Giedd; Dennis L. Murphy; Benjamin D. Greenberg

2010-01-01

40

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

41

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

42

Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

2010-01-01

43

Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

2005-01-01

44

Psychosis revealing familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible. However, a fortuitous association between asymptomatic IBGC and schizophrenia cannot be ruled out. Only brain imaging, followed by an extensive etiological assessment, allows for diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23122487

Nicolas, Gaël; Guillin, Olivier; Borden, Alaina; Bioux, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Romain; Hannequin, Didier

2013-01-01

45

Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: Description ... Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ...

46

Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

2014-12-01

47

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease  

E-print Network

368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease Ann M. Graybiel As the search for molecular therapies for basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, accelerates, new-9822 The motor symptoms of basal ganglia disorders fall at two extremes. In Parkinson's disease and related

Graybiel, Ann M.

48

The basal ganglia Ann M. Graybiel  

E-print Network

of the basal ganglia lead to devastating motor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington-brain stimulation procedures used to relieve Parkinson's disease. The subthalamic nucleus is a key structure controlling pallidal function, and is an increasingly favored site for deep-brain stimulation in the treatment

Graybiel, Ann M.

49

Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,

André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

1995-01-01

50

Asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation and basal ganglia calcification in a child with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is rare. Here, we have reported a case of Down syndrome in a 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression, and basal ganglia calcification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Down syndrome, in a child, which was accompanied by these 3 neurologic complications simultaneously. As seen in this case, patients with Down syndrome may have neurologic conditions without any obvious neurologic symptoms; hence, patients with Down syndrome should be carefully examined for the presence of neurologic conditions. PMID:24416050

Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Kun-Soo; Weon, Young Cheol

2013-12-01

51

Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. PMID:20503112

Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

2010-01-01

52

Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia.  

PubMed

What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that fire spontaneously, even in the absence of synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed; only variations in its timing can carry the message. In the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus consist of neurons firing spontaneously. They each receive thousands of synaptic inputs, but these are not required to maintain their background firing. Instead, synaptic interactions among basal ganglia nuclei comprise a system of coupled oscillators that produces a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and uncorrelated, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson's disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by nearly all of the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134

Wilson, Charles J

2014-12-01

53

Intercellular communication in sensory ganglia by purinergic receptors and gap junctions: implications for chronic pain.  

PubMed

Peripheral injury can cause abnormal activity in sensory neurons, which is a major factor in chronic pain. Recent work has shown that injury induces major changes not only in sensory neurons but also in the main type of glial cells in sensory ganglia-satellite glial cells (SGCs), and that interactions between sensory neurons and SGCs contribute to neuronal activity in pain models. The main functional changes observed in SGCs after injury are an increased gap junction-mediated coupling among these cells, and augmented sensitivity to ATP. There is evidence that the augmented gap junctions contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in pain models, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not known. The changes in SGCs described above have been found following a wide range of injuries (both axotomy and inflammation) in somatic, orofacial and visceral regions, and therefore appear to be a general feature in chronic pain. We have found that in cultures of sensory ganglia calcium signals can spread from an SGC to neighboring cells by calcium waves, which are mediated by gap junctions and ATP acting on purinergic P2 receptors. A model is proposed to explain how augmented gap junctions and greater sensitivity to ATP can combine to produce enhanced calcium waves, which can lead to neuronal excitation. Thus this simple scheme can account for several major changes in sensory ganglia that are common to a great variety of pain models. PMID:22771859

Hanani, Menachem

2012-12-01

54

Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia in X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by sustained muscle contractions that produce repetitive twisting movements or abnormal postures. X-linked recessive dystonia parkinsonism (XDP; DYT3; Lubag) is an adult-onset disorder that manifests severe and progressive dystonia with a high frequency of generalization. In search for the anatomical basis for dystonia, we performed postmortem analyses of the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia based on the striatal compartments (ie, the striosomes and the matrix compartment) in XDP. Here, we provide anatomopathological evidence that, in the XDP neostriatum, the matrix compartment is relatively spared in a unique fashion, whereas the striosomes are severely depleted. We also document that there is a differential loss of striatal neuron subclasses in XDP. In view of the three-pathway basal ganglia model, we postulate that the disproportionate involvement of neostriatal compartments and their efferent projections may underlie the manifestation of dystonia in patients with XDP. This study is the first to our knowledge to show specific basal ganglia pathology that could explain the genesis of dystonia in human heredodegenerative movement disorders, suggesting that dystonia may result from an imbalance in the activity between the striosomal and matrix-based pathways. PMID:15912496

Goto, Satoshi; Lee, Lillian V; Munoz, Edwin L; Tooyama, Ikuo; Tamiya, Gen; Makino, Satoshi; Ando, Satoshi; Dantes, Marita B; Yamada, Kazumichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Shimazu, Hideki; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Hirano, Asao; Kaji, Ryuji

2005-07-01

55

A selective role for right insula—basal ganglia circuits in appetitive stimulus processing  

PubMed Central

Hemispheric lateralization of hedonic evaluation (‘liking’) and incentive motivation (‘wanting’) in neural networks connecting the basal ganglia and insula (BG-I) in humans was examined. Participants with brain damage restricted to the BG-I of the right (n = 5) or left (n = 5) hemisphere, and 26 healthy participants matched on age, sex and intelligence quotient were tested on positively and negatively valenced pictures drawn from varied stimulus categories (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2008). Liking was assessed with explicit ratings of pleasantness using a nine-point Likert scale. Wanting was quantified as the amount of work (via repeated keypresses) that participants expended to increase (approach) or decrease (withdraw) viewing time. Right-lesion patients showed abnormally low viewing times and liking ratings for positive images. For a subset of positive images depicting sexual content, right-lesion patients exhibited active withdrawal, while the other two groups approached such stimuli. These results suggest that the right basal ganglia–insula complex plays a greater role than the left in supporting hedonic evaluation and motivational approach to positively valenced stimuli. The finding that active avoidance of stimuli that were not ‘liked’ was spared in both right- and left-sided lesion subjects suggests that unilateral damage to insula/basal ganglia circuits may not be sufficient to affect general incentive motivation independent of preference. PMID:22798397

Vijayaraghavan, Lavanya; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Cassell, Martin; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio

2013-01-01

56

Bidirectional Control of Absence Seizures by the Basal Ganglia: A Computational Evidence  

PubMed Central

Absence epilepsy is believed to be associated with the abnormal interactions between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Besides the direct coupling, anatomical evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex and thalamus also communicate indirectly through an important intermediate bridge–basal ganglia. It has been thus postulated that the basal ganglia might play key roles in the modulation of absence seizures, but the relevant biophysical mechanisms are still not completely established. Using a biophysically based model, we demonstrate here that the typical absence seizure activities can be controlled and modulated by the direct GABAergic projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to either the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) or the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus, through different biophysical mechanisms. Under certain conditions, these two types of seizure control are observed to coexist in the same network. More importantly, due to the competition between the inhibitory SNr-TRN and SNr-SRN pathways, we find that both decreasing and increasing the activation of SNr neurons from the normal level may considerably suppress the generation of spike-and-slow wave discharges in the coexistence region. Overall, these results highlight the bidirectional functional roles of basal ganglia in controlling and modulating absence seizures, and might provide novel insights into the therapeutic treatments of this brain disorder. PMID:24626189

Wang, Tiebin; Jing, Wei; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Luo, Cheng; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Yao, Dezhong

2014-01-01

57

Basal ganglia efferents to the brainstem centers controlling postural muscle tone and locomotion: a new concept for understanding motor disorders in basal ganglia dysfunction.  

PubMed

The present study is designed to elucidate how basal ganglia afferents from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to the mesopontine tegmental area of the brainstem contribute to gait control and muscle-tone regulation. We used unanesthetized and acutely decerebrated cats (n=27) in which the striatum, thalamus and cerebral cortex were removed but the SNr was preserved. Repetitive stimulation (50 Hz, 10-60 microA, for 5-20 s) applied to a mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), which corresponded to the cuneiform nucleus, and adjacent areas, evoked locomotor movements. On the other hand, stimulation of a muscle-tone inhibitory region in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) suppressed postural muscle tone. An injection of either glutamatergic agonists (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and kainic acid) or GABA antagonists (bicuculline and picrotoxin) into the MLR and PPN also induced locomotion and muscle-tone suppression, respectively. Repetitive electrical stimuli (50-100 Hz, 20-60 microA for 5-20 s) delivered to the SNr alone did not alter muscular activity. However stimulating the lateral part of the SNr attenuated and blocked PPN-induced muscle-tone suppression. Moreover, weaker stimulation of the medial part of the SNr reduced the number of step cycles and disturbed the rhythmic alternation of limb movements of MLR-induced locomotion. The onset of locomotion was delayed as the stimulus intensity was increased. At a higher strength SNr stimulation abolished the locomotion. An injection of bicuculline into either the PPN or the MLR diminished the SNr effects noted above. These results suggest that locomotion and postural muscle tone are subject to modulation by GABAergic nigrotegmental projections which have a partial functional topography: a lateral and medial SNr, for regulation of postural muscle tone and locomotion, respectively. We conclude that disorders of the basal ganglia may include dysfunction of the nigrotegmental (basal ganglia-brainstem) systems, which consequently leads to the production of abnormal muscle tone and gait disturbance. PMID:12763089

Takakusaki, K; Habaguchi, T; Ohtinata-Sugimoto, J; Saitoh, K; Sakamoto, T

2003-01-01

58

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder  

E-print Network

Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Fay Y. Womer a,n , Lei of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ in neuroimaging studies. & 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Differentiating bipolar

59

A Search For Principles of Basal Ganglia Function  

E-print Network

million neurons in humans. Dierent modes of basal ganglia dysfunction lead to Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which have debilitating motor and cognitive symptoms. However, despite intensive study basal ganglia function, with a focus on signal representation, computation, dynamics, and plasticity

Anderson, Charles H.

60

Ganglia of the Hand and Wrist: A Sonographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sonographic appearance of a large series of pathologically proven ganglia. Ma TERIals and METHO ds . A computer search of sonography and pathology re- ports for hand and wrist ganglia was performed. All sonography reports and images were reviewed for ganglion size, location, presence of a neck, echogenicity, acoustic enhancement,

Sharlene A. Teefey; Nirvikar Dahiya; William D. Middleton; Richard H. Gelberman; Martin I. Boyer

61

Interferon-? induces progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

We found that CNS-directed expression of interferon-? (IFN-?) resulted in basal ganglia calcification, reminiscent of human idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and nigrostriatal degeneration. Our results indicate that IFN-? mediates age-progressive nigrostriatal degeneration in the absence of exogenous stressors. Further study of this model may provide insight into selective nigrostriatal degeneration in human IBGC and other Parkinson syndromes. PMID:21572432

Chakrabarty, Paramita; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Lin, Wen-Lang; Beccard, Amanda; Jansen-West, Karen; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Janus, Christopher; Dickson, Dennis; Das, Pritam; Golde, Todd E

2011-06-01

62

Interferon-? induces progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and basal ganglia calcification  

PubMed Central

We report that CNS directed expression of Interferon (IFN) -? results in basal ganglia calcification, reminiscent of human idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and nigrostriatal degeneration. Our results show that IFN-? mediates age-progressive nigrostriatal degeneration in the absence of exogenous stressors. Further study of this model may provide unique insight into selective nigrostriatal degeneration in human IBGC and other Parkinson syndromes. PMID:21572432

Chakrabarty, Paramita; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Lin, Wen-Lang; Beccard, Amanda; Jansen-West, Karen; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Janus, Christopher; Dickson, Dennis; Das, Pritam; Golde, Todd E

2013-01-01

63

Basal ganglia calcification and psychosis in Down's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A case of basal ganglia calcification (diagnosed in vivo) and schizophreniform psychosis occurring in a young adult with Down's syndrome is reported. A stress-vulnerability model is suggested. Because of the relatively high prevalence of basal ganglia calcification to Down's syndrome, this population appears well suited for systematic study of the neuropsychiatric aspects associated with this neurological condition. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6231537

Thase, M. E.

1984-01-01

64

Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT.

F. Illum

1980-01-01

65

Imaging neural crest cell dynamics during formation of dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed

The neural crest is a migratory population of cells that produces many diverse structures within the embryo. Trunk neural crest cells give rise to such structures as the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia (SG), which form in a metameric pattern along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. While static analyses have provided invaluable information concerning the development of these structures, time-lapse imaging of neural crest cells navigating through their normal environment could potentially reveal previously unidentified cellular and molecular interactions integral to DRG and SG development. In this study, we follow fluorescently labeled trunk neural crest cells using a novel sagittal explant and time-lapse confocal microscopy. We show that along their dorsoventral migratory route, trunk neural crest cells are highly motile and interact extensively with neighboring cells and the environment, with many cells migrating in chain-like formations. Surprisingly, the segregated pattern of crest cell streams through the rostral somite is not maintained once these cells arrive alongside the dorsal aorta. Instead, neural crest cells disperse along the ventral outer border of the somite, interacting extensively with each other and their environment via dynamic extension and retraction of filopodia. Discrete sympathetic ganglia arise as a consequence of intermixing and selective reorganization of neural crest cells at the target site. The diverse cell migratory behaviors and active reorganization at the target suggest that cell-cell and cell-environment interactions are coordinated with dynamic molecular processes. PMID:15590743

Kasemeier-Kulesa, Jennifer C; Kulesa, Paul M; Lefcort, Frances

2005-01-01

66

Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated. PMID:20941324

Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul

2010-01-01

67

Segmentation of Nerve Bundles and Ganglia in Spine MRI Using Particle Filters  

PubMed Central

Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation. PMID:22003741

Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

2011-01-01

68

Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

2014-10-01

69

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

70

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

71

Familial calcification of the basal ganglia with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.  

PubMed Central

Two related infants with microcephaly, spastic quadriplegia, and profound retardation are reported. Both showed extensive bilateral symmetrical calcification of the basal ganglia with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Images PMID:3712392

Mehta, L; Trounce, J Q; Moore, J R; Young, I D

1986-01-01

72

Neural Representation of Time in Cortico-basal Ganglia Circuits  

E-print Network

Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia ...

Jin, Dezhe Z.

73

Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

2014-12-01

74

Alarin in cranial autonomic ganglia of human and rat.  

PubMed

Extrinsic and intrinsic sources of the autonomic nervous system contribute to choroidal innervation, thus being responsible for the control of choroidal blood flow, aqueous humor production or intraocular pressure. Neuropeptides are involved in this autonomic control, and amongst those, alarin has been recently introduced. While alarin is present in intrinsic choroidal neurons, it is not clear if these are the only source of neuronal alarin in the choroid. Therefore, we here screened for the presence of alarin in human cranial autonomic ganglia, and also in rat, a species lacking intrinsic choroidal innervation. Cranial autonomic ganglia (i.e., ciliary, CIL; pterygopalatine, PPG; superior cervical, SCG; trigeminal ganglion, TRI) of human and rat were prepared for immunohistochemistry against murine and human alarin, respectively. Additionally, double staining experiments for alarin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH), substance P (SP) were performed in human and rat ganglia for unequivocal identification of ganglia. For documentation, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used, while quantitative RT-PCR was applied to confirm immunohistochemical data and to detect alarin mRNA expression. In humans, alarin-like immunoreactivity (alarin-LI) was detected in intrinsic neurons and nerve fibers of the choroidal stroma, but was lacking in CIL, PPG, SCG and TRI. In rat, alarin-LI was detected in only a minority of cranial autonomic ganglia (CIL: 3.5%; PPG: 0.4%; SCG: 1.9%; TRI: 1%). qRT-PCR confirmed the low expression level of alarin mRNA in rat ganglia. Since alarin-LI was absent in human cranial autonomic ganglia, and only present in few neurons of rat cranial autonomic ganglia, we consider it of low impact in extrinsic ocular innervation in those species. Nevertheless, it seems important for intrinsic choroidal innervation in humans, where it could serve as intrinsic choroidal marker. PMID:25497346

Schrödl, Falk; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Bruckner, Daniela; Krefft, Karolina; Kofler, Barbara; Brandtner, Herwig; Reitsamer, Herbert A

2015-02-01

75

Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

2014-01-01

76

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure.Ganglionic AChR antibodies are

Steven Vernino; Steve Hopkins; Zhengbei Wang

2009-01-01

77

Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation  

PubMed Central

A typical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). “Neurally impaired” versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands, and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable’s motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286

Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H.

2013-01-01

78

Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time. The previous view that the basal ganglia are centers in which massive convergence of cortical information occurred has now been replaced by a view in which these structures process information in a highly specific manner, participating in anatomical and functional modules that also involve cortex and thalamus. In addition, much has been learned about the intrinsic connections of the basal ganglia. While the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry was originally seen almost exclusively in its relationship to the control of movement, these structures are now viewed as essential for higher level behavioral control, for instance in the regulation of habit learning or action selection. Probably the greatest benefit of these models has been that they have motivated a wealth of studies of the pathophysiology of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson’s disease. Such studies, in turn, have helped to reshape the existing circuit models. In this paper we review these fascinating changes of our appreciation of the basal ganglia circuitry, and comment on the current state of our knowledge in this field. PMID:20082999

DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

2014-01-01

79

A case of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a syndrome in which bilateral cerebral calcification occurs despite the absence of abnormal calcium metabolism. A 17-year-old Japanese female was admitted for investigation of intermittent proteinuria from the age of 12 years. On admission, her blood pressure was 126/60 mmHg and her serum creatinine was 0.8 mg/dL. Although computed tomography revealed bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis, her level of intelligence and neurological findings were normal, as were the results of endocrine tests including parathyroid hormone. Asymptomatic IBGC was diagnosed. Renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Peritoneal dialysis was started for end-stage renal failure when she was 24 years old. Pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs started to develop at the age of 27 years and progressed, resulting in death from aspiration pneumonia at the age of 32 years. Post-mortem revealed bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia, dentate nucleus, thalamus, and centrum semiovale. On light microscopy, there was circumferential calcification of the media and intima of affected vessels in the brain, including small arteries, small veins, and capillaries, and luminal narrowing was seen. On electron microscopy, layers of differing electron density were arranged in concentric laminae. This is the first report of IBGC with bilateral and symmetrical cerebral calcification accompanied by membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis resulting in end-stage renal failure. PMID:22001464

Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Anzai, Makoto; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Junichi; Sumida, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Eiko; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Marui, Yuji; Sawa, Naoki; Hara, Shigeko; Takaichi, Kenmei; Oohashi, Kenichi

2011-01-01

80

Genetic screening and functional characterization of PDGFRB mutations associated with basal ganglia calcification of unknown etiology.  

PubMed

Three causal genes for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) have been identified. Most recently, mutations in PDGFRB, encoding a member of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family type ?, and PDGFB, encoding PDGF-B, the specific ligand of PDGFR?, were found implicating the PDGF-B/PDGFR? pathway in abnormal brain calcification. In this study, we aimed to identify and study mutations in PDGFRB and PDGFB in a series of 26 patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank with moderate to severe basal ganglia calcification (BCG) of unknown etiology. No mutations in PDGFB were found. However, we identified one mutation in PDGFRB, p.R695C located in the tyrosine kinase domain, in one BGC patient. We further studied the function of p.R695C mutant PDGFR? and two previously reported mutants, p.L658P and p.R987W PDGFR? in cell culture. We show that, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation, the p.L658P mutation completely suppresses PDGFR? autophosphorylation, whereas the p.R695C mutation results in partial loss of autophosphorylation. For the p.R987W mutation, our data suggest a different mechanism involving reduced protein levels. These genetic and functional studies provide the first insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with PDGFRB mutations and provide further support for a pathogenic role of PDGFRB mutations in BGC. PMID:24796542

Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Baker, Matthew C; Finch, NiCole A; Nicholson, Alexandra; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa

2014-08-01

81

Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography  

SciTech Connect

The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

1990-01-01

82

Autonomic Ganglia: Target and Novel Therapeutic Tool  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacological enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. Patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10–15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome. PMID:18474849

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

83

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

84

Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?  

MedlinePLUS

... affect fertility? How is a man tested for infertility? The most common test of a man’s fertility ... of abnormally shaped sperm has been associated with infertility in some studies. Usually, higher numbers of abnormally ...

85

Rhythmic cortical neurons increase their oscillations and sculpt basal ganglia signaling during motor learning.  

PubMed

The function and modulation of neural circuits underlying motor skill may involve rhythmic oscillations (Feller, 1999; Marder and Goaillard, 2006; Churchland et al., 2012). In the proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the cortical nucleus HVC, the frequency and power of oscillatory bursting during singing increases with development (Crandall et al., 2007; Day et al., 2009). We examined the maturation of cellular activity patterns that underlie these changes. Single unit ensemble recording combined with antidromic identification (Day et al., 2011) was used to study network development in anesthetized zebra finches. Autocovariance quantified oscillations within single units. A subset of neurons oscillated in the theta/alpha/mu/beta range (8-20 Hz), with greater power in adults compared to juveniles. Across the network, the normalized oscillatory power in the 8-20 Hz range was greater in adults than juveniles. In addition, the correlated activity between rhythmic neuron pairs increased with development. We next examined the functional impact of the oscillators on the output neurons of HVC. We found that the firing of oscillatory neurons negatively correlated with the activity of cortico-basal ganglia neurons (HVC(X)s), which project to Area X (the song basal ganglia). If groups of oscillators work together to tonically inhibit and precisely control the spike timing of adult HVC(X)s with coordinated release from inhibition, then the activity of HVC(X)s in juveniles should be decreased relative to adults due to uncorrelated, tonic inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, HVC(X)s had lower activity in juveniles. These data reveal network changes that shape cortical-to-basal ganglia signaling during motor learning. PMID:23776169

Day, Nancy F; Nick, Teresa A

2013-10-01

86

BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

2010-01-01

87

Neurodevelopment. Parasympathetic ganglia derive from Schwann cell precursors.  

PubMed

Neural crest cells migrate extensively and give rise to most of the peripheral nervous system, including sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric, and dorsal root ganglia. We studied how parasympathetic ganglia form close to visceral organs and what their precursors are. We find that many cranial nerve-associated crest cells coexpress the pan-autonomic determinant Paired-like homeodomain 2b (Phox2b) together with markers of Schwann cell precursors. Some give rise to Schwann cells after down-regulation of PHOX2b. Others form parasympathetic ganglia after being guided to the site of ganglion formation by the nerves that carry preganglionic fibers, a parsimonious way of wiring the pathway. Thus, cranial Schwann cell precursors are the source of parasympathetic neurons during normal development. PMID:24925912

Espinosa-Medina, I; Outin, E; Picard, C A; Chettouh, Z; Dymecki, S; Consalez, G G; Coppola, E; Brunet, J-F

2014-07-01

88

Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

2014-01-01

89

The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds  

E-print Network

The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

Andalman, Aaron Samuel

2009-01-01

90

CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO  

PubMed Central

Long-term organotypic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a single 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and studied in the living and fixed states by light or electron microscopy at 1–14 day intervals thereafter. Within the first 4 days following irradiation, over 30% of the neurons display chromatolytic reactions (eccentric nuclei, peripheral dispersal of Nissl substance, central granular zone) as well as abnormal nucleolar changes and dissociation of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Some satellite cells undergo retraction or acute degeneration, leaving only basement membrane to cover the neuron in these areas. 8 days after irradiation, neurons also exhibit (a) areas in which ribosomes are substantially reduced, (b) regions of cytoplasmic sequestration, (c) extensive vacuolization of granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and (d) diversely altered mitochondria (including the presence of ribosome-like particles or association with abnormal glycogen and lipid deposits). Nucleolar components become altered or reoriented and may form abnormal projections and ringlike configurations. Sizeable areas of the neuronal soma are now denuded of satellite cells; underlying these areas, nerve processes are found abnormally invaginated into the neuronal cytoplasm. By the 14th day following irradiation, most neurons display marked degenerative changes including extensive regions of ribosome depletion, sequestration, vacuolization, autolysis, and, in some areas, swirls of filaments, myelin figures, and heterogeneous dense bodies. These observations demonstrate that X-irradiation produces profound cytopathological changes in nervous tissue isolated from the host and that many of these changes resemble the effects of radiation on nervous tissue in vivo. PMID:10976234

Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

1967-01-01

91

Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians  

E-print Network

Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians Kim L. Hoke the existence of a homologue of the mam- malian substantia nigra­basal ganglia circuit in the amphibian brain proposed that homologous basal ganglia circuits may exist in both amphibians and mammals (reviewed

Ryan, Michael J.

92

A movable microelectrode array for chronic basal ganglia single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording in freely behaving rats.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia-cortical circuits are important for information process to brain function. However, chronic recording of single-unit activities in the basal ganglia nucleus has not yet been well established. We present a movable bundled microwire array for chronic subthalamic nucleus (STN) single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording. The electrode assembly contains a screw-advanced microdrive and a microwire array. The array consists of a steel guide tube, five recording wires and one referenced wire which form the shape of a guiding hand, and one screw electrode for cortico-recording. The electrode can acquire stable cortex oscillation-driven STN firing units in rats under different behaving conditions for 8 weeks. We achieved satisfying signal-to-noise ratio, portions of cells retaining viability, and spike waveform similarities across the recording sections. Using this method, we investigated neural correlations of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits in different behaving conditions. This method will become a powerful tool for multi-region recording to study normal statements or movement disorders. PMID:24838541

Zheng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ting; Lin, Yuanxiang; Yu, Lianghong; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhangya; Wu, Xiyue; Chen, Fuyong; Kang, Dezhi; Zhang, Shizhong

2014-09-01

93

Non-visual functions of crustacean eyestalk ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ablation experiments demonstrated that in several crustacean groups, the proximal eyestalk ganglia are important in a variety of behavior patterns:1.Chemical elicitation of feeding via the antennules is altered in lobsters, hermit crabs, and some brachyuran crabs by bilateral eyestalk ablation; the ablation of one antennule and the contralateral eyestalk is effective in lobsters and hermit crabs;2.increased chewing of inedible

Brian A. Hazlett

1971-01-01

94

Evidence for Glutamate as a Neuroglial Transmitter within Sensory Ganglia  

PubMed Central

This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 µm) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold. PMID:23844184

Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T.; Jasmin, Luc

2013-01-01

95

Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

2005-01-01

96

Basal ganglia and thalamic tumours: an imaging approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Among brain tumours, those arising from the deep brain are rare. In many cases they are low-grade astrocytomas. But primitive neuroectodermal tumours, ganglion cell tumours, oligodendrogliomas, lymphomas, and germinal neoplasms can also grow up from the basal ganglia and thalamic region. In other occasions peripheral neoplasms developing in neighbouring structures like the cerebral lobes, the ventricular walls, choroidal plexus,

José M. García-Santos; Silvia Torres del Río; Ana Sánchez; Juan F. Martínez-Lage

2002-01-01

97

Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.  

PubMed

Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

2014-08-01

98

Simian Varicella Virus DNA in Dorsal Root Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, pathological, immunological, and virological evidence suggests that simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of primates is the counterpart of varicella-zoster virus infection of humans. To determine whether these two viruses share similarities in their properties during latency, we analyzed ganglia and brain of an African green monkey experimentally infected with SVV for the presence of viral nucleic acid using the

Ravi Mahalingam; Diana Smith; Mary Wellish; William Wolf; Aud N. Dueland; Randall Cohrs; Kenneth Soike; Donald Gilden

1991-01-01

99

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in many patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). These antibodies recognize the ?3 subunit of the ganglionic AChR, and thus do not bind non-specifically to other nicotinic AChR. Patients with high levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure, with orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia gravis, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents and impair transmission in autonomic ganglia. An animal model of AAG in the rabbit recapitulates the important clinical features of the human disease and provides additional evidence that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder caused by impairment of synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. PMID:18951069

Vernino, Steven; Hopkins, Steve; Wang, Zhengbei

2009-01-01

100

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (alpha3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in many patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). These antibodies recognize the alpha3 subunit of the ganglionic AChR, and thus do not bind non-specifically to other nicotinic AChR. Patients with high levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure, with orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia gravis, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents and impair transmission in autonomic ganglia. An animal model of AAG in the rabbit recapitulates the important clinical features of the human disease and provides additional evidence that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder caused by impairment of synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. PMID:18951069

Vernino, Steven; Hopkins, Steve; Wang, Zhengbei

2009-03-12

101

Lesch–Nyhan disease and the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize emerging evidence that the neurobehavioral features of Lesch–Nyhan disease (LND), a developmental disorder caused by congenital deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), may be attributable to dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Affected individuals have severe motor disability described by prominent extrapyramidal features that are characteristic of dysfunction of the

J. E Visser; P. R Bär; H. A Jinnah

2000-01-01

102

Basal ganglia morphology links the metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms  

PubMed Central

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors that are often comorbid with depressive symptoms. Individual components of the MetS also covary with the morphology of basal ganglia regions that are altered by depression. However, it remains unknown whether the covariation between the MetS and depressive symptomatology can be accounted for in part by morphological changes in the basal ganglia. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that increased depressive symptoms among individuals with the MetS might be statistically mediated by reduced grey matter volume in basal ganglia regions. The presence of the MetS was determined in 147 middle-aged adults using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Basal ganglia volumes were determined on an a priori basis by automated segmentation of high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Even after controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, having the MetS and meeting more MetS criteria covaried with reduced globus pallidus volume. Meeting more MetS criteria and reduced pallidal volume were also related to depressive symptoms. Moreover, the MetS-depression association was statistically mediated by pallidal volume. In summary, reduced globus pallidus volume is a neural correlate of the MetS that may partly account for its association with depressive symptoms. PMID:24096008

Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Christie, Israel C.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Gianaros, Peter J.

2014-01-01

103

Physiological evidence for a trans-basal ganglia pathway linking extrastriate visual cortex and the superior colliculus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Visually responsive regions along the cat's lateral suprasylvian (LS) sulcus provide excitatory inputs to the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC). It is via this direct cortico-collicular route that LS cortex is thought to enhance the visual activity of SC output neurons and thereby facilitate SC-mediated orientation behaviours. However, it has long been suggested that LS also might influence the SC via an ‘indirect’ route through the basal ganglia. Such a multi-synaptic route would ultimately modulate SC activity via basal ganglia output neurons in substantia nigra, pars reticulata. Using cortical electrical stimulation, the present experiments in the anaesthetized cat provide a physiological confirmation of this indirect route. Moreover, the patterns of activity evoked in antidromically identified nigro-collicular neurons indicate the involvement of multiple trans-basal ganglia pathways. The most complex evoked patterns consisted of a variable period of inhibition preceded and followed by periods of excitation. Although many neurons displayed only components of this triphasic response, these electrically evoked responses generally matched the characteristics of their responses to natural visual stimuli. Cortical stimulation evoked excitation in all of crossed nigro-collicular neurons and inhibition in the majority of uncrossed nigro-collicular neurons. These data suggest that LS activity accesses multiple trans-basal ganglia circuits that shape nigro-collicular responses that are appropriate for their SC targets. In this way, visual stimuli in one hemifield can be selected as targets for SC-mediated orientation, while simultaneously inhibiting activity in the opposite SC that might generate responses to competing targets. PMID:21986209

Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E; McHaffie, John G

2011-01-01

104

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

105

Aluminum-induced neurofilamentous changes in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia explants.  

PubMed

Intrathecal administration of aluminum (AI) salts to susceptible species causes prominent accumulations of neurofilaments (NFs) in neurons of the CNS. Involved nerve cells display abnormal phosphorylation of perikaryal NFs, impaired axonal transport of NFs, and reduced levels of mRNA for NF proteins. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of AI toxicity has been limited by difficulties inherent in the available in vivo systems. For this reason, we have developed a model to study the effects of AI on cultured sensory neurons. Explant cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were exposed to 1 mM aluminum lactate for 1 d, 3 d, or 7 d and then examined morphologically. Accumulations of NFs were noted as early as 1 d after exposure, and prominent masses of NFs were seen at 3 and 7 d. Northern analysis of mRNA extracted from the cultured ganglia showed that high, medium, and low molecular weight NF protein mRNA levels were markedly reduced compared to control values by 1 d of exposure. Class II beta-tubulin mRNA was also moderately decreased. Reversibility of toxicity was assessed by removing the aluminum lactate from the medium after a 3 d exposure and examining the cultures 1 week later. The perikaryal masses of NFs dispersed and the levels of mRNA coding for the NF proteins and class II beta-tubulin increased. The neurotoxic effects of AI on cultured DRG recapitulates the effects of intrathecal administration of AI on animals; this model produces similar changes in neuronal morphology with neurofilamentous masses and similar modifications of NF gene expression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1578268

Gilbert, M R; Harding, B L; Hoffman, P N; Griffin, J W; Price, D L; Troncoso, J C

1992-05-01

106

Facial nerve parasympathetic preganglionic afferents to the accessory otic ganglia by way of the chorda tympani nerve in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of accessory otic ganglia and connections between the ganglia and the chorda tympani nerve were investigated\\u000a in the cat in order to determine the parasympathetic preganglionic facial nerve afferents to the otic ganglia using whole\\u000a mount acetylthiocholinesterase (WATChE) histochemistry. The otic ganglia consist of a sigle main prominent ganglion and many\\u000a small accessory ganglia lying on a plexus

Satoshi Kuchiiwa; T. Kuchiiwa; Satoru Nonaka; Shiro Nakagawa

1998-01-01

107

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.  

PubMed

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-01-01

108

Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

2013-01-01

109

Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

2015-01-01

110

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds  

PubMed Central

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

2014-01-01

111

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

112

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

113

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

114

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum: further delineation of the phenotype and genotype-phenotype correlation.  

PubMed

Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a rare leukoencephalopathy that was identified using magnetic resonance imaging in 2002. In 2013, whole exome sequencing of 11 patients with the disease revealed that they all had the same de novo mutation in TUBB4A, which encodes tubulin ?-4A. We investigated the mutation spectrum in a cohort of 42 patients and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities that are indicative of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Genetic testing and a clinical inventory were performed, and sequential magnetic resonance images were evaluated using a standard protocol. The heterozygous TUBB4A mutation observed in the first 11 patients was the most common (25 patients). Additionally, 13 other heterozygous mutations were identified, located in different structural domains of tubulin ?-4A. We confirmed that the mutations were de novo in all but three patients. In two of these three cases we lacked parental DNA and in one the mutation was also found in the mother, most likely due to mosaicism. Patients showed a phenotypic continuum ranging from neonatal to childhood disease onset, normal to delayed early development and slow to more rapid neurological deterioration. Neurological symptomatology consisted of extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, spasticity, ataxia, cognitive deficit and sometimes epilepsy. Three patients died and the oldest living patient was 29 years of age. The patients' magnetic resonance images showed an absent or disappearing putamen, variable cerebellar atrophy and highly variable cerebral atrophy. Apart from hypomyelination, myelin loss was evident in several cases. Three severely affected patients had similar, somewhat atypical magnetic resonance image abnormalities. The study results were strongly suggestive of a genotype-phenotype correlation. The 25 patients with the common c.745G>A mutation generally had a less rapidly progressive disease course than the 17 cases with other TUBB4A mutations. Overall, this work demonstrates that the distinctive magnetic resonance imaging pattern for hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum defines a homogeneous clinical phenotype of variable severity. Patients almost invariably have prominent extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, which are rarely seen in patients with hypomyelination of different origin. A dominant TUBB4A mutation is also associated with dystonia type 4, in which magnetic resonance images of the brain seem normal. It is highly likely that there is a disease continuum associated with TUBB4A mutations, of which hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum and dystonia type 4 are the extremes. This would indicate that extrapyramidal movement abnormalities constitute the core feature of the disease spectrum related to dominant TUBB4A mutations and that all other features are variable. PMID:24785942

Hamilton, Eline M; Polder, Emiel; Vanderver, Adeline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Schiffmann, Raphael; Fisher, Kate; Raguž, Ana Boban; Blumkin, Luba; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J; Abbink, Truus E M; Wolf, Nicole I; van der Knaap, Marjo S

2014-07-01

115

A free-choice premium in the basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Apparently, the act of free choice confers value: when selecting between an item that you had previously chosen and an identical item that you had been forced to take, the former is often preferred. What could be the neural underpinnings of this free-choice bias in decision making? An elegant study recently published in Neuron suggests that enhanced reward learning in the basal ganglia may be the culprit. PMID:25282675

Niv, Yael; Langdon, Angela; Radulescu, Angela

2015-01-01

116

Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in treating neurodegenerative disorders.

Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

1997-01-01

117

The ganglia distributed monitoring system: design, implementation, and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganglia is a scalable distributed monitoring system for high performance computing sys- tems such as clusters and Grids. It is based on a hierarchical design targeted at federations of clusters. It relies on a multicast-based listen\\/announce protocol to monitor state within clus- ters and uses a tree of point-to-point connections amongst representative cluster nodes to fed- erate clusters and aggregate

Matthew L. Massie; Brent N. Chun; David E. Culler

2004-01-01

118

Demonstration of myenteric plexus abnormalities in genetic diseases by a microdissection technique: preliminary studies.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight specimens of esophagus, small intestine, or colon from 45 patients, predominantly infants and children, with 30 different genetic diseases were analyzed by a microdissection technique for the following abnormalities of the Auerbach (myenteric) plexus: (1) abnormality of the pattern of the nervous network of the plexus, (2) abnormal fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus, (3) abnormal size or appearance of the cytoplasm of the neurons of the plexus, and (4) abnormal number of neurons in the ganglia of the plexus. Seven of 8 specimens of esophagus from patients with neuronal storage diseases (infantile Niemann-Pick disease, Jansky-Bielschowsky disease, etc.) showed an increased fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus, whereas 2 of 3 patients with Cockayne syndrome showed a reduced fraction, with abnormally slender interganglionic fibers. The fraction of neural tissue in the plane of the plexus was also abnormal at one or more levels in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy, ataxia telangiectasia, Krabbe disease, and juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Abnormality of neuron size and cytology was seen in several neuronal lipidoses, including Jansky-Bielschowsky and Sandhoff diseases and juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, with the most striking neuronal enlargement noted in infantile Niemann-Pick disease. Abnormalities of plexus mass or pattern, as well as those of neuronal cytoplasm and neuron number, offer improved insight into possible mechanisms producing gastrointestinal tract dysfunction (swallowing difficulty, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, etc) in patients with genetic disorders. PMID:3130868

Galvis, D A; Nakazato, Y; Wells, T R; Landing, B H

1987-01-01

119

Cerebral abnormalities: use of calculated T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images for diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

The potential clinical importance of T1 and T2 relaxation times in distinguishing normal and pathologic tissue with magnetic resonance (MR) is discussed and clinical examples of cerebral abnormalities are given. Five patients with cerebral infarction, 15 with multiple sclerosis, two with Wilson disease, and four with tumors were imaged. Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents were distinguished using the spin echo technique. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, lesions had prolonged T1 and T2 times, but the definition of plaque was limited by spatial resolution. No abnormalities in signal intensity were seen in the patient with Wilson disease who was no longer severly disabled; abnormal increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found in the second patient with Wilson disease. Four tumors produced abnormal T1 and T2 relaxation times but these values alone were not sufficient for tumor characterization.

Mills, C.M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

1984-01-01

120

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

121

Motoneuron development influences dorsal root ganglia survival and Schwann cell development in a vertebrate model of spinal muscular atrophy.  

PubMed

Low levels of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN) cause the disease spinal muscular atrophy. A primary characteristic of this disease is motoneuron dysfunction and paralysis. Understanding why motoneurons are affected by low levels of SMN will lend insight into this disease and to motoneuron biology in general. Motoneurons in zebrafish smn mutants develop abnormally; however, it is unclear where Smn is needed for motoneuron development since it is a ubiquitously expressed protein. We have addressed this issue by expressing human SMN in motoneurons in zebrafish maternal-zygotic (mz) smn mutants. First, we demonstrate that SMN is present in axons, but only during the period of robust motor axon outgrowth. We also conclusively demonstrate that SMN acts cell autonomously in motoneurons for proper motoneuron development. This includes the formation of both axonal and dendritic branches. Analysis of the peripheral nervous system revealed that Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons developed abnormally in mz-smn mutants. Schwann cells did not wrap axons tightly and had expanded nodes of Ranvier. The majority of DRG neurons had abnormally short peripheral axons and later many of them failed to divide and died. Expressing SMN just in motoneurons rescued both of these cell types showing that their failure to develop was secondary to the developmental defects in motoneurons. Driving SMN just in motoneurons did not increase survival of the animal, suggesting that SMN is needed for motoneuron development and motor circuitry, but that SMN in other cells types factors into survival. PMID:25180019

Hao, Le Thi; Duy, Phan Q; Jontes, James D; Beattie, Christine E

2015-01-15

122

Shape Savvy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help your students identify these different shapes! Learn your shapes with Big Bird s Shapes and then Make Designs with Shapes to create objects! You better know your colors to Paint the Shapes correctly! ...

Popwell, Ms.

2010-09-22

123

Evaluation of Cytotoxic Responses Caused by Selected Organophosphorus Esters in Chick Sympathetic Ganglia Cultures  

PubMed Central

Ten day old chick sympathetic ganglia cultured in a microslide assembly were treated with a selected group of organophosphate pesticides to evaluate their cytotoxicity ranges, and the usefulness of such a model for screening pesticides. Examination by phase contrast and light microscopy for chemically-induced morphological alteration of nerve fibers, glial cells and neurons provided the criteria for quantitation and assessment of the toxic effects. Concentrations that produced half-maximal effects ranged from 1 × 10-6M (severely toxic) for methylparathian, diazinon, paraoxon, mevinphos, diisopropylfluorophosphate, tri-o-tolyl phosphate and its mixed isomers to a 1 × 10-3M (intermediate) for malathion, leptophos, coumaphos, mono- and dicrotophos. Some or no effects were evident at 1 × 102-M for O'ethyl-O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl phosphonothioate, tri-m-tolylphosphate, chlorpyriphos and triphenyl phosphate. In all instances, nerve fibers were more sensitive than neurons or glial cells to insecticides. All cellular growth was inhibited at 1 × 10-2M (except triphenyl phosphate). Below 1 x 10-7M, no inhibitory effects were evident. The secondary abnormalities included decreased cellular migration, diffuse cellular growth pattern, increased vacuolization, nerve fiber swelling and cellular degeneration. The cytotoxic effects of these chemicals do not appear to be related to in vivo toxicity or cholinesterase inhibition potential. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:565668

Obersteiner, E. J.; Sharma, R. P.

1978-01-01

124

Subclinical Visuospatial Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: The Role of Basal Ganglia and Limbic System  

PubMed Central

Background: Visual perception deficits are a recurrent manifestation in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recently, structural abnormalities of fronto-parietal areas and subcortical regions, implicated in visual stimuli analysis, have been observed in PD patients with cognitive decline and visual hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salient aspects of visual perception in cognitively unimpaired PD patients. Methods: Eleven right-handed non-demented right-sided onset PD patients without visuospatial impairment or hallucinations and 11 healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a specific visuoperceptual/visuospatial paradigm that allowed to highlight the specific process underlying visuospatial judgment. Results: Significant changes in both cortical areas and subcortical regions involved in visual stimuli processing were observed. In particular, PD patients showed a reduced activation for the right insula, left putamen, bilateral caudate, and right hippocampus, as well as an over-activation of the right dorso-lateral prefrontal and of the posterior parietal cortices, particularly in the right hemisphere. Conclusions: We found that both loss of efficiency and compensatory mechanisms occur in PD patients, providing further insight into the pathophysiological role of the functional alterations of basal ganglia and limbic structures in the impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions observed in PD. PMID:25157239

Caproni, Stefano; Muti, Marco; Di Renzo, Antonio; Principi, Massimo; Caputo, Nevia; Calabresi, Paolo; Tambasco, Nicola

2014-01-01

125

http://www.tutis.ca/NeuroMD/index.htm 23 March 2013 Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia  

E-print Network

..................................................................................4 Basic Circuit........................................................................................................................4 Parallel and climbing fiber input has a very different effect on Purkinje cells...........................................................................................................................16 The circuit of the basal ganglia

Vilis, Tutis

126

Diagnosis of the Abnormality Extracted MRI Slice Images of a GUI Based Intelligent Diagnostic Imaging System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis is the Key feature of an Intelligent Diagnostic Imaging System (IDIS). This paper describes the major diagnosis depending on the shape, texture, and area of the abnormality. Abnormality extraction is the vital step in a series of processes aimed at overall image understanding. Region based segmentation is used for abnormality extraction. This paper also describes author defined algorithms for

Jose Alex Mathew; A. M. Khan; U. C. Niranjan

2011-01-01

127

Disconnection of a basal ganglia circuit in juvenile songbirds attenuates the spectral differentiation of song syllables.  

PubMed

Similar to language acquisition by human infants, juvenile male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) imitate an adult (tutor) song by transitioning from repetitive production of one or two undifferentiated protosyllables to the sequential production of a larger and spectrally heterogeneous set of syllables. The primary motor region that controls learned song is driven by a confluence of input from two premotor pathways: a posterior pathway that encodes the adult song syllables and an anterior pathway that includes a basal ganglia (BG)-thalamo-cortical circuit. Similar to mammalian motor-learning systems, the songbird BG circuit is thought to be necessary for shaping juvenile vocal behaviour (undifferentiated protosyllables) toward specific targets (the tutor's song syllables). Here, we tested the hypothesis that anterior pathway activity contributes to the process of protosyllable differentiation. Bilateral ablation of lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) was used to disconnect BG circuitry at ages before protosyllable production and differentiation. Comparison to surgical controls revealed that protosyllables fail to differentiate in birds that received juvenile LMAN ablation--the adult songs of birds with >80% bilateral LMAN ablation consisted of only one or two syllables produced with the repetitive form and spectral structure that characterizes undifferentiated protosyllables in normal juveniles. Our findings support a role for BG circuitry in shaping juvenile vocal behaviour toward the acoustic structure of the tutor song and suggest that posterior pathway function remains in an immature "default" state when developmental interaction with the anterior pathway is reduced or eliminated. PMID:24218118

Elliott, Kevin C; Wu, Wei; Bertram, Richard; Johnson, Frank

2014-06-01

128

Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

2014-10-01

129

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

130

Shape Times Shape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem helps children become familiar with the idea of a symbol (in this case a shape) representing a number. Students also have an opportunity to see the multiplication properties of one and zero in a challenging puzzle. By studying the twelve multiplication equations which use eleven different colored shapes, students are to determine each shape's unique number value from a list of 0 to 12. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, support with down loadable handouts and a link to an extension activity, What's It Worth? (cataloged separately).

2007-08-01

131

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277

Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

2014-07-01

132

Cytotoxic responses of selected insecticides in chick ganglia cultures.  

PubMed Central

Various agricultural chemicals, e.g. pesticides, are known to cause different toxic effects in man and animals. Some of these produce responses involving the nervous tissue. Total of 52 such chemicals, representing organophosphates, carbamates and other miscellaneous insecticides were evaluated to determine their relative cytotoxic effects in avian dorsal root ganglia cultures. Many of these chemicals caused a slight stimulation of cellular growth at very low concentrations. At toxic concentrations, a dose-related but nonspecific inhibition of cell growth occurred. The cytotoxic changes included the decreased migration of cells from the culture implant, varicosities in and shortening of various cells and vacuolization and rounding of neuroglial cells. At high concentrations, pigmentary degeneration and complete abolition of cell growth were observed. The toxic effects were numerically scored in a random blind fashion and the concentrations of individual chemicals to produce a half maximal effect (IC50) in culture were determined from the dose-response curves. The IC50 values for various chemicals ranged from approximately 10(-6) M for compounds like methylparathion, diazinon, paraoxon and Vendex to greater than 10(-2) M for chlorpyriphos and methylchlorpyriphos. No significant correlations of nerve fiber or glial cell cytotoxicity were apparent with other toxic or physico-chemical properties such as lethal dose in animals, cholinesterase inhibition, lipophilicity or water solubility of chemicals. Clinically neurotoxic and nonneurotoxic compounds caused similar cytotoxic effects in ganglia cultures. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7272842

Sharma, R P; Obersteiner, E J

1981-01-01

133

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

134

What are the computations of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical notion that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia are dedicated to motor control is under dispute given increasing evidence of their involvement in non-motor functions. Is it then impossible to characterize the functions of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex in a simplistic manner? This paper presents a novel view that their computational roles can

Kenji Doya

1999-01-01

135

Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when…

Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

2009-01-01

136

Stepping out of the box: information processing in the neural networks of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Albin-DeLong ‘box and arrow’ model has long been the accepted standard model for the basal ganglia network. However, advances in physiological and anatomical research have enabled a more detailed neural network approach. Recent computational models hold that the basal ganglia use reinforcement signals and local competitive learning rules to reduce the dimensionality of sparse cortical information. These models predict

Izhar Bar-Gad; Hagai Bergman

2001-01-01

137

Information processing, dimensionality reduction and reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of the basal ganglia has played a major role in our understanding of this elusive group of nuclei. Models of the basal ganglia have undergone evolutionary and revolutionary changes over the last 20 years, as new research in the fields of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of these nuclei has yielded new information. Early models dealt with a single pathway

Izhar Bar-Gad; Genela Morris; Hagai Bergman

2003-01-01

138

Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function. According to this classical model, activation of the `direct' pathway facilitates movement and activation of the `indirect' pathway inhibits movement. However, more recent anatomical and functional evidence

Alexxai V. Kravitz; Benjamin S. Freeze; Philip R. L. Parker; Kenneth Kay; Myo T. Thwin; Karl Deisseroth; Anatol C. Kreitzer

2010-01-01

139

Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry  

E-print Network

LETTERS Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia of basal ganglia circuitry in vivo, using optogenetic control11­14 of direct- and indirect-pathway medium motor deficits. To obtain selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways in vivo, we

Schnitzer, Mark

140

Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium  

E-print Network

L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

Boyer, Edmond

141

Actor critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor- critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and

Daphna Joel; Yael Niv; Eytan Ruppin

142

Locust flight behavior after hemisection of individual thoracic ganglia: evidence for hemiganglionic premotor centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flight behavior of locusts with hemisected mesothoracic or metathoracic ganglia was observed in unrestrained animals and monitored electromyographically in tethered animals. Animals with hemisected mesothoracic ganglia were able to initiate and carry out free flight. Hemisection of the mesothoracic ganglion caused no significant changes in the pattern of flight muscle firing; both intra- and intersegmental coordination of flight muscle

Bernhard Ronacher; Harald Wolf; Heinrich Reichert

1988-01-01

143

Temporal dynamics of basal ganglia response and connectivity during verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the neural basis of working memory (WM) has generally focused on neocortical regions; comparatively little is known about the role of subcortical structures. There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia are involved in WM, but their contribution to different component processes of WM is poorly understood. We examined the temporal dynamics of basal ganglia response and connectivity

Catherine Chang; Sonia Crottaz-Herbette; Vinod Menonb

144

The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia: Models for the study of neuronal networks and basic neuronal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia regulate various visceral functions and in particular the digestive tract motility. Several integrative properties of these ganglia have been described: convergence of central inputs, projection of visceral inputs at the pre- and post synaptic level and pacemaker activity of the neurones. This review presents the results obtained on another integrative property which has been widely

Caroline Fasano; Jean-Pierre Niel

2009-01-01

145

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

146

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

147

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

148

Changes in P2X 3 purinoceptors in sensory ganglia of the mouse during embryonic and postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of the P2X 3 nucleotide receptor in embryonic day 14–18, postnatal day 1–14 and adult mouse sensory ganglia was examined using immunohistochemistry. Nearly all sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia, trigeminal ganglia and nodose ganglia in embryos at embryonic day 14 expressed P2X 3 receptors, but after birth there was a gradual decline to about 50% of neurons showing positive immunostaining

Huai Zhen Ruan; Eamonn Moules; Geoffrey Burnstock

2004-01-01

149

Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

150

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

151

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

152

Changing Views of Basal Ganglia Circuits and Circuit Disorders  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) have long been considered to play an important role in the control of movement and the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies over the past decades have considerably broadened this view, indicating that the BG participate in multiple, parallel, largely segregated, cortico-subcortical reentrant pathways involving motor, associative and limbic functions. Research has shown that dysfunction within individual circuits is associated not only with movement disorders, but also with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, a number of movement disorders and neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette’s syndrome are viewed as “circuit disorders.” We here discuss the changes in our current understanding of the anatomic and functional organization of BG circuits and related circuit disorders. PMID:20521487

DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

2014-01-01

153

Basal ganglia output to the thalamus: still a paradox  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia (BG) recipient thalamus controls motor output but it remains unclear how its activity is regulated. Several studies report that thalamic activation occurs via disinhibition during pauses in the firing of inhibitory pallidal inputs from the BG. Other studies indicate that thalamic spiking is triggered by pallidal inputs via post-inhibitory ‘rebound’ calcium spikes. Finally excitatory cortical inputs can drive thalamic activity, which becomes entrained, or time-locked, to pallidal spikes. We present a unifying framework where these seemingly distinct results arise from a continuum of thalamic firing ‘modes’ controlled by excitatory inputs. We provide a mechanistic explanation for paradoxical pallidothalamic coactivations observed during behavior and raise new questions of what information is integrated in the thalamus to control behavior. PMID:24188636

Farries, Michael A.; Fee, Michale S.

2013-01-01

154

Dorsal Root Ganglia Damage in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is currently the most common neurological complication of chronic HIV infection and continues to substantially affect patient quality of life. Mechanisms underlying the neuronal damage and loss observed in sensory ganglia of HIV-infected individuals have not been sufficiently studied. The present study aimed to develop and characterize a model of HIV-SN using SIV-infected CD8 T-lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Uninfected controls (n = 5), SIV-infected CD8-depleted (n = 4), and SIV-infected non-CD8-depleted (n = 6) animals were used. Of the six non-CD8-depleted animals, three were conventional progressors (progressing to AIDS >1 year after infection) and three were rapid progressors (AIDS within 6 months). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were examined for histological hallmarks of HIV-SN, including satellitosis, presence of Nageotte nodules, and neuronophagia, as well as increased numbers of CD68+ macrophages and abundant viral replication. In contrast to non-CD8-depleted animals, which had mild to moderate DRG pathology, the CD8-depleted SIV-infected animals had moderate to severe DRG damage, with increased numbers of CD68+ satellite cells. Additionally, there was marked active viral replication in the affected DRG. These findings confirm that many features of HIV-SN can be recapitulated in the CD8-depleted SIV-infected rhesus macaque model within a short time frame and illustrate the importance of this model for study of sensory neuropathy. PMID:22322298

Burdo, Tricia H.; Orzechowski, Krystyna; Knight, Heather L.; Miller, Andrew D.; Williams, Kenneth

2012-01-01

155

Laterality, somatotopy and reproducibility of the basal ganglia and motor cortex during motor tasks.  

PubMed

We investigated the basal ganglia, motor cortex area 4, and supplementary motor area (SMA) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and five motor tasks: switching between finger and toe movements, writing, finger tapping, pronation/supination, and saccadic eye movements. We found reliable activation in the caudate nucleus and putamen in single subjects without the need for inter-subject averaging. Percent signal changes in basal ganglia were smaller by a factor of three than those in SMA or motor cortex (1% vs. 2.5-3%). There was a definite foot-dorsal, hand-ventral basal ganglia somatotopy, similar to prior data from primates. Saccadic eye movements activated the caudate nucleus significantly more than the other tasks did. Unilateral movements produced bilateral activation in the striatum even when motor cortex activation was unilateral. Surprisingly, bilateral performance of the tasks led, on average, to consistently smaller basal ganglia activation than did unilateral performance (P<0.001), suggesting less inhibition of contralateral movements during bilateral tasks. Moreover, there was a striking dominance pattern in basal ganglia motor activation: the left basal ganglia were more active than the right for right handers, regardless of the hand used. This lateralization appears much stronger than that previously reported for motor cortex. Comparisons of inter-subject and intra-subject reproducibility indicated a much larger variability in basal ganglia and SMA compared to motor cortex, in spite of similar percent signal changes in the latter two structures. PMID:11011024

Scholz, V H; Flaherty, A W; Kraft, E; Keltner, J R; Kwong, K K; Chen, Y I; Rosen, B R; Jenkins, B G

2000-10-01

156

Frequency and Abundance of Alphaherpesvirus DNA in Human Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Alphaherpesvirus reactivation from thoracic sympathetic ganglia (TSG) and transaxonal spread to target organs cause human visceral disease. Yet alphaherpesvirus latency in TSG has not been well characterized. In this study, quantitative PCR detected varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and HSV-2 DNA in 117 fresh TSG obtained postmortem from 15 subjects. VZV DNA was found in 76 (65%) ganglia from all subjects, HSV-1 DNA was found in 5 (4%) ganglia from 3 subjects, and no HSV-2 was found. PMID:24789785

Rempel, April; Huntington, Jonathon; Kim, Forrest; Choe, Alexander; Gilden, Don

2014-01-01

157

Shape Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will go on a shape hunt in the classroom or designated area. During the shape hunt, students will draw pictures of the shapes they find and the object that it is found by, in order to show the position of the shape. After the shape hunt, students will use Timed-Pair-Share to explain to peers what shapes they found and their relative positions.

Meghan Hauptli

2012-06-11

158

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

159

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

160

Mechanism of parkinsonian neuronal oscillations in the primate basal ganglia: some considerations based on our recent work  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia (BG) contribute to the manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms. In this article, we would like to summarize our recent work on the mechanism underlying abnormal oscillations in the parkinsonian state and discuss its significance in pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. We recorded neuronal activity in the BG of parkinsonian monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Systemic administration of L-DOPA alleviated parkinsonian motor signs and decreased abnormal neuronal oscillations (8–15 Hz) in the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Inactivation of the STN by muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist) injection also ameliorated parkinsonian signs and suppressed GPi oscillations. The blockade of glutamatergic inputs to the STN by local microinjection of a mixture of 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (glutamatergic NMDA receptor antagonist) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) suppressed neuronal oscillations in the STN. STN oscillations were also attenuated by the blockade of GABAergic neurotransmission from the GPe to the STN by muscimol inactivation of the GPe. These results suggest that cortical glutamatergic inputs to the STN and reciprocal GPe-STN interconnections are both important for the generation and amplification of the oscillatory activity of GPe and STN neurons in the parkinsonian state. The oscillatory activity in the STN is subsequently transmitted to the GPi and may contribute to manifestation of parkinsonian symptoms. PMID:24904309

Nambu, Atsushi; Tachibana, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

161

The involvement of the primate frontal cortex-basal ganglia system in arbitrary visuomotor association learning  

E-print Network

It is the goal of this thesis to examine the frontal cortex-basal ganglia system during arbitrary visuomotor association learning, the forming of arbitrary links between visual stimuli and motor responses (e.g. red means ...

Machon, Michelle S

2009-01-01

162

A Case Report of Basal Ganglia Calcification - A Rare Finding of Hypoparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Physiological intracranial calcification occurs in about 0.3-1.5% of cases. It is asymptomatic and detected incidentally by neuroimaging. Pathological basal ganglia calcification is due to various causes, such as: metabolic disorders, infectious and genetic diseases. Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are the most common causes of pathological basal ganglia calcification. Besides tetany and seizures this condition is presented by parkinsonism and dementia. Such parkinsonism does not respond to drugs containing levodopa. Infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, cysticercosis, AIDS) give multiple and asymmetric intracranial calcification. Inherited and neurodegenerative diseases cause symmetrical, bilateral basal ganglia calcification which is not related to metabolic disorders. Since adequate treatment of hypoparathyroidism may lead to marked clinical improvement, serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) is suggested to be determined in all individuals with calcification of the basal ganglia to rule out hypoparathyroidism. PMID:22224190

Basak, Ramen C.

2009-01-01

163

REINFORCEMENT DRIVEN DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION -A MODEL FOR INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE BASAL GANGLIA  

E-print Network

GANGLIA Izhar Bar-Gad 1 Eytan Ruppin 2 and Hagai Bergman 1,3 1 Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew. Correspondence To: Izhar Bar-Gad Department of Physiology The Hebrew University ­ Hadassah Medical School P

Ruppin, Eytan

164

Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise  

PubMed Central

Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

2012-01-01

165

A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors  

E-print Network

In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown. It has recently been shown ...

Andalman, Aaron S.

166

Modeling the role of the basal ganglia in motor control and motor programming  

E-print Network

The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of highly interconnected nuclei buried deep in the brain. They are involved in an important range of brain functions, including both lower-level movement control and higher-level cognitive ...

Mao, Zhi-Hong, 1972-

2005-01-01

167

The basal ganglia within a cognitive system in birds and mammals.  

PubMed

The primate basal ganglia are fundamental to Ackermann et al.'s proposal. However, primates and rodents are models for human cognitive functions involving basal ganglia circuits, and links between striatal function and vocal communication come from songbirds. We suggest that the proposal is better integrated in cognitive and/or motor theories on spoken language origins and with more analogous nonhuman animal models. PMID:25514958

Petkov, Christopher I; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-12-01

168

Basal ganglia volumetric studies in affective disorder: what did we learn in the last 15 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Until today, morphometric neuroimaging studies on affective disorders concentrate on the limbic system, especially the hippocampus,\\u000a amygdala, and anterior cingulate. In most of the studies and reviews available today, the basal ganglia are of secondary interest.\\u000a It seems that the basal ganglia are interest of neurologist, whereas the limbic system is reserved for psychiatric neuroimaging\\u000a studies. We follow a different

R. M. Bonelli; H.-P. Kapfhammer; S. S. Pillay; D. A. Yurgelun-Todd

2006-01-01

169

NonStationary Shape Activities: Tracking & Abnormality Detection  

E-print Network

motion. Valid model for: Distant PTZ camera rotated to align with line of sight Random jitter of UAV · Use estimated global motion to control a PTZ camera or a UAV to "follow" a "moving" activity 9 #12;A · Sensor independent approach ­ Observations may be obtained using any sensor, e.g. audio, infra-red, radar

Vaswani, Namrata

170

Localization and Function of GABA Transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

GABA transporter type 1 and 3 (GAT-1 and GAT-3, respectively) are the two main subtypes of GATs responsible for the regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the central nervous system. These transporters are widely expressed in neuronal (mainly GAT-1) and glial (mainly GAT-3) elements throughout the brain, but most data obtained so far relate to their role in the regulation of GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic tonic and phasic inhibition in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Taking into consideration the key role of GABAergic transmission within basal ganglia networks, and the importance for these systems to be properly balanced to mediate normal basal ganglia function, we analyzed in detail the localization and function of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the globus pallidus of normal and Parkinsonian animals, in order to further understand the substrate and possible mechanisms by which GABA transporters may regulate basal ganglia outflow, and may become relevant targets for new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of basal ganglia-related disorders. In this review, we describe the general features of GATs in the basal ganglia, and give a detailed account of recent evidence that GAT-1 and GAT-3 regulation can have a major impact on the firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons through pre- and post-synaptic GABAA- and GABAB-receptor-mediated effects. PMID:21847373

Jin, Xiao-Tao; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland

2011-01-01

171

Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops  

PubMed Central

The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

2014-01-01

172

Role of the basal ganglia in switching a planned response.  

PubMed

The ability to perform an appropriate response in the presence of competing alternatives is a critical facet of human behavioral control. This is especially important if a response is prepared for execution but then has to be changed suddenly. A popular hypothesis of basal ganglia (BG) function suggests that its direct and indirect pathways could provide a neural mechanism to rapidly switch from one planned response to an alternative. However, if one response is more dominant or 'automatic' than the other, the BG might have a different role depending on switch direction. We built upon the pro- and antisaccade tasks, two models of automatic and voluntary behavior, respectively, and investigated whether the BG are important for switching any planned response in general, or if they are more important for switching from a more automatic response to a response that is more difficult to perform. Subjects prepared either a pro- or antisaccade but then had to switch it unexpectedly on a subset of trials. The results revealed increased striatal activation for switching from a pro- to an antisaccade but this did not occur for switching from an anti- to a prosaccade. This activation pattern depended on the relative difficulty in switching, and it was distinct from frontal eye fields, an area shown to be more active for antisaccade trials than for prosaccade trials. This suggests that the BG are important for compensating for differences in response difficulty, facilitating the rapid switching of one response for another. PMID:19508693

Cameron, Ian G M; Coe, Brian C; Watanabe, Masayuki; Stroman, Patrick W; Munoz, Douglas P

2009-06-01

173

Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds.  

PubMed

Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori; Goldberg, Jesse H

2015-02-01

174

Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

2015-02-11

175

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

176

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

177

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

178

Clinico-radiological Characteristics of Spontaneous Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage, According to Regional Classification  

PubMed Central

Objective The clinico-radiologic features of the spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) may often differ one from another, according to its regional location. Therefore, we attempted to classify the BGH into regional subgroups, and to extrapolate the distinct characteristics of each group of BGH. Materials and Methods A total of 103 BGHs were analyzed by retrospective review of medical records. BGH was classified according to four subgroups; anterior BGH; posterior BGH; lateral BGH; massive BGH. Results The most common BGH was the posterior BGH (56, 54.4%), followed by the lateral BGH (26, 25.2%), the massive BGH (12, 11.7%), and the anterior BGH (9, 8.7%). The shape of hemorrhage tended to be round in anterior, irregular in posterior, and ovoid in lateral BGH. A layered density of hematoma on initial computed tomography showed correlation with hematoma expansion (p = 0.016), which was observed more often in the postero-lateral group of BGH than in the anterior BGH group. Relatively better recovery from the initial insult was observed in the lateral BGH group than in the other regional BGH groups. The proportion of poor outcome (modified Rankin scale 4, 5, 6) was 100% in the massive, 41.1% in the posterior, 34.6% in the lateral, and 0% in the anterior BGH group. Conclusion We observed that BGH can be grouped according to its regional location and each group may have distinct characteristics. Thus, a more sophisticated clinical strategy tailored to each group of BGHs can be implemented. PMID:25340023

Kim, Do Young; Choo, Yeon Soo; Jang, E Wook; Chung, Joonho; Joo, Jin Yang

2014-01-01

179

Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.  

PubMed

In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

2013-01-01

180

Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain  

PubMed Central

We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure. PMID:18991959

Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

2009-01-01

181

Automated segmentation of multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted MRI hypointensities  

PubMed Central

Multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted (T2*w) hypointensities, which are believed to arise mainly from vascular mineralization, were recently proposed as a novel MRI biomarker for small vessel disease and ageing. These T2*w hypointensities are typically segmented semi-automatically, which is time consuming, associated with a high intra-rater variability and low inter-rater agreement. To address these limitations, we developed a fully automated, unsupervised segmentation method for basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. This method requires conventional, co-registered T2*w and T1-weighted (T1w) volumes, as well as region-of-interest (ROI) masks for the basal ganglia and adjacent internal capsule generated automatically from T1w MRI. The basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities were then segmented with thresholds derived with an adaptive outlier detection method from respective bivariate T2*w/T1w intensity distributions in each ROI. Artefacts were reduced by filtering connected components in the initial masks based on their standardised T2*w intensity variance. The segmentation method was validated using a custom-built phantom containing mineral deposit models, i.e. gel beads doped with 3 different contrast agents in 7 different concentrations, as well as with MRI data from 98 community-dwelling older subjects in their seventies with a wide range of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. The method produced basal ganglia T2*w hypointensity masks that were in substantial volumetric and spatial agreement with those generated by an experienced rater (Jaccard index = 0.62 ± 0.40). These promising results suggest that this method may have use in automatic segmentation of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities in studies of small vessel disease and ageing. PMID:25451469

Glatz, Andreas; Bastin, Mark E.; Kiker, Alexander J.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.

2015-01-01

182

Automated segmentation of multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted MRI hypointensities.  

PubMed

Multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted (T2*w) hypointensities, which are believed to arise mainly from vascular mineralization, were recently proposed as a novel MRI biomarker for small vessel disease and ageing. These T2*w hypointensities are typically segmented semi-automatically, which is time consuming, associated with a high intra-rater variability and low inter-rater agreement. To address these limitations, we developed a fully automated, unsupervised segmentation method for basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. This method requires conventional, co-registered T2*w and T1-weighted (T1w) volumes, as well as region-of-interest (ROI) masks for the basal ganglia and adjacent internal capsule generated automatically from T1w MRI. The basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities were then segmented with thresholds derived with an adaptive outlier detection method from respective bivariate T2*w/T1w intensity distributions in each ROI. Artefacts were reduced by filtering connected components in the initial masks based on their standardised T2*w intensity variance. The segmentation method was validated using a custom-built phantom containing mineral deposit models, i.e. gel beads doped with 3 different contrast agents in 7 different concentrations, as well as with MRI data from 98 community-dwelling older subjects in their seventies with a wide range of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. The method produced basal ganglia T2*w hypointensity masks that were in substantial volumetric and spatial agreement with those generated by an experienced rater (Jaccard index=0.62±0.40). These promising results suggest that this method may have use in automatic segmentation of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities in studies of small vessel disease and ageing. PMID:25451469

Glatz, Andreas; Bastin, Mark E; Kiker, Alexander J; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Valdés Hernández, Maria C

2015-01-15

183

Shape Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will compare two and three dimensional shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangle, cone, cylinder, sphere, cube) by differentiating them according to attributes. Students explain attributes of shapes by exploring real world objects.

2013-01-21

184

Leaf Shape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of leaf shapes. The single Web page, which can be easily printed for use at field sites, shows five leaf shapes.

185

Intraneuronal angiotensinergic system in rat and human dorsal root ganglia  

PubMed Central

To elucidate the local formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the neurons of sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we studied the expression of angiotensinogen (Ang-N)-, renin-, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)- and cathepsin D-mRNA, and the presence of protein renin, Ang II, Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the rat and human thoracic DRG. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) studies revealed that rat DRG expressed substantial amounts of Ang-N- and ACE mRNA, while renin mRNA as well as the protein renin were untraceable. Cathepsin D-mRNA and cathepsin D-protein were detected in the rat DRG indicating the possibility of existence of pathways alternative to renin for Ang I formation. Angiotensin peptides were successfully detected with high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay in human DRG extracts. In situ hybridization in rat DRG confirmed additionally expression of Ang-N mRNA in the cytoplasm of numerous neurons. Intracellular Ang II staining could be shown in number of neurons and their processes in both the rat and human DRG. Interestingly we observed neuronal processes with angiotensinergic synapses en passant, colocalized with synaptophysin, within the DRG. In the DRG, we also identified by qRT-PCR, expression of Ang II receptor AT1A and AT2-mRNA while AT1B-mRNA was not traceable. In some neurons Substance P and CGRP were found colocalized with Ang II. The intracellular localization and colocalization of Ang II with Substance P and CGRP in the DRG neurons may indicate a participation and function of Ang II in the regulation of nociception. In conclusion, these results suggest that Ang II may be produced locally in the neurons of rat and human DRG and act as a neurotransmitter. PMID:20346377

Patil, Jaspal; Schwab, Alexander; Nussberger, Juerg; Schaffner, Thomas; Saavedra, Juan M.; Imboden, Hans

2010-01-01

186

Invited Article: Autonomic ganglia: target and novel therapeutic tool.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (alpha 3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacologic enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. The patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10-15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome. PMID:18474849

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A

2008-05-13

187

Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats and Its Correction by Insulin Treatment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Impairments in mitochondrial physiology may play a role in diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in sensory neurons is due to abnormal mitochondrial respiratory function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rates of oxygen consumption were measured in mitochondria from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of 12- to- 22-week streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin, and age-matched controls. Activities and expression of components of mitochondrial complexes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed. RESULTS Rates of coupled respiration with pyruvate + malate (P + M) and with ascorbate + TMPD (Asc + TMPD) in DRG were unchanged after 12 weeks of diabetes. By 22 weeks of diabetes, respiration with P + M was significantly decreased by 31–44% and with Asc + TMPD by 29–39% compared with control. Attenuated mitochondrial respiratory activity of STZ-diabetic rats was significantly improved by insulin that did not correct other indices of diabetes. Activities of mitochondrial complexes I and IV and the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, were decreased in mitochondria from DRG of 22-week STZ-diabetic rats compared with control. ROS levels in perikarya of DRG neurons were not altered by diabetes, but ROS generation from mitochondria treated with antimycin A was diminished compared with control. Reduced mitochondrial respiratory function was associated with downregulation of expression of mitochondrial proteins. CONCLUSIONS Mitochondrial dysfunction in sensory neurons from type 1 diabetic rats is associated with impaired rates of respiratory activity and occurs without a significant rise in perikaryal ROS. PMID:20103706

Chowdhury, Subir K. Roy; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Smith, Darrell R.; Akude, Eli; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Fernyhough, Paul

2010-01-01

188

Shape Detective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons). The students will also be able to correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size by becoming detectives and going in a "hunt" to find the needed shapes.

Curran, Carissa

2012-06-11

189

A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ganglia in particular. The aim of our review is to explore some of these basal ganglia pathologies and provide image illustrations. PMID:24900164

Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

2014-01-01

190

RNA complementary to herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 gene demonstrated in neurons of human trigeminal ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies with mice have demonstrated abundant RNA transcripts which are complementary (antisense) to the herpes alpha gene ICP0 in latently infected ganglia. We investigated the situation in unselected human trigeminal ganglia. Strand-specific 2.7-kilobase herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 RNA probes were prepared, and their sense was determined in productively infected cells. Although in situ hybridization demonstrated ICP0 antisense RNA transcripts in the nuclei of neurons in 46% of the ganglia, ICP0 messenger RNA was not found in any of the ganglia. We conclude that HSV-1 antisense ICP0 RNA is present in humans during ganglionic latency. Images PMID:2451758

Gordon, Y J; Johnson, B; Romanowski, E; Araullo-Cruz, T

1988-01-01

191

Impacting infant head shapes.  

PubMed

Infant sleep position impacts the development of head shape. Changes in infant sleep position, specifically the movement toward supine sleep, have led to a redefinition of normal head shape for infants in the United States. Historically, a dolichocephalic (elongated) head shape was the norm. Currently the norm has changed to a more brachycephalic (shorter and broader) shape. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics' Back to Sleep Campaign, the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased dramatically with a concurrent rise in the incidence of torticollis. Infants who require newborn intensive care, particularly premature infants, are more prone to positional plagiocephaly and dolichocephaly. Both can be prevented or minimized by proper positioning. The infant with an abnormal head shape requires careful evaluation; treatment varies according to the etiology. Craniosynostosis, a less common but pathological etiology for plagiocephaly, should be considered in the diagnostic process. Successful treatment of positional plagiocephaly and dolichocephaly includes systematic positioning changes to overcome the mechanical forces of repetitive positioning, physical and/or occupational therapy to treat underlying muscle or developmental challenges, and in some cases, molding helmet therapy. PMID:16338671

Hummel, Pat; Fortado, Dana

2005-12-01

192

Exercise-induced changes in basal ganglia volume and cognition in older adults.  

PubMed

Physical activity has been demonstrated to diminish age-related brain volume shrinkage in several brain regions accompanied by a reduction of age-related decline in cognitive functions. Most studies investigated the impact of cardiovascular fitness or training. Other types of fitness or training are less well investigated. In addition, little is known about exercise effects on volume of the basal ganglia, which, however, are involved in motor activities and cognitive functioning. In the current study (1) we examined the relationships of individual cardiovascular and motor fitness levels with the volume of the basal ganglia (namely caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) and selected cognitive functions (executive control, perceptual speed). (2) We investigated the effect of 12-month training interventions (cardiovascular and coordination training, control group stretching and relaxation) on the volume of the respective basal ganglia nuclei. Results revealed that motor fitness but not cardiovascular fitness was positively related with the volume of the putamen and the globus pallidus. Additionally, a moderating effect of the volume of the basal ganglia (as a whole, but also separately for putamen and globus pallidus) on the relationship between motor fitness and executive function was revealed. Coordination training increased caudate and globus pallidus volume. We provide evidence that coordinative exercise seems to be a favorable leisure activity for older adults that has the potential to improve volume of the basal ganglia. PMID:25255932

Niemann, C; Godde, B; Staudinger, U M; Voelcker-Rehage, C

2014-09-22

193

Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus  

PubMed Central

Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

2014-01-01

194

Oscillations in the basal ganglia under normal conditions and in movement disorders.  

PubMed

A substantial body of work within the last decade has demonstrated that there is a variety of oscillatory phenomena that occur in the basal ganglia and in associated regions of the thalamus and cortex. Most of the earlier studies focused on recordings in rodents and primates. More recently, significant advances have been made in this field of research through the analysis of basal ganglia field potentials recorded from implanted deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia of human patients with Parkinson's disease and other disorders. It now appears that oscillatory activity may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The most significant finding is that in Parkinson's disease synchronized oscillatory activity in the 10- to 35-Hz band (often termed "beta-band") is prevalent in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, and that such activity can be reduced by dopaminergic treatments. The entrainment of large portions of these circuits may disrupt information processing in them and may lead to parkinsonian akinesia (and perhaps tremor). Although less firmly established than the role of oscillations in movement disorders, oscillatory activities at higher frequencies may also be a component of normal basal ganglia physiology. PMID:16830313

Gatev, Plamen; Darbin, Olivier; Wichmann, Thomas

2006-10-01

195

Anatomy of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males.  

PubMed

It is well accepted that the aortic plexus is a network of pre- and post-ganglionic nerves overlying the abdominal aorta, which is primarily involved with the sympathetic innervation to the mesenteric, pelvic and urogenital organs. Because a comprehensive anatomical description of the aortic plexus and its connections with adjacent plexuses are lacking, these delicate structures are prone to unintended damage during abdominal surgeries. Through dissection of fresh, frozen human cadavers (n = 7), the present study aimed to provide the first complete mapping of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males. Using standard histochemical procedures, ganglia of the aortic plexus were verified through microscopic analysis using haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase stains. All specimens exhibited four distinct sympathetic ganglia within the aortic plexus: the right and left spermatic ganglia, the inferior mesenteric ganglion and one previously unidentified ganglion, which has been named the prehypogastric ganglion by the authors. The spermatic ganglia were consistently supplied by the L1 lumbar splanchnic nerves and the inferior mesenteric ganglion and the newly characterized prehypogastric ganglion were supplied by the left and right L2 lumbar splanchnic nerves, respectively. Additionally, our examination revealed the aortic plexus does have potential for variation, primarily in the possibility of exhibiting accessory splanchnic nerves. Clinically, our results could have significant implications for preserving fertility in men as well as sympathetic function to the hindgut and pelvis during retroperitoneal surgeries. PMID:25382240

Beveridge, Tyler S; Johnson, Marjorie; Power, Adam; Power, Nicholas E; Allman, Brian L

2015-01-01

196

Do Basal Ganglia Amplify Willed Action by Stochastic Resonance? A Model  

PubMed Central

Basal ganglia are usually attributed a role in facilitating willed action, which is found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease, a pathology of basal ganglia. We hypothesize that basal ganglia possess the machinery to amplify will signals, presumably weak, by stochastic resonance. Recently we proposed a computational model of Parkinsonian reaching, in which the contributions from basal ganglia aid the motor cortex in learning to reach. The model was cast in reinforcement learning framework. We now show that the above basal ganglia computational model has all the ingredients of stochastic resonance process. In the proposed computational model, we consider the problem of moving an arm from a rest position to a target position: the two positions correspond to two extrema of the value function. A single kick (a half-wave of sinusoid, of sufficiently low amplitude) given to the system in resting position, succeeds in taking the system to the target position, with high probability, only at a critical noise level. But for suboptimal noise levels, the model arm's movements resemble Parkinsonian movement symptoms like akinetic rigidity (low noise) and dyskinesias (high noise). PMID:24302984

Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

2013-01-01

197

A method of nodose ganglia injection in Sprague-Dawley rat.  

PubMed

Afferent signaling via the vagus nerve transmits important general visceral information to the central nervous system from many diverse receptors located in the organs of the abdomen and thorax. The vagus nerve communicates information from stimuli such as heart rate, blood pressure, bronchopulmonary irritation, and gastrointestinal distension to the nucleus of solitary tract of the medulla. The cell bodies of the vagus nerve are located in the nodose and petrosal ganglia, of which the majority are located in the former. The nodose ganglia contain a wealth of receptors for amino acids, monoamines, neuropeptides, and other neurochemicals that can modify afferent vagus nerve activity. Modifying vagal afferents through systemic peripheral drug treatments targeted at the receptors on nodose ganglia has the potential of treating diseases such as sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or chronic cough. The protocol here describes a method of injection neurochemicals directly into the nodose ganglion. Injecting neurochemicals directly into the nodose ganglia allows study of effects solely on cell bodies that modulate afferent nerve activity, and prevents the complication of involving the central nervous system as seen in systemic neurochemical treatment. Using readily available and inexpensive equipment, intranodose ganglia injections are easily done in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:25490160

Calik, Michael W; Radulovacki, Miodrag; Carley, David W

2014-01-01

198

[Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24726042

Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

2014-01-01

199

Patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in malformations of cortical development  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether different types of malformation of cortical development (MCD) are associated with specific patterns of hippocampal abnormalities. Methods A total of 122 consecutive patients with MRI diagnosis of MCD (53 males, age range 1–58 years) were included in the study. Hippocampal measurements were made on 1–3?mm coronal T1?weighted MRIs and compared with MRIs of normal controls. Results A total of 39 patients had focal cortical dysplasia, 5 had hemimegalencephaly, 5 had lissencephaly?agyria?pachygyria, 11 had SLH, 11 had PNH, 12 had bilateral contiguous PNH, 5 had schizencephaly, and 34 had polymicrogyria. The frequency of hippocampal abnormalities in these patients with MCD was 29.5%. A small hippocampus was present in all types of MCD. Only patients with lissencephaly and SLH had an enlarged hippocampus. Abnormalities in hippocampal rotation and shape were present in all types of MCD; however, these predominated in PNH. None of the patients with lissencephaly?agyria?pachygyria or SLH had hyperintense signal on T2 or FLAIR images or abnormal hippocampal internal architecture. Conclusion A small hippocampus was present in all types of MCD; however, the classic MRI characteristics of hippocampal sclerosis were often lacking. Abnormal enlargement of the hippocampus was associated with only diffuse MCD due to abnormal neuronal migration (lissencephaly?agyria?pachygyria and SLH). PMID:16484646

Montenegro, M A; Kinay, D; Cendes, F; Bernasconi, A; Bernasconi, N; Coan, A C; Li, L M; Guerreiro, M M; Guerreiro, C A M; Lopes?Cendes, I; Andermann, E; Dubeau, F; Andermann, F

2006-01-01

200

Seizure-induced brain lesions: a wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities.  

PubMed

Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p=0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p=0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention. PMID:23787273

Cianfoni, A; Caulo, M; Cerase, A; Della Marca, G; Falcone, C; Di Lella, G M; Gaudino, S; Edwards, J; Colosimo, C

2013-11-01

201

A Genome-Wide Screen to Identify Transcription Factors Expressed in Pelvic Ganglia of the Lower Urinary Tract  

PubMed Central

Relative positions of neurons within mature murine pelvic ganglia based on expression of neurotransmitters have been described. However the spatial organization of developing innervation in the murine urogenital tract (UGT) and the gene networks that regulate specification and maturation of neurons within the pelvic ganglia of the lower urinary tract (LUT) are unknown. We used whole-mount immunohistochemistry and histochemical stains to localize neural elements in 15.5?days post coitus (dpc) fetal mice. To identify potential regulatory factors expressed in pelvic ganglia, we surveyed expression patterns for known or probable transcription factors (TF) annotated in the mouse genome by screening a whole-mount in situ hybridization library of fetal UGTs. Of the 155 genes detected in pelvic ganglia, 88 encode TFs based on the presence of predicted DNA-binding domains. Neural crest (NC)-derived progenitors within the LUT were labeled by Sox10, a well-known regulator of NC development. Genes identified were categorized based on patterns of restricted expression in pelvic ganglia, pelvic ganglia and urethral epithelium, or pelvic ganglia and urethral mesenchyme. Gene expression patterns and the distribution of Sox10+, Phox2b+, Hu+, and PGP9.5+ cells within developing ganglia suggest previously unrecognized regional segregation of Sox10+ progenitors and differentiating neurons in early development of pelvic ganglia. Reverse transcription-PCR of pelvic ganglia RNA from fetal and post-natal stages demonstrated that multiple TFs maintain post-natal expression, although Pax3 is extinguished before weaning. Our analysis identifies multiple potential regulatory genes including TFs that may participate in segregation of discrete lineages within pelvic ganglia. The genes identified here are attractive candidate disease genes that may now be further investigated for their roles in malformation syndromes or in LUT dysfunction. PMID:22988430

Wiese, Carrie B.; Ireland, Sara; Fleming, Nicole L.; Yu, Jing; Valerius, M. Todd; Georgas, Kylie; Chiu, Han Sheng; Brennan, Jane; Armstrong, Jane; Little, Melissa H.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

2012-01-01

202

Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson’s disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson’s disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of the basal ganglia associated with the control of habitual behaviour. These patients may therefore be forced into a progressive reliance on the goal-directed mode of action control that is mediated by comparatively preserved processing in the rostromedial striatum. Thus, many of their behavioural difficulties may reflect a loss of normal automatic control owing to distorting output signals from habitual control circuits, which impede the expression of goal-directed action. PMID:20944662

Redgrave, Peter; Rodriguez, Manuel; Smith, Yoland; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Lehericy, Stephane; Bergman, Hagai; Agid, Yves; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Obeso, Jose A.

2011-01-01

203

Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS) with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30?Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended. PMID:24307961

Nanda, Ashish; Litofsky, N. Scott

2013-01-01

204

Dopamine transporter SPECT/CT and perfusion brain SPECT imaging in idiopathic basal ganglia calcinosis.  

PubMed

A case of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification in a 56-year-old woman with parkinsonism and cognitive impairment is described. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and regional cerebral blood flow were evaluated using dopamine transporter (DAT) brain single photon emission tomography combined with a low-dose x-ray computerized tomography transmission (hybrid SPECT/CT) and Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT study, respectively. DAT SPECT/CT imaging revealed a reduction in DAT binding in both striatum regions coinciding with bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia. Brain perfusion scan showed hypoperfusion in basal ganglia regions, posterior parietal cortex bilaterally, left frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left temporal lobe. These findings correlated well with the clinical condition of the patient. Mineralization may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration. Cortical perfusion changes in patients may better explain the patient's altered cognitive and motor functions. PMID:19542944

Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Messinis, Lambros; Markaki, Elli; Constantoyannis, Constantine; Ellul, John; Vassilakos, Pavlos

2009-07-01

205

[A pathomechanism for the genesis of dystonia: striatal compartments and hypothesized model of basal ganglia circuits].  

PubMed

X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP; DYT3; Lubag) is an adult-onset disorder that manifests severe and progressive dystonia with a high frequency of generalization. In search for the anatomical basis for dystonia, we performed postmortem analyses of the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia based on the striatal compartments (i.e., the striosomes and matrix compartment) in XDP. Our study showed that in the XDP neostriatum, the matrix compartment is relatively spared in a mosaic pattern, whereas the striosomes are severely depleted. In view of the three-pathway basal ganglia model, we postulate that the disproportionate involvement of neostriatal compartments and their efferent projections may underlie the manifestation of dystonia in patients with XDP. This study is the first to show specific basal ganglia pathology that could explain the genesis of dystonia in human heredodegenerative movement disorders, suggesting that dystonia may result from an imbalance in the activity between the striosomal and matrix pathways. PMID:17432234

Goto, Satoshi

2006-11-01

206

Age and Immune Status of Rhesus Macaques Impact Simian Varicella Virus Gene Expression in Sensory Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) recapitulates the hallmarks of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of humans, including the establishment of latency within the sensory ganglia. Various factors, including age and immune fitness, influence the outcome of primary VZV infection, as well as reactivation resulting in herpes zoster (HZ). To increase our understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the establishment of viral latency, we analyzed the latent SVV transcriptome in juvenile RMs depleted of CD4 T, CD8 T, or CD20 B lymphocytes during acute infection. We have previously shown that SVV latency in sensory ganglia of nondepleted juvenile RMs is associated with a limited transcriptional profile. In contrast, CD4 depletion during primary infection resulted in the failure to establish a characteristic latent viral transcription profile in sensory ganglia, where we detected 68 out of 69 SVV-encoded open reading frames (ORFs). CD-depleted RMs displayed a latent transcriptional profile that included additional viral transcripts within the core region of the genome not detected in control RMs. The latent transcriptome of CD20-depleted RMs was comparable to the latent transcription in the sensory ganglia of control RMs. Lastly, we investigated the impact of age on the establishment of SVV latency. SVV gene expression was more active in ganglia from two aged RMs than in ganglia from juvenile RMs, with 25 of 69 SVV transcripts detected. Therefore, immune fitness at the time of infection modulates the establishment and/or maintenance of SVV latency. PMID:23698305

Meyer, Christine; Dewane, Jesse; Kerns, Amelia; Haberthur, Kristen; Barron, Alex; Park, Byung

2013-01-01

207

Shape Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on lesson, students will become Shape Detectives as they identify the two-dimensional shapes, such as triangles, squares and rectangles, needed to build three-dimensional figures including rectangular prisms, square pyramids and cubes. The students will gain an understanding of how two-dimensional shapes are joined together to form three-dimensional figures as well as creating an edible example!

Ward, Stan

2012-07-31

208

Skeletal abnormalities in the Apert syndrome.  

PubMed

This paper reports on skeletal abnormalities in 38 patients with Apert syndrome. Analysis includes alterations in the shoulders, humeri, elbows, hips, knees, rib cage, and spine (except the cervical spine). Some patients had subacromial dimples and elbow dimples during infancy. Mobility at the glenohumeral joint was limited. Progressive limitation in abduction, forward flexion, and external rotation with growth was virtually a constant finding. The acromioclavicular joint was prominent and sometimes had an angular, pointed appearance clinically. This was often associated with atrophic musculature and winging of the scapulae. Limited elbow mobility was common and usually mild in degree. Decreased elbow extension was most often found with decreased flexion, pronation, and supination occurring less frequently. Limited elbow mobility did not change significantly with growth in contrast to the increasing severity observed in the shoulder joint. Short humeri were a constant finding beyond infancy and genua valga of mild degree were present in many cases. Radiographic examination strongly suggests that the Apert syndrome is characterized by a multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. We found delay in appearance of postnatal ossification centers, particularly in the humeral head, greater tuberosity, capitulum, and radial head. Subsequently, these bones became abnormal in shape. Glenoid dysplasia was observed consistently. The neck of the scapula was very short or absent and the inferior margin of the glenoid cavity was poorly demarcated from the infraglenoid tubercle. The humeral head became oblong in shape with relative prominence of the greater tuberosity which compromised abduction. In the elbow, the capitulum was often small and the radial head was flat in many instances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8266987

Cohen, M M; Kreiborg, S

1993-10-01

209

Phenotypic spectrum of probable and genetically-confirmed idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is characterized by mineral deposits in the brain, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in most cases and genetic heterogeneity. The first causal genes, SLC20A2 and PDGFRB, have recently been reported. Diagnosing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification necessitates the exclusion of other causes, including calcification related to normal ageing, for which no normative data exist. Our objectives were to diagnose accurately and then describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification. First, calcifications were evaluated using a visual rating scale on the computerized tomography scans of 600 consecutively hospitalized unselected controls. We determined an age-specific threshold in these control computerized tomography scans as the value of the 99th percentile of the total calcification score within three age categories: <40, 40-60, and >60 years. To study the phenotype of the disease, patients with basal ganglia calcification were recruited from several medical centres. Calcifications that rated below the age-specific threshold using the same scale were excluded, as were patients with differential diagnoses of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, after an extensive aetiological assessment. Sanger sequencing of SLC20A2 and PDGFRB was performed. In total, 72 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, 25 of whom bore a mutation in either SLC20A2 (two families, four sporadic cases) or PDGFRB (one family, two sporadic cases). Five mutations were novel. Seventy-one per cent of the patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification were symptomatic (mean age of clinical onset: 39 ± 20 years; mean age at last evaluation: 55 ± 19 years). Among them, the most frequent signs were: cognitive impairment (58.8%), psychiatric symptoms (56.9%) and movement disorders (54.9%). Few clinical differences appeared between SLC20A2 and PDGFRB mutation carriers. Radiological analysis revealed that the total calcification scores correlated positively with age in controls and patients, but increased more rapidly with age in patients. The expected total calcification score was greater in SLC20A2 than PDGFRB mutation carriers, beyond the effect of the age alone. No patient with a PDGFRB mutation exhibited a cortical or a vermis calcification. The total calcification score was more severe in symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. We provide the first phenotypical description of a case series of patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification since the identification of the first causative genes. Clinical and radiological diversity is confirmed, whatever the genetic status. Quantification of calcification is correlated with the symptomatic status, but the location and the severity of the calcifications don't reflect the whole clinical diversity. Other biomarkers may be helpful in better predicting clinical expression. PMID:24065723

Nicolas, Gaël; Pottier, Cyril; Charbonnier, Camille; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Labauge, Pierre; Ayrignac, Xavier; Defebvre, Luc; Maltête, David; Martinaud, Olivier; Lefaucheur, Romain; Guillin, Olivier; Wallon, David; Chaumette, Boris; Rondepierre, Philippe; Derache, Nathalie; Fromager, Guillaume; Schaeffer, Stéphane; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Verny, Christophe; Jurici, Snejana; Sauvée, Mathilde; Vérin, Marc; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Rouaud, Olivier; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rousseau, Stéphane; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier

2013-11-01

210

[Prevalence and clinical significance of computerized tomography verified idiopathic calcinosis of the basal ganglia].  

PubMed

With increasing CT examinations of the cerebrum, the discovery of basal ganglia calcification becomes more frequent. In order to correlate these calcifications to the symptoms believed to be accompanied with Fahr's disease 2318 cranial CT scans were examined. There was an overall incidence of basal ganglia calcification of 12.5%. The most frequent location was the globus pallidus (96.4%). In the examined population there was no correlation found between the calcifications and symptoms having been described with striopallidentate calcifications. PMID:11253108

Gomille, T; Meyer, R A; Falkai, P; Gaebel, W; Königshausen, T; Christ, F

2001-02-01

211

Anatomy of giant serotonin-containing neurones in the cerebral ganglia of Helix pomatia and Limax maximus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a giant serotonin-containing neurone (GSC) in each cerebral ganglion of Helix pomatia and Limax maximus. In Helix, presynaptic endings of the GSCs are located in the buccal ganglia and peripheral musculature. Dense-cored vesicles of mean diameter 100 nm were observed in the perikarya and the axon branches of the GSCs within the cerebral ganglia. Evidence is presented which

V. W. Pentreath; N. N. Osborne; G. A. Cottrell

1973-01-01

212

Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

2010-01-01

213

Intramuscular nerve distribution in bladder and the relationship between intramuscular ganglia and bladder function in man and dog  

PubMed Central

In clinical, the relationship between bladder intramuscular nerve and function is also elusive. This study aims to compare the bladder intramuscular nerve distribution and its characteristics and significance in human and dog. Eleven dogs’ bladders were stained by Sihler’s and HE techniques. Fifteen human bladders were adopted by Sihler’s staining, using 10% formaldehyde to fix 12 weeks, 7 by HE dyeing fixes 24 hours. Results indicated that man’s bladder was triangularpyramid-shaped. While dog’s bladder was spherical-shaped and its muscle fibers arrange were irregularly shaped. Longitudinal muscle of the outer layer is fleshy, the terminal is at the bladder neck without exception, and vesical trigone has relatively obvious three layers of structure. After dyeing dog’s bladder was transparent jelly, the nerve was purple color, enter bladder at the ureter-bladder junction with different forms. Man’s bladder nerves, no ganglion, were more trivial than that of dogs, and with smaller branches, the large nerve ganglion. The links with the nerve fibers and forms the network on the dog’s bladder wall, and the nerve fibers crosses comparatively little on both the left and right sides in the midline. The right nerve branch gains advantage on the man’s bladder wall, the situations is opposite on the dog’s. In conclusion, bladder nerves which scatter to the bladder wall have branches to lower ureter at the ureter-bladder junction, the structure and distribution of intramuscular nerves are different, the existence of intramuscular ganglia is relating to the bladder function both in man and dog.

Zhao, Zeju; Xu, Qian; Lu, Li; Luo, Xu; Fu, Xiaoyun

2014-01-01

214

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

215

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-08-01

216

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

217

Molecule Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore molecule shapes by building molecules in 3D! How does molecule shape change with different numbers of bonds and electron pairs? Find out by adding single, double or triple bonds and lone pairs to the central atom. Then, compare the model to real molecules!

Simulations, Phet I.; Moore, Emily; Olson, Jonathan; Lancaster, Kelly; Chamberlain, Julia; Perkins, Kathy

2011-10-10

218

Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

2012-02-01

219

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

220

Unusual ciliary abnormalities in three 9/11 response workers.  

PubMed

After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York in 2001, thousands of response workers were exposed to complex mixtures of toxins, pollutants, and carcinogens. Many developed illnesses involving the respiratory tract. We report unusual ultrastructural ciliary abnormalities in 3 response workers that corresponded to their respiratory and ciliary functional abnormalities. Each patient had respiratory cilia biopsies that were evaluated for motility and ultrastructural changes. Impaired ciliary motility was seen in 2 of the 3 patients. Each of the patients showed monomorphic ultrastructural abnormalities. Two of the patients showed identical triangular disarray of axonemal microtubules with peripheral doublets 1,4, and 7 forming the corners of the triangle and doublet 9 always more medially displaced than doublets 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. Two workers had cilia in which axonemes were replaced by homogeneously dense cores. One of these also had cilia with triangular axonemes as previously described. The other had cilia with a geometric triangular to pentagonal shape. The ciliary abnormalities described here may represent a new class of primary ciliary dyskinesia in which abnormalities may have a genetic basis and a phenotypic expression that is prompted at the cellular level by local environmental conditions. PMID:21370679

McMahon, James T; Aslam, Rizwan; Schell, Stephen E

2011-01-01

221

The sensory guidance of movement: a comparison of the cerebellum and basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used positron emission tomography (PET) to compare the contribution of the cerebellum and basal ganglia to the sensory guidance of movement. In one condition the subjects used a computer mouse to draw a series of lines on a computer screen (DRAW). In the second condition the same lines were presented to the subjects, and they had to track the

J. Jueptner; M. Jueptner; I. H. Jenkins; D. J. Brooks; R. S. J. Frackowiak; R. E. Passingham

1996-01-01

222

Basal ganglia network by constrained spherical deconvolution: A possible cortico-pallidal pathway?  

PubMed

In the recent past, basal ganglia circuitry was simplified as represented by the direct and indirect pathways and by hyperdirect pathways. Based on data from animal studies, we hypothesized a fourth pathway, the cortico-pallidal, pathway, that complements the hyperdirect pathway to the subthalamus. Ten normal brains were analyzed by using the high angular resolution diffusion imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based technique. The study was performed with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Achieva, Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands); by using a 32-channel SENSE head coil. We showed that CSD is a powerful technique that allows a fine evaluation of both the long and small tracts between cortex and basal ganglia, including direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways. In addition, a pathway directly connecting the cortex to the globus pallidus was seen. Our results confirm that the CSD tractography is a valuable technique allowing a reliable reconstruction of small- and long-fiber pathways in brain regions with multiple fiber orientations, such as basal ganglia. This could open a future scenario in which CSD could be used to focally target with deep brain stimulation (DBS) the small bundles within the basal ganglia loops. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25156805

Milardi, Demetrio; Gaeta, Michele; Marino, Silvia; Arrigo, Alessandro; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Mormina, Enricomaria; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Milazzo, Carmelo; Finocchio, Giovanni; Baglieri, Annalisa; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Quartarone, Angelo

2014-08-22

223

The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2009-01-01

224

Corticobasal ganglia circuit mechanism for a decision threshold in reaction time tasks  

E-print Network

Cortico­basal ganglia circuit mechanism for a decision threshold in reaction time tasks Chung that in reaction time tasks, a perceptual choice is made when the firing rate of a selective cortical neural to describe the main computational steps in a reaction time task and suggests that separate brain pathways

Wang, Xiao-Jing

225

The corticostriatal projection: from synaptic plasticity to dysfunctions of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticostriatal transmission has an important function in the regulation of the neuronal activity of the basal ganglia. The firing activity of corticostriatal neurones excites striatal cells via the release of glutamate. Presynaptic receptors that are located on corticostriatal terminals and that regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum have been postulated for dopamine and glutamate. Activation of these receptors

Paolo Calabresi; Antonio Pisani; Nicola B. Mercuri; Giorgio Bernardi

1996-01-01

226

The clinical significance of bilateral basal ganglia calcification presenting with mania and delusions.  

PubMed

The authors present the case of a 37-year-old man who developed a psychotic manic episode and was found to have bilateral basal ganglia calcification (BGC). The authors present this case report along with a discussion of the literature on the neuropsychiatry of BGC. PMID:23487196

Johnson, Justin M; Legesse, Benalfew; Camprodon, Joan A; Murray, Evan; Price, Bruce H

2013-01-01

227

Differential contributions of basal ganglia and thalamus to song initiation, tempo, and structure.  

PubMed

Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are multistage loops critical to motor behavior, but the contributions of individual components to overall circuit function remain unclear. We addressed these issues in a songbird basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit (the anterior forebrain pathway, AFP) specialized for singing and critical for vocal plasticity. The major known afferent to the AFP is the premotor cortical nucleus, HVC. Surprisingly, previous studies found that lesions of HVC alter song but do not eliminate the ability of the AFP to drive song production. We therefore used this AFP-driven song to investigate the role of basal ganglia and thalamus in vocal structure, tempo, and initiation. We found that lesions of the striatopallidal component (Area X) slowed song and simplified its acoustic structure. Elimination of the thalamic component (DLM) further simplified the acoustic structure of song and regularized its rhythm but also dramatically reduced song production. The acoustic structure changes imply that sequential stages of the AFP each add complexity to song, but the effects of DLM lesions on song initiation suggest that thalamus is a locus of additional inputs important to initiation. Together, our results highlight the cumulative contribution of stages of a basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit to motor output along with distinct involvement of thalamus in song initiation or "gating." PMID:24174647

Chen, J R; Stepanek, L; Doupe, A J

2014-01-01

228

Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia  

E-print Network

-equivalent dose of antipsychotics. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that patients with schizophrenia. High-dose first generation antipsychotics may disrupt BG-dependent learning by blocking dopaminergic; Learning; Memory; Antipsychotics; Parkinsonism; Medial temporal lobe; Basal ganglia; Acquired equivalence 1

Gluck, Mark

229

Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

2010-01-01

230

Identifiable Achatina giant neurones: Their localizations in ganglia, axonal pathways and pharmacological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant neurones were identified in

Hiroshi Takeuchi; Yoko Araki; Muhammad Emaduddin; Wei Zhang; Xiao Yan Han; Thucydides L. Salunga; Shu Min Wong

1996-01-01

231

Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state  

PubMed Central

In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy.

Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

2015-01-01

232

The inhibitory microcircuit of the substantia nigra provides feedback gain control of the basal ganglia output  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001 PMID:24849626

Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate

2014-01-01

233

Providing Explicit Information Disrupts Implicit Motor Learning after Basal Ganglia Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their purported neuroanatomic and functional isolation, empirical evidence suggests that sometimes conscious explicit processes can influence implicit motor skill learning. Our goal was to determine if the provision of explicit information affected implicit motor-sequence learning after damage to the basal ganglia. Individuals with stroke…

Boyd, Lara A.; Winstein, Carolee J.

2004-01-01

234

Basal ganglia and supplementary motor area subtend duration perception: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain imaging studies on duration perception usually report the activation of a network that includes the frontal and mesiofrontal cortex (supplementary motor area, SMA), parietal cortex, and subcortical areas (basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum). To address the question of the specific involvement of these structures in temporal processing, we contrasted two visual discrimination tasks in which the relevant stimulus dimension

A. M. Ferrandez; L. Hugueville; S. Lehericy; J. B. Poline; C. Marsault; V. Pouthasa

2003-01-01

235

Effects of Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions on Timing and Force Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of basal ganglia dysfunction in humans have generally involved patients with degenerative disorders, notably Parkinson's disease. In many instances, the performance of these patients is compared to that of patients with focal lesions of other brain structures such as the cerebellum. In the present report, we studied the performance of…

Aparicio, P.; Diedrichsen, J.; Ivry, R.B.

2005-01-01

236

Differential contributions of basal ganglia and thalamus to song initiation, tempo, and structure  

PubMed Central

Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are multistage loops critical to motor behavior, but the contributions of individual components to overall circuit function remain unclear. We addressed these issues in a songbird basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit (the anterior forebrain pathway, AFP) specialized for singing and critical for vocal plasticity. The major known afferent to the AFP is the premotor cortical nucleus, HVC. Surprisingly, previous studies found that lesions of HVC alter song but do not eliminate the ability of the AFP to drive song production. We therefore used this AFP-driven song to investigate the role of basal ganglia and thalamus in vocal structure, tempo, and initiation. We found that lesions of the striatopallidal component (Area X) slowed song and simplified its acoustic structure. Elimination of the thalamic component (DLM) further simplified the acoustic structure of song and regularized its rhythm but also dramatically reduced song production. The acoustic structure changes imply that sequential stages of the AFP each add complexity to song, but the effects of DLM lesions on song initiation suggest that thalamus is a locus of additional inputs important to initiation. Together, our results highlight the cumulative contribution of stages of a basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit to motor output along with distinct involvement of thalamus in song initiation or “gating.” PMID:24174647

Chen, J. R.; Doupe, A. J.

2013-01-01

237

Histochemical Localization of Caldesmon in the CNS and Ganglia of the Mouse  

PubMed Central

The author has recently reported the distribution of the cytoskeleton-associated protein caldesmon in spleen and lymph nodes detected with different antibodies against caldesmon (J Histochem Cytochem 58:183–193, 2010). Here the author reports the distribution of caldesmon in the CNS and ganglia of the mouse using the same antibodies. Western blot analysis of mouse brain and spinal cord showed the preponderance of l-caldesmon and suggested at least two l-caldesmon isoforms in the brain. Immunostaining revealed the predominant reactivity of smooth muscle cells and cells resembling pericytes of many large and small blood vessels, ependymocytes, and secretory cells of the pineal gland and pituitary gland. Neuronal perikarya and neuropil in general displayed no or weak immunoreactivity, but there was stronger labeling of neuronal perikarya in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. In the brain, staining of the neuropil was stronger in the molecular layers of the dentate gyrus and cerebellum. Results show that caldesmon is expressed in many different cell types in the CNS and ganglia, consistent with the notion that l-caldesmon is ubiquitously expressed, but it appears most concentrated in smooth muscle cells, pericytes, epithelial cells, secretory cells, and neuronal perikarya in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. PMID:21411712

Köhler, Christoph N.

2011-01-01

238

How may the basal ganglia contribute to auditory categorization and speech perception?  

PubMed Central

Listeners must accomplish two complementary perceptual feats in extracting a message from speech. They must discriminate linguistically-relevant acoustic variability and generalize across irrelevant variability. Said another way, they must categorize speech. Since the mapping of acoustic variability is language-specific, these categories must be learned from experience. Thus, understanding how, in general, the auditory system acquires and represents categories can inform us about the toolbox of mechanisms available to speech perception. This perspective invites consideration of findings from cognitive neuroscience literatures outside of the speech domain as a means of constraining models of speech perception. Although neurobiological models of speech perception have mainly focused on cerebral cortex, research outside the speech domain is consistent with the possibility of significant subcortical contributions in category learning. Here, we review the functional role of one such structure, the basal ganglia. We examine research from animal electrophysiology, human neuroimaging, and behavior to consider characteristics of basal ganglia processing that may be advantageous for speech category learning. We also present emerging evidence for a direct role for basal ganglia in learning auditory categories in a complex, naturalistic task intended to model the incidental manner in which speech categories are acquired. To conclude, we highlight new research questions that arise in incorporating the broader neuroscience research literature in modeling speech perception, and suggest how understanding contributions of the basal ganglia can inform attempts to optimize training protocols for learning non-native speech categories in adulthood. PMID:25136291

Lim, Sung-Joo; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

2014-01-01

239

Brain MR imaging in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: relationship between high intensity signal in basal ganglia on T1-weighted images and elemental concentrations in brain.  

PubMed

In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, the globus pallidus and putamen show high intensity on T1-weighted MRI. While the causes of this high signal have been thought to include paramagnetic substances, especially manganese, no evidence for this has been presented. Autopsy in four cases of hepatic cirrhosis permitted measurement of metal concentrations in brain and histopathological examination. In three cases the globus pallidus showed high intensity on T1-weighted images. Mean manganese concentrations in globus pallidus, putamen and frontal white matter were 3.03 +/- 0.38, 2.12 +/- 0.37, and 1.38 +/- 0.24 (micrograms/g wet weight), respectively, being approximately four- to almost ten-fold the normal values. Copper concentrations in globus pallidus and putamen were also high, 50% more than normal. Calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium concentrations were all normal. The fourth case showed no abnormal intensity in the basal ganglia and brain metal concentrations were all normal. Histopathologically, cases with showing high signal remarkable atrophy, necrosis, and deciduation of nerve cells and proliferation of glial cells and microglia in globus pallidus.. These findings were similar to those in chronic manganese poisoning. On T1-weighted images, copper deposition shows no abnormal intensity. It is therefore inferred that deposition of highly concentrations of manganese may caused high signal on T1-weighted images and nerve cell death in the globus pallidus. PMID:9272489

Maeda, H; Sato, M; Yoshikawa, A; Kimura, M; Sonomura, T; Terada, M; Kishi, K

1997-08-01

240

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

241

Cortical folding abnormalities in autism revealed by surface-based morphometry.  

PubMed

We tested for cortical shape abnormalities using surface-based morphometry across a range of autism spectrum disorders (7.5-18 years of age). We generated sulcal depth maps from structural magnetic resonance imaging data and compared typically developing controls to three autism spectrum disorder subgroups: low-functioning autism, high-functioning autism, and Asperger's syndrome. The low-functioning autism group had a prominent shape abnormality centered on the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus that was associated with a sulcal depth difference in the anterior insula and frontal operculum. The high-functioning autism group had bilateral shape abnormalities similar to the low-functioning group, but smaller in size and centered more posteriorly, in and near the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus. Individuals with Asperger's syndrome had bilateral abnormalities in the intraparietal sulcus that correlated with age, intelligence quotient, and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised social and repetitive behavior scores. Because of evidence suggesting age-related differences in the developmental time course of neural alterations in autism, separate analyses on children (7.5-12.5 years of age) and adolescents (12.75-18 years of age) were also carried out. All of the cortical shape abnormalities identified across all ages were more pronounced in the children. These findings are consistent with evidence of an altered trajectory of early brain development in autism, and they identify several regions that may have abnormal patterns of connectivity in individuals with autism. PMID:17959814

Nordahl, Christine Wu; Dierker, Donna; Mostafavi, Iman; Schumann, Cynthia M; Rivera, Susan M; Amaral, David G; Van Essen, David C

2007-10-24

242

Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

2011-12-01

243

Remodelling of the intracardiac ganglia in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: an anatomical study  

PubMed Central

Background Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM. Methods Twelve GK rats (276?±?17 days of age; mean?±?standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262?±?5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area. Results The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0?±?0.6 vs. 5.9?±?0.1 mmol/l, p?ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4?±?0.1 vs. 2.2?±?0.1 mm2, p?ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state. PMID:23758627

2013-01-01

244

Mineral composition of and the relationships between them of human basal ganglia in very old age.  

PubMed

Trace elements and the relationships among them were investigated by direct chemical analysis in three basal ganglia regions in very old age individuals and age- and gender-related differences were assessed. After ordinary dissections at Nara Medical University were finished, the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus belonging to the basal ganglia were removed from the identical cerebra of the subjects who consisted of 22 men and 23 women, ranging in age from 70 to 101 years (average age?=?83.3?±?7.5 years). After incineration with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that the Ca, P, and Mg contents increased significantly in the putamen with aging and the Mg content increased significantly in the globus pallidus with aging, but no elements increased significantly in the caudate nucleus with aging. Regarding the relationships among elements in the basal ganglia, extremely significant direct correlations were found among the Ca, P, and Mg contents in the putamen. These results suggested that slight calcification occurred in the putamen in very old age. With regard to seven elements of Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, it was examined whether there were significant correlations among the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. It was found that there were extremely significant direct correlations among all of the three basal ganglia in the P content. Likewise, with regard to the Fe content, there were extremely or very significant direct correlations among all of the three basal ganglia. Regarding the gender difference in elements, it was found that the Ca content of the caudate nucleus was significantly higher in women than in men. PMID:23111949

Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi; Ke, Lining; Ongkana, Nutcharin; Sinthubua, Apichat; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

2013-01-01

245

Reflex pathways in the abdominal prevertebral ganglia: evidence for a colo-colonic inhibitory reflex.  

PubMed Central

1. In vitro experiments were performed on preparations consisting of prevertebral ganglia attached to the entire colon of guinea-pigs. The colon was divided into an orad and a caudad segment and intraluminal pressure was recorded from the terminal end of each segment. Intracellular recordings were simultaneously obtained from neurones in the coeliac plexus. 2. The source of mechanosensory input from the colon paralleled the responses to mesenteric nerve stimulation. That is, section of the mesenteric nerve that contributed the strongest synaptic input to a neurone eliminated most of the mechanosensory input to that neurone. 3. The origin of the mechanosensory input to some neurones could be localized as coming from either the orad or caudad segment of the colon. In the coeliac ganglia 68% of the neurones tested responded primarily to orad distension and 37% to caudad distension. In the superior mesenteric ganglion 57% responded to orad distension and 43% to caudad distension. 4. Repetitive stimulation of the mesenteric nerve trunks arising from the prevertebral ganglia inhibited contractions differentially in the orad and caudad segments. The inferior coeliac nerves inhibited primarily the orad segments of colon and the lumbar colonic nerves inhibited primarily the caudad segments of colon. Stimulation of the superior coeliac nerves did not alter the motility of either segment. 5. When one of the colonic segments was distended, contractions in the other colonic segment were inhibited in 71% of the distensions. This inhibition operated in both directions: either orad inhibiting caudad or vice versa. 6. Cutting the intermesenteric nerve which communicates between the orad and caudad prevertebral ganglia eliminated the inhibitory reflex. 7. These experiments provide evidence for a colo-colonic inhibitory reflex mediated through pathways in the prevertebral ganglia. PMID:521925

Kreulen, D L; Szurszewski, J H

1979-01-01

246

Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.  

PubMed

Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks. PMID:24858857

Miller, Andrew H; Jones, James F; Drake, Daniel F; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

247

Decreased Basal Ganglia Activation in Subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Association with Symptoms of Fatigue  

PubMed Central

Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks. PMID:24858857

Miller, Andrew H.; Jones, James F.; Drake, Daniel F.; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

248

Shapely Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students practice drawing straight lines with a ruler and looking for and categorizing shapes, for example, by the number of sides in polygons. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions and ideas for extension.

2010-06-01

249

String Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work together to make polygons (many-sided shapes) with string. Learners sit on the floor and hold onto a piece of string slid between their thumbs and index fingers. Learners explore how many different kinds of triangles and other shapes they can make by changing their hand positions. Use this activity to help learners explore polygons including convex and concave polygons and vertices.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

250

Cerebral metabolite abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus are associated with cortical and subcortical volumes.  

PubMed

Cerebral metabolite disturbances occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, and are thought to reflect neuropathology, including proinflammatory processes, and neuronal loss. HIV-associated cortical atrophy continues to occur, though its basis is not well understood, and the relationship of cerebral metabolic disturbance to structural brain abnormalities in HIV has not been well delineated. We hypothesized that metabolite disturbances would be associated with reduced cortical and subcortical volumes. Cerebral volumes were measured in 67 HIV-infected people, including 10 people with mild dementia (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] dimentia complex [ADC] stage >1) via automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to measure levels of cerebral metabolites N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (MI), choline-containing compounds (Cho), glutamate/glutamine (Glx), and creatine (Cr) from three brain regions (frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, basal ganglia). Analyses were conducted to examine the associations between MRS and cerebral volumetric measures using both absolute and relative metabolite concentrations. NAA in the mid-frontal gray matter was most consistently associated with cortical (global, frontal, and parietal), ventricular, and caudate volumes based on analysis of absolute metabolite levels, whereas temporal lobe volume was associated with basal ganglia NAA and Glx, and Cho concentrations in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. Hippocampal volume was associated with frontal white matter NAA, whereas thalamic volume was associated with both frontal white matter NAA and basal ganglia Glx. Analyses of relative metabolite concentrations (referenced to Cr) yielded weaker effects, although more metabolites were retained as significant predictors in the models than the analysis of absolute concentrations. These findings demonstrate that reduced cortical and subcortical volumes, which have been previously found to be linked to HIV status and history, are also strongly associated with the degree of cerebral metabolite disturbance observed via MRS. Reduced cortical and hippocampal volumes were most strongly associated with decreased NAA, though reduced Glx also tended to be associated with reduced cortical and subcortical volumes (caudate and thalamus) as well, suggesting both neuronal and glial disturbances. Interestingly, metabolite-volumetric relationships were not limited to the cortical region from which MRS was measured, possibly reflecting shared pathophysiological processes. The relationships between Cho and volumetric measures suggest a complicated relationship possibly related to the effects of inflammatory processes on brain volume. The findings demonstrate the relationship between MRI-derived measures of cerebral metabolite disturbances and structural brain integrity, which has implication in understanding HIV-associated neuropathological mechanisms. PMID:20961212

Cohen, Ronald A; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Gongvatana, Assawin; Buchthal, Steven; Schifitto, Giovanni; Clark, Uraina; Paul, Robert; Taylor, Michael; Thompson, Paul; Tate, David; Alger, Jeffery; Brown, Mark; Zhong, Jianhui; Campbell, Thomas; Singer, Elyse; Daar, Eric; McMahon, Deborah; Tso, Yuen; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Navia, Bradford

2010-11-01

251

Normal and abnormal skin color.  

PubMed

The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. PMID:23522626

Ortonne, J P

2012-12-01

252

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide and requires lifelong therapy. Hyperfunction of the\\u000a dopaminergic system has long been hypothesized as the underlying cause of schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis explains\\u000a mostly the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence point to the glutamatergic system and\\u000a suggest that abnormalities in this system may play a crucial role

Yogesh Dwivedi; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

253

Deregulation of Mitochondria-Shaping Proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in Manganese-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial ??m disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may provide new therapeutic tools for the treatment of Manganism and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24632637

Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M.; Beauquis, Juan; Muñoz, Manuel J.; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L.

2014-01-01

254

Deregulation of mitochondria-shaping proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in manganese-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial ??m disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may provide new therapeutic tools for the treatment of Manganism and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24632637

Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Beauquis, Juan; Muñoz, Manuel J; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L

2014-01-01

255

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) without neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms is not linked to the IBGC1 locus on chromosome 14q.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterised by radiological, neurological, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. The associations between these abnormal phenotypes and abnormal genes remain unclear despite the recent mapping to chromosome 14q of a susceptibility locus for IBGC ( IBGC1). We identified two siblings, from a large multigenerational pedigree, who had both been diagnosed with radiological IBGC, dementia, bipolar affective disorder and Parkinsonism. We assessed (1) other family members to determine whether these four phenotypes were co-segregating as symptoms of IBGC, and (2) possible IBGC linkage to the IBGC1 locus on chromosome 14q or to any known or potential dementia genes. Nine second-generation and 21 third-generation members received radiological, neurological, neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments. We genotyped all family members for microsatellite markers at the IBGC1 locus and polymorphisms of the ApoE, VLDL, alpha1-ACT, BChE-K, APP, PS1, PS2 and tau genes and tested these for linkage to IBGC, dementia and bipolar disorder. Of the ten family members with radiological intracranial calcification, all except the two index cases were normal. There was no significant association between IBGC status and severe cognitive impairment or dementia ( P=0.335) or bipolar affective disorder or Parkinsonism ( P=1.0). Linkage to the IBGC1 locus was excluded. Of the eight dementia gene markers tested, the only positive LOD score was for the ApoE epsilon4 polymorphism and dementia/severe cognitive impairment. We have identified a form of IBGC in which calcification is inherited independently of neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. This may represent a second locus for this disorder. PMID:11810290

Brodaty, Henry; Mitchell, Philip; Luscombe, Georgina; Kwok, John J; Badenhop, Renee F; McKenzie, Rod; Schofield, Peter R

2002-01-01

256

Shape It Up!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we are going to review the shapes we have been learning! Please practice your knowledge of shapes by doing these three activities: Geometric shapes Another Shape Activity with Balances Make a picture with shapes Have fun with Shapes!!! ...

Lucherini, Miss

2007-11-10

257

Super Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We\\'ll be working with some different shapes and learning how to use them. Explore the following links to learn some more about what we\\'ll be working on in this unit. Think you already know something? Find out how much you know with this page. Look up information on the Fact Sheet, try it for yourself with the Activity, and test yourself with the Test. Geometric Shapes Do triangles trick you? Here you can practice making them do what you want! Triangles Classifying Triangles What\\'s ...

Miss M.

2007-10-08

258

Shape Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 8-9), learners investigate the properties of smart materials, which are materials that respond to things that happen around them. Learners train a piece of smart material (Nitinol) to adopt a particular shape. Learners discover that when the Nitinol wire is heated enough, its atoms can move around enough to "reset" its memory. This makes it possible to train the material to have a particular shape. Safety note: Young learners should have adult supervision. Be very careful with the flame and hot wire.

Jordan, Catherine

2012-01-01

259

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

260

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

261

Cadmium effect on the structure of supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia and the neurosecretory processes in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa).  

PubMed

Cadmium effects on the supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia, neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells were tested in earthworms Dendrobaena veneta exposed to 10 and 50 mg Cd kg(-1) in soil after 20 days of the experiment. Accumulation of cadmium in the ganglia of nervous system was also measured using AAS method. Cadmium was accumulated in the nervous system. The accumulated amount was proportional to Cd soil concentration and the exposure time. A considerable fall in neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion in the neuropile (the axons) of both tested ganglia was induced by 50 mg Cd kg(-1). It seemed that neurosecretion synthesis and its axonal transport could be suppressed. Cadmium caused degenerative changes as vacuolization of the neurosecretory cells and neuropile in both tested ganglia. PMID:12860099

Siekierska, Ewa

2003-01-01

262

Using point process models to determine the impact of visual cues on basal ganglia activity and behavior of Parkinson's patients  

E-print Network

Deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that has enabled microelectrode recordings from single-unit cells in the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. This rare data is important ...

Brown, Emery N.

263

CELLULOSE SHAPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent high resolution fiber diffraction studies of four forms of crystalline cellulose are reviewed. All have two-fold screw-axis symmetry, There is little difference among the various chain shapes in the crystal environment, except for the O6 position and the hydrogen bonding schemes. The parallel...

264

Extrapyramidal symptoms and advanced calcification of the basal ganglia in a patient with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia.  

PubMed

Most cases of hypoparathyroidism with decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, excluding secondary hypoparathyroidism, are considered to be idiopathic. We herein report a relatively rare case of hypoparathyroidism with extrapyramidal symptoms, including brachybasia and a frozen gait, caused by advanced basal ganglia calcification in a 64-year-old man with hypoparathyroidism. A DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis of blood samples obtained from the patient and his eldest daughter revealed autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) with mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene. In cases of chronic hypoparathyroidism, calcification of the basal ganglia is observed if the patient is not treated for a long period. However, extrapyramidal symptoms as a complication of hypoparathyroidism are relatively rare. PMID:24042516

Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Endou, Itsuro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Tanaka, Yoshiya

2013-01-01

265

Balanced activity in basal ganglia projection pathways is critical for contraversive movements  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, have been implicated in the generation of contraversive movements. The striatum projects to downstream basal ganglia nuclei through two main circuits, originating in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, and different models postulate that the two pathways can work in opposition or synergistically. Here we show striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons are concurrently active during spontaneous contraversive movements. Furthermore, we show that unilateral optogenetic inhibition of either or both projection pathways disrupts contraversive movements. Consistently, simultaneous activation of both neuron types produces contraversive movements. Still, we also show that imbalanced activity between the pathways can result in opposing movements being driven by each projection pathway. These data show that balanced activity in both striatal projection pathways is critical for the generation of contraversive movements and highlights that imbalanced activity between the two projection pathways can result in opposing motor output. PMID:25002180

Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Matias, Sara; Dugue, Guillaume P.; Mainen, Zachary F.; Costa, Rui M.

2014-01-01

266

ARIA is heavily expressed in rat peripheral auditory and vestibular ganglia.  

PubMed

The ARIA (acetylcholine receptor inducing activity) polypeptide is a member of the neuregulin gene family. It was originally purified on the basis of its ability to induce skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). ARIA mRNA is expressed in ventral horn motor neurons and brain cholinergic neurons. We report here that ARIA mRNA is heavily expressed in the embryonic, developing, and adult peripheral auditory and vestibular ganglia, the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion. Neither ganglion is cholinergic, but both express mRNAs for nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The expression of ARIA in these ganglia may be related to the regulation of cholinergic receptors or a more general role for ARIA in growth and development. PMID:9526075

Morley, B J

1998-02-01

267

Evidence for a causal inverse model in an avian cortico-basal ganglia circuit  

PubMed Central

Learning by imitation is fundamental to both communication and social behavior and requires the conversion of complex, nonlinear sensory codes for perception into similarly complex motor codes for generating action. To understand the neural substrates underlying this conversion, we study sensorimotor transformations in songbird cortical output neurons of a basal-ganglia pathway involved in song learning. Despite the complexity of sensory and motor codes, we find a simple, temporally specific, causal correspondence between them. Sensory neural responses to song playback mirror motor-related activity recorded during singing, with a temporal offset of roughly 40 ms, in agreement with short feedback loop delays estimated using electrical and auditory stimulation. Such matching of mirroring offsets and loop delays is consistent with a recent Hebbian theory of motor learning and suggests that cortico-basal ganglia pathways could support motor control via causal inverse models that can invert the rich correspondence between motor exploration and sensory feedback. PMID:24711417

Giret, Nicolas; Kornfeld, Joergen; Ganguli, Surya; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

2014-01-01

268

Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease  

SciTech Connect

We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis.

Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

1989-04-01

269

Connections of the basal ganglia with the limbic system: implications for neuromodulation therapies of anxiety and affective disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia are best known for their role in motor planning and execution. However, it is currently widely accepted\\u000a that they are also involved in cognitive and emotional behaviors. Parts of the basal ganglia play a key role in reward and\\u000a reinforcement, addictive behaviors and habit formation. Pathophysiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders such\\u000a as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and

P. Stathis; I. G. Panourias; M. S. Themistocleous; Damianos E. Sakas

270

Why we can talk, debate, and change our minds: Neural circuits, basal ganglia operations, and transcriptional factors.  

PubMed

Ackermann et al. disregard attested knowledge concerning aphasia, Parkinson disease, cortical-to-striatal circuits, basal ganglia, laryngeal phonation, and other matters. Their dual-pathway model cannot account for "what is special about the human brain." Their human cortical-to-laryngeal neural circuit does not exist. Basal ganglia operations, enhanced by mutations on FOXP2, confer human motor-control, linguistic, and cognitive capabilities. PMID:25514951

Lieberman, Philip

2014-12-01

271

Does it talk the talk? On the role of basal ganglia in emotive speech processing.  

PubMed

Ackermann et al.'s phylogenetic account of speech argues that the basal ganglia imbue speech with emotive content. However, a body of work on auditory/emotive processing is inconsistent with attributing this function exclusively to these structures. The account further overlooks the possibility that the emotion-integration function may be at least in part mediated by the cortico-ponto-cerebellar system. PMID:25514946

Hasson, Uri; Llano, Daniel A; Miceli, Gabriele; Dick, Anthony Steven

2014-12-01

272

Case Study: Acute Basal Ganglia Enlargement and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in an Adolescent Boy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAs) may arise when antibodies directed against invading bacteria cross-react with basal ganglia structures, resulting in exacerbations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders. This is a report of severe worsening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms In an adolescent boy following infection with group A ?-hemolytic streptococci for whom serial magnetic resonance imaging scans

JAY N. GIEDD; JUDITH L. RAPOPORT; HENRIETTA L. LEONARD; DANIEL RICHTER; SUSAN E. SWEDO

1996-01-01

273

Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity in Dorsal Root Ganglia of Vitamin E-Deficient Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary vitamin E on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) was studied in the dorsal root ganglia of rat. One-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups for 2 months. The first received a standard diet supplemented with vitamin E, the second was fed a basal vitamin E-deficient diet.

P. Ninfali; C. Cuppini; R. Cuppini; S. Rapa; L. Baronciani

1991-01-01

274

Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Approximately 50-70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after surgery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is still unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical nociception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n = 32) and sham surgery (n = 8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group received anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3-5) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on small- and medium-sized neurons (diameter < 20 ?m and 20-40 ?m) and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3-5) in the sham surgery group. By contrast, in the surgery group, high expression of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor appeared in large-sized neurons (diameter > 40 ?m) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to mechanical stimulus in the hind paw following incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws. PMID:25206654

Yuan, Xiuhong; Liu, Xiangyan; Tang, Qiuping; Deng, Yunlong

2013-12-15

275

Quantitation of latent varicella-zoster virus DNA in human trigeminal ganglia by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

Competitive polymerase chain reaction was used to quantitate latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in human trigeminal ganglia. Ganglionic DNA from five subjects was amplified with oligonucleotide primers specific for VZV gene 28. Two of the samples were also analyzed with primers specific for VZV gene 62. Our results indicated that there are 6 to 31 copies of the VZV genome in every 100,000 ganglionic cells. Images PMID:8383249

Mahalingam, R; Wellish, M; Lederer, D; Forghani, B; Cohrs, R; Gilden, D

1993-01-01

276

Allergic Inflammation in Isolated Vagal Sensory Ganglia Unmasks Silent NK2 Tachykinin Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroplastic changes in vagal afferents inflicted by allergic inflammation were examined in nodose ganglia (NG) removed from guinea pigs immunized to chick ovalbumin. In control NG neurons, substance P (SP; 0.1-10 mM) produces no discernable changes in membrane electrophysiological properties or (Ca 21)i. After exposing NG from immunized animals to the sensitizing antigen in vitro, 83% of the neurons were

Daniel Weinreich; Kimberly A. Moore; Glen E. Taylor

1997-01-01

277

Distribution of p75 and trk -neurotrophin receptor proteins in adult human sympathetic ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the expression of immunoreactivity (IR) for low- (p75) and high-affinity (trk proteins) neurotrophin-receptor proteins in adult human paravertebral-sympathetic ganglion neurons. Mouse monoclonal antibodies against the pan-neurotrophin-receptor p75, and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against specific epitopes of the intracytoplasmic domain on trk neurotrophin-receptor proteins were used in fresh unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded sympathetic ganglia. All adult human paravertebral-sympathetic neurons displayed

O. Garcia-Suarez; F. J. Naves; M. E. Valle; I. Esteban; E. Bronzetti; E. Vazquez; J. A. Vega

1996-01-01

278

A role of the basal ganglia and midbrain nuclei for initiation of motor sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesial premotor cortex is crucial for planning sequential procedures and movement initiation. With event-related (ER) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) it has been possible to separate mesial premotor activation before, during, and after self-initiated movements and, thereby, to distinguish advance planning from execution. The mesial premotor cortex is part of distributed cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical networks but, to date, the subcortical

H. Boecker; J. Jankowski; P. Ditter; L. Scheef

2008-01-01

279

Brain grafts of cerebral ganglia have effectiveness in growth restoration of damaged Helix aspersa mesocerebrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsurgical extirpation of themesocerebrum from the brain of fast-growing juvenile snails (Helix aspersa aspersa: H.a.a.) stops their growth. This suggests that neurosecretory cells of themesocerebrum secrete a growth hormone. Neural grafting has been used as a tool to restore the impaired growth function aftermesocerebrum removal in juvenile H.a.a. snails. The transplantation of desheathed cerebral ganglia (CG) (i.e. CG with

Annette Gomot; Lucien Gomot

1995-01-01

280

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

281

BLOOD VESSELS IN GANGLIA IN HUMAN ESOPHAGUS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY OF MEGAESOPHAGUS COMPARED WITH MEGACOLON  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon. PMID:25351549

Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

2014-01-01

282

Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birdsong, like speech, is a learned vocal behaviour that relies greatly on hearing; in both songbirds and humans the removal of auditory feedback by deafening leads to a gradual deterioration of adult vocal production. Here we investigate the neural mechanisms that contribute to the processing of auditory feedback during the maintenance of song in adult zebra finches. We show that the deleterious effects on song production that normally follow deafening can be prevented by a second insult to the nervous system-the lesion of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit. The results suggest that the removal of auditory feedback leads to the generation of an instructive signal that actively drives non-adaptive changes in song; they also suggest that this instructive signal is generated within (or conveyed through) the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway. Our findings provide evidence that cortical-basal ganglia circuits may participate in the evaluation of sensory feedback during calibration of motor performance, and demonstrate that damage to such circuits can have little effect on previously learned behaviour while conspicuously disrupting the capacity to adaptively modify that behaviour.

Brainard, Michael S.; Doupe, Allison J.

2000-04-01

283

Brain tissue properties differentiate between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties. On the basis of probabilistic diffusion tractography we identified STN subregions with predominantly motor, associative, and limbic connectivity. We then computed for each of the nonoverlapping STN subregions the covariance between local brain tissue properties and the rest of the brain using high-resolution maps of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation and longitudinal (R1) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*). The demonstrated spatial distribution pattern of covariance between brain tissue properties linked to myelin (R1 and MT) and iron (R2*) content clearly segregates between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits. We interpret the demonstrated covariance pattern as evidence for shared tissue properties within a functional circuit, which is closely linked to its function. Our findings open new possibilities for investigation of changes in the established covariance pattern aiming at accurate diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24777915

Accolla, Ettore A; Dukart, Juergen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine; Chowdhury, Rumana; Hetzer, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan; Kühn, Andrea A; Draganski, Bogdan

2014-01-01

284

Brain tissue properties differentiate between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits.  

PubMed

Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties. On the basis of probabilistic diffusion tractography we identified STN subregions with predominantly motor, associative, and limbic connectivity. We then computed for each of the nonoverlapping STN subregions the covariance between local brain tissue properties and the rest of the brain using high-resolution maps of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation and longitudinal (R1) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*). The demonstrated spatial distribution pattern of covariance between brain tissue properties linked to myelin (R1 and MT) and iron (R2*) content clearly segregates between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits. We interpret the demonstrated covariance pattern as evidence for shared tissue properties within a functional circuit, which is closely linked to its function. Our findings open new possibilities for investigation of changes in the established covariance pattern aiming at accurate diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24777915

Accolla, Ettore A; Dukart, Juergen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine; Chowdhury, Rumana; Hetzer, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan; Kühn, Andrea A; Draganski, Bogdan

2014-10-01

285

Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.  

PubMed

The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the "direct" and "indirect" pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward-evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome. PMID:24003130

Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

2013-09-17

286

The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning. PMID:21945835

2013-01-01

287

[Comparative study of substrate and inhibitory specificity of monoamine oxidase in the optic ganglia of squids].  

PubMed

Comparative study of substrate specificity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) of optic ganglia of the Pacific squid Todarodes pacificus and the Commander squid Berryteuthis magister has been carried out. The enzyme of the Pacific squid, unlike that of the Commander squid, has been established to be able to deaminate not only tyramine, tryptamine, serotonin, benzylamine, and beta-phenylethylamine, but also histamine--substrate of diamine oxidase (DAO). In relation to all studied substrates, the MAO activity of optic ganglia of T. pacificus is several times higher as compared with B. magister. In the case of deamination of serotonin this difference was the greatest and amounted to 5 times. Semicarbazide, the classic DAO inhibitor, at a concentration of 10 mM did not inhibit catalytic activity of both studied enzymes. The substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of deprenyl and chlorogiline, specific inhibitors of different MAO forms, indicates homogeneity of the enzyme of the Pacific squid and heterogeneity of the Commander squid enzyme whose composition seems probably to contain at least two MAO forms. There are obtained quantitative differences in substrate specificity and reaction capability with respect to the inhibitors chlorgiline and deprenyl for MAO of optic ganglia of the studied squid species. These differences probably can be explained by significant differences in the evolutionary level of these biological species. PMID:20583578

Iagodina, O V

2010-01-01

288

The pallial basal ganglia pathway modulates the behaviorally driven gene expression of the motor pathway  

PubMed Central

The discrete neural network for songbird vocal communication provides an effective system to study neural mechanisms of learned motor behaviors in vertebrates. This system consists of two pathways – a vocal motor pathway used to produce learned vocalizations and a vocal pallial basal ganglia loop used to learn and modify the vocalizations. However, it is not clear how the loop exerts control over the motor pathway. To study the mechanism, we used expression of the neural activity-induced gene ZENK (or egr-1), which shows singing-regulated expression in a social context-dependent manner: high levels in both pathways when singing undirected and low levels in the lateral part of the loop and in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) of the motor pathway when singing directed to another animal. Here, we show that there are two parallel interactive parts within the pallial basal ganglia loop, lateral and medial, which modulate singing-driven ZENK expression of the motor pathway nuclei RA and HVC, respectively. Within the loop, the striatal and pallial nuclei appear to have opposing roles; the striatal vocal nucleus lateral AreaX is required for high ZENK expression in its downstream nuclei, particularly during undirected singing, while the pallial vocal lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium is required for lower expression, particularly during directed singing. These results suggest a dynamic molecular interaction between the basal ganglia pathway and the motor pathway during production of a learned motor behavior. PMID:17419760

Kubikova, Lubica; Turner, Elena A.; Jarvis, Erich D.

2008-01-01

289

Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the “direct” and “indirect” pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward–evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome. PMID:24003130

Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A.; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

2013-01-01

290

Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

2014-01-01

291

Shape Up.  

E-print Network

)OC TA24S.7 173 1.1217 , 8-1217 , Texas Agricultural Extension Service ? The Texas A&M university system Daniel C. Pfannstlel, Director ? college Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] 8-1217 SHAPE UP Physical fitness, figure..., and Emma S. Gibbons, Instruc tor, Department of Health and Physical Education, The Texas A&M University System. 11 Adapted from a publication developed by the Cooperative Exten sion Service, University of Georgia College of Agriculture, Athens...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

292

Lower extremity abnormalities in children.  

PubMed

Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829

Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

2003-08-01

293

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

294

Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concurrent presence of cirrhosis seems to retard the occurrence of overt heart failure. Even nonalcoholic cirrhosis may be associated with latent cardiomyopathy, although overt heart failure is not observed. Tense ascites is associated with some cardiac compromise, and removing or mobilizing ascitic fluid by paracentesis or peritoneovenous shunting results in short-term increases in cardiac output. Cirrhosis also appears to be associated with a decreased risk of major coronary atherosclerosis and an increased risk of bacterial endocarditis. Small hemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusions may be seen in ascitic patients. The release of atrial natriuretic peptide appears to be unimpaired in cirrhosis, although the kidney may be hyporesponsive to its natriuretic effects. PMID:2690463

Lee, S S

1989-01-01

295

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

296

Phase Relationships Support a Role for Coordinated Activity in the Indirect Pathway in Organizing Slow Oscillations in Basal Ganglia Output after Loss of Dopamine  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to determine the phase relationships of the slow oscillatory activity that emerges in basal ganglia nuclei in anesthetized rats after dopamine cell lesion in order to gain insight into the passage of this oscillatory activity through the basal ganglia network. Spike train recordings from striatum, subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus (GP), and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) were paired with simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings from SNpr or motor cortex ipsilateral to a unilateral lesion of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in urethane anesthetized rats. Dopamine cell lesion induced a striking increase in incidence of slow oscillations (0.3-2.5 Hz) in firing rate in all nuclei. Phase relationships assessed through paired recordings using SNpr LFP as a temporal reference showed that slow oscillatory activity in GP spike trains is predominantly antiphase with oscillations in striatum, and slow oscillatory activity in STN spike trains is in-phase with oscillatory activity in cortex but predominantly antiphase with GP oscillatory activity. Taken together, these results imply that after dopamine cell lesion in urethane anesthetized rats, increased oscillatory activity in GP spike trains is shaped more by increased phasic inhibitory input from the striatum than by phasic excitatory input from STN. In addition, results show that oscillatory activity in SNpr spike trains is typically antiphase with GP oscillatory activity and in-phase with STN oscillatory activity. While these observations do not rule out additional mechanisms contributing to the emergence of slow oscillations in the basal ganglia after dopamine cell lesion in the anesthetized preparation, they are compatible with 1) increased oscillatory activity in the GP facilitated by an effect of dopamine loss on striatal ‘filtering’ of slow components of oscillatory cortical input, 2) increased oscillatory activity in STN spike trains supported by convergent antiphase inhibitory and excitatory oscillatory input from GP and cortex, respectively, and 3) increased oscillatory activity in SNpr spike trains organized by convergent antiphase inhibitory and excitatory oscillatory input from GP and STN, respectively. PMID:17112675

Walters, Judith R.; Hu, Dan; Itoga, Christy A.; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Bergstrom, Debra A.

2007-01-01

297

Gummy Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use chemistry to “self-assemble” gummy shapes. Learners discover that self-assembly is a process by which molecules and cells form themselves into functional structures. Learners also learn that self-assembly is used to make nanocapsules that can deliver medication to diseased parts of the body, bypassing healthy parts. This activity is a fun way to talk about the connections between science and cooking, since the gummy capsules produced in this activity are also used in molecular gastronomy.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

298

Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.  

PubMed

The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

2014-11-19

299

[Mineralization of the basal ganglia as the supposed cause of poor tolerance of zuclopenthixol in a patient with long-term untreated paranoid schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Formations described as intracranial calcifications can appear in the course of diseases of the central nervous system, other systems and organs (e.g. endocrine), but also as a disorder of idiopathic character. They are frequently located in subcortical nuclei and usually constitute an incidental finding. This report presents the case of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia for approximately 40 years, who did not agree to any treatment and was hospitalized against her will because she was the threat to the lives of others. She was treated with zuklopentixol resulting in positive symptoms reduction and considerable improvement in social functioning. Unfortunately neurological symptoms appeared: bradykinesis, rigidity--of the type of the lead pipe, balance, posture and gait abnormalities, disturbances in precise hands movements, double-sided Rossolimo's sign, plantar reflex without the participation of the big toe on the left. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated changes in the form of lenticular nuclei calcification and reduction of signal intensity in posterior parts of both putamens. Neurological symptoms decreased significantly after switching to atypical neuroleptic (olanzapine), and the patient did not require any additional treatment. Mineralization of the basal ganglia can often be associated with psychiatric disorders and it shouldn't be neglected because it can require modification of pharmacotherapy or additional neurological treatment. PMID:24946467

Wichowicz, Hubert M; Wilkowska, Alina; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Kummer, ?ukasz; Konarzewska, Joanna; Raczak, Alicja

2013-01-01

300

IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice  

PubMed Central

The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

301

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J; Hyde, G

2003-01-01

302

Holoprosencephaly due to Numeric Chromosome Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.; Meck, Jeanne M.; Muenke, Maximilian

2009-01-01

303

Quantitative Assessment of Motor Abnormalities in Untreated Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this study was to examine motor physiology disturbances in a group of patients with untreated major depressive disorder using sensitive instrumental procedures. The secondary aim of the study was to examine the relationship of the affective symptom state to these motor assessments. The authors studied 40 individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for unipolar major depressive disorder and 40 healthy comparison subjects. Electromechanical measures of force steadiness (FS), simple reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and scaling of movement velocity to distance (velocity scaling, VS) were performed. The authors found that performance on the force steadiness, movement time, and velocity scaling measures was significantly poorer in the subjects with depression. There was no difference between the groups on the measure of reaction time. The force steadiness, reaction time, movement time, and velocity scaling scores were not associated with affective state. This study demonstrates that motor abnormalities suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction occur in many patients with major depressive disorder, and that these abnormalities may exist in the absence of current psychotropic medication treatment. The finding of impaired movement time and velocity scaling in the presence of normal reaction time suggests a neuromotor or parkinsonian pathophysiology for slowness in depression. PMID:22985485

Lohr, James B.; May, Todd; Caligiuri, Michael P.

2014-01-01

304

Abnormal high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons in rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations in the ?3 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (sodium pump) are responsible for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). Recently, a pharmacological model of DYT12 was generated implicating both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder. Notably, partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum was necessary and sufficient for induction of dystonia. Thus, a key question that remains is how partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum induces dystonia. In vivo recordings from dystonic mice revealed abnormal high-frequency bursting activity in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which comprise the bulk of cerebellar output. In the same mice, Purkinje cells, which provide strong inhibitory drive to DCN cells, also fired in a similarly erratic manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to sodium pump dysfunction that alters the intrinsic pacemaking of these neurons, resulting in erratic burst firing similar to that identified in vivo. This abnormal firing abates when sodium pump function is restored and dystonia caused by partial block of sodium pumps can be similarly alleviated. These findings suggest that persistent high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons caused by sodium pump dysfunction underlies dystonia in this model of DYT12. PMID:25164667

Fremont, Rachel; Calderon, D Paola; Maleki, Sara; Khodakhah, Kamran

2014-08-27

305

Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ("Fahr's disease").  

PubMed

Basal ganglia calcification (striatopallidodentate calcifications) can be caused by several systemic and neurological disorders. Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC, "Fahr's disease"), is characterized by basal ganglia and extrabasal ganglia calcifications, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Because of an increased use of neuroimaging procedures, calcifications of the basal ganglia are visualized more often and precociously. In 1999, a major American family with IBGC was linked to a locus on chromosome 14q (IBGC1). Another small kindred, from Spain, has also been reported as possibly linked to this locus. Here we report the main findings of the first 30 candidate genes sequenced at the IBGC1 locus during the process of searching for a mutation responsible for familial IBGC. During the sequencing process, we identified a heterozygous nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (exon 20 of the MGEA6/c-TAGE gene) shared by the affected and not present in the controls. This SNP was randomly screened in the general population (348 chromosomes) in a minor allele frequency to 0.0058 (two heterozygous among 174 subjects). Another variation in this gene, in the exon 9, was found in the Spanish family. However, this variation was extremely common in the general population. Functional and population studies are necessary to fully access the implications of the MGEA6 gene in familial IBGC, and a complete sequencing of the IBGC1 locus will be necessary to define a gene responsible for familial IBGC. PMID:17917073

Oliveira, J R M; Sobrido, M J; Spiteri, E; Hopfer, S; Meroni, G; Petek, E; Baquero, M; Geschwind, D H

2007-01-01

306

Immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of Haliotis asinina.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the distribution pattern of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of reproductively mature male abalone, H. asinina, by immunohistochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence. We found octopus (oct) GnRH and tunicate-I (t) GnRH-I immunoreactivities (ir) in type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) and they were expressed mostly within the ventral horn of the cerebral ganglion, whereas in pleuropedal ganglia they were localized primarily in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, tGnRH-I-ir were strongly detected in fibers at the caudal part of the cerebral ganglia and both ventral and dorsal horns of the pleuropedal ganglia. In the testis, only octGnRH-ir was found primarily in the granulated cell and central capillaries within the trabeculae. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia which could be the principal source of their production, whereas GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the testis and act as the paracrine control of testicular maturation. PMID:24446352

Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Primphon, Jeerawan; Seangcharoen, Tawanchay; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

2014-02-01

307

The basal ganglia in perceptual timing: Timing performance in Multiple System Atrophy and Huntington's disease?  

PubMed Central

The timing of perceptual events depends on an anatomically and functionally connected network comprising basal ganglia, cerebellum, pre-frontal cortex and supplementary motor area. Recent studies demonstrate the cerebellum to be involved in absolute, duration-based timing, but not in relative timing based on a regular beat. Conversely, functional involvement of the striatum is observed in relative timing, but its role in absolute timing is unclear. This work tests the specific role of the basal ganglia in the perceptual timing of auditory events. It aims to distinguish the hypothesised unified model of time perception (Teki, Grube, & Griffiths, 2012), in which the striatum is a mandatory component for all timing tasks, from a modular system in which they subserve relative timing, with absolute timing processed by the cerebellum. Test groups comprised individuals with Multiple System Atrophy, a disorder in which similar pathology can produce clinical deficits associated with dysfunction of the cerebellum (MSA-C, n=8) or striatum (MSA-P, n=10), and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (HD, n=14). Individuals with chronic autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (n=11) acted as controls. Six adaptive tasks were carried out to assess perceptual thresholds for absolute timing through duration discrimination for sub- and supra-second time intervals, and relative timing through the detection of beat-based regularity and irregularity, detection of a delay within an isochronous sequence, and the discrimination of sequences with metrical structure. All three patient groups exhibited impairments in performance in comparison with the control group for all tasks, and severity of impairment was significantly correlated with disease progression. No differences were demonstrated between MSA-C and MSA-P, and the most severe impairments were observed in those with HD. The data support an obligatory role for the basal ganglia in all tested timing tasks, both absolute and relative, as predicted by the unified model. The results are not compatible with models of a brain timing network based upon independent modules. PMID:24135486

Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon; Singh, Baldev; Burn, David J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2014-01-01

308

Association between a novel mutation in SLC20A2 and familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder involving bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. To identify gene mutations related to a Chinese FIBGC lineage, we evaluated available individuals in the family using CT scans. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of available family members, and both exonic and flanking intronic sequences of the SLC20A2 gene were amplified by PCR and then sequenced. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to confirm the presence of mutations. Allele imbalances of the SLC20A2 gene or relative quantity of SLC20A2 transcripts were evaluated using qRT-PCR. A novel heterozygous single base-pair deletion (c.510delA) within the SLC20A2 gene was identified. This deletion mutation was found to co-segregate with basal ganglia calcification in all of the affected family members but was not detected in unaffected individuals or in 167 unrelated Han Chinese controls. The mutation will cause a frameshift, producing a truncated SLC20A2 protein with a premature termination codon, most likely leading to the complete loss of function of the SLC20A2 protein. This mutation may also lead to a reduction in SLC20A2 mRNA expression by approximately 30% in cells from affected individuals. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in SLC20A2 that is linked to FIBGC. In addition to the loss of function at the protein level, decreasing the expression of SLC20A2 mRNA may be another mechanism that can regulate SLC20A2 function in IBGC individuals. We propose that the regional expression pattern of SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 might explain the unique calcification pattern observed in FIBGC patients. PMID:23437308

Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xianan; Wu, Anhua

2013-01-01

309

Neurochemical characterization of extrinsic nerves in myenteric ganglia of the guinea pig distal colon.  

PubMed

Extrinsic nerves to the gut influence the absorption of water and electrolytes and expulsion of waste contents, largely via regulation of enteric neural circuits; they also contribute to control of blood flow. The distal colon is innervated by extrinsic sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and spinal afferent neurons, via axons in colonic nerve trunks. In the present study, biotinamide tracing of colonic nerves was combined with immunohistochemical labeling for markers of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and spinal afferent neurons to quantify their relative contribution to the extrinsic innervation. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase, which selectively label spinal afferent, parasympathetic, and sympathetic axons, respectively, were detected immunohistochemically in 1?±?0.5% (n?=?7), 15?±?4.7% (n?=?6), and 24?±?4% (n?=?7) of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia. Immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide synthase, somatostatin, and vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 accounted for a combined maximum of 14% of biotinamide-labeled axons in myenteric ganglia. Thus, a maximum of 53% of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia were labeled by antisera to one of these eight markers. Viscerofugal neurons were also labeled by biotinamide. They had distinct morphologies and spatial distributions that correlated closely with their immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase and choline acetyltransferase. As reported for the rectum, nearly half of all extrinsic nerve fibers to the distal colon lack the key immunohistochemical markers commonly used for their identification. Their abundance may therefore have been significantly underestimated in previous immunohistochemical studies. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:742-756, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25380190

Chen, Bao Nan; Sharrad, Dale F; Hibberd, Timothy J; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Costa, Marcello; Brookes, Simon J H

2015-04-01

310

Expression patterns of erythropoietin and its receptor in the developing spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in animal models of adult spinal cord injury, and reduces apoptosis in adult dorsal root ganglia after spinal nerve crush. The present work demonstrates that spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia share dynamic expression patterns of EPO and its receptor (EPOR) during development. C57Bl mice from embryonic days (E) 8 (E8) to E19 were studied. In spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, EPOR expression in all precursor cells preceded the expression of EPO in subsets of neurons. On E11, EPO-immunoreactive spinal motoneurons and ganglionic sensory neurons resided adjacent to EPOR-expressing radial glial cells and satellite cells, respectively. From E12 onwards, EPOR-immunoreactivity decreased in radial glial cells and, transiently, in satellite cells. Simultaneously, large-scale apoptosis of motoneurons and sensory neurons started, and subsets of neurons were labelled by antibodies against EPOR. Viable neurons expressed EPO and EPOR. Up to E12.5, apoptotic cells were EPOR-immunopositive, but variably EPO-immunonegative or EPO-immunopositive. Thereafter, EPO-immunonegative and EPOR-immunopositive apoptotic cells predominated. Our findings suggest that EPO-mediated neuron-glial and, later, neuron-neuronal interactions promote the differentiation and/or the survival of subsets of neurons and glial cells in central as well as in peripheral parts of the embryonic nervous system. Correspondingly, expression of phospho-Akt-1/protein-kinase B extensively overlapped expression sites of EPO and EPOR, but was absent from apoptotic cells. Identified other sites of EPO and/or EPOR expression include radial glial cells that transform to astrocytes, cells of the floor plate and notochord as well as neural crest-derived boundary cap cells at motor exit points and cells of the primary sympathetic chain. PMID:16151855

Knabe, Wolfgang; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg

2005-10-01

311

Androgen and estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of testosterone action in male rat pelvic autonomic ganglia.  

PubMed

Although male reproductive function is primarily androgen dependent, many studies suggest that estrogens have direct actions on the male reproductive organs. Pelvic autonomic neurons provide the motor control of the internal reproductive organs and the penis and various properties of these neurons are affected by endogenous androgens. However, the possible role of estrogens at this site has not been examined. Here we have investigated the significance of estrogens produced by aromatization of testosterone (T) in the physiological actions of androgens on adult male rat pelvic ganglion neurons. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that aromatase and both estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) are expressed in these ganglia. Western blotting also showed that aromatase is expressed in male pelvic ganglia. Using immunohistochemical visualization, ERalpha was predominantly expressed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive parasympathetic pelvic ganglion neurons. In vivo studies showed that the decrease in pelvic ganglion soma size caused by gonadectomy could be prevented by administration of T or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but not 17beta-estradiol (E2), showing that this maintenance action of testosterone is mediated entirely by androgenic mechanisms. However, in vitro studies of cultured pelvic ganglion neurons revealed that T, DHT and E each stimulated the growth of longer and more complex neurites in both noradrenergic and cholinergic NOS-expressing neurons. The effects of T were attenuated by either androgen or estrogen receptor antagonists, or by inhibition of aromatase. Together these studies demonstrate that estrogens are likely to be synthesized in the male pelvic ganglia, produced from T by local aromatase. The effects of androgens on axonal growth are likely to be at least partly mediated by estrogenic mechanisms, which may be important for understanding disease-, aging- and injury-induced plasticity in this part of the nervous system. PMID:17629410

Purves-Tyson, T D; Arshi, M S; Handelsman, D J; Cheng, Y; Keast, J R

2007-08-10

312

Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Reduced Basal Ganglia Responses to Hedonic Reward During Interferon Alfa Administration  

PubMed Central

Context Inflammatory cytokines or cytokine inducers can alter basal ganglia activity, including reducing responsiveness to rewarding stimuli that may be mediated by cytokine effects on dopamine function. Objectives To determine whether long-term administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon alfa reduces the basal ganglia response to reward and whether such changes are associated with decreased presynaptic striatal dopamine function and altered behavior. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Setting Outpatient research unit and neuroimaging facilities at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Patients Medically stable adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection eligible for interferon alfa treatment. Main Outcome Measures Neural activity in the ventral striatum during a hedonic reward task as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging, uptake and turnover of radiolabeled fluorodopa F 18 (18F-dopa) in caudate and putamen using positron emission tomography, and interferon alfa–induced depression, anhedonia, fatigue, and neurotoxicity. Results Patients with HCV receiving interferon alfa for 4 to 6 weeks (n=14) exhibited significantly reduced bilateral activation of the ventral striatum in the win vs lose condition of a gambling task compared with patients with HCV awaiting interferon alfa treatment (n=14). Reduced activation of the ventral striatum was, in turn, significantly correlated with anhedonia, depression, and fatigue. In a separate longitudinal study, patients with HCV treated with interferon alfa for 4 to 6 weeks (n=12) exhibited significantly increased 18F-dopa uptake and decreased 18F-dopa turnover in caudate and putamen and in the same ventral striatal regions identified in the functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Baseline and percentage change in 18F-dopa uptake and turnover were correlated with behavioral alterations, including depression, fatigue, and neurotoxicity, during interferon alfa administration. Conclusions These data replicate and extend findings that inflammatory stimuli, including inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon alfa, alter basal ganglia activity and behavior in association with significant changes in presynaptic striatal dopamine function consistent with decreased dopamine synthesis or release. PMID:23026954

Capuron, Lucile; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Drake, Daniel F.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Spivey, James R.; Crowe, Ronald J.; Votaw, John R.; Goodman, Mark M.; Miller, Andrew H.

2013-01-01

313

Association between a Novel Mutation in SLC20A2 and Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification  

PubMed Central

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder involving bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. To identify gene mutations related to a Chinese FIBGC lineage, we evaluated available individuals in the family using CT scans. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of available family members, and both exonic and flanking intronic sequences of the SLC20A2 gene were amplified by PCR and then sequenced. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to confirm the presence of mutations. Allele imbalances of the SLC20A2 gene or relative quantity of SLC20A2 transcripts were evaluated using qRT-PCR. A novel heterozygous single base-pair deletion (c.510delA) within the SLC20A2 gene was identified. This deletion mutation was found to co-segregate with basal ganglia calcification in all of the affected family members but was not detected in unaffected individuals or in 167 unrelated Han Chinese controls. The mutation will cause a frameshift, producing a truncated SLC20A2 protein with a premature termination codon, most likely leading to the complete loss of function of the SLC20A2 protein. This mutation may also lead to a reduction in SLC20A2 mRNA expression by approximately 30% in cells from affected individuals. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in SLC20A2 that is linked to FIBGC. In addition to the loss of function at the protein level, decreasing the expression of SLC20A2 mRNA may be another mechanism that can regulate SLC20A2 function in IBGC individuals. We propose that the regional expression pattern of SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 might explain the unique calcification pattern observed in FIBGC patients. PMID:23437308

Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xianan; Wu, Anhua

2013-01-01

314

Mutations in SLC20A2 link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis.  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a genetic condition with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including parkinsonism and dementia. Here, we identified mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), in IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry, and we observed significantly impaired phosphate transport activity for all assayed PiT2 mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our results implicate altered phosphate homeostasis in the etiology of IBGC. PMID:22327515

Wang, Cheng; Li, Yulei; Shi, Lei; Ren, Jie; Patti, Monica; Wang, Tao; de Oliveira, João R M; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Quintáns, Beatriz; Baquero, Miguel; Cui, Xiaoniu; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Lianqing; Xu, Haibo; Wang, Junhan; Yao, Jing; Dai, Xiaohua; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Lu; Ma, Hongying; Gao, Yong; Ma, Xixiang; Feng, Shenglei; Liu, Mugen; Wang, Qing K; Forster, Ian C; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Jing-Yu

2012-03-01

315

Functional correlates of exaggerated oscillatory activity in basal ganglia output in hemiparkinsonian rats.  

PubMed

Exaggerated beta range (13-30Hz) synchronized activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes and is thought to contribute to the motor symptoms of this disorder. To explore the translational potential of similar activity observed in a rat model of PD, local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in basal ganglia output were characterized in rats with unilateral dopamine cell lesion during a range of behaviors. A circular treadmill was used to assess activity during walking; hemiparkinsonian rats could maintain a steady gait when oriented ipsiversive to the lesioned hemisphere, but were less effective at walking when oriented contraversive to lesion. Dramatic increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) LFP oscillatory activity and spike-LFP synchronization were observed within the beta/low gamma range (12-40Hz) in the lesioned hemisphere, relative to the non-lesioned hemisphere, with the dominant frequency of spike-LFP entrainment and LFP power varying with behavioral state. At 3weeks postlesion, the mean dominant entrainment frequency during ipsiversive treadmill walking and grooming was 34Hz. Other behaviors were associated with lower mean entrainment frequencies: 27-28Hz during alert non-walking and REM, 17Hz during rest and 21Hz during urethane anesthesia with sensory stimulation. SNpr spike-LFP entrainment frequency was stable during individual treadmill walking epochs, but increased gradually over weeks postlesion. In contrast, SNpr LFP power in the 25-40Hz range was greatest at the initiation of each walking epoch, and decreased during walking to stabilize by 6min at 49% of initial values. Power was further modulated in conjunction with the 1.5s stepping rhythm. Administration of l-dopa improved contraversive treadmill walking in correlation with a reduction in SNpr 25-40Hz LFP power and spike synchronization in the dopamine cell lesioned hemisphere. These effects were reversed by the serotonergic 1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT. While the prominent spike-LFP phase locking observed during ongoing motor activity in the hemiparkinsonian rats occurs at frequencies intriguingly higher than in PD patients, the synchronized activity in the SNpr of this animal model has much in common with oscillatory activity recorded from the basal ganglia of the PD patients. Results support the potential of this model for providing insight into relationships between synchronization of basal ganglia output induced by loss of dopamine and motor symptoms in PD. PMID:25084518

Brazhnik, Elena; Novikov, Nikolay; McCoy, Alex J; Cruz, Ana V; Walters, Judith R

2014-11-01

316

[Neuromuscular abnormalities in critical illness].  

PubMed

The spectrum of neuromuscular disease encountered in today's intensive care units (ICU) has evolved over the last few decades. However, in spite of many studies on neuromuscular disorders complicating critical illness as well as its epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prognosis, several key areas remain unclear. Two main groups are found among these neuromuscular abnormalities. The first group includes primary neuromuscular disorders present on admission to the ICU in which a possible etiology can be identified. Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia gravis are two of the most common diseases admitted to ours units. In the second group, weakness is acquired in the ICU in the absence of preexisting neuromuscular disease. It is believed to reflect illnesses or treatments occurring in the ICU. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is the most clearly defined neuromuscular complication in this group. However, although we have better knowledge of its clinical, diagnosis, and prognosis features, its pathophysiological substrate has not been fully elucidated. Neuromuscular junction defects and specially myopathies, that frequently coexist with CIP, are the others main causes of acquired weakness in critically ill patients. Advances in understanding of these neuromuscular disorders could have an important impact in terms of developing effective preventive and therapeutic interventions that could help to improve the poor prognosis of these patients. PMID:19406085

Amaya Villar, R; Garnacho-Montero, J; Rincón Ferrari, M D

2009-04-01

317

The XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality.  

PubMed

The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants.Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency.That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. PMID:13969480

BARR, M L; CARR, D H; POZSONYI, J; WILSON, R A; DUNN, H G; JACOBSON, T S; MILLER, J R; LEWIS, M; CHOWN, B

1962-10-27

318

Ultrastructural Differentiation of Abnormal Scars  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim: To evaluate the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Method: Over 1000 patients with different types of scars were studied and followed up for a period of 20 years. The histochemical and biochemical analysis with respect to the composition of the extracellular matrix of the dermis was conducted. At the ultrastructural level, collagen deposition and assembly were studied using electron microscopy. The rate of proliferation and metabolic activity of the dermal fibroblasts isolated from the normal skin and scar biopsies were studied to assess the cause of excess matrix deposition in scar tissues. Results: Evaluation of different types of scars showed that both keloid and hypertrophic scars have excess matrix deposition in terms of collagen and proteoglycans. Keloid shows a high amount of acid-soluble collagen. The assembly of collagen fibrils is also abnormal in keloids. Studies on the proliferation and metabolic activity showed that keloid fibroblasts have a higher rate of proliferation and metabolic activity than fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and normal skin. Finally, keloid fibroblasts show high and intense staining for the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible reason for high activity of these fibroblasts. Conclusion: Keloids and hypertrophic scars show distinct ultrastructural patterns of both collagen deposition and assembly. These parameters could be refined by further research, and they would thus serve as a useful tool for surgeons to distinguish different types of scars and adopt suitable therapeutic strategies. PMID:21990984

Meenakshi, J.; Jayaraman, V.; Ramakrishnan, K.M..; Babu, M.

2005-01-01

319

Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. PMID:20978945

Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

2010-01-01

320

Basal ganglia hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging of a patient with central nervous system metastasis producing carcinoembryonic antigens.  

PubMed

We herein report unusual basal ganglia hyperintense lesions on noncontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with central nervous system metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma that was treated with gefitinib. T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed no hypointense lesions, thereby excluding the possibility of calcification or haemorrhage. A stereotactic brain biopsy of the left basal ganglia lesions revealed atypical cells, some of which formed a glandular lumen with a micropapillary pattern. These cells were immunopositive for markers of lung adenocarcinoma, thereby confirming the diagnosis of metastasis. We speculate that proteins, including carcinoembryonic antigens from the adenocarcinoma cells in the basal ganglia, may have contributed to the hyperintensity observed on noncontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23370750

Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Waka; Harada, Masafumi; Sakaki, Mika; Mure, Hideo; Nagahiro, Shinji; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

2013-01-01

321

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

322

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

323

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

324

The present status of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the content of fifteen representative textbooks in abnormal psychology and seven textbooks in psychiatry. It is found that abnormal psychology is a dumping ground for miscellaneous topics left over from general psychology, including sleep, dreams, suggestion, etc. The most conspicuous defect is the lack of experimental material, of which there is only .8%. Another is the

W. A. Hunt; C. Landis

1935-01-01

325

Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

2002-01-01

326

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

327

Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

1980-01-01

328

Chromosomal Anomalies in Abnormal Human Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the cytogenetic observations on abnormal human pregnancies (anembryonic pregnancy, early fetal loss, and hydatidiform moles), and to detect the most frequent or typical chromosomal aberration for anembryonic pregnancy and early fetal loss. Study Design: Abnormal pregnancies were divided into three clinical and morphological groups: (a) anembryonic pregnancy; (b) early fetal loss,

1998-01-01

329

Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20

K A Waters; F Everett; D Sillence; E Fagan; C E Sullivan

1993-01-01

330

Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

2011-01-01

331

What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity  

PubMed Central

One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

2014-01-01

332

Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the dorsal root ganglia. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modeled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main Results Overall, firing-rate based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48±13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development. PMID:23928579

Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Mushahwar, V K; Stein, R B

2013-01-01

333

"SIF" cells in the sympathetic ganglia of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: variety in population and innervation.  

PubMed

"Small intensely fluorescent" (SIF) cells appeared singly or, more frequently, in variably-sized clusters in the sacroccygeal 8th and 9th sympathetic ganglia of the bullfrog. Smaller clusters containing only two to nine SIF cells accounted for 61% of 1773 clusters examined. The largest cluster contained 283 cells. The number of cells in individual ganglia also varied from 21 to 3332. SIF cells, solitary as well as in smaller clusters, received no distinct form of the synaptic contact. In contrast, the cells in larger clusters were frequently innervated by nerve endings that were similar in vesicular constitution to the nerve endings on principal ganglion (PG) cells. No synaptic contact was found between SIF cells and PG cells. SIF cells were also characterized by their location in the vicinity of blood capillaries with a continuous endothelium. Our observation seems to suggest that larger clusters of SIF cells receiving nerve endings are linked to a paracrine and/or endocrine system. Chemical influence via the blood stream and intraganglionic milieu for non-innervated SIF cells in the solitary or smaller clusters is a subject for speculation. An interneuronal role of SIF cells to relay stimuli to PG cells seems unlikely. The possible functions here assigned to SIF cells could be variable in efficiency depending on their population and density. PMID:3488811

Watanabe, H; Tonosaki, A

1986-01-01

334

Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr's disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient's disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41% of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L; Lemos, Roberta R; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D; Fullerton, Janice M; Adair, John C; Berner, Jon E; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobrici?, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L; Hopfer, Suellen; Jankovi?, Milena; Jaumà, Serge; Jen, Joanna C; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kosti?, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E; Linglart, Agnès; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Manyam, Bala V; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B; Mueller, Jennifer; Novakovi?, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R; de Oliveira, João R M; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Geschwind, Daniel H; Coppola, Giovanni

2013-02-01

335

Immunohistochemical demonstration of cholinergic structures in central ganglia of the slug (Limax maximus, Limax valentianus).  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distribution of cholinergic neurons containing choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine, in the central nervous system of the slug Limax maximus and Limax valentianus. Because the antiserum applied here was raised against a recombinant protein encoded by exons 7 and 8 of the rat gene for ChAT, three methods were used in order to validate antibody specificity for the Limax counterpart enzyme. Western blot combined with ChAT activity assay following native gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation analysis both indicated that immunoreactive Limax brain molecules were capable of synthesizing acetylcholine. Western blot after denatured gel electrophoresis of Limax brain extracts revealed a single band of about 67kDa. All findings obtained with these three methods clearly indicated that the antiserum effectively recognized Limax cChAT. 1400 neuronal cell bodies positive for cChAT, mainly small to medium-sized, were found in various brain regions in the buccal, cerebral, pleural, parietal, visceral and pedal ganglia. cChAT immunoreactive nerve fibers were distributed extensively in the neuropil, connectives and commissures of these central ganglia. The map of cChAT-positive cells provided here are valuable for understanding the cholinergic mechanism in the slug brain, as well as giving an important hint to clarifying the mechanisms of learning and memory in higher vertebrates including humans. PMID:21315127

D'Este, Loredana; Casini, Arianna; Kimura, Shin; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Ito, Etsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Renda, Tindaro G

2011-04-01

336

The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in language processing  

PubMed Central

The roles of the cerebellum and basal ganglia have typically been confined in the literature to motor planning and control. However, mounting evidence suggests that these structures are involved in more cognitive domains such as language processing. In the current study, we looked at effective connectivity (the influence that one brain region has on another) of the cerebellum and basal ganglia with regions thought to be involved in phonological processing, i.e. left inferior frontal gyrus and left lateral temporal cortex. We analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data (fMRI) obtained during a rhyming judgment task in adults using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed that the cerebellum has reciprocal connections with both left inferior frontal gyrus and left lateral temporal cortex, whereas the putamen has unidirectional connections into these two brain regions. Furthermore, the connections between cerebellum and these phonological processing areas were stronger than the connections between putamen and these areas. This pattern of results suggests that the putamen and cerebellum may have distinct roles in language processing. Based on research in the motor planning and control literature, we argue that the putamen engages in cortical initiation while the cerebellum amplifies and refines this signal to facilitate correct decision making. PMID:17189619

Booth, James R.; Wood, Lydia; Lu, Dong; Houk, James C.; Bitan, Tali

2007-01-01

337

Aligned electrospun nanofibers specify the direction of dorsal root ganglia neurite growth.  

PubMed

Nerve injury, a significant cause of disability, may be treated more effectively using nerve guidance channels containing longitudinally aligned fibers. Aligned, electrospun nanofibers direct the neurite growth of immortalized neural stem cells, demonstrating potential for directing regenerating neurites. However, no study of neurite guidance on these fibers has yet been performed with primary neurons. Here, we examined neurites from dorsal root ganglia explants on electrospun poly-L-lactate nanofibers of high, intermediate, and random alignment. On aligned fibers, neurites grew radially outward from the ganglia and turned to follow the fibers upon contact. Neurite guidance was robust, with neurites never leaving the fibers to grow on the surrounding cover slip. To compare the alignment of neurites to that of the nanofiber substrates, Fourier methods were used to quantify the alignment. Neurite alignment, however striking, was inferior to fiber alignment on all but the randomly aligned fibers. Neurites on highly aligned substrates were 20 and 16% longer than neurites on random and intermediate fibers, respectively. Schwann cells on fibers assumed a very narrow morphology compared to those on the surrounding coverslip. The robust neurite guidance demonstrated here is a significant step toward the use of aligned, electrospun nanofibers for nerve regeneration. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2007. PMID:17508416

Corey, Joseph M; Lin, David Y; Mycek, Katherine B; Chen, Qiaoran; Samuel, Stanley; Feldman, Eva L; Martin, David C

2007-12-01

338

Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. (Sandoz Pharma Ltd., Basel (Switzerland))

1991-02-01

339

DARPP-32 to quantify intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal death in basal ganglia.  

PubMed

Quantification of acute brain injury in basal ganglia is essential for mechanistic and therapeutic studies in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using conventional counting of degenerating cells based on morphological or immunohistochemical criteria, it is hard to define the boundary of the whole lesion area. Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum. We developed new methods for quantifying lesion area by detecting the difference of the DARPP-32 negative area and the hematoma clot, and by measuring DARPP-32 protein level for semi-qualification in rat model of ICH. We found that DARPP-32 negative area around hematoma was present at day-1, peaked at day-3, and decreased at day-14 after ICH, a time course paralleled by DARPP-32 Western blots. The DARPP-32 negative area matched well with the necrotic area determined using propidium iodide. Treatment with an iron chelator, deferoxamine, attenuated the ICH-induced reduction in DARPP-32 protein levels. These results suggest that DARPP-32 is a simple and quantifiable indicator of ICH-induced neuronal death in basal ganglia. PMID:23543809

Jin, Hang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Wu, Jiang; Hua, Ya

2013-02-01

340

Basal Ganglia Neuronal Activity during Scanning Eye Movements in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinso?s disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control. PMID:24223158

Sieger, Tomáš; Bonnet, Cecilia; Serranová, Tereza; Wild, Ji?í; Novák, Daniel; R?ži?ka, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; R?ži?ka, Evžen; Gaymard, Bertrand; Jech, Robert

2013-01-01

341

Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification  

PubMed Central

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr’s disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient’s disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobrici?, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Jankovi?, Milena; Jaumà, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kosti?, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agnès; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novakovi?, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, João R. M.; Sobrido, María-Jesús

2014-01-01

342

Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells  

SciTech Connect

Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

2009-03-09

343

Metabolic activity of the basal ganglia in parkinsonian syndromes in human and non-human primates: A cytochrome oxidase histochemistry study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation on metabolic and functional activity of the basal ganglia, we analysed the distribution of cytochrome oxidase, a metabolic marker for neuronal functional activity, throughout the different basal ganglia structures in parkinsonian syndromes. The study was performed using enzyme histochemistry and densitometric measurements in patients with Parkinson's disease and in monkeys rendered

M. Vila; R. Levy; M.-T. Herrero; B. Faucheux; J. A. Obeso; Y. Agid; E. C. Hirsch

1996-01-01

344

Cerebellar abnormalities in Huntington's disease: a role in motor and psychiatric impairment?  

PubMed

The cerebellum has received limited attention in Huntington's disease (HD), despite signs of possible cerebellar dysfunction, including motor incoordination and impaired gait, which are currently attributed to basal ganglia atrophy and disrupted fronto-striatal circuits. This study is the first to investigate a potential contribution of macro- and microstructural cerebellar damage to clinical manifestations of HD. T1- and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 12 controls and 22 early-stage HD participants. Manual delineation and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess between-group differences in cerebellar volume, and diffusion metrics were compared between groups within the cerebellar gray and white matter. Associations between these imaging measures and clinical scores were examined within the HD group. Reduced paravermal volume was detected in HD compared with controls using voxel-based morphometry (P?abnormalities were detected in both cerebellar gray matter and white matter. Smaller cerebellar volumes, although not significantly reduced, were significantly associated with impaired gait and psychiatric morbidity and of borderline significance with pronate/supinate-hand task performance. Abnormal cerebellar diffusion was associated with increased total motor score, impaired saccade initiation, tandem walking, and timed finger tapping. In conclusion, atrophy of the paravermis, possibly encompassing the cerebellar nuclei, and microstructural abnormalities within the cerebellum may contribute to HD neuropathology. Aberrant cerebellar diffusion and reduced cerebellar volume together associate with impaired motor function and increased psychiatric symptoms in stage I HD, potentially implicating the cerebellum more centrally in HD presentation than previously recognized. PMID:25123926

Rees, Elin M; Farmer, Ruth; Cole, James H; Haider, Salman; Durr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Hobbs, Nicola Z

2014-11-01

345

Electrophysiological abnormalities in the transplanted human heart.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen relatively long term survivors of cardiac transplantation underwent systematic electrophysiological evaluation and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Six patients had prolonged conduction intervals during sinus rhythm. Sinus node function could be assessed in all donor atria and in 10 recipient atria. Sinus node recovery times were prolonged in four of the donor atria and in six recipient atria. In the donor atria abnormalities of sinus node automaticity were invariably associated with abnormalities of sinoatrial conduction. Four patients showed functional duality of atrioventricular nodal conduction during programmed extrastimulation, but no patient developed re-entrant arrhythmia. During ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring no pronounced tachyarrhythmias were recorded. Three patients showed abnormalities of sinus node impulse formation. All three patients had abnormal sinus node recovery times during their electrophysiological study. Long term survivors of cardiac transplantation have a high incidence of electrophysiological abnormalities. Abnormalities of donor sinus node function are probably of clinical significance. The clinical significance of abnormalities detected within the atrioventricular conduction system of the denervated heart remains to be elucidated. PMID:6360191

Bexton, R S; Nathan, A W; Hellestrand, K J; Cory-Pearce, R; Spurrell, R A; English, T A; Camm, A J

1983-01-01

346

Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions  

PubMed Central

Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

2012-01-01

347

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

348

Abnormal dermatoglyphics in absence of thumb.  

PubMed

Dermatoglyphics of six patients with absence of thumb are described. Two specific abnormal configurations were seen in the palmar area. In the first, there was no axial triradius and the course of the ridges in the proximal part of the palm was transversal. In the second, a peculiar distal loop on the radial border was present with a palmar triradius. These abnormal patterns are probably due to the absence of a thenar volar pad or the presence of an abnormal one when the ridges are formed. PMID:7170953

Borbolla, L

1982-01-01

349

Development of non-catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons in para- and prevertebral ganglia of cats.  

PubMed

Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the sympathetic ganglia was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), stellate ganglion (SG) and celiac ganglion (CG) from cats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old and 2-month-old). Non-catecholaminergic TH-negative VIP-immunoreactive (IR) and nNOS-IR sympathetic ganglionic neurons are present from the moment of birth. In all studied age groups, substantial populations of VIP-IR (up to 9.8%) and nNOS-IR cells (up to 8.3%) was found in the SG, with a much smaller population found in the SCG (<1%) and only few cells observed in the CG. The percentage of nNOS-IR and VIP-IR neurons in the CG and SCG did not significantly change during development. The proportion of nNOS-IR and VIP-IR neuron profiles in the SG increased in first 20 days of life from 2.3±0.15% to 8.3±0.56% and from 0.3±0.05% to 9.2±0.83%, respectively. In the SG, percentages of nNOS-IR sympathetic neurons colocalizing VIP increased in the first 20 days of life. ChAT-IR and CGRP-IR neurons were not observed in the sympathetic ganglia of newborn animals and did not appear until 10 days after birth. In the SG of newborn and 10-day-old kittens, the majority of NOS-IR neurons were calbindin (CB)-IR, whereas in the SCG and CG of cats of all age groups and in the SG of 30-day-old and older kittens, the vast majority of NOS-IR neurons lacked CB. We conclude that the development of various non-catecholaminergic neurons in different sympathetic ganglia has its own time dynamics and is concluded at the end of the second month of life. PMID:25490547

Masliukov, Petr M; Emanuilov, Andrey I; Moiseev, Konstantin; Nozdrachev, Alexandr D; Dobrotvorskaya, Svetlana; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre

2015-02-01

350

Abnormalities of the maxillary incisors in children with cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Dental anomalies of the maxillary anterior teeth were studied in seventy-seven children affected by unilateral and bilateral clefts of the lip and alveolar process, with or without involvement of the palate. As for the permanent lateral incisor in the cleft area, our results show that its congenital absence is the most frequent abnormality followed by anomalies in size and shape and supernumerary teeth. Enamel hypoplasia was found to affect the permanent central incisor on the cleft side more frequently. Early recognition of tooth abnormalities during the primary dentition phase for an interceptive treatment of potentially severe problems was emphasized. PMID:8636477

Vichi, M; Franchi, L

1995-01-01

351

Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2012-01-01

352

Basal Ganglia, Dopamine and Temporal Processing: Performance on Three Timing Tasks on and off Medication in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pervasive hypothesis in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine. This hypothesis was investigated by testing 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication, and 20 healthy controls on three timing tasks.…

Jones, Catherine R. G.; Malone, Tim J. L.; Dirnberger, Georg; Edwards, Mark; Jahanshahi, Marjan

2008-01-01

353

The Role of Inhibition in Generating and Controlling Parkinson’s Disease Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Movement disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with slow oscillations and increased synchrony of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia. The neural mechanisms underlying this dynamic network dysfunction, however, are only poorly understood. Here, we show that the strength of inhibitory inputs from striatum to globus pallidus external (GPe) is a key parameter controlling oscillations in the basal ganglia. Specifically, the increase in striatal activity observed in PD is sufficient to unleash the oscillations in the basal ganglia. This finding allows us to propose a unified explanation for different phenomena: absence of oscillation in the healthy state of the basal ganglia, oscillations in dopamine-depleted state and quenching of oscillations under deep-brain-stimulation (DBS). These novel insights help us to better understand and optimize the function of DBS protocols. Furthermore, studying the model behavior under transient increase of activity of the striatal neurons projecting to the indirect pathway, we are able to account for both motor impairment in PD patients and for reduced response inhibition in DBS implanted patients. PMID:22028684

Kumar, Arvind; Cardanobile, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan; Aertsen, Ad

2011-01-01

354

NEURONAL DEATH IN THE SPINAL GANGLIA OF THE CHICK EMBRYO AND ITS REDUCTION BY NERVE GROWTH FACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo, two neuronal populations can be distinguished: large, early differentiating ventrolateral (VL) cells and small, late differentiating dorsomedial (DM) cells. It was found that, beginning with stage 25, the DM cells originate from a narrow band of small, immature cells at the medial border of the ganglion, extending to the dorsolateral border. We

V. HAMBURGER; J. K. BRUNSO-BECHTOLD; J. W. YIP

1981-01-01

355

Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

1979-01-01

356

ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

357

Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

358

C. Haegelen Automated segmentation of basal ganglia and deep brain structures in MRI  

E-print Network

tremor or to Tourette syndrome. When pharmaceutical treatments lose effectiveness, such disorders may that is a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions producing writhing movements and abnormal postures, to essential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Past, Present, and Future of the Pathophysiological Model of the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

The current model of basal ganglia (BG) was introduced two decades ago and has settled most of our current understanding of BG function and dysfunction. Extensive research efforts have been carried out in recent years leading to further refinement and understanding of the normal and diseased BG. Several questions, however, are yet to be resolved. This short review provides a synopsis of the evolution of thought regarding the pathophysiological model of the BG and summarizes the main recent findings and additions to this field of research. We have also tried to identify major challenges that need to be addressed and resolved in the near future. Detailed accounts and state-of-the-art developments concerning research on the BG are provided in the articles that make up this Special Issue. PMID:21808607

Obeso, José A.; Lanciego, José L.

2011-01-01

360

Different susceptibility of medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia atrophy rates to vascular risk factors  

PubMed Central

Atrophy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and basal ganglia (BG) are characteristic of various neurodegenerative diseases in older people. In search of potentially modifiable factors that lead to atrophy in these structures, we studied the association of vascular risk factors to atrophy of MTL and BG in 368 non-demented men and women [b. 1907–1935] who participated in the Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility - Reykjavik Study. A fully automated segmentation pipeline estimated volumes of MTL and BG from whole brain MRI performed at baseline and 2.4 years later. Linear regression models showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the presence of Apo E ?4 were independently associated with increased atrophy of MTL but no association of vascular risk factors with atrophy of BG. The different susceptibility of MTL and BG atrophy to the presence of vascular risk factors suggests the relatively preserved perfusion of BG when vascular risk factors are present. PMID:23992618

de Jong, Laura W.; Forsberg, Lars E.; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Zijdenbos, Alex P.; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Buchem, Mark A.; Launer, Lenore J.

2013-01-01

361

The highs and lows of beta activity in cortico-basal ganglia loops  

PubMed Central

Oscillatory activity in the beta (13–30 Hz) frequency band is widespread in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, and becomes prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we develop the hypothesis that the degree of synchronization in this frequency band is a critical factor in gating computation across a population of neurons, with increases in beta band synchrony entailing a loss of information-coding space and hence computational capacity. Task and context drive this dynamic gating, so that for each state there will be an optimal level of network synchrony, and levels lower or higher than this will impair behavioural performance. Thus, both the pathological exaggeration of synchrony, as observed in PD, and the ability of interventions like deep brain stimulation (DBS) to excessively suppress synchrony can potentially lead to impairments in behavioural performance. Indeed, under physiological conditions, the manipulation of computational capacity by beta activity may itself present a mechanism of action selection and maintenance. PMID:24890470

Brittain, John-Stuart; Sharott, Andrew; Brown, Peter

2014-01-01

362

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes inhibit regenerative axon growth of dorsal root ganglia neurons of mice  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have demonstrated that nanomaterials may be toxic to human tissue. While the ability of nano-scaled particulate matter is known to cause a range of problems in respiratory system, recent observations suggest that the nervous system may be vulnerable as well. In the current paper we asked whether exposure of primary neuronal cell cultures to nanoparticles might compromise regenerative axon growth. Regenerative response was triggered by performing a conditioning lesion of sciatic nerve five days prior to collection of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). DRG neurons were plated at a low density and incubated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (0.1 – 10 ?g/ml in 10% of surfactant in saline) overnight. The experiments showed that exposure of DRG cultures to MWCNT significantly impaired regenerative axonogenesis without concomitant cell death. These results indicate that MWNCTs may have detrimental effect on nerve regeneration and may potentially trigger axonal pathology. PMID:22172934

Wu, Di; Pak, Elena S.; Wingard, Christopher J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

2012-01-01

363

Molecular heterogeneity of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in canine intracardiac ganglia  

PubMed Central

Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in the nervous system. We have recently shown that principal neurons from canine intracardiac ganglia (ICG) express a paxilline- and TEA-sensitive BK current, which increases neuronal excitability. In the present work, we further explore the molecular constituents of the BK current in canine ICG. We found that the ?1 and ?4 regulatory subunits are expressed in ICG. Single channel voltage-dependence at different calcium concentrations suggested that association of the BK? with a particular ? subunit was not enough to explain the channel activity in this tissue. Indeed, we detected the presence of several splice variants of the BK? subunit. In conclusion, BK channels in canine ICG may result from the arrangement of different BK? splice variants, plus accessory ? subunits. The particular combinations expressed in canine IC neurons likely rule the excitatory role of BK current in this tissue. PMID:23807090

Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Moreno-Asso, Alba; Anderson, Seth; Thomas, Kristen; Desai, Mayurika; Brugada, Ramon; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S

2013-01-01

364

The basal ganglia is necessary for learning spectral, but not temporal features of birdsong  

PubMed Central

Executing a motor skill requires the brain to control which muscles to activate at what times. How these aspects of control - motor implementation and timing - are acquired, and whether the learning processes underlying them differ, is not well understood. To address this we used a reinforcement learning paradigm to independently manipulate both spectral and temporal features of birdsong, a complex learned motor sequence, while recording and perturbing activity in underlying circuits. Our results uncovered a striking dissociation in how neural circuits underlie learning in the two domains. The basal ganglia was required for modifying spectral, but not temporal structure. This functional dissociation extended to the descending motor pathway, where recordings from a premotor cortex analogue nucleus reflected changes to temporal, but not spectral structure. Our results reveal a strategy in which the nervous system employs different and largely independent circuits to learn distinct aspects of a motor skill. PMID:24075977

Ali, Farhan; Fantana, Antoniu L.; Burak, Yoram; Ölveczky, Bence P.

2013-01-01

365

Using a hybrid neuron in physiologically inspired models of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Our current understanding of the basal ganglia (BG) has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the BG, however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations. Motivated by a need for more hardware accessible networks, we replicate four published models of the BG, spanning single neuron and small networks, replacing the more computationally expensive neuron models with an Izhikevich hybrid neuron. This begins with a network modeling action-selection, where the basal activity levels and the ability to appropriately select the most salient input is reproduced. A Parkinson's disease model is then explored under normal conditions, Parkinsonian conditions and during subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS). The resulting network is capable of replicating the loss of thalamic relay capabilities in the Parkinsonian state and its return under DBS. This is also demonstrated using a network capable of action-selection. Finally, a study of correlation transfer under different patterns of Parkinsonian activity is presented. These networks successfully captured the significant results of the originals studies. This not only creates a foundation for neuromorphic hardware implementations but may also support the development of large-scale biophysical models. The former potentially providing a way of improving the efficacy of DBS and the latter allowing for the efficient simulation of larger more comprehensive networks. PMID:23847524

Thibeault, Corey M.; Srinivasa, Narayan

2013-01-01

366

Modeling the Contributions of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus to Spatial Navigation Using Reinforcement Learning  

PubMed Central

A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze. PMID:23110073

Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

2012-01-01

367

A fate-map for cranial sensory ganglia in the sea lamprey.  

PubMed

Cranial neurogenic placodes and the neural crest make essential contributions to key adult characteristics of all vertebrates, including the paired peripheral sense organs and craniofacial skeleton. Neurogenic placode development has been extensively characterized in representative jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) but not in jawless fishes (agnathans). Here, we use in vivo lineage tracing with DiI, together with neuronal differentiation markers, to establish the first detailed fate-map for placode-derived sensory neurons in a jawless fish, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and to confirm that neural crest cells in the lamprey contribute to the cranial sensory ganglia. We also show that a pan-Pax3/7 antibody labels ophthalmic trigeminal (opV, profundal) placode-derived but not maxillomandibular trigeminal (mmV) placode-derived neurons, mirroring the expression of gnathostome Pax3 and suggesting that Pax3 (and its single Pax3/7 lamprey ortholog) is a pan-vertebrate marker for opV placode-derived neurons. Unexpectedly, however, our data reveal that mmV neuron precursors are located in two separate domains at neurula stages, with opV neuron precursors sandwiched between them. The different branches of the mmV nerve are not comparable between lampreys and gnatho-stomes, and spatial segregation of mmV neuron precursor territories may be a derived feature of lampreys. Nevertheless, maxillary and mandibular neurons are spatially segregated within gnathostome mmV ganglia, suggesting that a more detailed investigation of gnathostome mmV placode development would be worthwhile. Overall, however, our results highlight the conservation of cranial peripheral sensory nervous system development across vertebrates, yielding insight into ancestral vertebrate traits. PMID:24513489

Modrell, Melinda S; Hockman, Dorit; Uy, Benjamin; Buckley, David; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne E; Baker, Clare V H

2014-01-15

368

SLC20A2 and THAP1 deletion in familial basal ganglia calcification with dystonia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric and motor syndromes. In this study, we set out to determine the frequency of the recently identified IBGC gene SLC20A2 in 27 IBGC cases from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank using both Sanger sequencing and TaqMan copy number analysis to cover the complete spectrum of possible mutations. We identified SLC20A2 pathogenic mutations in two of the 27 cases of IBGC (7 %). Sequencing analysis identified a p.S113* nonsense mutation in SLC20A2 in one case. TaqMan copy number analysis of SLC20A2 further revealed a genomic deletion in a second case, which was part of a large previously reported Canadian IBGC family with dystonia. Subsequent whole-genome sequencing in this family revealed a 563,256-bp genomic deletion with precise breakpoints on chromosome 8 affecting multiple genes including SLC20A2 and the known dystonia-related gene THAP1. The deletion co-segregated with disease in all family members. The deletion of THAP1 in addition to SLC20A2 in the Canadian IBGC family may contribute to the severe and early onset dystonia in this family. The identification of an SLC20A2 genomic deletion in a familial form of IBGC demonstrates that reduced SLC20A2 in the absence of mutant protein is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that previously reported SLC20A2 mutation frequencies may be underestimated. PMID:24135862

Baker, Matt; Strongosky, Audrey J; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica Y; Yang, Shan; Ferguson, Will; Calne, Donald B; Calne, Susan; Stoessl, A Jon; Allanson, Judith E; Broderick, Daniel F; Hutton, Michael L; Dickson, Dennis W; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Rademakers, Rosa

2014-03-01

369

Efferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes.  

PubMed

The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes that receives substantial vomeronasal afferents through projections from the nucleus sphericus. In a preceding article, the olfactostriatum of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) was characterized on the basis of chemoarchitecture (distribution of serotonin, neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase) and pattern of afferent connections [Martinez-Marcos, A., Ubeda-Banon, I., Lanuza, E., Halpern, M., 2005. Chemoarchitecture and afferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 29, 49-69]. In the present study, its efferent connections have been investigated. The olfactostriatum projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, septal complex, ventral pallidum, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in the nucleus accumbens proper, a structure closely associated with the olfactostriatum, result in a similar pattern of efferent connections with the exception of those reaching the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data, therefore, help to characterize the olfactostriatum, an apparently specialized area of the nucleus accumbens. Double labeling experiments after tracer injections in the nucleus sphericus and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus demonstrate a pathway between these two structures through the olfactostriatum. Injections in the olfactostriatum and in the medial amygdala show parallel projections to the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the olfactostriatum may mediate vomeronasal influence on tongue-flick behavior. PMID:15820623

Martinez-Marcos, Alino; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Lanuza, Enrique; Halpern, Mimi

2005-05-01

370

Differentiation of sCJD and vCJD forms by automated analysis of basal ganglia intensity distribution in multisequence MRI of the brain--definition and evaluation of new MRI-based ratios.  

PubMed

We present a method for the analysis of basal ganglia (including the thalamus) for accurate detection of human spongiform encephalopathy in multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. One common feature of most forms of prion protein diseases is the appearance of hyperintensities in the deep grey matter area of the brain in T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. We employ T1, T2, and Flair-T2 MR sequences for the detection of intensity deviations in the internal nuclei. First, the MR data are registered to a probabilistic atlas and normalized in intensity. Then smoothing is applied with edge enhancement. The segmentation of hyperintensities is performed using a model of the human visual system. For more accurate results, a priori anatomical data from a segmented atlas are employed to refine the registration and remove false positives. The results are robust over the patient data and in accordance with the clinical ground truth. Our method further allows the quantification of intensity distributions in basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei are highlighted as main areas of diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (sCJD), in agreement with the histological data. The algorithm permitted the classification of the intensities of abnormal signals in sCJD patient FLAIR images with a higher hypersignal in caudate nuclei (10/10) and putamen (6/10) than in thalami. Defining normalized MRI measures of the intensity relations between the internal grey nuclei of patients, we robustly differentiate sCJD and variant CJD (vCJD) patients, in an attempt to create an automatic classification tool of human spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:16894998

Linguraru, Marius George; Ayache, Nicholas; Bardinet, Eric; Ballester, Miguel Angel González; Galanaud, Damien; Haïk, Stéphane; Faucheux, Baptiste; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Cozzone, Patrick; Dormont, Didier; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

2006-08-01

371

Abnormal brain connectivity in schizophrenia : investigations into episodic memory networks.  

E-print Network

??Abnormal connectivity between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain regions has been demonstrated in subjects with schizophrenia. We tested if abnormal connectivity, particularly between… (more)

Pelletier, Marc, 1973-

2005-01-01

372

Resting state EEG abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex and heterogeneous developmental disorders involving multiple neural system dysfunctions. In an effort to understand neurophysiological substrates, identify etiopathophysiologically distinct subgroups of patients, and track outcomes of novel treatments with translational biomarkers, EEG (electroencephalography) studies offer a promising research strategy in ASD. Resting-state EEG studies of ASD suggest a U-shaped profile of electrophysiological power alterations, with excessive power in low-frequency and high-frequency bands, abnormal functional connectivity, and enhanced power in the left hemisphere of the brain. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings, discuss limitations in available research that may contribute to inconsistencies in the literature, and offer suggestions for future research in this area for advancing the understanding of ASD. PMID:24040879

2013-01-01

373

3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

2011-03-01

374

A Cross-Sectional Study of Regional Brain Volume Abnormalities in Lesch-Nyhan Disease and its Variants  

PubMed Central

Background Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare, X-linked, neurodevelopmental metabolic disorder that results from a near-complete lack of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase enzyme activity. LND is characterized by hyperuricemia, motor neurological abnormalities, recurrent self-injury, and cognitive impairment, but its neural substrates remain poorly understood. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured gray matter abnormalities in 21 persons with LND, 17 with an attenuated variant of the phenotype (LNV), and 33 healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry. We conducted an analysis of covariance to identify group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV), followed by six pair-wise post-hoc group comparisons. Findings Patients with LND showed 20% smaller intracranial volumes (17% gray and 26% white matter) than healthy adults. The largest differences were found in basal ganglia, frontotemporal, and limbic regions, with sparing of parieto-occipital regions. The gray matter volumes of LNV participants invariably fell between those of patients with classical LND and healthy controls. Compared to healthy adults, patients with LND showed additional GMV reductions in the temporal lobe and left lateralized structures, and patients with LNV showed additional reductions in lingual and precuneus regions with sparing of right frontal and temporal regions. LND participants showed reductions in the ventral striatum and prefrontal areas relative to LNV. Interpretation This study of brain morphology reveals regional abnormalities associated with known neurological and behavioral deficits in persons with LND. It also revealed that patients with LNV show milder gray matter abnormalities in many of the same brain regions and preservation of GMV in other regions which could provide important clues to the neural substrates of differences between thephenotypes. PMID:24383089

Schretlen, David J.; Varvaris, Mark; Ho, Tiffany E.; Vannorsdall, Tracy D.; Gordon, Barry; Harris, James C.; Jinnah, H. A.

2014-01-01

375

Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods  

PubMed Central

Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken together, these data reveal three major correspondences between the segmental ganglia of tardigrades and arthropods, including (i) contralateral projections and commissures in each ganglion, (ii) segmentally repeated sets of immunoreactive neurons, and (iii) an anteriorly shifted (parasegmental) position of ganglia. These correspondences support the homology of segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods, suggesting that these structures were either lost in Onychophora or, alternatively, evolved in the tardigrade/arthropod lineage. PMID:24152256

2013-01-01

376

Abnormal P600 in heroin addicts with prolonged abstinence elicited during a working memory test.  

PubMed

The P600 component of event-related potentials, believed to be generated by anterior cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia, is considered as an index of aspects of second-pass parsing processes of information processing, having much in common with working memory (WM) systems. Moreover, dysfunction of these brain structures as well as WM deficits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of opioid addicts. The present study is focused on P600 elicited during a WM test in twenty heroin addicts with prolonged abstinence compared with an equal number of healthy controls. The results showed significantly prolonged latencies at right hemisphere, specifically at Fp2 abduction. Moreover, memory performance of patients did not differ from that of normal controls. These findings may indicate that abstinent heroin addicts manifest abnormal aspects of second-pass parsing processes as are reflected by the P600 latencies, elicited during a WM test. Additionally, the P600 might serve as a valuable investigative tool for a more comprehensive understanding of the neurobiological substrate of drug abuse. PMID:11409757

Papageorgiou, C; Liappas, I; Asvestas, P; Vasios, C; Matsopoulos, G K; Nikolaou, C; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N; Rabavilas, A

2001-06-13

377

Neuromagnetic Evidence of Abnormal Movement-Related Beta Desynchronization in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with debilitating motor, posture, and gait abnormalities. Human studies recording local field potentials within the subthalamic nucleus and scalp-based electroencephalography have shown pathological beta synchronization throughout the cortical–basal ganglia motor network in PD. Suppression of such pathological beta synchronization has been associated with improved motor function, which may explain the effectiveness of deep-brain stimulation. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural population-level beta responses, and other oscillatory activity, during a motor task in unmedicated patients with PD and a matched group of healthy adults. MEG is a noninvasive neurophysiological technique that permits the recording of oscillatory activity during movement planning, execution, and termination phases. Each of these phases was independently examined using beamforming to distinguish the brain areas and movement phases, where pathological oscillations exist during motor control. Patients with PD exhibited significantly diminished beta desynchronization compared with controls prior to and during movement, which paralleled reduced alpha desynchronization. This study is the first to systematically investigate neural oscillatory responses in PD during distinct stages of motor control (e.g. planning, execution, and termination) and indicates that these patients have significant difficulty suppressing cortical beta synchronization during movement planning, which may contribute to their diminished movement capacities. PMID:23645717

Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W.; Santamaria, Pamela M.; Heithoff, Sheila K.; Torres-Russotto, Diego; Hutter-Saunders, Jessica A.L.; Estes, Katherine A.; Meza, Jane L.; Mosley, R. L.; Gendelman, Howard E.

2014-01-01

378

Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by frataxin deficiency is associated with cellular senescence and abnormal calcium metabolism  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia is considered a neurodegenerative disorder involving both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the major target tissue structures. This neuropathy is caused by mutations in the FXN gene that encodes frataxin. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial and cell consequences of frataxin depletion in a cellular model based on frataxin silencing in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line that has been used widely as in vitro models for studies on neurological diseases. We showed that the reduction of frataxin induced mitochondrial dysfunction due to a bioenergetic deficit and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the mitochondria that were associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. The depletion of frataxin did not cause cell death but increased autophagy, which may have a cytoprotective effect against cellular insults such as oxidative stress. Frataxin silencing provoked slow cell growth associated with cellular senescence, as demonstrated by increased SA-?gal activity and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. We postulate that cellular senescence might be related to a hypoplastic defect in the DRG during neurodevelopment, as suggested by necropsy studies. PMID:24860428

Bolinches-Amorós, Arantxa; Mollá, Belén; Pla-Martín, David; Palau, Francesc; González-Cabo, Pilar

2014-01-01

379

Neuromagnetic evidence of abnormal movement-related beta desynchronization in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with debilitating motor, posture, and gait abnormalities. Human studies recording local field potentials within the subthalamic nucleus and scalp-based electroencephalography have shown pathological beta synchronization throughout the cortical-basal ganglia motor network in PD. Suppression of such pathological beta synchronization has been associated with improved motor function, which may explain the effectiveness of deep-brain stimulation. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural population-level beta responses, and other oscillatory activity, during a motor task in unmedicated patients with PD and a matched group of healthy adults. MEG is a noninvasive neurophysiological technique that permits the recording of oscillatory activity during movement planning, execution, and termination phases. Each of these phases was independently examined using beamforming to distinguish the brain areas and movement phases, where pathological oscillations exist during motor control. Patients with PD exhibited significantly diminished beta desynchronization compared with controls prior to and during movement, which paralleled reduced alpha desynchronization. This study is the first to systematically investigate neural oscillatory responses in PD during distinct stages of motor control (e.g. planning, execution, and termination) and indicates that these patients have significant difficulty suppressing cortical beta synchronization during movement planning, which may contribute to their diminished movement capacities. PMID:23645717

Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W; Santamaria, Pamela M; Heithoff, Sheila K; Torres-Russotto, Diego; Hutter-Saunders, Jessica A L; Estes, Katherine A; Meza, Jane L; Mosley, R L; Gendelman, Howard E

2014-10-01

380

Endocrine abnormalities in Townes-Brocks syndrome.  

PubMed

Townes-Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes-Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes-Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

2013-09-01

381

Enteric nervous system abnormalities are present in human necrotizing enterocolitis: potential neurotransplantation therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intestinal dysmotility following human necrotizing enterocolitis suggests that the enteric nervous system is injured during the disease. We examined human intestinal specimens to characterize the enteric nervous system injury that occurs in necrotizing enterocolitis, and then used an animal model of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis to determine whether transplantation of neural stem cells can protect the enteric nervous system from injury. Methods Human intestinal specimens resected from patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (n?=?18), from control patients with bowel atresia (n?=?8), and from necrotizing enterocolitis and control patients undergoing stoma closure several months later (n?=?14 and n?=?6 respectively) were subjected to histologic examination, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to examine the myenteric plexus structure and neurotransmitter expression. In addition, experimental necrotizing enterocolitis was induced in newborn rat pups and neurotransplantation was performed by administration of fluorescently labeled neural stem cells, with subsequent visualization of transplanted cells and determination of intestinal integrity and intestinal motility. Results There was significant enteric nervous system damage with increased enteric nervous system apoptosis, and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in myenteric ganglia from human intestine resected for necrotizing enterocolitis compared with control intestine. Structural and functional abnormalities persisted months later at the time of stoma closure. Similar abnormalities were identified in rat pups exposed to experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Pups receiving neural stem cell transplantation had improved enteric nervous system and intestinal integrity, differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells into functional neurons, significantly improved intestinal transit, and significantly decreased mortality compared with control pups. Conclusions Significant injury to the enteric nervous system occurs in both human and experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Neural stem cell transplantation may represent a novel future therapy for patients with necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:24423414

2013-01-01

382

Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis  

PubMed Central

Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software – the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated. PMID:25071960

Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

2014-01-01

383

Shapes and Shaping of Planetary Nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the state of observational and theoretical studies of the shaping of planetary nebulae (PNe) and protoplanetary nebulae (pPNe). In the past decade, high-resolution studies of PNe have revealed a bewildering array of morphologies with elaborate symmetries. Recent imaging studies of pPNe exhibit an even richer array of shapes. The variety of shapes, sometimes multiaxial symmetries, carefully arranged systems

Bruce Balick; Adam Frank

2002-01-01

384

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

385

Wavelet-based feature extraction technique for fruit shape classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For export, papaya fruit should be free of defects and damages. Abnormality in papaya fruit shape represents a defective fruit and is used as one of the main criteria to determine suitability of the fruit to be exported. This paper describes a wavelet-based technique used to perform feature extraction to extract unique features which are then used in the classification

Slamet Riyadi; A. J. Ishak; M. M. Mustafa; A. Hussain

2008-01-01

386

Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

2006-01-01

387

NASA Ames Research Center Emergency and Abnormal Situations in  

E-print Network

NASA Ames Research Center Emergency and Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposium June 10 -11, 2003 San Jose, California "Dealing with Emergency/Abnormal Situations with New Security Guidelines" Captain MANAGEMENT Emergency/Abnormal SituationsEmergency/Abnormal Situations & Security& Security #12;Agenda

388

Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory and sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed

Neurochemical features in sympathetic and afferent neurons are subject to change during development. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a developmental role in the nervous system. To better understand the neuroplasticity of sympathetic and afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the sympathetic para- and prevertebral, nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from female Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, and 3-year-old). nNOS-positive neurons were revealed in all sensory ganglia but not in sympathetic ones from birth onward. The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons increased during first 10 days of life from 41.3 to 57.6 in Th2 DRG, from 40.9 to 59.1 in L4 DRG and from 31.6 to 38.5 in NG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons did not change in the NG later during development and senescence. However, in Th2 and L4 DRG the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons was high in animals between 10 and 30days of life and decreased up to the second month of life. In 2-month-old rats, the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons was 52.9 in Th2 DRG and 51.3 in L4 DRG. We did not find statistically significant differences in the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons between Th2 and L4 DRG and between young and aged rats. In NG and DRG of 10-day-old and older rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons binds isolectin B4. In newborn animals, only 41.3%, 45.3% and 28.4% of nNOS neuron profiles bind to IB4 in Th2, L4 DRG and NG, respectively. In 10-day-old and older rats, the number of sensory nNOS-IR neurons binding IB4 reached more than 90% in DRG and more than 80% in NG. Only a small number of nNOS-positive cells showed immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament 200, calretinin. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of the development of sensory neurons. PMID:24161722

Masliukov, P M; Emanuilov, A I; Madalieva, L V; Moiseev, K Y; Bulibin, A V; Korzina, M B; Porseva, V V; Korobkin, A A; Smirnova, V P

2014-01-01

389

The electrophysiological effects of neurotensin on neurones of guinea-pig prevertebral sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed Central

1. The membrane effects of neurotensin on neurons of guinea-pig prevertebral ganglia were investigated by means of intracellular recording techniques in vitro. 2. Neurotensin (2-5 microM) applied by superfusion caused depolarizing responses in fifty-seven of seventy-four neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and thirty-seven of forty-seven neurones tested in the coeliac plexus. The remaining neurones tested showed no membrane response. 3. Responses to neurotensin could be discriminated into two different types of membrane depolarizations on the basis of their different time courses and pharmacological characteristics: a steady-state type of depolarization and a transient type of depolarization. Seven of fifty-seven responsive neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and ten of thirty-seven responsive neurones tested in the coeliac plexus responded to neurotensin with a depolarization which was maintained constant as long as neurotensin was superfused over the preparation (steady-state type). Forty-eight of fifty-seven responsive neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and twenty of thirty-seven responsive neurones tested in the coeliac plexus responded with a transient depolarization which was followed by a repolarization in the maintained presence of neurotensin (transient type). A combination of both types of responses was observed in two neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and in seven neurones tested in the coeliac plexus. 4. Steady-state type responses were characterized by a slowly developing membrane depolarization which reached a plateau and lasted throughout the presence of neurotensin. Amplitude and time course of this response were not altered in a solution containing hexamethonium (10 microM) and atropine (10 microM) or by a solution low in calcium (1 mM) and high in magnesium (15 mM). 5. Transient type depolarizations evoked by neurotensin were faster in reaching their maximum and were followed by a repolarization during the maintained presence of neurotensin. Responses similar in time course and amplitude were obtained in solutions containing hexamethonium (10-100 microM) and atropine (10 microM). However, transient responses were abolished in a solution low in calcium (1 mM) and high in magnesium (15 mM) and were markedly attenuated in ganglia treated with capsaicin (3 microM). 6. Both types of depolarizations were associated with increases in membrane input resistance. Both responses converted subthreshold depolarizing electrotonic potentials and subthreshold fast EPSPs to action potentials. 7. Both types of depolarizations were observed when the C-terminal hexapeptide fragment neurotensin 8-13 was used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 8 PMID:2575666

Stapelfeldt, W H; Szurszewski, J H

1989-01-01

390

Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1995-01-02

391

Chronic compression of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine is associated with abnormal discharge of middle cervical ganglion  

PubMed Central

There are abundant sympathetic nerve fibers in cervical posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PLL in the occurrence of sympathetic symptoms. Ten healthy adult beagles were selected and anesthetized to establish a PLL compression model by C4/5 discectomy, nucleus pulposus tissue replantation, and plate internal fixation. The middle cervical ganglia (MCG) activities were recorded before modeling, shortly after modeling, and two months after modeling. The waveform parameters and spectral densities of autonomic discharge of MCG among the three periods were compared. There was significant difference only in terms of the area of waveform per unit time between before and shortly after modeling. Abnormal discharge waveforms of MCG were detected in two months after modeling. The wave amplitude and waveform area per unit time in two months after modeling were increased significantly compared with those in shortly after modeling. Functional spectral decomposition found a significant increase in 100-250 Hz in two months after modeling. In conclusion, abnormal discharge of MCG caused by chronic compression of PLL may be one of the pathological basis of sympathetic nervous symptoms. PMID:25550947

Gu, Qingguo; Jiang, Dongjie; Wang, Xinwei; Chen, Deyu; Yuan, Wen

2014-01-01

392

3D transvaginal ultrasound imaging for identification of endometrial abnormality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-center study has previously evaluated the use of 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) to measure the thickness of the endometrium as a risk indicator for endometrial abnormality in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In this paper we present methods using 3-dimensional TVS in order to improve the measurement, shape analysis and visualization of the endometrium. Active contour techniques are applied to identify the endometrium in a 3D dataset. The shape of the endometrium is then visualized and utilized to do quantitative measurements of the thickness. The voxels inside the endometrium are volume rendered in order to emphasize inhomogeneities. Since these inhomogeneities can exist both on the outside and the inside of the endometrium, the rendering algorithm has a controllable opacity function. A 3-dimensional distance transform is performed on the data volume measuring the shortest distance to the detected endometrium border for each voxel. This distance is used as a basis for opacity computations which allows the user to emphasize different regions of the endometrium. In particular, the opacity function can be computed such that regions that violate the risk indicator for the endometrium thickness are highlighted.

Olstad, Bjoern; Berg, Sevald; Torp, Anders H.; Schipper, Klaus P.; Eik-Nes, Sturla H.

1995-05-01

393

2q37 as a susceptibility locus for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) in a large South Tyrolean family.  

PubMed

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of calcium deposits in different brain regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. FIBGC usually follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Despite the mapping to chromosome 14q of a susceptibility locus for IBGC (IBCG1) in one family, this locus has been excluded in several others, demonstrating genetic heterogeneity in this disorder. The etiology of this disorder thus remains largely unknown. Using a large extended multigenerational Italian family from South Tyrol with 17 affected in a total of 56 members, we performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in which we were able to exclude linkage to the IBCG1 locus on chromosome 14q and obtain evidence of a novel locus on chromosome 2q37. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12031-009-9287-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19757205

Volpato, Claudia Béu; De Grandi, Alessandro; Buffone, Ebba; Facheris, Maurizio; Gebert, Uwe; Schifferle, Günther; Schönhuber, Rudolf; Hicks, Andrew; Pramstaller, Peter P

2009-11-01

394

The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.  

PubMed

The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

2014-06-01

395

Psychosocial stress-induced hypertension results from in vivo expression of long-term potentiation in rat sympathetic ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation in sympathetic ganglia (gLTP) is an activity-dependent unique form of synaptic plasticity in that it is serotonin-dependent and can be completely inhibited by 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Long lasting enhancement of the basal tone of ganglionic transmission seen with gLTP results in a sustained increase in peripheral resistance that leads to elevated blood pressure. We examined the possibility that,

Karim A. Alkadhi; Karem H. Alzoubi; Abdulaziz M. Aleisa; Felicia L. Tanner; Ayad S. Nimer

2005-01-01

396

Interactions between Cortical Rhythms and Spiking Activity of Single Basal Ganglia Neurons in the Normal and Parkinsonian State  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the specific interactions between cortical oscillations and basal ganglia--spiking activity under normal and parkinsonian conditions, we examined the relationship between frontal cortex electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and simulta- neously recorded neuronal activity in the internal and external segmentsofthepallidumorthesubthalamicnucleus(STN)in3rhesus monkeys. After we made recordings in the normal state, hemi- parkinsonism was induced with intracarotid injections of the dopaminergicneurotoxin1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

Plamen Gatev; Thomas Wichmann

2009-01-01

397

Exclusion of linkage to chromosome 14q in a large South Tyrolean family with Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC).  

PubMed

Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that usually follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Linkage to only one locus on chromosome 14q (IBCG1) has been described so far. We identified and characterized a large multigenerational Italian family from a population isolate with 14 FIBGC affected members. Linkage analysis excluded the IBCG1 locus, thus demonstrating further locus heterogeneity for this disease. PMID:18361429

Volpato, Claudia Béu; De Grandi, Alessandro; Buffone, Ebba; Pichler, Irene; Gebert, Uwe; Schifferle, Günther; Schönhuber, Rudolf; Pramstaller, Peter P

2008-10-01

398

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

399

PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008  

E-print Network

disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

Gallo, Linda C.

400

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology  

E-print Network

Personality Disorders Ch 12 Feb 23 Test 2--100 points; Ch11, 7, 12 plus lecture notes March 2 Abnormal readings, and are objective (multiple choice, true false, matching). Test 1 will be on Jan 26th, test 2 applies to you and your life personally, or to someone you know, including your own reactions and your

Gallo, Linda C.

401

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos  

E-print Network

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

403

Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design  

E-print Network

is funded through the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. #12;Emergency and Abnormal Situations to merger) Manufacturers: Regulatory and Governmental Agencies: Unions and Trade Groups: Accident smoke alarm rate EROPS ­ nearest airport is far away Ditching while on fire How much troubleshooting

404

Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

Rapport, Zachary

2011-01-01

405

Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

Wahl, Otto F.

1989-01-01

406

Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

Brewster, JoAnne

1996-01-01

407

Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

2000-01-01

408

Abnormal children of a 47,XYY father  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal children of two 47,XYY men were studied. One of these men had 2 normal daughters and a child, 45,X\\/46,XY, with gonadal dysgenesis. The other man had 2 normal sons and a child with Down's syndrome. The extra chromosome 21 of this child came from the mother. Another 47,XYY man had 4 normal children.

C Stoll; E Flori; A Clavert; D Beshara; P Buck

1979-01-01

409

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Influence of Cerebral Palsy Subtype, Age, and Previous Surgery Tishya A. L. Wren, PhD,* Susan Rethlefsen, PT. These findings provide important information for counsel- ing ambulatory children with cerebral palsy

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

410

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

411

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood  

E-print Network

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders: Similarities in schizophrenia. This work has led to an increased emphasis on identifying and evaluating treatments that enhance cognition in schizophrenia, with the hope that this would translate into a better quality of life

412

On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N=39 and N=15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

Weiner, Kevin S

2015-03-01

413

ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late

Alison Leaf; Jon Dorling; Steve Kempley; Kenny McCormick; Paul Mannix; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

414

Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

1998-01-01

415

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

416

Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

2011-01-01

417

Calmodulin and guanylyl cyclase inhibitors block the in vivo expression of gLTP in sympathetic ganglia from chronically stressed rats.  

PubMed

Previous work from this laboratory indicated that superior cervical ganglia from rats exposed to chronic psychosocial stress expressed ganglionic long-term potentiation (gLTP) in vivo. In the present study, we report additional pharmacological evidence indicating involvement of calmodulin and guanylyl cyclase in gLTP, and supporting the in vivo gLTP expression in ganglia from chronically stressed rats. Pretreatment with the calmodulin inhibitors W-7 (5 microM) or calmidazolium (5 microM) or with guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (5 microM) completely blocked HFS (20 Hz/20s)-induced gLTP in superior cervical ganglia isolated from normal rats. Along with that, inhibition of apparent basal ganglionic transmission by W-7 (5 microM), calmidazolium (5 microM) or LY-83583 (5 microM) is observed in ganglia isolated from chronically stressed rats, but not in those from control rats, indicating in vivo expression of gLTP in ganglia isolated from stressed rats. The present results confirm the involvement of both calmodulin and GC activities in gLTP, and indicate that ganglia from stressed rats may have expressed gLTP in vivo, which is known to precipitate hypertension in these animals. PMID:19038294

Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

2009-02-01

418

Interactions between Cortical Rhythms and Spiking Activity of Single Basal Ganglia Neurons in the Normal and Parkinsonian State  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the specific interactions between cortical oscillations and basal ganglia–spiking activity under normal and parkinsonian conditions, we examined the relationship between frontal cortex electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and simultaneously recorded neuronal activity in the internal and external segments of the pallidum or the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 3 rhesus monkeys. After we made recordings in the normal state, hemiparkinsonism was induced with intracarotid injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in one animal, followed by additional recordings. Spiking activity in the pallidum and STN was associated with significant shifts in the level of EEG synchronization. We also found that the spectral power of beta- and gamma-band EEG rhythms covaried positively before the basal ganglia spikes but did not covary or covaried negatively thereafter. In parkinsonism, changes in cortical synchronization and phase coherence were reduced in EEG segments aligned to STN spikes, whereas both were increased in data segments aligned to pallidal spikes. Spiking-related changes in beta/gamma-band covariance were reduced. The findings indicate that basal ganglia and cortex interact in the processing of cortical rhythms that contain oscillations across a broad range of frequencies and that this interaction is severely disrupted in parkinsonism. PMID:18842667

Gatev, Plamen

2009-01-01

419

Interactions between cortical rhythms and spiking activity of single basal ganglia neurons in the normal and parkinsonian state.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the specific interactions between cortical oscillations and basal ganglia-spiking activity under normal and parkinsonian conditions, we examined the relationship between frontal cortex electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and simultaneously recorded neuronal activity in the internal and external segments of the pallidum or the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 3 rhesus monkeys. After we made recordings in the normal state, hemiparkinsonism was induced with intracarotid injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in one animal, followed by additional recordings. Spiking activity in the pallidum and STN was associated with significant shifts in the level of EEG synchronization. We also found that the spectral power of beta- and gamma-band EEG rhythms covaried positively before the basal ganglia spikes but did not covary or covaried negatively thereafter. In parkinsonism, changes in cortical synchronization and phase coherence were reduced in EEG segments aligned to STN spikes, whereas both were increased in data segments aligned to pallidal spikes. Spiking-related changes in beta/gamma-band covariance were reduced. The findings indicate that basal ganglia and cortex interact in the processing of cortical rhythms that contain oscillations across a broad range of frequencies and that this interaction is severely disrupted in parkinsonism. PMID:18842667

Gatev, Plamen; Wichmann, Thomas

2009-06-01

420

[Idiopathic bilateral basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) presenting with psychotic depression and criminal violence: a case report with forensic aspect].  

PubMed

Fahr's disease is a rare neuropsychiatric disease characterized by bilateral intracranial calcification, primarily in the basal ganglia. The more general term, Fahr's syndrome, is used for primary and secondary basal ganglia calcification, regardless of the etiology, but the term Fahr's disease is used to describe primary, idiopathic cases. Fahr's disease may present with neurological symptoms, such as parkinsonism and extrapyramidal symptoms, dysarthria, paresis, convulsion, and syncope. Psychiatric disorders, including behavioral disorders, psychosis, and mood disorders, as well as cognitive disorders can occur. CT is useful for the diagnosis of Fahr's disease. Herein we present a patient diagnosed as Fahr's disease that presented with symptoms of depression, delusions, and auditory hallucinations. The 47-year-old male patient was hospitalized in a forensic psychiatry inpatient clinic due to aggressive behavior and was subsequently diagnosed with major depressive disorder with psychotic features. While hospitalized he was treated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, as well as electroconvulsive therapy, resulting in significant improvement in his symptoms. As bilateral basal ganglia calcification was observed via CT, the patient was diagnosed as Fahr's disease. This case report emphasizes the importance of cranial imaging and detailed laboratory examination when evaluating patients with psychosis and affective symptoms. Pathologies such as Fahr's disease must be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in cases with neurological symptoms and cranial imaging findings. PMID:24936761

Özer, Ürün; Görgülü, Yasemin; Can Güngör, Ferda; Gençtürk, Mert

2014-01-01

421

Network-level neuroplasticity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways Ann M. Graybiel*  

E-print Network

is part of the habit-forming system of the mammalian brain, and that abnormal activation of striatal of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 45 Carleton Street, E25-618, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Abstract The striatum, the largest input

Graybiel, Ann M.

422

Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate further the role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway, we examined neuronal activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in high- and low-stereotypy mice. CO activity in STN was significantly lower in high-stereotypy mice and negatively correlated with the frequency of stereotypy. In addition, exposure to environmental enrichment, which attenuated stereotypy, normalized the activity of STN. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 and the A(1) receptor agonist CPA attenuated stereotypy dose-dependently. The significant reduction associated with the lowest dose of the drug combination tested was due to its effects on mice with lower baseline levels of stereotypy. Higher doses of the drug combination were required to show robust behavioral effects, and presumably requisite activation of the indirect pathway, in high-stereotypy mice. These findings support that decreased indirect pathway activity is linked to the expression of high levels of stereotypy in deer mice and that striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20178817

Tanimura, Yoko; Vaziri, Sasha; Lewis, Mark H

2010-06-26

423

Morphological and morphometric study of the opossum's dorsal root ganglia neurons.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural characteristics and the morphometric evaluation of the different types of neurons present in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) were studied. Four adult male animals were used and the neurons from cervical and lumbar DRG were removed and processed for histological and transmission electron microscopy observations. The morphometric data were obtained from serial sections stained by H/E and Masson's trichrome. The number of neurons in cervical and lumbar DRG was 22?300 and 31?000, respectively. About 68% of the cervical neurons and 62.5% of the lumbar neurons presented areas up to 1300?µm(2) and were considered as the small neurons of the DRG. The ultrastructural observations revealed two morphological types of neurons: clear large neurons and dark small neurons. The nuclei of both cell types are spherical and the chromatin is disperse and rarefected. The cytoplasm of the dark small neuron is more electron dense and shows a regular distribution of small mitochondria and many rough reticulum cisterns in the periphery. A small Golgi apparatus was close to the nucleus and many disperse neurofilaments occupy most parts of the cytoplasm. Smooth reticulum cisterns are rare and lipofucsin-like inclusions are present at some points. In the clear large neurons, the organelles are homogenously scattered through the cytoplasm. The neurofilaments are close packed forming bundles and small mitochondria and rough reticulum cisterns are disperse. Lipofucsin-like inclusions are more frequent in these cells. PMID:22500566

Soares, J C; Francia-Farje, L A D; Horta-Junior, J A C; Matheus, S M M

2012-01-01

424

Multielectrode array recordings of bladder and perineal primary afferent activity from the sacral dorsal root ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of bladder and bowel neuroprostheses may benefit from the use of sensory feedback. We evaluated the use of high-density penetrating microelectrode arrays in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for recording bladder and perineal afferent activity. Arrays were inserted in S1 and S2 DRG in three anesthetized cats. Neural signals were recorded while the bladder volume was modulated and mechanical stimuli were applied to the perineal region. In two experiments, 48 units were observed that tracked bladder pressure with their firing rates (79% from S2). At least 50 additional units in each of the three experiments (274 total; 60% from S2) had a significant change in their firing rates during one or more perineal stimulation trials. This study shows the feasibility of obtaining bladder-state information and other feedback signals from the pelvic region with a sacral DRG electrode interface located in a single level. This natural source of feedback would be valuable for providing closed-loop control of bladder or other pelvic neuroprostheses.

Bruns, Tim M.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

2011-10-01

425

Prediction of immediate and future rewards differentially recruits cortico-basal ganglia loops.  

PubMed

Evaluation of both immediate and future outcomes of one's actions is a critical requirement for intelligent behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain mechanisms for reward prediction at different time scales in a Markov decision task. When human subjects learned actions on the basis of immediate rewards, significant activity was seen in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum. When subjects learned to act in order to obtain large future rewards while incurring small immediate losses, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus and cerebellum were also activated. Computational model-based regression analysis using the predicted future rewards and prediction errors estimated from subjects' performance data revealed graded maps of time scale within the insula and the striatum: ventroanterior regions were involved in predicting immediate rewards and dorsoposterior regions were involved in predicting future rewards. These results suggest differential involvement of the cortico-basal ganglia loops in reward prediction at different time scales. PMID:15235607

Tanaka, Saori C; Doya, Kenji; Okada, Go; Ueda, Kazutaka; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

2004-08-01

426

Sildenafil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in pelvic ganglia neurons after bilateral cavernosal nerve damage.  

PubMed

Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) ?, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF?1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

Garcia, Leah A; Hlaing, Su M; Gutierrez, Richard A; Sanchez, Maria D; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N; Ferrini, Monica G

2014-01-01

427

Painful nerve injury upregulates thrombospondin-4 expression in dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed

Thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) belongs to a family of large, oligomeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins that mediate interactions between cells and interactions of cells with underlying matrix components. Recent evidence shows that TSP4 might contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. However, there has been no systematic examination of TSP4 expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after injury. This study, therefore, investigates whether TSP4 protein level is changed in DRG after injury following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and spared nerve injury in rats by performing Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry. After nerve ligation, TSP4 protein level is upregulated in the axotomized somata of the fifth lumbar (L5) DRG. There is substantial additional TSP4 in the nonneuronal compartment of the L5 DRG that does not costain for markers of satellite glia, microglia, or Schwann cells and appears to be in the interstitial space. Evidence of intracellular overexpression of TSP4 persists in neurons dissociated from the L5 DRG after SNL. These findings indicate that, following peripheral nerve injury, TSP4 protein expression is elevated in the cytoplasm of axotomized sensory neurons and in the surrounding interstitial space. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25327416

Pan, Bin; Yu, Hongwei; Park, John; Yu, Yanhui Peter; Luo, Z David; Hogan, Quinn H

2015-03-01

428

Intrastriatal grafts of rat colonic smooth muscle lacking myenteric ganglia stimulate axonal sprouting and regeneration  

PubMed Central

Grafts of living or freeze-killed freshly dissected colonic smooth muscle from young inbred Fischer rats were implanted into the corpus striatum of adult Fischer rats. Sections of brain were examined electron microscopically 3 and 6 wk after implantation. At both times, living grafts were vascularised and contained healthy differentiated smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, interstitial cells of Cajal and some macrophages. Large bundles of small nonmyelinated axons, identified as CNS axonal sprouts, could be observed in the brain at and near the interface between the living smooth muscle and the CNS tissue. Bundles of regenerating CNS axons, often associated with astrocyte processes, had grown into the grafts. Some axons within the grafts had matured, enlarged and become myelinated by oligodendrocyte processes or Schwann cells. In some cases, smooth muscle cells were observed in close and intricate association with axons. In contrast to the living grafts, grafts of freeze-killed smooth muscle, examined 3 and 6 wk after implantation, contained macrophages, fibroblasts, collagen and large amounts of cellular debris, but no living muscle cells, astrocytes or Schwann cells. The striatal neuropil around freeze-killed grafts did not contain large bundles of CNS axonal sprouts and bundles of axons were not observed within the freeze-killed graft. This study demonstrates that cells from the smooth muscle layers of the colon, in the absence of myenteric ganglia, can stimulate a vigorous regenerative response from CNS axons when implanted into the corpus striatum of adult rats. PMID:9568558

TEW, ELIZABETH M. M.; ANDERSON, PATRICK N.; SAFFREY, M. JILL; BURNSTOCK, GEOFFREY

1998-01-01

429

Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction  

PubMed Central

Understanding the neural basis of poor impulse control in Internet addiction (IA) is important for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of this syndrome. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways implicated in response inhibition were affected in IA using a Go-Stop paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three control subjects aged 15.2 ± 0.5 years (mean ± S.D.) and eighteen IA subjects aged 15.1 ± 1.4 years were studied. Effective connectivity within the response inhibition network was quantified using (stochastic) dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed that the indirect frontal-basal ganglia pathway was engaged by response inhibition in healthy subjects. However, we did not detect any equivalent effective connectivity in the IA group. This suggests the IA subjects fail to recruit this pathway and inhibit unwanted actions. This study provides a clear link between Internet addiction as a behavioral disorder and aberrant connectivity in the response inhibition network. PMID:24848380

Li, Baojuan; Friston, Karl J.; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guopeng; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yao, Shuqiao; Lu, Hongbing; Hu, Dewen

2014-01-01

430

Nmnat2 delays axon degeneration in superior cervical ganglia dependent on its NAD synthesis activity.  

PubMed

Axon degeneration is an active program of self-destruction observed in many physiological and pathological settings. There are three Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase (Nmnat, EC2.7.7.1) in mammals. Overexpression of Nmnat1 or Nmnat3 can delay axon degeneration, while the role of Nmnat2 in axon degeneration remains largely unknown. Here we found that Nmnat2 was specifically and highly expressed in brain compared with Nmnat1 and Nmnat3. Furthermore, we found brain Nmnat2 was correlated with Alzheimer's disease in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Nmnat2 delayed Wallerian degeneration in cultured superior cervical ganglia (SCGs) from morphological changes, microtubule destruction and neurofilament degradation, mutation of the conserved enzyme activity site in Nmnat2 disrupted its enzyme activity as well as the axon-protective function. Our results demonstrate that the brain-specific Nmnat2 delays injury-induced axon degeneration dependent on its NAD synthesis activity. These findings provide new clues to further study the molecular mechanisms of axon degeneration and the related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19778564

Yan, Tingting; Feng, Yan; Zheng, Jin; Ge, Xinjian; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Dongmei; Zhao, Jian; Zhai, Qiwei

2010-01-01

431

Towards an executive without a homunculus: computational models of the prefrontal cortex/basal ganglia system.  

PubMed

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been thought to serve as an 'executive' that controls the selection of actions and cognitive functions more generally. However, the mechanistic basis of this executive function has not been clearly specified often amounting to a homunculus. This paper reviews recent attempts to deconstruct this homunculus by elucidating the precise computational and neural mechanisms underlying the executive functions of the PFC. The overall approach builds upon existing mechanistic models of the basal ganglia (BG) and frontal systems known to play a critical role in motor control and action selection, where the BG provide a 'Go' versus 'NoGo' modulation of frontal action representations. In our model, the BG modulate working memory representations in prefrontal areas to support more abstract executive functions. We have developed a computational model of this system that is capable of developing human-like performance on working memory and executive control tasks through trial-and-error learning. This learning is based on reinforcement learning mechanisms associated with the midbrain dopaminergic system and its activation via the BG and amygdala. Finally, we briefly describe various empirical tests of this framework. PMID:17428778

Hazy, Thomas E; Frank, Michael J; O'reilly, Randall C

2007-09-29

432

A de novo nonsense PDGFB mutation causing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with laryngeal dystonia.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by brain calcification and a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In families with autosomal dominant inheritance, three causative genes have been identified: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, and, very recently, PDGFB. Whereas in clinical practice sporadic presentation of IBGC is frequent, well-documented reports of true sporadic occurrence are rare. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented laryngeal dystonia revealing IBGC. Her healthy parents' CT scans were both normal. We identified in the proband a new nonsense mutation in exon 4 of PDGFB, c.439C>T (p.Gln147*), which was absent from the parents' DNA. This mutation may result in a loss-of-function of PDGF-B, which has been shown to cause IBGC in humans and to disrupt the blood-brain barrier in mice, resulting in brain calcification. The c.439C>T mutation is located between two previously reported nonsense mutations, c.433C>T (p.Gln145*) and c.445C>T (p.Arg149*), on a region that could be a hot spot for de novo mutations. We present the first full demonstration of the de novo occurrence of an IBGC-causative mutation in a sporadic case. PMID:24518837

Nicolas, Gaël; Jacquin, Agnès; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Rouaud, Olivier; Pottier, Cyril; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Rousseau, Stéphane; Wallon, David; Duvillard, Christian; Béjot, Yannick; Frébourg, Thierry; Giroud, Maurice; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier

2014-10-01

433

PDGF, pericytes and the pathogenesis of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC).  

PubMed

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important mitogens for various types of mesenchymal cells, and as such, they exert critical functions during organogenesis in mammalian embryonic and early postnatal development. Increased or ectopic PDGF activity may also cause or contribute to diseases such as cancer and tissue fibrosis. Until recently, no loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PDGF or PDGF receptor genes were reported as causally linked to a human disease. This changed in 2013 when reports appeared on presumed LOF mutations in the genes encoding PDGF-B and its receptor PDGF receptor-beta (PDGF-R?) in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), a brain disease characterized by anatomically localized calcifications in or near the blood microvessels. Here, we review PDGF-B and PDGF-R? biology with special reference to their functions in brain-blood vessel development, pericyte recruitment and the regulation of the blood-brain barrier. We also discuss various scenarios for IBGC pathogenesis suggested by observations in patients and genetically engineered animal models of the disease. PMID:24946076

Betsholtz, Christer; Keller, Annika

2014-07-01

434

Novel SLC20A2 mutations identified in southern Chinese patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  

PubMed

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by bilateral and symmetric cerebral calcifications. Recently, SLC20A2 was identified as a causative gene for familial IBGC, and three mutations were reported in a northern Chinese population. Here, we aimed to explore the mutation spectrum of SLC20A2 in a southern Chinese population. Sanger sequencing was employed to screen mutations within SLC20A2 in two IBGC families and 14 sporadic IBGC cases from a southern Han Chinese population. Four novel mutations (c.82G>A p.D28N, c.185T>C p.L62P, c.1470_1478delGCAGGTCCT p.Q491_L493del and c.935-1G>A) were identified in two families and two sporadic cases, respectively; none were detected in 200 unrelated controls. No mutation was found in the remaining 12 patients. Different mutations may result in varied phenotypes, including brain calcification and clinical manifestations. Our study supports the hypothesis that SLC20A2 is a causative gene of IBGC and expands the mutation spectrum of SLC20A2, which facilitates the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of IBGC. PMID:23939468

Chen, Wan-Jin; Yao, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Jie; Ni, Wang; He, Jin; Li, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Yi; Zhao, Gui-Xian; Murong, Shen-Xing; Wang, Ning; Wu, Zhi-Ying

2013-10-15

435

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-associated PDGFRB mutations impair the receptor signalling.  

PubMed

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) bind to two related receptor tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by the PDGFRA and PDGFRB genes. Recently, heterozygous PDGFRB mutations have been described in patients diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC or Fahr disease), a rare inherited neurological disorder. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these mutations had a positive or negative impact on the PDGFRB activity. We first showed that the E1071V mutant behaved like wild-type PDGFRB and may represent a polymorphism unrelated to IBGC. In contrast, the L658P mutant had no kinase activity and failed to activate any of the pathways normally stimulated by PDGF. The R987W mutant activated Akt and MAP kinases but did not induce the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) after PDGF stimulation. Phosphorylation of phospholipase C? was also decreased. Finally, we showed that the R987W mutant was more rapidly degraded upon PDGF binding compared to wild-type PDGFRB. In conclusion, PDGFRB mutations associated with IBGC impair the receptor signalling. PDGFRB loss of function in IBGC is consistent with recently described inactivating mutations in the PDGF-B ligand. These results raise concerns about the long-term safety of PDGF receptor inhibition by drugs such as imatinib. PMID:25292412

Arts, Florence A; Velghe, Amélie I; Stevens, Monique; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

2015-01-01