Sample records for ganglia shape abnormalities

  1. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  2. Basal Ganglia Volume and Shape in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Crocetti, Deana; Adler, Marcy; Mahone, E. Mark; Denckla, Martha B.; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Volumetric abnormalities of basal ganglia have been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in boys. To specify localization of these abnormalities, large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) was used to examine the effects of ADHD, sex, and their interaction on basal ganglia shapes. Method The basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) were manually delineated on magnetic resonance imaging from 66 typically developing children (35 boys) and 47 children (27 boys) with ADHD. LDDMM mappings from 35 typically developing children were used to generate basal ganglia templates. Shape variations of each structure relative to the template were modeled for each subject as a random field using Laplace-Beltrami basis functions in the template coordinates. Linear regression was used to examine group differences in volumes and shapes of the basal ganglia. Results Boys with ADHD showed significantly smaller basal ganglia volumes compared with typically developing boys, and LDDMM revealed the groups remarkably differed in basal ganglia shapes. Volume compression was seen bilaterally in the caudate head and body and anterior putamen as well as in the left anterior globus pallidus and right ventral putamen. Volume expansion was most pronounced in the posterior putamen. No volume or shape differences were revealed in girls with ADHD. Conclusions The shape compression pattern of basal ganglia in boys with ADHD suggests that ADHD-associated deviations from typical brain development involve multiple frontal-subcortical control loops, including circuits with premotor, oculomotor, and prefrontal cortices. Further investigations employing brain-behavior analyses will help to discern the task-dependent contributions of these circuits to impaired response control that is characteristic of ADHD. PMID:19015232

  3. Abnormal microstructures of the basal ganglia in schizophrenia revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Mori, Takeyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Noguchi, Hiroko; Nakabayashi, Tetsuo; Hori, Hiroaki; Harada, Seiichi; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Osamu; Ohnishi, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    There has been a hypothesis that deficits in the basal ganglia-thalamic system may play an important role in the dysfunctional goal-directed behaviour in schizophrenia. By using diffusion tensor imaging, we measured fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the basal ganglia-thalamic system in 42 schizophrenics and 42 matched controls to investigate microstructural tissue alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamic system in schizophrenia. Schizophrenics had significantly lower FA values in the bilateral globus pallidus and left thalamus compared to controls, suggesting that schizophrenics might have microstructural abnormalities in globus pallidus and thalamus. These data support the notion that myelination abnormalities in basal ganglia-thalamic system are related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19253093

  4. Role of movement in long-term basal ganglia changes: implications for abnormal motor responses.

    PubMed

    Simola, Nicola; Morelli, Micaela; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Frau, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and dyskinesias elicited by drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are a major issue in the management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Preclinical studies in dopamine-denervated animals have contributed to the modeling of these abnormal movements, but the precise neurochemical and functional mechanisms underlying these untoward effects are still elusive. It has recently been suggested that the performance of movement may itself promote the later emergence of drug-induced motor complications, by favoring the generation of aberrant motor memories in the dopamine-denervated basal ganglia. Our recent results from hemiparkinsonian rats subjected to the priming model of dopaminergic stimulation are in agreement with this. These results demonstrate that early performance of movement is crucial for the manifestation of sensitized rotational behavior, indicative of an abnormal motor response, and neurochemical modifications in selected striatal neurons following a dopaminergic challenge. Building on this evidence, this paper discusses the possible role of movement performance in drug-induced motor complications, with a look at the implications for PD management. PMID:24167489

  5. Role of movement in long-term basal ganglia changes: implications for abnormal motor responses

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Nicola; Morelli, Micaela; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Frau, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and dyskinesias elicited by drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are a major issue in the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preclinical studies in dopamine-denervated animals have contributed to the modeling of these abnormal movements, but the precise neurochemical and functional mechanisms underlying these untoward effects are still elusive. It has recently been suggested that the performance of movement may itself promote the later emergence of drug-induced motor complications, by favoring the generation of aberrant motor memories in the dopamine-denervated basal ganglia. Our recent results from hemiparkinsonian rats subjected to the priming model of dopaminergic stimulation are in agreement with this. These results demonstrate that early performance of movement is crucial for the manifestation of sensitized rotational behavior, indicative of an abnormal motor response, and neurochemical modifications in selected striatal neurons following a dopaminergic challenge. Building on this evidence, this paper discusses the possible role of movement performance in drug-induced motor complications, with a look at the implications for PD management. PMID:24167489

  6. Abnormal Astrocytosis in the Basal Ganglia Pathway of Git1?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soo-Yeon; Mah, Won

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5% of children. However, the neural mechanisms underlying its development and treatment are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that an ADHD mouse model, which harbors a deletion in the Git1 locus, exhibits severe astrocytosis in the globus pallidus (GP) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which send modulatory GABAergic inputs to the thalamus. A moderate level of astrocytosis was displayed in other regions of the basal ganglia pathway, including the ventrobasal thalamus and cortex, but not in other brain regions, such as the caudate putamen, basolateral amygdala, and hippocampal CA1. This basal ganglia circuit-selective astrocytosis was detected in both in adult (2–3 months old) and juvenile (4 weeks old) Git1?/? mice, suggesting a developmental origin. Astrocytes play an active role in the developing synaptic circuit; therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic markers. We detected increased and decreased levels of GABA and parvalbumin (PV), respectively, in the GP. This suggests that astrocytosis may alter synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, increased GABA expression colocalized with the astrocyte marker, GFAP, indicative of an astrocytic origin. Collectively, these results suggest that defects in basal ganglia circuitry, leading to impaired inhibitory modulation of the thalamus, are neural correlates for the ADHD-associated behavioral manifestations in Git1?/? mice. PMID:25997734

  7. Abnormal Astrocytosis in the Basal Ganglia Pathway of Git1 (-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo-Yeon; Mah, Won

    2015-06-30

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5% of children. However, the neural mechanisms underlying its development and treatment are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that an ADHD mouse model, which harbors a deletion in the Git1 locus, exhibits severe astrocytosis in the globus pallidus (GP) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which send modulatory GABAergic inputs to the thalamus. A moderate level of astrocytosis was displayed in other regions of the basal ganglia pathway, including the ventrobasal thalamus and cortex, but not in other brain regions, such as the caudate putamen, basolateral amygdala, and hippocampal CA1. This basal ganglia circuit-selective astrocytosis was detected in both in adult (2-3 months old) and juvenile (4 weeks old) Git1 (-/-) mice, suggesting a developmental origin. Astrocytes play an active role in the developing synaptic circuit; therefore, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic markers. We detected increased and decreased levels of GABA and parvalbumin (PV), respectively, in the GP. This suggests that astrocytosis may alter synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, increased GABA expression colocalized with the astrocyte marker, GFAP, indicative of an astrocytic origin. Collectively, these results suggest that defects in basal ganglia circuitry, leading to impaired inhibitory modulation of the thalamus, are neural correlates for the ADHD-associated behavioral manifestations in Git1 (-/-) mice. PMID:25997734

  8. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain after local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal dorsal root ganglion (DRG), quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6 immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8 because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7 because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain and that some pain conditions may be mediated primarily by myelinated A fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  9. Behavioral abnormalities and circuit defects in the basal ganglia of a mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Thomas; Yang, Mu; Mao, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Ellegood, Jacob; Dolen, Gul; Bader, Patrick L; Grueter, Brad A; Goold, Carleton; Fisher, Elaine; Clifford, Katherine; Rengarajan, Pavitra; Kalikhman, David; Loureiro, Darren; Saw, Nay L; Zhengqui, Zhou; Miller, Michael A; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2014-05-22

    A deletion on human chromosome 16p11.2 is associated with autism spectrum disorders. We deleted the syntenic region on mouse chromosome 7F3. MRI and high-throughput single-cell transcriptomics revealed anatomical and cellular abnormalities, particularly in cortex and striatum of juvenile mutant mice (16p11(+/-)). We found elevated numbers of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2(+)) and fewer dopamine-sensitive (Drd1(+)) neurons in deep layers of cortex. Electrophysiological recordings of Drd2(+) MSN revealed synaptic defects, suggesting abnormal basal ganglia circuitry function in 16p11(+/-) mice. This is further supported by behavioral experiments showing hyperactivity, circling, and deficits in movement control. Strikingly, 16p11(+/-) mice showed a complete lack of habituation reminiscent of what is observed in some autistic individuals. Our findings unveil a fundamental role of genes affected by the 16p11.2 deletion in establishing the basal ganglia circuitry and provide insights in the pathophysiology of autism. PMID:24794428

  10. Visual Information Shapes the Dynamics of Corticobasal Ganglia Pathways during Response Selection and Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, Sara; Waldorp, Lourens; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Scholte, H Steven

    2015-07-01

    Action selection often requires the transformation of visual information into motor plans. Preventing premature responses may entail the suppression of visual input and/or of prepared muscle activity. This study examined how the quality of visual information affects frontobasal ganglia (BG) routes associated with response selection and inhibition. Human fMRI data were collected from a stop task with visually degraded or intact face stimuli. During go trials, degraded spatial frequency information reduced the speed of information accumulation and response cautiousness. Effective connectivity analysis of the fMRI data showed action selection to emerge through the classic direct and indirect BG pathways, with inputs deriving form both prefrontal and visual regions. When stimuli were degraded, visual and prefrontal regions processing the stimulus information increased connectivity strengths toward BG, whereas regions evaluating visual scene content or response strategies reduced connectivity toward BG. Response inhibition during stop trials recruited the indirect and hyperdirect BG pathways, with input from visual and prefrontal regions. Importantly, when stimuli were nondegraded and processed fast, the optimal stop model contained additional connections from prefrontal to visual cortex. Individual differences analysis revealed that stronger prefrontal-to-visual connectivity covaried with faster inhibition times. Therefore, prefrontal-to-visual cortex connections appear to suppress the fast flow of visual input for the go task, such that the inhibition process can finish before the selection process. These results indicate response selection and inhibition within the BG to emerge through the interplay of top-down adjustments from prefrontal and bottom-up input from sensory cortex. PMID:25647338

  11. "Shape activity": a continuous-state HMM for moving/deforming shapes with application to abnormal activity detection.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Namrata; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K; Chellappa, Rama

    2005-10-01

    The aim is to model "activity" performed by a group of moving and interacting objects (which can be people, cars, or different rigid components of the human body) and use the models for abnormal activity detection. Previous approaches to modeling group activity include co-occurrence statistics (individual and joint histograms) and dynamic Bayesian networks, neither of which is applicable when the number of interacting objects is large. We treat the objects as point objects (referred to as "landmarks") and propose to model their changing configuration as a moving and deforming "shape" (using Kendall's shape theory for discrete landmarks). A continuous-state hidden Markov model is defined for landmark shape dynamics in an activity. The configuration of landmarks at a given time forms the observation vector, and the corresponding shape and the scaled Euclidean motion parameters form the hidden-state vector. An abnormal activity is then defined as a change in the shape activity model, which could be slow or drastic and whose parameters are unknown. Results are shown on a real abnormal activity-detection problem involving multiple moving objects. PMID:16238065

  12. Thalamic Shape and Connectivity Abnormalities in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shugao; Li, Xiaobo; Kimball, Ariane E.; Kelly, Mary S.; Lesser, Iris; Branch, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by widespread structural and functional abnormalities in the cortico-striato-thalmo-cortical (CSTC) loops that subserve attention and executive functions. In this study, we analyzed thalamic shape and its white matter connections using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data acquired from children with ADHD (n=19) and controls (n=19). Shape morphology of the thalamus was assessed using shape-based analysis, while connectivity between the thalamus and other brain regions was determined using probabilistic diffusion tractography. Shape-based analysis indicated significant regional atrophy in the left thalamus in children with ADHD compared to controls. Group analyses of white matter connectivity measures showed significantly decreased mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume of the tracts between thalamus and striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal lobe in children with ADHD compared to controls. The structural abnormalities within the thalamus and the reduced integrity of the white matter tracks between thalamus and other brain regions, as shown from the results of this study, may be the anatomical bases of the impaired cognitive performances in the attention and executive function domains in ADHD. PMID:23149038

  13. Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

  14. Abnormalities of cortical thickness, subcortical shapes, and white matter integrity in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Thong, Jamie Yu Jin; Du, Jia; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Dong, Yanhong; Soon, Hock Wei; Saini, Monica; Tan, Ming Zhen; Ta, Anh Tuan; Chen, Christopher; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-05-01

    Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI) is caused by lacunar infarcts or extensive and/or diffuse lesions in the white matter that may disrupt the white matter circuitry connecting cortical and subcortical regions and result in the degeneration of neurons in these regions. This study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) techniques to examine cortical thickness, subcortical shapes, and white matter integrity in mild vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND Mild) and moderate-to-severe VCI (MSVCI). Our study found that compared to controls (n = 25), VCIND Mild (n = 25), and MSVCI (n = 30) showed thinner cortex predominantly in the frontal cortex. The cortex in MSVCI was thinner in the parietal and lateral temporal cortices than that in VCIND Mild. Moreover, compared to controls, VCIND Mild and MSVCI showed smaller shapes (i.e., volume reduction) in the thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus and ventricular enlargement. Finally, compared to controls, VCIND Mild, and MSVCI showed an increased mean diffusivity in the white matter, while decreased generalized fractional anisotropy was only found in the MSVCI subjects. The major axonal bundles involved in the white matter abnormalities were mainly toward the frontal regions, including the internal capsule/corona radiata, uncinate fasciculus, and anterior section of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and were anatomically connected to the affected cortical and subcortical structures. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in cortical, subcortical, and white matter morphology in sVCI occur in anatomically connected structures, and that abnormalities progress along a similar trajectory from the mild to moderate and severe conditions. PMID:23861356

  15. Affect of Shape Abnormality in Foot and Toenail on Tumbling of Aged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Nomoto, Yohei; Umezawa, Jun; Miyagawa, Haruki; Kawasumi, Masashi; Koyama, Hironori; Saito, Masao

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the tumbling of the aged. The study of the static, as well as dynamic aspects, such as the muscular strength of the lower-limb and the postural stability, should be developed, especially from the viewpoint of the aged. This paper focuses on the external observation of the foot and toenail, as being correlated to the physical functions of the lower-limb against tumbling. The lower-limb functions are evaluated in terms of the 10 m walking time, the toe-gap force and single-foot standing period. The correlation to the personal tumbling experiences is also examined. It is seen that the groups, which exhibit external abnormalities in the foot and the toenail, generally decline in the muscular strength and postural stability. They also have more frequent tumbling experiences and express in their concern of the danger of tumbling. It seems that those shapes abnormalities can indicate, to some extent, the tumbling danger of the aged.

  16. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  17. THE BASAL GANGLIA: FOCUSED SELECTION AND INHIBITION OF COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN W MINK

    1996-01-01

    The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement. It is well recognized that people with degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia suffer from rigidly held abnormal body postures, slowing of movement, involuntary movements, or a combination of these abnormalities. However, it has not

  18. Loss ofO-antigen increases cell shape abnormalities in penicillin-binding protein mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anindya S.; Melquist, Amy L.; Young, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants lacking multiple penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) produce aberrantly shaped cells. However, most of these experiments have been performed in E. coli K12 strains, which do not attach a complete O-antigen to their outer membrane lipopolysaccharide. We constructed mutants in different genetic backgrounds and found that the frequency of morphological deformities was higher in strains lacking the O-antigen. Also, complementing O-negative mutants with a heterologous O-antigen from Klebsiella returned a substantial fraction of misshapen cells to a normal morphology. Thus, the O-antigen contributes to cell shape in E. coli, perhaps by reducing the number of ectopic poles, which may be the proximal cause of shape abnormalities. PMID:16978365

  19. Network-level neuroplasticity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways Ann M. Graybiel*

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute in disease states affecting the basal ganglia. q 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Basal ganglia is part of the habit-forming system of the mammalian brain, and that abnormal activation of striatal

  20. [Motor control by the basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2009-06-01

    The cerebral cortex controls cognitive and voluntary process of movements. The brainstem and spinal cord are involved in the execution of innately acquired motor patterns such as postural reflexes, muscle tone regulation and locomotion. Cortico-reticular projections arising from the motor cortical areas contribute to the postural control that precedes the voluntary movement process. The basal ganglia cooperatively regulates the activities of the cerebral cortex and the brainstem-spinal cord by its strong inhibitory and dis-inhibitory effects upon these target structures so that goal-directed movements could be appropriately performed. We propose that basal ganglia disfunction, including the abnormality in the dopaminergic projection system, may disturb the cooperative regulation, resulting in motor deficiencies expressed in basal diseases. PMID:19618841

  1. DESPLATE: an expert system for abnormal shape diagnosis in the plate mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Ng; L. D. Cung; J. F. Chicharo

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the development of a diagnostic expert system, DESPLATE, to assist less experienced operators to diagnose the off-square, camber, and taper shapes of plates. The system also incorporates graphics and animation routines written in Turbo-Pascal to provide a more user-friendly interface. DESPLATE has been found by experienced operators to be capable of providing systematic guidance in searching for

  2. Basal ganglia echogenicity in tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Krzysztof; Serafin-Król, Ma?gorzata; Szlachta, Karol; Friedman, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Accumulating data confirm the usefulness of transcranial sonography (TCS) in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The relevance of basal ganglia abnormalities depicted by TCS in atypical parkinsonian syndromes still needs further assessment. In the present study, 20 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 13 patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) were studied with the use of transcranial sonography. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) and lenticular nucleus (LN) were assessed. 0/20 patients with PSP and 8/12 (66.6 %) patients with CBS were characterized with SN hyperechogenicity. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 9/20 patients diagnosed with PSP and 0/11 of CBS patients. The combination of SN isoechogenicity and LN hyperechogenicity reached 100 % sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of PSP. The results of this study point out that CBS has to be taken into consideration when SN hyperechogenicity is depicted in a patient with parkinsonian syndrome. Normal echogenicity of the SN coexisting with LN hyperechogenicity practically excludes CBS. PMID:25204278

  3. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  4. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes. PMID:11784818

  5. The basal ganglia Ann M. Graybiel

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    of the basal ganglia lead to devastating motor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. In addition, the basal ganglia have been implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, and basal ganglia function is disrupted in addictive states. The basal ganglia are also thought to have

  6. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  7. Cardiac neurones of autonomic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Wallis, D; Watson, A H; Mo, N

    1996-09-01

    The properties of the postganglionic sympathetic neurones supplying the heart and arising in the stellate and adjacent paravertebral ganglia of various species are discussed with respect to their location, morphology, synaptic input and membrane characteristics. Results from our laboratory on the morphology of rat stellate neurones projecting to the heart were obtained either by intracellular injection of hexammine cobaltic (III) chloride or by retrograde labelling of cells using cobalt-lysine complex. Intracellular recordings were made from cells using electrodes filled either with potassium chloride plus hexammine cobaltic chloride or potassium acetate. Neurones which projected axons into cardiac nerve branches arising from the stellate ganglion were termed putative cardiac neurones, because of the possibility that some supply pulmonary targets. Putative cardiac neurones had unbranched axons and were ovoid or polygonal in shape, but showed considerable variation in soma size and in the complexity of dendritic trees. The mean two-dimensional surface area was 463 microns2 and the mean number of primary dendrites was seven. Other studies have found that the morphology of rat stellate ganglion neurones is similar to that of superior cervical ganglion cells. However, in strains of rat displaying spontaneous hypertension, dendritic length may be increased. Histochemical studies do not, as yet, seem to have demonstrated a distinctive neurochemical profile for stellate cardiac neurones, but various types of peptide-containing intraganglionic nerve fibres have been identified in the guinea pig. In our electrophysiological studies, putative cardiac neurones were found to receive a complex presynaptic input arising from the caudal sympathetic trunk and from T1 and T2 thoracic rami. In addition, 16% of cardiac neurones received a synaptic input from the cardiac nerve. The properties of postganglionic parasympathetic neurones distributed in the cardiac plexus and termed intrinsic cardiac neurones are discussed, including the results of studies on cultures of these neurones. PMID:8873060

  8. Basal Ganglia calcification in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Kopsa, Wolfgang

    2005-09-01

    Though basal ganglia calcification (BGC) has been recognized as a feature of mitochondriopathy, little is known about its frequency in a larger cohort. The aim of this work was to assess the frequency of BGC, type and frequency of clinical and additional imaging central-nervous-system (CNS) abnormalities and of non-CNS abnormalities in mitochondriopathy patients with BGC. Retrospectively reviewed were the records of all mitochondriopathy patients in whom BGC was found on cerebral CT during 10 years. Among those who underwent cerebral CT, thirty-six, 24 women, 12 men, aged 33-93 years, showed BGC. The most frequent clinical CNS manifestations in these patients were epilepsy (n = 9), Parkinson syndrome (n = 9), dementia (n = 7), dysarthria (n = 5), spasticity (n = 4), tremor (n = 4), or stroke (n = 4). Additional cerebral CT-findings were atrophy (n = 10), lacunas (n = 6), leucaraiosis (n = 6), focal gliosis (n = 4), or stroke (n = 1). MR imaging, carried out in 12 patients, confirmed BGC in one. The 36 patients presented with involvement of the CNS (n = 32), endocrine system (n = 29), peripheral nervous system (n = 28), heart (n = 23), inner ear (n = 16), eyes (n = 15), guts (n = 11), blood (n = 9), kidney (n = 2), or dermis (n = 2). BGC occurs in one sixth of non-selected patients with mitochondriopathy and is associated with clinical and imaging CNS abnormalities and multisystem disease in the majority of them. PMID:16167199

  9. Basal ganglia intensity indices and diffusion weighted imaging in manganese-exposed welders

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p?0.05). Combined basal ganglia (?=0.610), caudate (?=0.645), anterior (?=0.595) and posterior putamen (?=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (?=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions. PMID:22447645

  10. Risk Factors for Silent Cerebral Infarcts in Subcortical White Matter and Basal Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Uehara; Masayasu Tabuchi; Etsuro Mori

    Background and Purpose—The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the relevant risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs) in subcortical white matter (WM) are different from those in the basal ganglia (BG). Methods—Subjects of this study were 219 adults without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack and without any abnormality on a neurological examination who consecutively

  11. Abnormal filtering property based on the divergence of the impedance in ladder-shape network consisting of inductors and capacitors

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    consisting of inductors and capacitors Guoan Zheng1 , Fang Cai 2 , Mingwu Gao 2 1. Department of Optical, 310027 Abstract: The total impedance of a ladder-shape network consisting of inductors and capacitors of inductors and capacitors, as shown in Fig.2, we simply substitute in Eq.3 iwL for 2 r , 1/i C for 1r and n

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  13. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  14. Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Fletcher

    2007-10-23

    Welcome! Let\\'s explore the world of shapes. At Kids Online Resources (OLR) Learning is Fun, click on Shapes and see what types of everyday items are made of different simple shapes. Here is a game to play using shapes in patterns.Crack hacker's cafe If you want to make shapes into 3D forms, go to this site 2D to 3D morphing : flat 2D shapes rise up to make 3D forms and follow the directions. You may need a parent to ...

  15. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...

  16. Action, time and the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Henry H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506

  17. Computer Modeling in Basal Ganglia Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Luis Contreras-Vidal

    The last two decades have witnessed an increasing interest in the use of computational modeling and mathematical analysis\\u000a as tools to unravel the complex neural mechanisms and computational algorithms underlying the function of the basal ganglia\\u000a and related structures under normal and neurological conditions (1–3). Computational modeling of basal ganglia disorders has until recently been focused on Parkinson’s disease (PD),

  18. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  19. Exogenous silver in dorsal root ganglia, peripheral nerve, enteric ganglia, and adrenal medulla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rungby

    1986-01-01

    Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral administration of silver salts, the anatomic distribution of silver in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has been studied. The structures examined were dorsal root ganglia, peripheral nerve (N. ischiadicus), enteric ganglia, and adrenal medulla.

  20. Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

  1. Neuroimaging abnormalities in adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Philip; Truran, Diana; Vichinsky, Elliot P.; Neumayr, Lynne D.; Armstrong, F.D.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Kesler, Karen; Brewer, Joseph; Weiner, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the relationship of frontal lobe cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes to measures of cognition in adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: Participants included 120 adults with SCA with no history of neurologic dysfunction and 33 healthy controls (HCs). Participants were enrolled at 12 medical center sites, and raters were blinded to diagnostic group. We hypothesized that individuals with SCA would exhibit reductions in frontal lobe cortex thickness and reduced basal ganglia and thalamus volumes compared with HCs and that these structural brain abnormalities would be associated with measures of cognitive functioning (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition). Results: After adjusting for age, sex, education level, and intracranial volume, participants with SCA exhibited thinner frontal lobe cortex (t = ?2.99, p = 0.003) and reduced basal ganglia and thalamus volumes compared with HCs (t = ?3.95, p < 0.001). Reduced volume of the basal ganglia and thalamus was significantly associated with lower Performance IQ (model estimate = 3.75, p = 0.004) as well as lower Perceptual Organization (model estimate = 1.44, p = 0.007) and Working Memory scores (model estimate = 1.37, p = 0.015). Frontal lobe cortex thickness was not significantly associated with any cognitive measures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that basal ganglia and thalamus abnormalities may represent a particularly salient contributor to cognitive dysfunction in adults with SCA. PMID:24523480

  2. Basal ganglia calcification in BB/E rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lammie, G A; Kelly, P A T; Baird, J D; Smith, W; Chatterjee, S; Frier, B M; Strachan, M W J

    2005-01-01

    Human diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities in the brain such as cerebral atrophy. The aetiology of these abnormalities is not known. The BB/E rat is a well-established model of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes. A cohort of 34 BB/E rats with diabetes was divided into three sub-groups according to age (and duration of diabetes). Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) was present in the brains of more than 50% of diabetic animals, but not in any of 37 non-diabetic BB/E rats. BGC occurred more commonly in those animals which had the longest duration of diabetes (p=0.001), such that BGC was present in only 8% of animals with diabetes for 20 weeks, but in 100% of animals with diabetes for 60 weeks. There were no other significant light microscopic neuropathologic changes in diabetic animals. It will be important to investigate the mechanism of brain calcification, whether a similar process occurs in humans with diabetes, and its possible relationship to cognitive decline. PMID:15639413

  3. GABAergic output of the basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Hikosaka

    2007-01-01

    Using GABAergic outputs from the SNr or GPi, the basal ganglia exert inhibitory control over several motor areas in the brainstem which in turn control the central pattern generators for the basic motor repertoire including eye–head orientation, locomotion, mouth movements, and vocalization. These movements are by default kept suppressed by tonic rapid firing of SNr\\/GPi neurons, but can be released

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  5. Shapes, Shapes, Shapes!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Stringfield

    2008-11-17

    Let\\'s practice identifying our shapes! Look at all the choices and find the one that can Match that Shape. Help Pauly! Drag and drop to Match the Shapes! Listen closely to what color we should Paint the Shapes. ...

  6. Sodium dependency of GABA uptake into glial cells in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeko Sakai; Junko Tasaka; Tsuneo Tosaka I

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of sodium dependency of GABA uptake by satellite glial cells was studied in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. GABA uptake followed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics at all sodium concentrations tested. Increasing external sodium concentration increased bothKm andVmax for GABA uptake, with an increase in theVmax\\/Km ratio. The initial rate of uptake as a function of the sodium concentration exhibited sigmoid shape

  7. Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. PMID:20503112

  8. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  9. Cysticercosis lesions in basal ganglia are common but clinically silent.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Carlos; Velez, Miriam; Torres, Luis; Garcia, Hector H

    2002-01-01

    Movement disorders due to basal ganglia involvement by neurocysticercosis are rarely seen. To evaluate the frequency of basal ganglia location of cysticercotic cysts and its clinical manifestations, baseline MRI scans of 120 consecutive patients with active neurocysticercosis were reviewed and the presence and number of active cysticercosis lesions (viable cysts or enhancing lesions) in the basal ganglia were recorded and correlated with demographic and clinical data. Basal ganglia involvement was found in 32 cases (26.7%). The frequency of lesions in basal ganglia was related to the total number of lesions, ranging from 5% of patients with a single cysticerci, to 60% in patients with more than five parasites. Putamen and caudate nuclei were the most frequent sites of lesions. No significant difference between both hemispheres was observed. Basal ganglia localization is common in neurocysticercosis but it is rarely associated with clinical manifestations. PMID:11792479

  10. Bidirectional Control of Absence Seizures by the Basal Ganglia: A Computational Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiebin; Jing, Wei; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Luo, Cheng; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is believed to be associated with the abnormal interactions between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Besides the direct coupling, anatomical evidence indicates that the cerebral cortex and thalamus also communicate indirectly through an important intermediate bridge–basal ganglia. It has been thus postulated that the basal ganglia might play key roles in the modulation of absence seizures, but the relevant biophysical mechanisms are still not completely established. Using a biophysically based model, we demonstrate here that the typical absence seizure activities can be controlled and modulated by the direct GABAergic projections from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to either the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) or the specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus, through different biophysical mechanisms. Under certain conditions, these two types of seizure control are observed to coexist in the same network. More importantly, due to the competition between the inhibitory SNr-TRN and SNr-SRN pathways, we find that both decreasing and increasing the activation of SNr neurons from the normal level may considerably suppress the generation of spike-and-slow wave discharges in the coexistence region. Overall, these results highlight the bidirectional functional roles of basal ganglia in controlling and modulating absence seizures, and might provide novel insights into the therapeutic treatments of this brain disorder. PMID:24626189

  11. A selective role for right insula—basal ganglia circuits in appetitive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Lavanya; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Cassell, Martin; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization of hedonic evaluation (‘liking’) and incentive motivation (‘wanting’) in neural networks connecting the basal ganglia and insula (BG-I) in humans was examined. Participants with brain damage restricted to the BG-I of the right (n = 5) or left (n = 5) hemisphere, and 26 healthy participants matched on age, sex and intelligence quotient were tested on positively and negatively valenced pictures drawn from varied stimulus categories (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2008). Liking was assessed with explicit ratings of pleasantness using a nine-point Likert scale. Wanting was quantified as the amount of work (via repeated keypresses) that participants expended to increase (approach) or decrease (withdraw) viewing time. Right-lesion patients showed abnormally low viewing times and liking ratings for positive images. For a subset of positive images depicting sexual content, right-lesion patients exhibited active withdrawal, while the other two groups approached such stimuli. These results suggest that the right basal ganglia–insula complex plays a greater role than the left in supporting hedonic evaluation and motivational approach to positively valenced stimuli. The finding that active avoidance of stimuli that were not ‘liked’ was spared in both right- and left-sided lesion subjects suggests that unilateral damage to insula/basal ganglia circuits may not be sufficient to affect general incentive motivation independent of preference. PMID:22798397

  12. Intercellular communication in sensory ganglia by purinergic receptors and gap junctions: implications for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hanani, Menachem

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral injury can cause abnormal activity in sensory neurons, which is a major factor in chronic pain. Recent work has shown that injury induces major changes not only in sensory neurons but also in the main type of glial cells in sensory ganglia-satellite glial cells (SGCs), and that interactions between sensory neurons and SGCs contribute to neuronal activity in pain models. The main functional changes observed in SGCs after injury are an increased gap junction-mediated coupling among these cells, and augmented sensitivity to ATP. There is evidence that the augmented gap junctions contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in pain models, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not known. The changes in SGCs described above have been found following a wide range of injuries (both axotomy and inflammation) in somatic, orofacial and visceral regions, and therefore appear to be a general feature in chronic pain. We have found that in cultures of sensory ganglia calcium signals can spread from an SGC to neighboring cells by calcium waves, which are mediated by gap junctions and ATP acting on purinergic P2 receptors. A model is proposed to explain how augmented gap junctions and greater sensitivity to ATP can combine to produce enhanced calcium waves, which can lead to neuronal excitation. Thus this simple scheme can account for several major changes in sensory ganglia that are common to a great variety of pain models. PMID:22771859

  13. Basal ganglia-premotor dysfunction during movement imagination in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Castrop, Florian; Dresel, Christian; Hennenlotter, Andreas; Zimmer, Claus; Haslinger, Bernhard

    2012-09-15

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic focal hand dystonia (writer's cramp) is characterized by deficient inhibitory basal ganglia function and altered cortical sensorimotor processing. To explore if this is already a primary finding in dystonia for internal movement simulation independent of dystonic motor output or abnormal sensory input, we investigated the neural correlates of movement imagination and observation in patients with writer's cramp. Event-related fMRI was applied during kinesthetic motor imagery of drawing simple geometric figures (imagination task) and passively observing videos of hands drawing identical figures (observation task). Compared with healthy controls, patients with writer's cramp showed deficient activation of the left primary sensorimotor cortex, mesial and left dorsal premotor cortex, bilateral putamen, and bilateral thalamus during motor imagery. No significant signal differences between both groups were found during the observation task. We conclude that internal movement simulation and planning as tested during imagination of hand movements appear to be dysfunctional in patients with writer's cramp, whereas visual signal processing and observation-induced activation are unaffected. Deficient basal ganglia-premotor activation could be a correlate of impaired basal ganglia inhibition and focusing during the selection of motor programs in dystonia. This finding seems to be an intrinsic deficit, as it is found during motor imagery in the absence of dystonic symptoms. PMID:22328061

  14. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  15. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes linking etiology to pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:20005952

  16. Synaptic ultrastructural alterations anticipate the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy in sympathetic ganglia of aged and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Parvin, Curtis A; Green, Karen G

    2008-12-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy, a distinctive axonopathy characterized by marked enlargement of distal axons, is the hallmark pathologic alteration in aged and diabetic human prevertebral sympathetic ganglia and in corresponding rodent models. Neuroaxonal dystrophy is thought to represent the abnormal outcome of cycles of synaptic degeneration and regeneration; a systematic study of identified axon terminals in aged and diabetic prevertebral ganglia, however, has not previously been performed. We examined the initial changes that develop in presynaptic and postsynaptic elements in sympathetic ganglia of aged and diabetic mice and found numerous synaptic changes involving both presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. Early alterations in presynaptic axon terminal size, vesicle content, and morphology culminate in the development of anastomosing membranous tubulovesicular aggregates, accumulation of autophagosomes, and amorphous debris that form a continuum with progressively larger classically dystrophic swellings. Dendritic changes consist of the development of swellings composed of delicate tubulovesicular elements and mitochondriopathy characterized by increased numbers of small mitochondria and, exclusively in aged ganglia, megamitochondria. These results support the hypothesis that neuroaxonal dystrophy results from progressive changes in presynaptic axon terminals that likely involve membrane dynamics and which are accompanied by distinctive changes in postsynaptic dendritic elements. PMID:19018240

  17. Shapes, shapes, shapes!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Johnson

    2008-04-30

    Shapes are awesome! Can you Assemble the Square? Play this game and find out! Slide, flip, and rotate the shapes in RoboPacker! Practice your geometry vocabulary and use the Flash Cards for Geometry!! ...

  18. Functional changes of the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Blandini; Giuseppe Nappi; Cristina Tassorelli; Emilia Martignoni

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia circuitry processes the signals that flow from the cortex, allowing the correct execution of voluntary movements. In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta triggers a cascade of functional changes affecting the whole basal ganglia network. The most relevant alterations affect the output nuclei of the circuit, the medial globus pallidus

  19. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the basal ganglia motor circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Battaglia; Michael J. Marino; Ferdinando Nicoletti; P. Jeffrey Conn

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the circuitry of the basal ganglia and our ability to predict the behavioural effects of specific cellular changes in this circuit on voluntary movement. These advances, combined with a new understanding of the rich distribution and diverse physiological roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the basal ganglia, indicate

  20. Heme oxygenase-1, heme oxygenase-2 and biliverdin reductase in peripheral ganglia from rat, expression and plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Magnusson; J. Ekström; E. Elmér; M. Kanje; L. Ny; P. Alm

    1999-01-01

    The expression of inducible and constitutive heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase was studied in normal and cultured peripheral ganglia from adult rats, using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Dramatic changes were induced by one to two days' culturing of dorsal root ganglia, nodose ganglia, otic ganglia, sphenopalatine ganglia and superior cervical ganglia. An up-regulation of inducible heme oxygenase was found

  1. UNMEDULLATED FIBERS ORIGINATING IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Herbert S.

    1950-01-01

    The compound action potential of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia, as recorded in cat skin nerves after conduction of simultaneously initiated impulses, shows among its components a temporal dispersion corresponding to velocities between 2.3 and 0.7 M.P.S. The maximum representation of the component velocities is at about 1.2 M.P.S. On both sides of the maximum the representation falls off irregularly, in such a way that groupings in the distribution produce in the action potential a configuration in which successive features appear always in the same positions at a given conduction distance. Through this demonstration of a characteristic configuration the system of the unmedullated fibers is brought into analogy with that of the medullated fibers. The unmedullated fibers originating in the dorsal root ganglia have distinctive physiological properties, among which is a large positive potential which reaches its maximum immediately after the spike and decrements to half relaxation in about 50 msec., at 37°C. The positive phases of the unit potentials in the compound action potential, owing to their duration, sum to a much greater extent than the temporally dispersed spikes; and, since they have sizes such that one equivalent to 25 per cent of the spike height would not be at the limit, in the summation process the major portion of the compound action potential is caused to be written at a potential level positive to the starting base line. The position of the spikes in the sequence can be seen in the analyses in Section III. The course of the activity in unit fibers is subject to variation in ways affecting the positive potential. Preliminary descriptions, based on orienting experiments, of how these variations are conditioned are given in Section I. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy. One is the high sensitivity of the dimensions of the postspike positivity to temperature in the range of temperatures at which skin nerves may be expected to function, even when the environmental temperatures of an animal are moderate. The other is the high sensitivity to conditioning by previous activity. The positivity is first decreased, then replaced by a negative potential of similar duration. Reasons have been given why it is inadvisable at the present time to call the postspike potential an after-potential. A comparison has been made of the properties of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia with those of fibers arising from sympathetic ganglia. The differences are so great that, in the interest of precision in designation, a division of the C group of fibers into two subgroups is indicated. It is suggested that the two subgroups be named respectively d.r.C and s.C. Measurements have been made of the diameters of the d.r.C fibers in a saphenous nerve stained with silver. Graphs showing the number of fibers at each diameter are presented in Section II. In Section III there are shown constructions, from histological data, of the action potential as it would appear, after 3 cm. of conduction, with the correlation between diameter and velocity in strict linearity. The degree of fit between the constructed and recorded potentials can be seen in Fig. 18. PMID:15428610

  2. Perfusion abnormality of the caudate nucleus in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Yeon Joo; Seung Bong Hong; Woo Suk Tae; Jee Hyun Kim; Sun Jung Han; Dae Won Seo; Kyung-Han Lee; Myoung-Hee Kim; Seunghwan Kim; Mann Hyung Lee; Byung Tae Kim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Previous cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism studies suggest that the basal ganglia or thalamus is involved in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). However, the under- lying cerebral abnormalities in idiopathic PKC have not been elucidated. To localise cerebral perfusion abnormal- ities in PKC, we performed interictal brain perfusion 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emis- sion computed

  3. Segmentation of Nerve Bundles and Ganglia in Spine MRI Using Particle Filters

    PubMed Central

    Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation. PMID:22003741

  4. Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters.

    PubMed

    Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation. PMID:22003741

  5. The chelonian spinal nerve ganglia are a conglomerate of the spinal nerve ganglia proper and the sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Tetsuo; Nakano, Masato; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Goris, Richard C; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2009-01-01

    A tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell mass is found in the caudal portion of the dorsal nerve ganglion of the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans. The ganglion appears as a flat oval structure in the horizontal plane, where the major axis runs latero-medially, and the minor axis rostro-caudally in the ventral view. A communicating branch to the sympathetic chain diverges from the top of each tubercle which lies on the caudo-lateral side of the ganglion. A tyrosine hydroxylase- immunoreactive cell mass is located in this tubercle. This cell mass exists in both sexes. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells, that contain Nissl bodies in cytoplasm and are enveloped by the satellite cells, are multipolar and their neural processes are distributed in a distal direction into the spinal nerve. The range of distribution of the synapsin I-immunoreactive structures is limited to the tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell mass. The chelonian dorsal spinal nerve ganglia are a conglomerate of the spinal nerve ganglion proper and the sympathetic ganglion. PMID:19468213

  6. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher H.; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E.; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat which remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. Here we show in mice that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway. Under physiological conditions this short latency pathway is capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition this pathway relays aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  7. Neural Representation of Time in Cortico-basal Ganglia Circuits

    E-print Network

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia ...

  8. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    E-print Network

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still ...

  9. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition. PMID:24592214

  10. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly testing the hypotheses generated by these models. PMID:25032493

  11. Genetic screening and functional characterization of PDGFRB mutations associated with basal ganglia calcification of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Baker, Matthew C; Finch, NiCole A; Nicholson, Alexandra; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Three causal genes for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) have been identified. Most recently, mutations in PDGFRB, encoding a member of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family type ?, and PDGFB, encoding PDGF-B, the specific ligand of PDGFR?, were found implicating the PDGF-B/PDGFR? pathway in abnormal brain calcification. In this study, we aimed to identify and study mutations in PDGFRB and PDGFB in a series of 26 patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank with moderate to severe basal ganglia calcification (BCG) of unknown etiology. No mutations in PDGFB were found. However, we identified one mutation in PDGFRB, p.R695C located in the tyrosine kinase domain, in one BGC patient. We further studied the function of p.R695C mutant PDGFR? and two previously reported mutants, p.L658P and p.R987W PDGFR? in cell culture. We show that, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation, the p.L658P mutation completely suppresses PDGFR? autophosphorylation, whereas the p.R695C mutation results in partial loss of autophosphorylation. For the p.R987W mutation, our data suggest a different mechanism involving reduced protein levels. These genetic and functional studies provide the first insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with PDGFRB mutations and provide further support for a pathogenic role of PDGFRB mutations in BGC. PMID:24796542

  12. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Stoessl, A. Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, advances in magnetic resonance enable the separation of patients with Parkinson’s disease from healthy controls, and show great promise for differentiation between Parkinson’s disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes. Radionuclide imaging is useful to show the dopaminergic basis for both motor and behavioural complications of Parkinson’s disease and its treatment, and alterations in non-dopaminergic systems. Both PET and MRI can be used to study patterns of functional connectivity in the brain, which is disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and in association with its complications, and in other basal-ganglia disorders such as dystonia, in which an anatomical substrate is not otherwise apparent. Functional imaging is increasingly used to assess underlying pathological processes such as neuroinflammation and abnormal protein deposition. This imaging is another promising approach to assess the effects of treatments designed to slow disease progression. PMID:24954673

  13. DISCONNECTION OF A BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUIT IN JUVENILE SONGBIRDS ATTENUATES THE SPECTRAL DIFFERENTIATION OF SONG SYLLABLES

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Wu, Wei; Bertram, Richard; Johnson, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Similar to language acquisition by human infants, juvenile male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) imitate an adult (tutor) song by transitioning from repetitive production of one or two undifferentiated protosyllables to the sequential production of a larger and spectrally heterogeneous set of syllables. The primary motor region that controls learned song is driven by a confluence of input from two pre-motor pathways: a posterior pathway that encodes the adult song syllables and an anterior pathway that includes a basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. Like mammalian motor-learning systems, the songbird basal ganglia (BG) circuit is thought to be necessary for shaping juvenile vocal behavior (undifferentiated protosyllables) towards specific targets (the tutor’s song syllables). Here, we tested the hypothesis that anterior pathway activity contributes to the process of protosyllable differentiation. Bilateral ablation of LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) was used to disconnect BG circuitry at ages prior to protosyllable production and differentiation. Comparison to surgical controls revealed that protosyllables fail to differentiate in birds that received juvenile LMAN ablation – the adult songs of birds with >80% bilateral LMAN ablation consisted of only one or two syllables produced with the repetitive form and spectral structure that characterizes undifferentiated protosyllables in normal juveniles. Our findings support a role for BG circuitry in shaping juvenile vocal behavior towards the acoustic structure of the tutor song and suggest that posterior pathway function remains in an immature ‘default’ state when developmental interaction with the anterior pathway is reduced or eliminated. PMID:24218118

  14. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Incomplete and Inaccurate Vocal Imitation after Knockdown of FoxP2 in Songbird Basal Ganglia Nucleus Area X

    PubMed Central

    Haesler, Sebastian; Rochefort, Christelle; Georgi, Benjamin; Licznerski, Pawel; Osten, Pavel; Scharff, Constance

    2007-01-01

    The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2. PMID:18052609

  16. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Long-term organotypic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a single 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and studied in the living and fixed states by light or electron microscopy at 1–14 day intervals thereafter. Within the first 4 days following irradiation, over 30% of the neurons display chromatolytic reactions (eccentric nuclei, peripheral dispersal of Nissl substance, central granular zone) as well as abnormal nucleolar changes and dissociation of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Some satellite cells undergo retraction or acute degeneration, leaving only basement membrane to cover the neuron in these areas. 8 days after irradiation, neurons also exhibit (a) areas in which ribosomes are substantially reduced, (b) regions of cytoplasmic sequestration, (c) extensive vacuolization of granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and (d) diversely altered mitochondria (including the presence of ribosome-like particles or association with abnormal glycogen and lipid deposits). Nucleolar components become altered or reoriented and may form abnormal projections and ringlike configurations. Sizeable areas of the neuronal soma are now denuded of satellite cells; underlying these areas, nerve processes are found abnormally invaginated into the neuronal cytoplasm. By the 14th day following irradiation, most neurons display marked degenerative changes including extensive regions of ribosome depletion, sequestration, vacuolization, autolysis, and, in some areas, swirls of filaments, myelin figures, and heterogeneous dense bodies. These observations demonstrate that X-irradiation produces profound cytopathological changes in nervous tissue isolated from the host and that many of these changes resemble the effects of radiation on nervous tissue in vivo. PMID:10976234

  17. ARCHIVAL REPORT Impaired Prefrontal-Basal Ganglia Functional

    E-print Network

    ARCHIVAL REPORT Impaired Prefrontal-Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity and Substantia Nigra-evoked hyperactivity of the substantia nigra that occurred in association with prefrontal and striatal hypoactivity, substantia nigra T wo cornerstones of our emerging understanding of schizo- phrenia are the role of excess

  18. Is Broca's Area Part of a Basal Ganglia Thalamocortical Circuit?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Ullman

    2006-01-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized “channels” via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the

  19. Hypersexuality and Stroke: A Role for the Basal Ganglia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Libman; Elzbieta J. Wirkowski

    1996-01-01

    Hyposexuality after stroke has been frequently observed, but hypersexuality as a sequela of stroke has been less commonly documented. Damage to limbic structures, especially in the temporal lobes, has been thought to play a crucial role in this clinical syndrome. The possible importance of the basal ganglia in the production of hypersexuality has been infrequently recognized despite numerous connections with

  20. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

    1995-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus and the external pallidum (GPe) are classically viewed as part of the so-called indirect pathway, which acts in concert with the direct pathway. The direct and indirect pathways form the conceptual framework of the anatomical and functional organization of the basal ganglia. A review of recent data regarding the connections of the subthalamic nucleus and the GPe

  1. Basal Ganglia Plus Insula Damage Yields Stronger Disruption of Smoking Addiction Than Basal Ganglia Damage Alone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of the basal ganglia (BG) and insula (INS) for nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Methods: We used a lesion study examining the effects of BG and INS damage on changes in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time in a prospective manner. We studied whether combined BG and INS damage yields more substantial disruption of smoking and nicotine dependence than damage to the BG alone and compared with damage to other brain regions outside the BG and INS (brain-damaged comparison [BDC] group). We obtained neuroanatomical and behavioral data for 63 neurological patients with stroke at 1 month after onset and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were smokers at lesion onset. Results: The BG and BG + INS groups had significantly higher and more sustained rates of smoking cessation than patients with damage elsewhere. By 12 months after onset, only 14.3% of the patients in the BDC group were classified as nonsmokers. In the BG group, 37% were not smoking by the 12-month follow-up, and in the BG + INS group, smoking cessation was even more pronounced, as 75% of this group was not smoking at the 12-month epoch. Conclusions: The findings show that damage to the BG alone can cause disruption of smoking addiction, and when BG damage is combined with INS damage, the disruption increases. The latter finding is consistent with the proposal that the INS has a key role in smoking addiction. PMID:24169814

  2. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  3. Dual pathways regulate neurite outgrowth in enteric ganglia.

    PubMed

    Simeone, D M; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1994-10-01

    Primary cultures of guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of agents that activate adenylate cyclase or mimic intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to stimulate morphological growth. Dose-dependent increases in neurite length and density were produced in enteric neuronal cultures by forskolin (212% of control), cholera toxin (356% of control), or the permeant cAMP analogues 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and dibutyryl cAMP. (R)-p-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases, blocked the growth-promoting effects of cAMP analogues but not of nerve growth factor (NGF). Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways also increased production of mRNA for alpha-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2. Dual pathways, regulated by NGF and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, influence growth signaling in enteric ganglia. PMID:7943337

  4. Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum: further delineation of the phenotype and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Eline M; Polder, Emiel; Vanderver, Adeline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Schiffmann, Raphael; Fisher, Kate; Raguž, Ana Boban; Blumkin, Luba; van Berkel, Carola G M; Waisfisz, Quinten; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J; Abbink, Truus E M; Wolf, Nicole I; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2014-07-01

    Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a rare leukoencephalopathy that was identified using magnetic resonance imaging in 2002. In 2013, whole exome sequencing of 11 patients with the disease revealed that they all had the same de novo mutation in TUBB4A, which encodes tubulin ?-4A. We investigated the mutation spectrum in a cohort of 42 patients and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities that are indicative of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Genetic testing and a clinical inventory were performed, and sequential magnetic resonance images were evaluated using a standard protocol. The heterozygous TUBB4A mutation observed in the first 11 patients was the most common (25 patients). Additionally, 13 other heterozygous mutations were identified, located in different structural domains of tubulin ?-4A. We confirmed that the mutations were de novo in all but three patients. In two of these three cases we lacked parental DNA and in one the mutation was also found in the mother, most likely due to mosaicism. Patients showed a phenotypic continuum ranging from neonatal to childhood disease onset, normal to delayed early development and slow to more rapid neurological deterioration. Neurological symptomatology consisted of extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, spasticity, ataxia, cognitive deficit and sometimes epilepsy. Three patients died and the oldest living patient was 29 years of age. The patients' magnetic resonance images showed an absent or disappearing putamen, variable cerebellar atrophy and highly variable cerebral atrophy. Apart from hypomyelination, myelin loss was evident in several cases. Three severely affected patients had similar, somewhat atypical magnetic resonance image abnormalities. The study results were strongly suggestive of a genotype-phenotype correlation. The 25 patients with the common c.745G>A mutation generally had a less rapidly progressive disease course than the 17 cases with other TUBB4A mutations. Overall, this work demonstrates that the distinctive magnetic resonance imaging pattern for hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum defines a homogeneous clinical phenotype of variable severity. Patients almost invariably have prominent extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, which are rarely seen in patients with hypomyelination of different origin. A dominant TUBB4A mutation is also associated with dystonia type 4, in which magnetic resonance images of the brain seem normal. It is highly likely that there is a disease continuum associated with TUBB4A mutations, of which hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum and dystonia type 4 are the extremes. This would indicate that extrapyramidal movement abnormalities constitute the core feature of the disease spectrum related to dominant TUBB4A mutations and that all other features are variable. PMID:24785942

  5. The ganglia distributed monitoring system: design, implementation, and experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Massie; Brent N. Chun; David E. Culler

    2004-01-01

    Ganglia is a scalable distributed monitoring system for high performance computing sys- tems such as clusters and Grids. It is based on a hierarchical design targeted at federations of clusters. It relies on a multicast-based listen\\/announce protocol to monitor state within clus- ters and uses a tree of point-to-point connections amongst representative cluster nodes to fed- erate clusters and aggregate

  6. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in treating neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. The vestibular-basal ganglia connection: balancing motor control.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Lucy; Smith, Paul F

    2015-02-01

    Connections between the vestibular system and the basal ganglia have been sporadically studied over the last century. Electrophysiological studies of field potentials in animals have shown that most areas of the striatum respond to electrical vestibular stimulation while human studies isolated responses to vestibular stimulation to the putamen of the striatum. Protein studies have shown inconsistent results regarding changes in receptor levels of a number of receptor types. Recent tracer studies identified a pathway between the vestibular nucleus and the striatum via the thalamus, completely bypassing the cortex. Vestibular sensory input is represented in the part of the striatum - the dorsolateral striatum - where fibres from the sensorimotor areas terminate. It is therefore possible that vestibular signals are used together with other sensorimotor inputs in the striatum for body and limb control. The combination of electrophysiological results, changes in protein levels and tracer studies have led to the idea that the dorsolateral striatum is likely to be the main input area for vestibular signals in the basal ganglia and these will have an influence on motor control. This may have clinical implications in the treatment of basal ganglia disorders and other movement disorders. PMID:25498858

  8. Echogenicity of basal ganglia structures in different Huntington's disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Strassburger-Krogias, Katrin; Lücke, Thomas; Meves, Saskia H; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Krogias, Christos

    2015-06-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative-inherited disease, chorea as the typical kind of movement disorder is described. Beside chorea, however, all other kinds of movement disturbances, such as bradykinesia, dystonia, tremor or myoclonus can occur. Aim of the current study was to investigate alterations in the echogenicity of basal ganglia structures in different Huntington's disease phenotypes. 47 patients with manifest and genetically confirmed HD were recruited. All participants underwent a thorough neurological examination. According to a previously described method, classification into predominantly choreatic, mixed or bradykinetic-rigid motor phenotypes was performed depending on subscores of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. In addition, findings in juvenile HD were compared to adult HD. Transcranial sonography was performed by investigators blinded to clinical classification. There were no significant differences in basal ganglia echogenicities between the three phenotypes. Size of echogenic area of substantia nigra (SN) correlated positively with CAG repeat and bradykinesia subscore, and negatively with age of onset and chorea subscore. Comparing juvenile and adult HD subtypes, SN hyperechogenicity was significantly more often detectable in the juvenile form (100 vs. 29.3 %, p = 0.002). Regarding echogenicity of caudate or lentiform nuclei, no significant differences were detected. HD patients with the juvenile variant exhibit marked hyperechogenicity of substantia nigra. No significant differences in basal ganglia echogenicities between predominantly choreatic, mixed or bradykinetic-rigid motor phenotypes were detected. PMID:25503829

  9. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

  10. Cerebral abnormalities: use of calculated T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images for diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential clinical importance of T1 and T2 relaxation times in distinguishing normal and pathologic tissue with magnetic resonance (MR) is discussed and clinical examples of cerebral abnormalities are given. Five patients with cerebral infarction, 15 with multiple sclerosis, two with Wilson disease, and four with tumors were imaged. Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents were distinguished using the spin echo technique. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, lesions had prolonged T1 and T2 times, but the definition of plaque was limited by spatial resolution. No abnormalities in signal intensity were seen in the patient with Wilson disease who was no longer severly disabled; abnormal increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found in the second patient with Wilson disease. Four tumors produced abnormal T1 and T2 relaxation times but these values alone were not sufficient for tumor characterization.

  11. Motoneuron development influences dorsal root ganglia survival and Schwann cell development in a vertebrate model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Le Thi; Duy, Phan Q; Jontes, James D; Beattie, Christine E

    2015-01-15

    Low levels of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN) cause the disease spinal muscular atrophy. A primary characteristic of this disease is motoneuron dysfunction and paralysis. Understanding why motoneurons are affected by low levels of SMN will lend insight into this disease and to motoneuron biology in general. Motoneurons in zebrafish smn mutants develop abnormally; however, it is unclear where Smn is needed for motoneuron development since it is a ubiquitously expressed protein. We have addressed this issue by expressing human SMN in motoneurons in zebrafish maternal-zygotic (mz) smn mutants. First, we demonstrate that SMN is present in axons, but only during the period of robust motor axon outgrowth. We also conclusively demonstrate that SMN acts cell autonomously in motoneurons for proper motoneuron development. This includes the formation of both axonal and dendritic branches. Analysis of the peripheral nervous system revealed that Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons developed abnormally in mz-smn mutants. Schwann cells did not wrap axons tightly and had expanded nodes of Ranvier. The majority of DRG neurons had abnormally short peripheral axons and later many of them failed to divide and died. Expressing SMN just in motoneurons rescued both of these cell types showing that their failure to develop was secondary to the developmental defects in motoneurons. Driving SMN just in motoneurons did not increase survival of the animal, suggesting that SMN is needed for motoneuron development and motor circuitry, but that SMN in other cells types factors into survival. PMID:25180019

  12. Purification and culture of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Delree, P; Leprince, P; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G

    1989-06-01

    To study the trophic requirements of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) in vitro, we developed a purification procedure that yields highly enriched neuronal cultures. Forty to fifty ganglia are dissected from the spinal column of an adult rat. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of the ganglia, myelin debris are eliminated by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The resulting cell suspension is layered onto a nylon mesh with a pore size of 10 microns. Most of the neurons, the diameter of which ranged from 17 microns to greater than 100 microns, are retained on the upper surface of the sieve; most of the non-neuronal cells with a caliber of less than 10 microns after trypsinization go through it. Recovery of neurons is achieved by reversing the mesh onto a Petri dish containing culture medium. Neurons to non-neurons ratio is 1 to 10 in the initial cell suspension and 1 to 1 after separation. When these purified neurons are seeded at a density of 3,000 neurons/cm2 in 6 mm polyornithine-laminin (PORN-LAM) coated wells, neuronal survival (assessed by the ability to extend neurites), measured after 48 hr of culture, is very low (from 0 to 16%). Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) does not improve neuronal survival. However, when neurons are cultured in the presence of medium conditioned (CM) by astrocytes or Schwann cells, 60-80% of the seeded, dye-excluding neurons survive. So, purified adult DRG neurons require for their short-term survival and regeneration in culture, a trophic support that is present in conditioned medium from PNS or CNS glia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2754765

  13. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  14. Event Clustering and Abnormal Returns: Reassessing the Informational Value of Bets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Castellani; Pierpaolo Pattitoni; Roberto Patuelli

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the links between soccer match results, bets and stock returns of all listed European soccer teams. Using an event study approach, we measure abnormal returns following wins, ties and losses. Wins are associated with positive abnormal returns, and ties and losses with negative abnormal returns. Additionally, we analyse the role of bets in shaping market reactions to unexpected

  15. Event Clustering and Abnormal Returns: Reassessing the Informational Value of Bets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Castellani; P. Pattitoni; R. Patuelli

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the links between soccer match results, bets and stock returns of all listed European soccer teams. Using an event study approach, we measure abnormal returns following wins, ties and losses. Wins are associated with positive abnormal returns, and ties and losses with negative abnormal returns. Additionally, we analyse the role of bets in shaping market reactions to unexpected

  16. Renal abnormalities in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988

  17. Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

  18. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  19. Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Rodriguez; Yoland Smith; Maria C. Rodriguez-Oroz; Stephane Lehericy; Hagai Bergman; Yves Agid; Mahlon R. DeLong; Peter Redgrave; Jose A. Obeso

    2010-01-01

    Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson's disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson's disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of

  20. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J H Adams; D Doyle; D I Graham; A E Lawrence; D R McLellan

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of

  1. The Properties and Connections of Nerve Cells in Leech Ganglia Maintained in Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Miyazaki; J. G. Nicholls

    1976-01-01

    Segmental ganglia of the central nervous system of the leech were maintained in culture medium outside the animal for several weeks at 16 degrees C, and electrical recordings made from identified sensory and motor nerve cells. Ganglia were isolated and cultured singly, in chains and connected to the skin and muscles they normally innervate. Such preparations are suitable for a

  2. Neural circuits and topographic organization of the basal ganglia and related regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuma Nakano

    2000-01-01

    The present review was attempted to analyze the multiple channels of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connections, and the connections of their related nuclei. The prefrontal and motor areas consist of a number of modules, which seem to provide multiple subloops of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical connections in subhuman primates. There may be a great degree of convergence of the limbic, associative and motor

  3. Abnormal Bursting as a Pathophysiological Mechanism in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lobb, CJ

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable advances in Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing motor dysfunction remain unclear, possibly delaying the advent of new and improved therapies. Several such mechanisms have been proposed including changes in neuronal firing rates, the emergence of pathological oscillatory activity, increased neural synchronization, and abnormal bursting. This review focuses specifically on the role of abnormal bursting of basal ganglia neurons in PD, where a burst is a physiologically-relevant, transient increase in neuronal firing over some reference period or activity. After reviewing current methods for how bursts are detected and what the functional role of bursts may be under normal conditions, existing studies are reviewed that suggest that bursting is abnormally increased in PD and that this increases with worsening disease. Finally, the influence of therapeutic approaches for PD such as dopamine-replacement therapy with levodopa or dopamine agonists, lesions, or deep brain stimulation on bursting is discussed. Although there is insufficient evidence to conclude that increased bursting causes motor dysfunction in PD, current evidence suggests that targeted investigations into the role of bursting in PD may be warranted. PMID:24729952

  4. Motor sequences and the basal ganglia: Kinematics, not habits

    PubMed Central

    Desmurget, Michel; Turner, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a lack of definitive evidence, it is frequently proposed that the Basal Ganglia (BG) motor circuit plays a critical role in the storage and execution of movement sequences (or motor habits). To test this hypothesis directly, we inactivated the sensorimotor territory of the globus pallidus internus (sGPi, the main BG motor output) in two monkeys trained to perform overlearned and random sequences of four out-and-back reaching movements directed to visual targets. Infusion of muscimol (a GABAA agonist) into sGPi caused dysmetria and slowing of individual movements, but these impairments were virtually identical for overlearned and random sequences. The fluid predictive execution of learned sequences and the animals’ tendency to reproduce the sequence pattern in random trials was preserved following pallidal blockade. These results suggest the BG motor circuit contributes to motor execution, but not to motor sequencing or the storage of overlearned serial skills. PMID:20519543

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  8. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  9. Abnormalities of the foetal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Toi, Ants; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has concentrated on readily visible cerebral structures including head size, shape, ventricles, CSP (cavum septi pellucidi), cerebellar size/vermian presence and cisterna magna. However, apart from these easily visible structures it is important to evaluate the brain itself. Patients who initially appear to have mild isolated findings such as borderline ventriculomegaly in fact can have many more subtle findings that significantly alter prognosis and management that can be detected on detailed examination of the brain. There has been rapid evolution in imaging these foetuses, especially with neurosonography and MRI, and a revolution in understanding the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. There is increasing emphasis to detect cortical abnormalities as early as possible. This article reviews development of the cerebral cortex, the classification, aetiologies and clinical manifestations of cortical disorders, normal and abnormal appearances at ultrasound and MRI, and approaches to investigation. PMID:19235759

  10. The connections of the primate subthalamic nucleus: indirect pathways and the open-interconnected scheme of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Joel; I Weiner

    1997-01-01

    The current view of basal ganglia organization holds that functionally corresponding subregions of the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus form several parallel segregated basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. In addition, this view states that striatal output reaches the basal ganglia output nuclei (the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi)) via a `direct' pathway,

  11. Coupled Nonparametric Shape and Moment-Based Intershape Pose Priors for Multiple Basal Ganglia Structure Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Gökhan Uzunbas; Octavian Soldea; Devrim Unay; Müjdat Çetin; Gözde B. Ünal; Aytül Erçil; Ahmet Ekin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new active contour-based, statistical method for simultaneous volumetric segmentation of multiple subcortical structures in the brain. In biological tissues, such as the human brain, neighboring structures exhibit co-dependencies which can aid in segmentation, if properly analyzed and modeled. Motivated by this observation, we formulate the segmentation problem as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem, in which

  12. Shape Savvy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Popwell

    2010-09-22

    Help your students identify these different shapes! Learn your shapes with Big Bird s Shapes and then Make Designs with Shapes to create objects! You better know your colors to Paint the Shapes correctly! ...

  13. Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  14. A spiking neural network based on the basal ganglia functional anatomy.

    PubMed

    Baladron, Javier; Hamker, Fred H

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a spiking neural network of the basal ganglia capable of learning stimulus-action associations. We model learning in the three major basal ganglia pathways, direct, indirect and hyperdirect, by spike time dependent learning and considering the amount of dopamine available (reward). Moreover, we allow to learn a cortico-thalamic pathway that bypasses the basal ganglia. As a result the system develops new functionalities for the different basal ganglia pathways: The direct pathway selects actions by disinhibiting the thalamus, the hyperdirect one suppresses alternatives and the indirect pathway learns to inhibit common mistakes. Numerical experiments show that the system is capable of learning sets of either deterministic or stochastic rules. PMID:25863288

  15. Boundary and Medial Shape Analysis of the Hippocampus in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Gerig, Guido

    Boundary and Medial Shape Analysis of the Hippocampus in Schizophrenia Martin Styner a, Jeffrey A descriptions applied to a study of the hippocampus shape abnormalities in schizophrenia. The first shape: Medical Image Analysis, Shape Analysis, Schizophrenia, Medial Shape Description, Brain Morphometry

  16. The Basal Ganglia within a Cognitive System in Birds and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Christopher I.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The primate basal ganglia are fundamental to the Ackermann and colleagues’ proposal. However, primates and rodents are models for human cognitive functions involving basal-ganglia circuits and links between striatal function and vocal communication come from songbirds. We suggest that the proposal is better integrated in cognitive and/or motor theories on spoken language origins and with more analogous nonhuman animal models. PMID:25514958

  17. High affinity serotonin binding sites in human brain: a comparison of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cross I; P. Slater

    1989-01-01

    Summary The high-affinity binding of3H-serotonin and3H-DP-AT was studied in membrane preparations and tissue sections of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of human brain. In tissue sections,3H-serotonin bound to sites present at high density in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia.3HDPAT bound predominantly to the outer layers of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, no significant binding was observed in

  18. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  19. The abnormal fontanel.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick

    2003-06-15

    The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844

  20. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A.L.; Wilcock, Gordon K.; Filippini, Nicola; Zamboni, Giovanna; Hu, Michele T.M.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN) are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease. PMID:26106536

  1. Neurotensin receptor 1 immunoreactivity in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Porzionato, A.; Macchi, V.; Amagliani, A.; Castagliuolo, I.; Parenti, A.; De Caro, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we investigated, through immunohistochemistry, the presence and location of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) in the peripheral ganglia and carotid body of 16 humans and 5 rats. In both humans and rats, NTR1 immunostained ganglion cells were found in superior cervical ganglia (57.4±11.6% and 72.4±11.4%, respectively, p<0.05), enteric ganglia (51.9±10.4% and 64.6±6.1%, p<0.05), sensory ganglia (69.2±10.7% and 73.0±13.1%, p>0.05) and parasympathetic ganglia (52.1±14.1% and 59.4±14.0%, p>0.05), supporting a modulatory role for NT in these ganglia. Positivity was also detected in 45.6±9.2% and 50.8±6.8% of human and rat type I glomic cells, respectively, whereas type II cells were negative. Our findings suggest that NT produced by type I cells acts in an autocrine or paracrine way on the same cell type, playing a modulatory role on chemoception.

  2. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  3. Nurture versus nature: long-term impact of forced right-handedness on structure of pericentral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Klöppel, Stefan; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Vongerichten, Anna; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-03-01

    Does a conflict between inborn motor preferences and educational standards during childhood impact the structure of the adult human brain? To examine this issue, we acquired high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans of the whole brain in adult "converted" left-handers who had been forced as children to become dextral writers. Analysis of sulcal surfaces revealed that consistent right- and left-handers showed an interhemispheric asymmetry in the surface area of the central sulcus with a greater surface contralateral to the dominant hand. This pattern was reversed in the converted group who showed a larger surface of the central sulcus in their left, nondominant hemisphere, indicating plasticity of the primary sensorimotor cortex caused by forced use of the nondominant hand. Voxel-based morphometry showed a reduction of gray matter volume in the middle part of the left putamen in converted left-handers relative to both consistently handed groups. A similar trend was found in the right putamen. Converted subjects with at least one left-handed first-degree relative showed a correlation between the acquired right-hand advantage for writing and the structural changes in putamen and pericentral cortex. Our results show that a specific environmental challenge during childhood can shape the macroscopic structure of the human basal ganglia. The smaller than normal putaminal volume differs markedly from previously reported enlargement of cortical gray matter associated with skill acquisition. This indicates a differential response of the basal ganglia to early environmental challenges, possibly related to processes of pruning during motor development. PMID:20203186

  4. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  5. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  6. Bilateral basal ganglia calcification and recurrent generalized seizures as initial presentation of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mustafa, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Pathological calcification of basal ganglia has been encountered in children since long back and is associated with various disease entities both acute and chronic. Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is an important cause of basal ganglia calcification and can account for up to 73.8% of cases. The pathogenesis of basal ganglia calcification in hypoparathyroidism is not clear, however, a high calcium-phosphorus product and poor calcium control are believed to be directly related to calcification. Besides, a direct correlation is seen with the duration of hypocalcemia; the critical duration being ?4 years. In the presented patient, basal ganglia calcification was seen at a very young age of 6 months. To best of our knowledge, this is probably the youngest case of bilateral basal ganglia calcification in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism in literature. This suggests that besides duration of hypocalcemia, certain genetic factors and the intrauterine milieu may have a role in the pathogenesis of basal ganglia calcification.

  7. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  8. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  9. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cańas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-08-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences. On the other hand, the activation of CB(2) receptors leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB(2) receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB(2) receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB(2) receptor agonists in both disorders. In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB(2) receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation. PMID:21545415

  10. Functional organization of crayfish abdominal ganglia. III. Swimmeret motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Mulloney, B; Hall, W M

    2000-04-01

    Swimmerets are limbs on several segments of the crayfish abdomen that are used for forward swimming and other behaviors. We present evidence that the functional modules demonstrated previously in physiological experiments are reflected in the morphological disposition of swimmeret motor neurons. The single nerve that innervates each swimmeret divides into two branches that separately contain the axons of power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons. We used Co(++) or biocytin to backfill the entire pool of neurons that innervated a swimmeret, or functional subsets whose axons occurred in particular branches. Each filled cell body extended a single neurite that projected first to the Lateral Neuropil (LN), and there branched to form dendritic structures and its axon. All the motor neurons that innervated one swimmeret had cell bodies located in the ganglion from which their axons emerged, and the cell bodies of all but two of these neurons were located ipsilateral to their swimmeret. Counts of cell bodies filled from selected peripheral branches revealed about 35 power-stroke motor neurons and 35 return-stroke motor neurons. The cell bodies of these two types were segregated into different clusters within the ganglion, but both types sent their neurites into the ipsilateral LN and had their principle branches in this neuropil. We saw no significant differences in the numbers or distributions of these motor neurons in ganglia A2 through A5. These anatomical features are consistent with the physiological evidence that each swimmeret is controlled by its own neural module, which drives the alternating bursts of impulses in power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons. We propose that the LN is the site of the synaptic circuit that generates this pattern. PMID:10723001

  11. P2X7 receptor of rat dorsal root ganglia is involved in the effect of moxibustion on visceral hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangmei; Shi, Qingming; Zhu, Qicheng; Zou, Ting; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Qin; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; Xie, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong; Lv, Qiulan; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Ying, Mofeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease often display visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral nociceptors after inflammatory stimulation generate afferent nerve impulses through dorsal root ganglia (DRG) transmitting to the central nervous system. ATP and its activated-purinergic 2X7 (P2X7) receptor play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal. Purinergic signaling is involved in the sensory transmission of visceral pain. Moxibustion is a therapy applying ignited mugwort directly or indirectly at acupuncture points or other specific parts of the body to treat diseases. Heat-sensitive acupoints are the corresponding points extremely sensitive to moxa heat in disease conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the analgesic effect of moxibustion on a heat-sensitive acupoint "Dachangshu" and the expression levels of P2X7 receptor in rat DRG after chronic inflammatory stimulation of colorectal distension. Heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint inhibited the nociceptive signal transmission by decreasing the upregulated expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG induced by visceral pain, and reversed the abnormal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of satellite glial cells) in DRG. Consequently, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score in a visceral pain model was reduced, and the pain threshold was elevated. Therefore, heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint can produce a therapeutic effect on IBS via inhibiting the nociceptive transmission mediated by upregulated P2X7 receptor. PMID:25527178

  12. Identifying the Basal Ganglia Network Model Markers for Medication-Induced Impulsivity in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi Priyadharsini; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ali, Manal; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity, i.e. irresistibility in the execution of actions, may be prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine precursors or dopamine receptor agonists. In this study, we combine clinical investigations with computational modeling to explore whether impulsivity in PD patients on medication may arise as a result of abnormalities in risk, reward and punishment learning. In order to empirically assess learning outcomes involving risk, reward and punishment, four subject groups were examined: healthy controls, ON medication PD patients with impulse control disorder (PD-ON ICD) or without ICD (PD-ON non-ICD), and OFF medication PD patients (PD-OFF). A neural network model of the Basal Ganglia (BG) that has the capacity to predict the dysfunction of both the dopaminergic (DA) and the serotonergic (5HT) neuromodulator systems was developed and used to facilitate the interpretation of experimental results. In the model, the BG action selection dynamics were mimicked using a utility function based decision making framework, with DA controlling reward prediction and 5HT controlling punishment and risk predictions. The striatal model included three pools of Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs), with D1 receptor (R) alone, D2R alone and co-expressing D1R-D2R. Empirical studies showed that reward optimality was increased in PD-ON ICD patients while punishment optimality was increased in PD-OFF patients. Empirical studies also revealed that PD-ON ICD subjects had lower reaction times (RT) compared to that of the PD-ON non-ICD patients. Computational modeling suggested that PD-OFF patients have higher punishment sensitivity, while healthy controls showed comparatively higher risk sensitivity. A significant decrease in sensitivity to punishment and risk was crucial for explaining behavioral changes observed in PD-ON ICD patients. Our results highlight the power of computational modelling for identifying neuronal circuitry implicated in learning, and its impairment in PD. The results presented here not only show that computational modelling can be used as a valuable tool for understanding and interpreting clinical data, but they also show that computational modeling has the potential to become an invaluable tool to predict the onset of behavioral changes during disease progression. PMID:26042675

  13. Identifying the Basal Ganglia network model markers for medication-induced impulsivity in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Pragathi Priyadharsini; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Ali, Manal; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity, i.e. irresistibility in the execution of actions, may be prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine precursors or dopamine receptor agonists. In this study, we combine clinical investigations with computational modeling to explore whether impulsivity in PD patients on medication may arise as a result of abnormalities in risk, reward and punishment learning. In order to empirically assess learning outcomes involving risk, reward and punishment, four subject groups were examined: healthy controls, ON medication PD patients with impulse control disorder (PD-ON ICD) or without ICD (PD-ON non-ICD), and OFF medication PD patients (PD-OFF). A neural network model of the Basal Ganglia (BG) that has the capacity to predict the dysfunction of both the dopaminergic (DA) and the serotonergic (5HT) neuromodulator systems was developed and used to facilitate the interpretation of experimental results. In the model, the BG action selection dynamics were mimicked using a utility function based decision making framework, with DA controlling reward prediction and 5HT controlling punishment and risk predictions. The striatal model included three pools of Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs), with D1 receptor (R) alone, D2R alone and co-expressing D1R-D2R. Empirical studies showed that reward optimality was increased in PD-ON ICD patients while punishment optimality was increased in PD-OFF patients. Empirical studies also revealed that PD-ON ICD subjects had lower reaction times (RT) compared to that of the PD-ON non-ICD patients. Computational modeling suggested that PD-OFF patients have higher punishment sensitivity, while healthy controls showed comparatively higher risk sensitivity. A significant decrease in sensitivity to punishment and risk was crucial for explaining behavioral changes observed in PD-ON ICD patients. Our results highlight the power of computational modelling for identifying neuronal circuitry implicated in learning, and its impairment in PD. The results presented here not only show that computational modelling can be used as a valuable tool for understanding and interpreting clinical data, but they also show that computational modeling has the potential to become an invaluable tool to predict the onset of behavioral changes during disease progression. PMID:26042675

  14. Type I IFN suppresses Cxcr2 driven neutrophil recruitment into the sensory ganglia during viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Infection induces the expression of inflammatory chemokines that recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Whereas tissues such as the intestine and skin express unique chemokines during homeostasis, whether different tissues express distinct chemokine profiles during inflammation remains unclear. With this in mind, we performed a comprehensive screen of the chemokines expressed by two tissues (skin and sensory ganglia) infected with a common viral pathogen (herpes simplex virus type 1). After infection, the skin and ganglia showed marked differences in their expression of the family of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands. Specifically, Cxcl1/2/3, which in turn controlled neutrophil recruitment, was up-regulated in the skin but absent from the ganglia. Within the ganglia, Cxcl2 expression and subsequent neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by type I interferon (IFN). Using a combination of bone marrow chimeras and intracellular chemokine staining, we show that type I IFN acted by directly suppressing Cxcl2 expression by monocytes, abrogating their ability to recruit neutrophils to the ganglia. Overall, our findings describe a novel role for IFN in the direct, and selective, inhibition of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands, which results in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment to neuronal tissue. PMID:24752295

  15. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  16. Do Basal Ganglia Amplify Willed Action by Stochastic Resonance? A Model

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia are usually attributed a role in facilitating willed action, which is found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease, a pathology of basal ganglia. We hypothesize that basal ganglia possess the machinery to amplify will signals, presumably weak, by stochastic resonance. Recently we proposed a computational model of Parkinsonian reaching, in which the contributions from basal ganglia aid the motor cortex in learning to reach. The model was cast in reinforcement learning framework. We now show that the above basal ganglia computational model has all the ingredients of stochastic resonance process. In the proposed computational model, we consider the problem of moving an arm from a rest position to a target position: the two positions correspond to two extrema of the value function. A single kick (a half-wave of sinusoid, of sufficiently low amplitude) given to the system in resting position, succeeds in taking the system to the target position, with high probability, only at a critical noise level. But for suboptimal noise levels, the model arm's movements resemble Parkinsonian movement symptoms like akinetic rigidity (low noise) and dyskinesias (high noise). PMID:24302984

  17. Position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the ganglia of shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-07-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host's behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host's nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  18. Do basal Ganglia amplify willed action by stochastic resonance? A model.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia are usually attributed a role in facilitating willed action, which is found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease, a pathology of basal ganglia. We hypothesize that basal ganglia possess the machinery to amplify will signals, presumably weak, by stochastic resonance. Recently we proposed a computational model of Parkinsonian reaching, in which the contributions from basal ganglia aid the motor cortex in learning to reach. The model was cast in reinforcement learning framework. We now show that the above basal ganglia computational model has all the ingredients of stochastic resonance process. In the proposed computational model, we consider the problem of moving an arm from a rest position to a target position: the two positions correspond to two extrema of the value function. A single kick (a half-wave of sinusoid, of sufficiently low amplitude) given to the system in resting position, succeeds in taking the system to the target position, with high probability, only at a critical noise level. But for suboptimal noise levels, the model arm's movements resemble Parkinsonian movement symptoms like akinetic rigidity (low noise) and dyskinesias (high noise). PMID:24302984

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  20. A Genome-Wide Screen to Identify Transcription Factors Expressed in Pelvic Ganglia of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Carrie B.; Ireland, Sara; Fleming, Nicole L.; Yu, Jing; Valerius, M. Todd; Georgas, Kylie; Chiu, Han Sheng; Brennan, Jane; Armstrong, Jane; Little, Melissa H.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Relative positions of neurons within mature murine pelvic ganglia based on expression of neurotransmitters have been described. However the spatial organization of developing innervation in the murine urogenital tract (UGT) and the gene networks that regulate specification and maturation of neurons within the pelvic ganglia of the lower urinary tract (LUT) are unknown. We used whole-mount immunohistochemistry and histochemical stains to localize neural elements in 15.5?days post coitus (dpc) fetal mice. To identify potential regulatory factors expressed in pelvic ganglia, we surveyed expression patterns for known or probable transcription factors (TF) annotated in the mouse genome by screening a whole-mount in situ hybridization library of fetal UGTs. Of the 155 genes detected in pelvic ganglia, 88 encode TFs based on the presence of predicted DNA-binding domains. Neural crest (NC)-derived progenitors within the LUT were labeled by Sox10, a well-known regulator of NC development. Genes identified were categorized based on patterns of restricted expression in pelvic ganglia, pelvic ganglia and urethral epithelium, or pelvic ganglia and urethral mesenchyme. Gene expression patterns and the distribution of Sox10+, Phox2b+, Hu+, and PGP9.5+ cells within developing ganglia suggest previously unrecognized regional segregation of Sox10+ progenitors and differentiating neurons in early development of pelvic ganglia. Reverse transcription-PCR of pelvic ganglia RNA from fetal and post-natal stages demonstrated that multiple TFs maintain post-natal expression, although Pax3 is extinguished before weaning. Our analysis identifies multiple potential regulatory genes including TFs that may participate in segregation of discrete lineages within pelvic ganglia. The genes identified here are attractive candidate disease genes that may now be further investigated for their roles in malformation syndromes or in LUT dysfunction. PMID:22988430

  1. Boundary and medial shape analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Boundary and medial shape analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia Martin Styner a,*, Jeffrey A abnormalities in schizophrenia. The first shape description is the sampled boundary implied by the spherical analysis; Shape analysis; Schizophrenia; Medial shape description; Brain morphometry 1. Introduction

  2. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project

    E-print Network

    --------------------------------------------------------Context Dependent Manufacturers Regulatory Agencies Company (Management, Dispatch, Maintenance) Flight and Cabin Crews ATC #12;Economic and Regulatory Pressures Philosophies Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Taxonomy of the Domain Economic and Regulatory Pressures Pertaining to Dealing with and Training

  3. An entropy-based model for basal ganglia dysfunctions in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Darbin, Olivier; Dees, Daniel; Martino, Anthony; Adams, Elizabeth; Naritoku, Dean

    2013-01-01

    During this last decade, nonlinear analyses have been used to characterize the irregularity that exists in the neuronal data stream of the basal ganglia. In comparison to linear parameters for disparity (i.e., rate, standard deviation, and oscillatory activities), nonlinear analyses focus on complex patterns that are composed of groups of interspike intervals with matching lengths but not necessarily contiguous in the data stream. In light of recent animal and clinical studies, we present a review and commentary on the basal ganglia neuronal entropy in the context of movement disorders. PMID:23762856

  4. Anatomy of giant serotonin-containing neurones in the cerebral ganglia of Helix pomatia and Limax maximus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. W. Pentreath; N. N. Osborne; G. A. Cottrell

    1973-01-01

    There is a giant serotonin-containing neurone (GSC) in each cerebral ganglion of Helix pomatia and Limax maximus. In Helix, presynaptic endings of the GSCs are located in the buccal ganglia and peripheral musculature. Dense-cored vesicles of mean diameter 100 nm were observed in the perikarya and the axon branches of the GSCs within the cerebral ganglia. Evidence is presented which

  5. Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

  6. Motor functions of cerebellum and basal ganglia: the cerebellocortical saccadic (ballistic) clock, the cerebellonuclear hold regulator, and the basal ganglia ramp (voluntary speed smooth movement) generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Kornhuber

    1971-01-01

    A theory of the motor functions of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia is presented. It is based on the following observations:1.Dysmetria of saccadic eye and rapid arm movements as well as adiadochokinesis as a consequence of cerebellar cortical lesions.2.Holding tremor of the arm and eyes (pendular nystagmus) due to lesions of the cerebellar nuclei.3.The precentral motor cortex is unnecessary

  7. Shape Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meghan Hauptli

    2012-06-11

    Students will go on a shape hunt in the classroom or designated area. During the shape hunt, students will draw pictures of the shapes they find and the object that it is found by, in order to show the position of the shape. After the shape hunt, students will use Timed-Pair-Share to explain to peers what shapes they found and their relative positions.

  8. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  9. Intramuscular nerve distribution in bladder and the relationship between intramuscular ganglia and bladder function in man and dog

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeju; Xu, Qian; Lu, Li; Luo, Xu; Fu, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    In clinical, the relationship between bladder intramuscular nerve and function is also elusive. This study aims to compare the bladder intramuscular nerve distribution and its characteristics and significance in human and dog. Eleven dogs’ bladders were stained by Sihler’s and HE techniques. Fifteen human bladders were adopted by Sihler’s staining, using 10% formaldehyde to fix 12 weeks, 7 by HE dyeing fixes 24 hours. Results indicated that man’s bladder was triangularpyramid-shaped. While dog’s bladder was spherical-shaped and its muscle fibers arrange were irregularly shaped. Longitudinal muscle of the outer layer is fleshy, the terminal is at the bladder neck without exception, and vesical trigone has relatively obvious three layers of structure. After dyeing dog’s bladder was transparent jelly, the nerve was purple color, enter bladder at the ureter-bladder junction with different forms. Man’s bladder nerves, no ganglion, were more trivial than that of dogs, and with smaller branches, the large nerve ganglion. The links with the nerve fibers and forms the network on the dog’s bladder wall, and the nerve fibers crosses comparatively little on both the left and right sides in the midline. The right nerve branch gains advantage on the man’s bladder wall, the situations is opposite on the dog’s. In conclusion, bladder nerves which scatter to the bladder wall have branches to lower ureter at the ureter-bladder junction, the structure and distribution of intramuscular nerves are different, the existence of intramuscular ganglia is relating to the bladder function both in man and dog. PMID:25664008

  10. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  11. Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

  12. Importing the Computational Neuroscience Toolbox into Neuro-Evolution--Application to Basal Ganglia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Importing the Computational Neuroscience Toolbox into Neuro-Evolution--Application to Basal Ganglia, France ABSTRACT Neuro-evolution and computational neuroscience are two sci- entific domains that produce provide well-defined bench- marks for neuro-evolution. To support these claims, a method to evolve

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Caroline; Schöbel, Nicole; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels, which are (potentially) involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs) with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues. PMID:26070209

  14. The Anterograde Transport of Rabies Virus in Rat Sensory Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRI TSIANG; ERIK LYCKE; PIERRE-EMMANUEL CECCALDI; ALAIN ERMINE; XAVIER HIRARDOT

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY We have previously described the capacity of neurites extending from cultured rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to transport rabies virus through axoplasm in the retrograde direction. Here we report the infection of cultured neurons derived from the DRG and the subsequent anterograde transport of rabies virus from the infected cell somas through the extending neurites to its

  15. Identifiable Achatina giant neurones: Their localizations in ganglia, axonal pathways and pharmacological features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Takeuchi; Yoko Araki; Muhammad Emaduddin; Wei Zhang; Xiao Yan Han; Thucydides L. Salunga; Shu Min Wong

    1996-01-01

    1.1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant neurones were identified in

  16. Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia with schizophrenia. Acquired equivalence is a phenomenon in which prior training to treat two stimuli as equivalent generalization. Forty-three patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 28 matched healthy controls participated

  17. Endogenous neurokinins facilitate synaptic transmission in guinea pig airway parasympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Canning, Brendan J; Reynolds, Sandra M; Anukwu, Linus U; Kajekar, Radhika; Myers, Allen C

    2002-08-01

    Neurokinin-containing nerve fibers were localized to guinea pig airway parasympathetic ganglia in control tissues but not in tissues pretreated with capsaicin. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether neurokinins, released during axonal reflexes or after antidromic afferent nerve stimulation, modulate ganglionic synaptic neurotransmission. The neurokinin type 3 (NK(3)) receptor antagonists SB-223412 and SR-142801 inhibited vagally mediated cholinergic contractions of bronchi in vitro at stimulation voltages threshold for preganglionic nerve activation but had no effect on vagally mediated contractions evoked at optimal voltage or field stimulation-induced contractions. Intracellular recordings from the ganglia neurons revealed that capsaicin-sensitive nerve stimulation potentiated subsequent preganglionic nerve-evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials. This effect was mimicked by the NK(3) receptor agonist senktide analog and blocked by SB-223412. In situ, senktide analog markedly increased baseline tracheal cholinergic tone, an effect that was reversed by atropine and prevented by vagotomy or SB-223412. Comparable effects of intravenous senktide analog on pulmonary insufflation pressure were observed. These data highlight the important integrative role played by parasympathetic ganglia and indicate that activation of NK(3) receptors in airway ganglia by endogenous neurokinins facilitates synaptic neurotransmission. PMID:12121843

  18. Basal Ganglia Volume Is Associated with Aerobic Fitness in Preadolescent Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Chaddock; Kirk I. Erickson; Ruchika Shaurya Prakash; Matt VanPatter; Michelle W. Voss; Matthew B. Pontifex; Lauren B. Raine; Charles H. Hillman; Arthur F. Kramer

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation is the first to explore the association between childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia structure and function. Rodent research has revealed that exercise influences the striatum by increasing dopamine signaling and angiogenesis. In children, higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volumes, superior performance on tasks of attentional and interference control, and elevated event-related brain

  19. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Flegel, Caroline; Schöbel, Nicole; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels, which are (potentially) involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs) with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues. PMID:26070209

  20. Differential expression of P2X receptors on neurons from different parasympathetic ganglia

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    of sphenopalatine and submandibular ganglia responded. Lowering pH potentiated ATP responses in neurons from all cervical ganglion (Reekie and Burnstock, 1994) and guinea-pig coeliac ganglion (Khakh et al., 1995) respond neu- rons, ATP evoked an inward current, and acidification to pH 6.2 increased the response amplitude

  1. Analysis of five cases with neurogenic stuttering following brain injury in the basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Tani; Yasujiro Sakai

    2011-01-01

    This study examined stuttering patterns in five patients with basal ganglia injury. None of the patients had a history of developmental stuttering. Four patients were right-handed; one patient was ambidextrous. Stuttering tests administered to patients assessed sentence repetition, reading aloud, explanations of a comic strip, and conversation. Accessory behaviors such as facial grimaces, associated movements of the limbs, and avoidance

  2. The disrupted basal ganglia and behavioural control: an integrative cross-domain perspective of spontaneous stereotypy.

    PubMed

    McBride, Sebastian D; Parker, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous stereotypic behaviour (SB) is common in many captive animal species, as well as in humans with some severe psychiatric disorders, and is often cited as being related to general basal ganglia dysfunction. Despite this assertion, there is little in the literature examining SB specifically in terms of the basal ganglia mechanics. In this review, we attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrative, cross-domain perspective of SB by linking what we currently understand about the SB phenotype with the ever-growing literature on the anatomy and functionality of the basal ganglia. After outlining current models of SB from different theoretical perspectives, we offer a broad but detailed overview of normally functioning basal ganglia mechanics, and attempt to link this with current neurophysiological evidence related to spontaneous SB. Based on this we present an empirically derived theoretical framework, which proposes that SB is the result of a dysfunctional action selection system that may reflect dysregulation of excitatory (direct) and inhibitory (indirect and hyperdirect) pathways as well as alterations in mechanisms of behavioural switching. This approach also suggests behaviours that specifically become stereotypic may reflect inbuilt low selection threshold behavioural sequences associated with early development and the species-specific ethogram or, low threshold behavioural sequences that are the result of stress-induced dopamine exposure at the time of performance. PMID:25052167

  3. Stuttering and the Basal Ganglia Circuits: A Critical Review of Possible Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    The possible relation between stuttering and the basal ganglia is discussed. Important clues to the pathophysiology of stuttering are given by conditions known to alleviate dysfluency, like the rhythm effect, chorus speech, and singing. Information regarding pharmacologic trials, lesion studies, brain imaging, genetics, and developmental changes…

  4. Differential contributions of basal ganglia and thalamus to song initiation, tempo, and structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. R.; Doupe, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are multistage loops critical to motor behavior, but the contributions of individual components to overall circuit function remain unclear. We addressed these issues in a songbird basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit (the anterior forebrain pathway, AFP) specialized for singing and critical for vocal plasticity. The major known afferent to the AFP is the premotor cortical nucleus, HVC. Surprisingly, previous studies found that lesions of HVC alter song but do not eliminate the ability of the AFP to drive song production. We therefore used this AFP-driven song to investigate the role of basal ganglia and thalamus in vocal structure, tempo, and initiation. We found that lesions of the striatopallidal component (Area X) slowed song and simplified its acoustic structure. Elimination of the thalamic component (DLM) further simplified the acoustic structure of song and regularized its rhythm but also dramatically reduced song production. The acoustic structure changes imply that sequential stages of the AFP each add complexity to song, but the effects of DLM lesions on song initiation suggest that thalamus is a locus of additional inputs important to initiation. Together, our results highlight the cumulative contribution of stages of a basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit to motor output along with distinct involvement of thalamus in song initiation or “gating.” PMID:24174647

  5. On a basal ganglia role in learning and rehearsing visual–motor associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Bédard; Jerome N. Sanes

    2009-01-01

    Fronto-striatal circuitry interacts with the midbrain dopaminergic system to mediate the learning of stimulus–response associations, and these associations often guide everyday actions, but the precise role of these circuits in forming and consolidating rules remains uncertain. A means to examine basal ganglia circuit contributions to associative motor learning is to examine these process in a lesion model system, such as

  6. Basal ganglia network by constrained spherical deconvolution: a possible cortico-pallidal pathway?

    PubMed

    Milardi, Demetrio; Gaeta, Michele; Marino, Silvia; Arrigo, Alessandro; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Mormina, Enricomaria; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Milazzo, Carmelo; Finocchio, Giovanni; Baglieri, Annalisa; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Quartarone, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    In the recent past, basal ganglia circuitry was simplified as represented by the direct and indirect pathways and by hyperdirect pathways. Based on data from animal studies, we hypothesized a fourth pathway, the cortico-pallidal, pathway, that complements the hyperdirect pathway to the subthalamus. Ten normal brains were analyzed by using the high angular resolution diffusion imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based technique. The study was performed with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Achieva, Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands); by using a 32-channel SENSE head coil. We showed that CSD is a powerful technique that allows a fine evaluation of both the long and small tracts between cortex and basal ganglia, including direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways. In addition, a pathway directly connecting the cortex to the globus pallidus was seen. Our results confirm that the CSD tractography is a valuable technique allowing a reliable reconstruction of small- and long-fiber pathways in brain regions with multiple fiber orientations, such as basal ganglia. This could open a future scenario in which CSD could be used to focally target with deep brain stimulation (DBS) the small bundles within the basal ganglia loops. PMID:25156805

  7. The inhibitory microcircuit of the substantia nigra provides feedback gain control of the basal ganglia output

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001 PMID:24849626

  8. Allergic airway inflammation induces the migration of dendritic cells into airway sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A neuroimmune crosstalk between dendritic cells (DCs) and airway nerves in the lung has recently been reported. However, the presence of DCs in airway sensory ganglia under normal and allergic conditions has not been explored so far. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the localisation, distribution and proliferation of DCs in airway sensory ganglia under allergic airway inflammation. Methods Using the house dust mite (HDM) model for allergic airway inflammation BALB/c mice were exposed to HDM extract intranasally (25 ?g/50 ?l) for 5 consecutive days a week over 7 weeks. With the help of the immunohistochemistry, vagal jugular-nodose ganglia complex (JNC) sections were analysed regarding their expression of DC-markers (MHC II, CD11c, CD103), the neuronal marker PGP 9.5 and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and glutamine synthetase (GS) as a marker for satellite glia cells (SGCs). To address the original source of DCs in sensory ganglia, a proliferation experiment was also carried in this study. Results Immune cells with characteristic DC-phenotype were found to be closely located to SGCs and vagal sensory neurons under physiological conditions. The percentage of DCs in relation to neurons was significantly increased by allergic airway inflammation in comparison to the controls (HDM 51.38?±?2.38% vs. control 28.16?±?2.86%, p?ganglia, however, the proliferation rate of DCs is not significantly changed in the two treated animal groups (proliferating DCs/ total DCs: HDM 0.89?±?0.38%, vs. control 1.19?±?0.54%, p?=?0.68). Also, increased number of CGRP-positive neurons was found in JNC after allergic sensitisation and challenge (HDM 31.16?±?5.41% vs. control 7.16?±?1.53%, p?ganglia to interact with sensory neurons enhancing or protecting the allergic airway inflammation. The increase of DCs as well as CGRP-positive neurons in airway ganglia by allergic airway inflammation indicate that intraganglionic DCs and neurons expressing CGRP may contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. To understand this neuroimmune interaction in allergic airway inflammation further functional experiments should be carried out in future studies. PMID:24980659

  9. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  10. Shape Up

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Shane Carter

    2006-10-23

    Get a better understanding of the importance of our basic geometric shapes. While going through the activity below see if you can create the following shapes: A triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, rectangle, kite, diamond. Having fun with quadrilaterals Now that you can create basic shapes see if you can create more difficult shapes on the geoboard. Geoboard Activity See if you can use the geoboard to create 3-D shapes ...

  11. Remodelling of the intracardiac ganglia in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: an anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM. Methods Twelve GK rats (276?±?17 days of age; mean?±?standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262?±?5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area. Results The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0?±?0.6 vs. 5.9?±?0.1 mmol/l, p?ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4?±?0.1 vs. 2.2?±?0.1 mm2, p?ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state. PMID:23758627

  12. Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew H; Jones, James F; Drake, Daniel F; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks. PMID:24858857

  13. Unusual ciliary abnormalities in three 9/11 response workers.

    PubMed

    McMahon, James T; Aslam, Rizwan; Schell, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York in 2001, thousands of response workers were exposed to complex mixtures of toxins, pollutants, and carcinogens. Many developed illnesses involving the respiratory tract. We report unusual ultrastructural ciliary abnormalities in 3 response workers that corresponded to their respiratory and ciliary functional abnormalities. Each patient had respiratory cilia biopsies that were evaluated for motility and ultrastructural changes. Impaired ciliary motility was seen in 2 of the 3 patients. Each of the patients showed monomorphic ultrastructural abnormalities. Two of the patients showed identical triangular disarray of axonemal microtubules with peripheral doublets 1,4, and 7 forming the corners of the triangle and doublet 9 always more medially displaced than doublets 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. Two workers had cilia in which axonemes were replaced by homogeneously dense cores. One of these also had cilia with triangular axonemes as previously described. The other had cilia with a geometric triangular to pentagonal shape. The ciliary abnormalities described here may represent a new class of primary ciliary dyskinesia in which abnormalities may have a genetic basis and a phenotypic expression that is prompted at the cellular level by local environmental conditions. PMID:21370679

  14. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  15. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  16. Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

    2003-01-01

    A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

  17. Cortical folding abnormalities in autism revealed by surface-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Christine Wu; Dierker, Donna; Mostafavi, Iman; Schumann, Cynthia M; Rivera, Susan M; Amaral, David G; Van Essen, David C

    2007-10-24

    We tested for cortical shape abnormalities using surface-based morphometry across a range of autism spectrum disorders (7.5-18 years of age). We generated sulcal depth maps from structural magnetic resonance imaging data and compared typically developing controls to three autism spectrum disorder subgroups: low-functioning autism, high-functioning autism, and Asperger's syndrome. The low-functioning autism group had a prominent shape abnormality centered on the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus that was associated with a sulcal depth difference in the anterior insula and frontal operculum. The high-functioning autism group had bilateral shape abnormalities similar to the low-functioning group, but smaller in size and centered more posteriorly, in and near the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus. Individuals with Asperger's syndrome had bilateral abnormalities in the intraparietal sulcus that correlated with age, intelligence quotient, and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised social and repetitive behavior scores. Because of evidence suggesting age-related differences in the developmental time course of neural alterations in autism, separate analyses on children (7.5-12.5 years of age) and adolescents (12.75-18 years of age) were also carried out. All of the cortical shape abnormalities identified across all ages were more pronounced in the children. These findings are consistent with evidence of an altered trajectory of early brain development in autism, and they identify several regions that may have abnormal patterns of connectivity in individuals with autism. PMID:17959814

  18. Effects of equine grass sickness on sympathetic neurons in prevertebral and paravertebral ganglia.

    PubMed

    Shotton, H R; Lincoln, J; McGorum, B C

    2011-07-01

    Acute equine grass sickness (EGS) is a fatal disease of horses that is thought to be due to ingestion of a neurotoxic agent causing extensive damage to autonomic neurons. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of EGS on neurons in two sympathetic ganglia, the paravertebral cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) and the prevertebral coeliac/cranial mesenteric ganglion (CG/CMG). Specimens from horses with EGS and controls were obtained post mortem and processed using single and double immunofluorescence labelling for PGP 9.5 and HuC/HuD (pan-neuronal markers), TUNEL and caspase 3 (markers for apoptosis), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and galanin (markers of the cell body response to injury following axotomy or exposure to sympathetic neurotoxins) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, marker for noradrenaline synthesis). In control horses, all neurons contained PGP 9.5 and HuC/HuD. There was a significant loss of PGP 9.5 and HuC/HuD expression in samples from horses with EGS that occurred to a greater extent in the CG/CMG than the CCG. The number of caspase 3-positive neurons increased significantly in both ganglia, but TUNEL staining of sympathetic neurons was only significantly increased in the CG/CMG in EGS. No VIP was observed in any ganglia; however, there was a significant increase in galanin-positive neurons in both ganglia in EGS. In the CCG, there was a significant shift towards increased fluorescence intensity for TH, possibly indicating an initial accumulation of TH within the cell body. In contrast, TH fluorescence intensity was significantly reduced in the CG/CMG in EGS correlating with the greater loss of neurons. These results demonstrate that EGS can induce a cell body response that is similar to the response of sympathetic neurons to a chemical neurotoxin. EGS also causes loss of sympathetic neurons, some of which occurs via apoptosis. Changes were more marked in the CG/CMG than the CCG indicating that the prevertebral ganglia were affected earlier than the paravertebral ganglia in the pathological process and had undergone greater neurodegeneration. PMID:21457994

  19. Shape builder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

    2007-12-12

    This interactive applet operates in one of two modes: auto draw and create shape mode, allowing the user to explore the area and perimeter of non-standard shapes. Immediate feedback is given on answers entered.

  20. Shape Up!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-21

    In this lesson students will compare two and three dimensional shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangle, cone, cylinder, sphere, cube) by differentiating them according to attributes. Students explain attributes of shapes by exploring real world objects.

  1. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkin, A.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.; Rotrosen, J.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Cancro, R.

    1985-05-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities.

  2. A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, A; Ono, S; Shibata, M; Imai, T; Suzuki, M; Shimizu, N

    2001-01-01

    A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease.?Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI.?In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease.?? PMID:11723201

  3. Cadmium effect on the structure of supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia and the neurosecretory processes in earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa).

    PubMed

    Siekierska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium effects on the supra- and subpharyngeal ganglia, neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells were tested in earthworms Dendrobaena veneta exposed to 10 and 50 mg Cd kg(-1) in soil after 20 days of the experiment. Accumulation of cadmium in the ganglia of nervous system was also measured using AAS method. Cadmium was accumulated in the nervous system. The accumulated amount was proportional to Cd soil concentration and the exposure time. A considerable fall in neurosecretion and RNA content in the neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion in the neuropile (the axons) of both tested ganglia was induced by 50 mg Cd kg(-1). It seemed that neurosecretion synthesis and its axonal transport could be suppressed. Cadmium caused degenerative changes as vacuolization of the neurosecretory cells and neuropile in both tested ganglia. PMID:12860099

  4. Switching from automatic to controlled behavior: cortico-basal ganglia mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Isoda, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Although we carry out most daily tasks nearly automatically, it is occasionally necessary to change a routine if something changes in our environment and the behavior becomes inappropriate. Such behavioral switching can occur either retroactively based on error feedback or proactively by detecting a contextual cue. Recent imaging and electrophysiological data in humans and monkeys have suggested that the frontal cortical areas play executive roles in behavioral switching. The anterior cingulate cortex acts retroactively and the pre-supplementary motor area acts proactively to enable behavioral switching. The lateral prefrontal cortex reconfigures cognitive processes constituting the switched behavior. The subthalamic nucleus and the striatum in the basal ganglia mediate these cortical signals to achieve behavioral switching. We discuss how breaking a routine to allow more adaptive behavior requires a fine-tuned recruitment of the frontal cortical-basal ganglia neural network. PMID:20181509

  5. Biotin-responsive Basal Ganglia disease: a treatable differential diagnosis of leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Distelmaier, Felix; Huppke, Peter; Pieperhoff, Peter; Amunts, Katrin; Schaper, Jörg; Morava, Eva; Mayatepek, Ertan; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Karenfort, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. BBGD typically causes (sub)acute episodes with encephalopathy and subsequent neurological deterioration. If untreated, the clinical course may be fatal. Our report on a 6-year-old child with BBGD highlights that the disease is a crucial differential diagnosis of Leigh syndrome. Therefore, biotin and thiamine treatment is recommended for any patient with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions and neurological symptoms until BBGD is excluded. In addition, we exemplify that deformation-field-based morphometry of brain magnetic resonance images constitutes a novel quantitative tool, which might be very useful to monitor disease course and therapeutic effects in neurometabolic disorders. PMID:24166474

  6. Evidence for a causal inverse model in an avian cortico-basal ganglia circuit

    PubMed Central

    Giret, Nicolas; Kornfeld, Joergen; Ganguli, Surya; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning by imitation is fundamental to both communication and social behavior and requires the conversion of complex, nonlinear sensory codes for perception into similarly complex motor codes for generating action. To understand the neural substrates underlying this conversion, we study sensorimotor transformations in songbird cortical output neurons of a basal-ganglia pathway involved in song learning. Despite the complexity of sensory and motor codes, we find a simple, temporally specific, causal correspondence between them. Sensory neural responses to song playback mirror motor-related activity recorded during singing, with a temporal offset of roughly 40 ms, in agreement with short feedback loop delays estimated using electrical and auditory stimulation. Such matching of mirroring offsets and loop delays is consistent with a recent Hebbian theory of motor learning and suggests that cortico-basal ganglia pathways could support motor control via causal inverse models that can invert the rich correspondence between motor exploration and sensory feedback. PMID:24711417

  7. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-04-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis.

  8. Mastoid abnormalities in down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important

  9. Infertile mares with chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Stewart-Scott

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in

  10. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  11. Ovarian Steroidogenic Abnormalities in PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica K. Wickenheisser; Jan M. McAllister

    Androgen excess, theca, granulosa, polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, estrogen, insulin sensitivity,\\u000a signaling defect. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately\\u000a 6–10% of premenopausal women [1, 2]. Hyperandrogenemia is the biochemical hallmark of PCOS. Reproductive and endocrine abnormalities\\u000a include disordered gonadotropin secretion, oligomenorrhea and anovulatory infertility, and endometrial hyperplasia. Obesity,\\u000a hirsutism, acne, and alopecia

  12. Expression of peptides, nitric oxide synthase and NPY receptor in trigeminal and nodose ganglia after nerve lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zhang; Ru-Rong Ji; Jan Arvidsson; Jan M. Lundberg; Tamas Bartfai; Katarina Bedecs; Tomas Hökfelt

    1996-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, the expression of galanin (GAL)\\/galanin message associated peptide (GMAP)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)\\/peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like immunoreactivities and mRNAs, and NPY receptor mRNA was studied in normal trigeminal and nodose ganglia and 14 and 42 days after peripheral axotomy. In normal trigeminal ganglia about 11% of

  13. Neuropsychological and 18FDG-PET studies in a family with idiopathic basal ganglia calcifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Le Ber; Rose-Marie Marié; Benoît Chabot; Catherine Lalevée; Gilles-Louis Defer

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease, the main clinical signs of which are parkinsonism, cognitive deterioration and\\/or psychiatric troubles. Familial forms are rare. The underlying basis is not known. We performed detailed neurological, neuropsychological, brain CT scans and MRI evaluations in 15 patients of a large FIBGC family. Three patients also underwent a 18FDG-PET

  14. Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiuhong; Liu, Xiangyan; Tang, Qiuping; Deng, Yunlong

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50–70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after surgery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is still unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical nociception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n = 32) and sham surgery (n = 8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group received anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3–5) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on small- and medium-sized neurons (diameter < 20 ?m and 20–40 ?m) and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3–5) in the sham surgery group. By contrast, in the surgery group, high expression of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor appeared in large-sized neurons (diameter > 40 ?m) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to mechanical stimulus in the hind paw following incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws. PMID:25206654

  15. Detection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 in Sacral Ganglia of Latently Infected Goats by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Tempesta, Maria; Pratelli, Annamaria; Greco, Grazia; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    1999-01-01

    A study of the latency of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) was carried out with four latently infected goats. Three goats were treated with dexamethasone and euthanized after 4 and 6 days. PCR and virus isolation allowed us to detect CpHV.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment. PMID:10203533

  16. Increased TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV2 expression in dorsal root ganglia by nerve injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frederick; M. E. Buck; D. J. Matson; D. N. Cortright

    2007-01-01

    Thermosensitive TRP channels display unique thermal responses, suggesting distinct roles mediating sensory transmission of temperature. However, whether relative expression of these channels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is altered in nerve injury is unknown. We developed a multiplex ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) to quantify rat TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 RNA levels in DRG. We used the multiplex

  17. Oscillatory activity in the human basal ganglia: more than just beta, more than just Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Manuel; Valencia, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    The implantation of deep brain stimulators in different structures of the basal ganglia to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases has allowed the recording of local field potential activity in these structures. The analysis of these signals has helped our understanding of basal ganglia physiology in health and disease. However, there remain some major challenges and questions for the future. In a recent work, Tan et al. (Tan, H., Pogosyan, A., Anam, A., Foltynie, T., Limousin, P., Zrinzo, L., et al. 2013. Frequency specific activity in subthalamic nucleus correlates with hand bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. Exp. Neurol. 240,122-129) take profit of these recordings to study the changes in subthalamic oscillatory activity during the hold and release phases of a grasping paradigm, and correlate the changes in different frequency bands with performance parameters. They found that beta activity was related to the release phase, while force maintenance related most to theta and gamma/HFO activity. There was no significant effect of the motor state of the patient on this latter association. These findings suggest that the alterations in the oscillatory activity of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease are not limited to the beta band, and they involve aspects different from movement preparation and initiation. Additionally, these results highlight the usefulness of the combination of well-designed paradigms with recordings in off and on motor states (in Parkinson's disease), or in different pathologies, in order to understand not only the pathophysiology of the diseases affecting the patients, but also the normal physiology of the basal ganglia. PMID:23764499

  18. Differential contribution of Neurog1 and Neurog2 on the formation of cranial ganglia along the anterior-posterior axis

    PubMed Central

    Takano-Maruyama, Masumi; Chen, Yiju; Gaufo, Gary O.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The neural crest (NC) and placode are transient neurogenic cell populations that give rise to cranial ganglia of the vertebrate head. The formation of the anterior NC- and placode-derived ganglia has been shown to depend on the single activity of either Neurog1 or Neurog2. The requirement of the more posterior cranial ganglia on Neurog1 and Neurog2 is unknown. Here we show that the formation of the NC-derived parasympathetic otic ganglia, and placode-derived visceral sensory petrosal and nodose ganglia are dependent on the redundant activities of Neurog1 and Neurog2. Tamoxifen-inducible Cre lineage labeling of Neurog1 and Neurog2 show a dynamic spatiotemporal expression profile in both NC and epibranchial placode that correlates with the phenotypes of the Neurog-mutant embryos. Our data, together with previous studies, suggest that the formation of cranial ganglia along the anterior-posterior axis is dependent on the dynamic spatiotemporal activities of Neurog1 and/or Neurog2 in both NC and epibranchial placode. PMID:22102600

  19. Stem cells from wildtype and Friedreich's ataxia mice present similar neuroprotective properties in dorsal root ganglia cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan; Estirado, Alicia; Redondo, Carolina; Martinez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common susceptibility to oxidative stress, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson Disease, Huntington Disease and Friedreich's ataxia. In a previous work, we proved that stem cell-conditioned medium increased the survival of cells isolated from Friedreich's ataxia patients, when submitted to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to confirm this same effect in dorsal root ganglia cells isolated from YG8 mice, a mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia. In this disorder, the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are the first to degenerate. Also, in this work we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from YG8 mice, in order to compare them with their wildtype counterpart. To this end, dorsal root ganglia primary cultures isolated from YG8 mice were exposed to oxidative stress and cultured with conditioned medium from either wildtype or YG8 stem cells. As a result, the conditioned medium increased the survival of the dorsal root ganglia cells. This coincided with an increase in oxidative stress-related markers and frataxin expression levels. BDNF, NT3 and NT4 trophic factors were detected in the conditioned medium of both wild-type and YG8 stem cells, all which bind to the various neuronal cell types present in the dorsal root ganglia. No differences were observed in the stem cells isolated from wildtype and YG8 mice. The results presented confirm the possibility that autologous stem cell transplantation may be a viable therapeutic approach in protecting dorsal root ganglia neurons of Friedreich's ataxia patients. PMID:23671637

  20. Balancing the basal ganglia circuitry: A possible new role for dopamine D2 receptors in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Maxime; Kang, Un Jung; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    Current therapies for treating movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease are effective but limited by undesirable and intractable side effects. Developing more effective therapies will require better understanding of what causes basal ganglia dysregulation and why medication-induced side effects develop. Although basal ganglia have been extensively studied in the last decades, its circuit anatomy is very complex, and significant controversy exists as to how the interplay of different basal ganglia nuclei process motor information and output. We have recently identified the importance of an underappreciated collateral projection that bridges the striatal output direct pathway with the indirect pathway. These bridging collaterals are extremely plastic in the adult brain and are involved in the regulation of motor balance. Our findings add a new angle to the classical model of basal ganglia circuitry that could be exploited for the development of new therapies against movement disorders. In this Scientific Perspective, we describe the function of bridging collaterals and other recent discoveries that challenge the simplicity of the classical basal ganglia circuit model. We then discuss the potential implication of bridging collaterals in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Because dopamine D2 receptors and striatal neuron excitability have been found to regulate the density of bridging collaterals, we propose that targeting these projections downstream of D2 receptors could be a possible strategy for the treatment of basal ganglia disorders. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:26018615

  1. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  2. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies: a possible diagnostic utility in idiopathic movement disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Church, A; Dale, R; Giovannoni, G

    2004-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of post-streptococcal brain disorders includes chorea, tics, and dystonia. The proposed mediators of disease are anti-basal ganglia (neuronal) antibodies (ABGA). Aim: To evaluate ABGA as a potential diagnostic marker in a cohort of UK post-streptococcal movement disorders. Methods: Forty UK children presenting with movement disorders associated with streptococcal infection were recruited. ABGA was measured using ELISA and Western immunoblotting. To determine ABGA specificity and sensitivity, children with neurological diseases (n = 100), children with uncomplicated streptococcal infection (n = 40), and children with autoimmune disease (n = 50) were enrolled as controls. Results: The mean ELISA result was increased in the post-streptococcal movement disorder group compared to all controls and derived a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 79%. The Western immunoblotting method to detect ABGA derived a sensitivity and specificity of 92.5% and 94.7% respectively. There was common binding to basal ganglia antigens of 40, 45, and 60 kDa. Immunofluorescence localised the antibody binding to basal ganglia neurones. Conclusion: ABGA appears to be a potentially useful diagnostic marker in post-streptococcal neurological disorders. Western immunoblotting appears to be the preferred method due to good sensitivity and specificity and the ability to test several samples at once. PMID:15210488

  3. The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning. PMID:21945835

  4. Brain tissue properties differentiate between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Ettore A; Dukart, Juergen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine; Chowdhury, Rumana; Hetzer, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan; Kühn, Andrea A; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties. On the basis of probabilistic diffusion tractography we identified STN subregions with predominantly motor, associative, and limbic connectivity. We then computed for each of the nonoverlapping STN subregions the covariance between local brain tissue properties and the rest of the brain using high-resolution maps of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation and longitudinal (R1) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*). The demonstrated spatial distribution pattern of covariance between brain tissue properties linked to myelin (R1 and MT) and iron (R2*) content clearly segregates between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits. We interpret the demonstrated covariance pattern as evidence for shared tissue properties within a functional circuit, which is closely linked to its function. Our findings open new possibilities for investigation of changes in the established covariance pattern aiming at accurate diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24777915

  5. A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors

    PubMed Central

    Andalman, Aaron S.; Fee, Michale S.

    2009-01-01

    In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown. It has recently been shown that a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird, which projects directly to vocal–motor circuitry, has a premotor function driving exploration necessary for vocal learning. It has also been hypothesized that this circuit, known as the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), may generate an instructive signal that improves performance in the motor pathway. Here, we show that the output of the AFP directly implements a motor correction that reduces vocal errors. We use disruptive auditory feedback, contingent on song pitch, to induce learned changes in song structure over the course of hours and find that reversible inactivation of the output of the AFP produces an immediate regression of these learned changes. Thus, the AFP is involved in generating an error-reducing bias, which could increase the efficiency of vocal exploration and instruct synaptic changes in the motor pathway. We also find that learned changes in the song generated by the AFP are incorporated into the motor pathway within 1 day. Our observations support a view that basal ganglia-related circuits directly implement behavioral adaptations that minimize errors and subsequently stabilize these adaptations by training premotor cortical areas. PMID:19597157

  6. Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography

    E-print Network

    Desolneux, Agnès

    Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography Mohamed Hachama, Agn`es Desolneux (e.g. lesions) in mammography are solved separately, although the solutions of these problems 2006 #12;Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography 179 The definition

  7. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  8. Abnormal Adherence of Sickle Erythrocytes to Cultured Vascular Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Hebbel, Robert P.; Yamada, Osamu; Moldow, Charles F.; Jacob, Harry S.; White, James G.; Eaton, John W.

    1980-01-01

    The abnormal shape and poor deformability of the sickled erythrocyte (RBC) have generally been held responsible for the microvascular occlusions of sickle cell disease. However, there is no correlation between the clinical severity of this disease and the presence of sickled RBC. In searching for additional factors that might contribute to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease, we have investigated the possibility that sickle RBC might be less than normally repulsive of the vascular endothelium. After RBC suspensions are allowed to settle onto plates of cultured human endothelial cells, normal RBC are completely removed by as few as six washes. In contrast, sickle RBC remain adherent despite multiple washes. On subconfluent culture plates, normal RBC are distributed randomly, whereas sickle RBC cluster around endothelial cells. Sickle RBC adherence is not enhanced by deoxygenation but does increase with increasing RBC density. The enzymatic removal of membrane sialic acid greatly diminishes the adherence of sickle RBC to endothelial cells, suggesting that sialic acid participates in this abnormal cell-cell interaction. Although net negative charge appears normal, sickle RBC mainfest an abnormal clumping of negative surface charge as demonstrated by localization of cationized ferritin. These abnormalities are reproduced in normal RBC loaded with nonechinocytogenic amounts of calcium. We conclude that sickle RBC adhere to vascular endothelial cells in vitro, perhaps caused by a calcium-induced aberration of membrane topography. This adherence may be a pathogenetic factor in the microvascular occlusions characteristic of sickle cell disease. Images PMID:7350195

  9. Abnormal Supranuclear Eye Movements in the Child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Cassidy; David Taylor; Christopher Harris

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal eye movements in the infant or young child can be congenital or acquired. They may be a result of abnormal early visual development or a sign of underlying neurologic or neuromuscular disease. It is important to be able to detect these abnormalities and to distinguish them from normal but immature eye movements. The spectrum of disease in children differs

  10. Nonosseous abnormalities on bone scans.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M

    2003-09-01

    Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045

  11. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  12. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  13. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  14. Matching Shapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Belongie; Jitendra Malik; Jan Puzicha

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel approach to measuring similar- ity between shapes and exploit it for object recogni- tion. In our framework, the measurement of similar- ity is preceded by (1) solving for correspondences be- tween points on the two shapes, (2) using the correspon- dences to estimate an aligning transform. In order to solve the correspondence problem, we attach a

  15. Shapes lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2001-01-01

    This online activity features two simulations demonstrating the comparative strengths of rectangles, arches, and triangles when stress is applied at a point. Simulations offer a simplified version of real life conditions related to the strength and stability of structures. For comparison's sake, each tested shape is of equivalent thickness and has hinged joints. The shapes show load distribution arrows when force is applied. In one simulation, a student selects a shape and initiates a dynamic illustration, providing an explanation of the effect of applying force and demonstrating how the shape can be strengthened. The second simulation shows and explains what results when increasing numbers of elephants are stacked on each of the three shapes. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  16. IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

  17. Laboratory Validation of a Screening Model: Exploring the Interplay between Dissolution and Degradation Rates in Ganglia-Dominated Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, T. J.; Abriola, L. M.; Gibson, J. L.; Smits, K. M.; Christ, J.

    2013-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation is a widely applied treatment technology for source zones contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). It is both economical and reasonably efficient for long-term management and closure of contaminated sites. A number of laboratory studies have demonstrated enhancement in chlorinated ethene dissolution rates due to the presence of dehalogenating microorganisms, which may lead to increased mass removal rates and shorter cleanup times. Previous modeling efforts have suggested this dissolution enhancement can be a factor of 10 or more when the contaminant is located in high saturation DNAPL pools. Yet, laboratory studies with DNAPL trapped as ganglia have suggested dissolution enhancement is often less than 10. This presentation investigates the interplay between dissolution and degradation rates in ganglia-contaminated source zones using a one-dimensional, simplified, steady-state, analytical solution to the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. A linear driving force model is employed to simulate ganglia dissolution. Degradation kinetics are approximated as zero- or first-order. Model predictions are independently compared to laboratory data available in the literature. Results indicate that dissolution enhancement predictions in ganglia-dominated source zones are often much less than those predicted assuming high saturation pools, suggesting that the presented model is a better tool for estimating bioenhanced dissolution in ganglia-contaminated regions. Furthermore, this screening model provides a remarkably good prediction of laboratory results and could provide practitioners with a useful tool for estimating the extent to which bioenhanced dissolution may aid in site closure strategies.

  18. Thymidine kinase-negative herpes simplex virus mutants establish latency in mouse trigeminal ganglia but do not reactivate.

    PubMed Central

    Coen, D M; Kosz-Vnenchak, M; Jacobson, J G; Leib, D A; Bogard, C L; Schaffer, P A; Tyler, K L; Knipe, D M

    1989-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection of mammalian hosts involves lytic replication at a primary site, such as the cornea, translocation by axonal transport to sensory ganglia and replication, and latent infection at a secondary site, ganglionic neurons. The virus-encoded thymidine kinase, which is a target for antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, is not essential for lytic replication yet evidently is required at the secondary site for replication and some phase of latent infection. To determine the specific stage in viral pathogenesis at which this enzyme is required, we constructed virus deletion mutants that were acyclovir resistant and exhibited no detectable thymidine kinase activity. After corneal inoculation of mice, the mutants replicated to high titers in the eye but were severely impaired for acute replication in trigeminal ganglia and failed to reactivate from ganglia upon cocultivation with permissive cells. Nevertheless, latency-associated transcripts were expressed in neuronal nuclei of ganglia from mutant-infected mice and superinfection of the ganglia with a second virus rescued the latent mutant virus. Thus, contrary to a widely accepted hypothesis, the thymidine kinase-negative mutants established latent infections, implying that neither thymidine kinase activity nor ganglionic replication is necessary for establishment of latency. Rather, thymidine kinase appears to be necessary for reactivation from latency. These results suggest that acyclovir-resistant viruses could establish latent infections in clinical settings and have implications for the use of genetically engineered herpesviruses to deliver foreign genes to neurons. Images PMID:2543985

  19. Laboratory Assessment of a Screening Model: Exploring the Coupling between Dissolution and Degradation Rates in Ganglia-Dominated Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, T. J.; Abriola, L. M.; Gibson, J. L.; Smits, K. M.; Christ, J.

    2014-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation is a widely applied treatment technology for source zones contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). It is both economical and reasonably efficient for long-term management and closure of contaminated sites. A number of laboratory studies have demonstrated enhancement in chlorinated ethene dissolution rates due to the presence of dehalogenating microorganisms, which may lead to increased mass removal rates and shorter cleanup times. Previous modeling efforts have suggested this dissolution enhancement can be a factor of 10 or more when the contaminant is located in high saturation DNAPL pools. Yet, laboratory studies with DNAPL trapped as ganglia have suggested dissolution enhancement is often less than 10. This presentation investigates the interplay between dissolution and degradation rates in ganglia-contaminated source zones using a one-dimensional, simplified, steady-state, analytical solution to the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. A linear driving force model is employed to simulate ganglia dissolution. Degradation kinetics are approximated as zero- or first-order. Model predictions are independently compared to laboratory data available in the literature. Results indicate that dissolution enhancement predictions in ganglia-dominated source zones are often much less than those predicted assuming high saturation pools, suggesting that the presented model is a better tool for estimating bioenhanced dissolution in ganglia-contaminated regions. Furthermore, this screening model provides a remarkably good prediction of laboratory results and could provide practitioners with a useful tool for estimating the extent to which bioenhanced dissolution may aid in site closure strategies.

  20. Neurochemical characterization of extrinsic nerves in myenteric ganglia of the guinea pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao Nan; Sharrad, Dale F; Hibberd, Timothy J; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Costa, Marcello; Brookes, Simon J H

    2015-04-01

    Extrinsic nerves to the gut influence the absorption of water and electrolytes and expulsion of waste contents, largely via regulation of enteric neural circuits; they also contribute to control of blood flow. The distal colon is innervated by extrinsic sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and spinal afferent neurons, via axons in colonic nerve trunks. In the present study, biotinamide tracing of colonic nerves was combined with immunohistochemical labeling for markers of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and spinal afferent neurons to quantify their relative contribution to the extrinsic innervation. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase, which selectively label spinal afferent, parasympathetic, and sympathetic axons, respectively, were detected immunohistochemically in 1?±?0.5% (n?=?7), 15?±?4.7% (n?=?6), and 24?±?4% (n?=?7) of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia. Immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide synthase, somatostatin, and vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 accounted for a combined maximum of 14% of biotinamide-labeled axons in myenteric ganglia. Thus, a maximum of 53% of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia were labeled by antisera to one of these eight markers. Viscerofugal neurons were also labeled by biotinamide. They had distinct morphologies and spatial distributions that correlated closely with their immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase and choline acetyltransferase. As reported for the rectum, nearly half of all extrinsic nerve fibers to the distal colon lack the key immunohistochemical markers commonly used for their identification. Their abundance may therefore have been significantly underestimated in previous immunohistochemical studies. PMID:25380190

  1. Neural representation of a target auditory memory in a cortico-basal ganglia pathway.

    PubMed

    Achiro, Jennifer M; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2013-09-01

    Vocal learning in songbirds, like speech acquisition in humans, entails a period of sensorimotor integration during which vocalizations are evaluated via auditory feedback and progressively refined to achieve an imitation of memorized vocal sounds. This process requires the brain to compare feedback of current vocal behavior to a memory of target vocal sounds. We report the discovery of two distinct populations of neurons in a cortico-basal ganglia circuit of juvenile songbirds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) during vocal learning: (1) one in which neurons are selectively tuned to memorized sounds and (2) another in which neurons are selectively tuned to self-produced vocalizations. These results suggest that neurons tuned to learned vocal sounds encode a memory of those target sounds, whereas neurons tuned to self-produced vocalizations encode a representation of current vocal sounds. The presence of neurons tuned to memorized sounds is limited to early stages of sensorimotor integration: after learning, the incidence of neurons encoding memorized vocal sounds was greatly diminished. In contrast to this circuit, neurons known to drive vocal behavior through a parallel cortico-basal ganglia pathway show little selective tuning until late in learning. One interpretation of these data is that representations of current and target vocal sounds in the shell circuit are used to compare ongoing patterns of vocal feedback to memorized sounds, whereas the parallel core circuit has a motor-related role in learning. Such a functional subdivision is similar to mammalian cortico-basal ganglia pathways in which associative-limbic circuits mediate goal-directed responses, whereas sensorimotor circuits support motor aspects of learning. PMID:24005299

  2. The basal ganglia in perceptual timing: Timing performance in Multiple System Atrophy and Huntington's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Thomas E.; Grube, Manon; Singh, Baldev; Burn, David J.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of perceptual events depends on an anatomically and functionally connected network comprising basal ganglia, cerebellum, pre-frontal cortex and supplementary motor area. Recent studies demonstrate the cerebellum to be involved in absolute, duration-based timing, but not in relative timing based on a regular beat. Conversely, functional involvement of the striatum is observed in relative timing, but its role in absolute timing is unclear. This work tests the specific role of the basal ganglia in the perceptual timing of auditory events. It aims to distinguish the hypothesised unified model of time perception (Teki, Grube, & Griffiths, 2012), in which the striatum is a mandatory component for all timing tasks, from a modular system in which they subserve relative timing, with absolute timing processed by the cerebellum. Test groups comprised individuals with Multiple System Atrophy, a disorder in which similar pathology can produce clinical deficits associated with dysfunction of the cerebellum (MSA-C, n=8) or striatum (MSA-P, n=10), and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (HD, n=14). Individuals with chronic autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (n=11) acted as controls. Six adaptive tasks were carried out to assess perceptual thresholds for absolute timing through duration discrimination for sub- and supra-second time intervals, and relative timing through the detection of beat-based regularity and irregularity, detection of a delay within an isochronous sequence, and the discrimination of sequences with metrical structure. All three patient groups exhibited impairments in performance in comparison with the control group for all tasks, and severity of impairment was significantly correlated with disease progression. No differences were demonstrated between MSA-C and MSA-P, and the most severe impairments were observed in those with HD. The data support an obligatory role for the basal ganglia in all tested timing tasks, both absolute and relative, as predicted by the unified model. The results are not compatible with models of a brain timing network based upon independent modules. PMID:24135486

  3. Neural Representation of a Target Auditory Memory in a Cortico-Basal Ganglia Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bottjer, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning in songbirds, like speech acquisition in humans, entails a period of sensorimotor integration during which vocalizations are evaluated via auditory feedback and progressively refined to achieve an imitation of memorized vocal sounds. This process requires the brain to compare feedback of current vocal behavior to a memory of target vocal sounds. We report the discovery of two distinct populations of neurons in a cortico-basal ganglia circuit of juvenile songbirds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) during vocal learning: (1) one in which neurons are selectively tuned to memorized sounds and (2) another in which neurons are selectively tuned to self-produced vocalizations. These results suggest that neurons tuned to learned vocal sounds encode a memory of those target sounds, whereas neurons tuned to self-produced vocalizations encode a representation of current vocal sounds. The presence of neurons tuned to memorized sounds is limited to early stages of sensorimotor integration: after learning, the incidence of neurons encoding memorized vocal sounds was greatly diminished. In contrast to this circuit, neurons known to drive vocal behavior through a parallel cortico-basal ganglia pathway show little selective tuning until late in learning. One interpretation of these data is that representations of current and target vocal sounds in the shell circuit are used to compare ongoing patterns of vocal feedback to memorized sounds, whereas the parallel core circuit has a motor-related role in learning. Such a functional subdivision is similar to mammalian cortico-basal ganglia pathways in which associative-limbic circuits mediate goal-directed responses, whereas sensorimotor circuits support motor aspects of learning. PMID:24005299

  4. Dyskinesia associated with hyperglycemia and basal ganglia hyperintensity: report of a rare diabetic complication.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Giselle F; Lima, Giovanna A B; Castro, José E C; Liberato, Bernardo

    2013-03-01

    The syndrome of dyskinesia associated with hyperglycemia and basal ganglia hyperintensity on T1 - weighted MR images is rare and most often affects elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. We report a case of a 79 year-old female patient who presented to the ED with a 12 h history of a left sided hemichoreoathetosis. Laboratory results revealed pronounced nonketotic hyperglycemia [27 mmol/L (486 mg/dL); HbA1c 140 mmol/mol (15 %)] and brain MRI showed bilateral T1 hyperintensity in the basal ganglia, more noticeable on the right side. One week before she had been admitted with a diagnosis of transient ischemic attack consisting in left hemiparesthesia, also with nonketotic hyperglycemia [38.9 mmol/L (700 mg/dL)] and was discharged home with partial correction of her metabolic disturbance. The movement disorder did not improve with adequate glycemic control so haloperidol was started. Six weeks later she was seen on an outpatient basis. She still had minimal residual involuntary movements of the left arm and leg. Laboratory exams revealed a well controlled diabetes mellitus [glycemia 6.0 mmol/L (109 mg/dL), HbA1c 57 mmol/mol (7.4 %)]. In conclusion, the syndrome of dyskinesia associated to hyperglycemia and hyperintensity in the basal ganglia on T1 - weighted MR images is a rare, intriguing and yet incompletely understood complication of diabetes mellitus. The increasing number of reported cases may help to better understand its peculiarities such as the existence of a clear clinical radiological dissociation and to unveil pathophysiological aspects. We suggest the possibility that the metabolic disturbances unmask a previous established asymptomatic striatum vasculopathy. PMID:23154926

  5. Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:21080921

  6. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  7. Dlx-2 homeobox gene controls neuronal differentiation in primary cultures of developing basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Dingz; Laurence Robel; Alaina J. James; David D. Eisenstat; James F. Leckman; John L. R. Rubenstein; Flora M. Vaccarino

    1997-01-01

    Homeodomain-containing genes of theDlx family are expressed in the developing basal ganglia. To investigate the role ofDlx genes during development, we studied their cellular localization in primary cultures of embryonic basal telencephalon, and\\u000a examined the changes in cellular phenotypes resulting from blockade ofDlx-2 expression. Cells containingDlx-1, Dlx-2, andDlx-5 mRNAs are immature cells of the neuronal lineage expressing the microtubule-associated proteins

  8. Balancing Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

    2009-10-26

    "Students will balance shapes on the pan balance applet to study equality, essential to understanding algebra. Equivalent relationships will be recognized when the pans balance, demonstrating the properties of equality." (from NCTM's Illuminations)

  9. Shape Tool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This interactive tool allows a user to create many geometric shapes. Squares, triangles, rhombi, trapezoids and hexagons can be created, colored, enlarged, shrunk, rotated, reflected, sliced, and glued together.

  10. Skeleton Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity gives students an opportunity to explore some of the common 3-D shapes and their names and properties. After discussion and an example, it asks students to count the required number of edges and vertices (corners) to build each of 5 given shapes. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a printable recording sheet (pdf).

  11. Shape Up!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (25th on the page) about learning and memory, learners explore a training method that animal trainers employ called "shaping." Working in pairs, learners will attempt to "shape" each other to complete a task through rewarding and reinforcing positive behavior. Learners will earn "treats" for each correct behavior. Use this activity to teach learners how behaviors can be learned and trained and/or how trainers use non-verbal techniques to work with animals.

  12. String Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners work together to make polygons (many-sided shapes) with string. Learners sit on the floor and hold onto a piece of string slid between their thumbs and index fingers. Learners explore how many different kinds of triangles and other shapes they can make by changing their hand positions. Use this activity to help learners explore polygons including convex and concave polygons and vertices.

  13. Abnormal high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons in rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Rachel; Calderon, D Paola; Maleki, Sara; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-08-27

    Loss-of-function mutations in the ?3 isoform of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (sodium pump) are responsible for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). Recently, a pharmacological model of DYT12 was generated implicating both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder. Notably, partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum was necessary and sufficient for induction of dystonia. Thus, a key question that remains is how partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum induces dystonia. In vivo recordings from dystonic mice revealed abnormal high-frequency bursting activity in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which comprise the bulk of cerebellar output. In the same mice, Purkinje cells, which provide strong inhibitory drive to DCN cells, also fired in a similarly erratic manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to sodium pump dysfunction that alters the intrinsic pacemaking of these neurons, resulting in erratic burst firing similar to that identified in vivo. This abnormal firing abates when sodium pump function is restored and dystonia caused by partial block of sodium pumps can be similarly alleviated. These findings suggest that persistent high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons caused by sodium pump dysfunction underlies dystonia in this model of DYT12. PMID:25164667

  14. Abnormal neuronal activity in Tourette syndrome and its modulation using deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Israelashvili, Michal; Loewenstern, Yocheved; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2015-07-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common childhood-onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics that are typically accompanied by a multitude of comorbid symptoms. Pharmacological treatment options are limited, which has led to the exploration of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a possible treatment for severe cases. Multiple lines of evidence have linked TS with abnormalities in the motor and limbic cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) pathways. Neurophysiological data have only recently started to slowly accumulate from multiple sources: noninvasive imaging and electrophysiological techniques, invasive electrophysiological recordings in TS patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery, and animal models of the disorder. These converging sources point to system-level physiological changes throughout the CBG pathway, including both general altered baseline neuronal activity patterns and specific tic-related activity. DBS has been applied to different regions along the motor and limbic pathways, primarily to the globus pallidus internus, thalamic nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. In line with the findings that also draw on the more abundant application of DBS to Parkinson's disease, this stimulation is assumed to result in changes in the neuronal firing patterns and the passage of information through the stimulated nuclei. We present an overview of recent experimental findings on abnormal neuronal activity associated with TS and the changes in this activity following DBS. These findings are then discussed in the context of current models of CBG function in the normal state, during TS, and finally in the wider context of DBS in CBG-related disorders. PMID:25925326

  15. Abnormal High-Frequency Burst Firing of Cerebellar Neurons in Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fremont, Rachel; Calderon, D. Paola; Maleki, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the ?3 isoform of the Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump) are responsible for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). Recently, a pharmacological model of DYT12 was generated implicating both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder. Notably, partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum was necessary and sufficient for induction of dystonia. Thus, a key question that remains is how partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum induces dystonia. In vivo recordings from dystonic mice revealed abnormal high-frequency bursting activity in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which comprise the bulk of cerebellar output. In the same mice, Purkinje cells, which provide strong inhibitory drive to DCN cells, also fired in a similarly erratic manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to sodium pump dysfunction that alters the intrinsic pacemaking of these neurons, resulting in erratic burst firing similar to that identified in vivo. This abnormal firing abates when sodium pump function is restored and dystonia caused by partial block of sodium pumps can be similarly alleviated. These findings suggest that persistent high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons caused by sodium pump dysfunction underlies dystonia in this model of DYT12. PMID:25164667

  16. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  17. Shape It Up!!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lucherini

    2007-11-10

    Today we are going to review the shapes we have been learning! Please practice your knowledge of shapes by doing these three activities: Geometric shapes Another Shape Activity with Balances Make a picture with shapes Have fun with Shapes!!! ...

  18. Identification of bladder and colon afferents in the nodose ganglia of male rats.

    PubMed

    Herrity, April N; Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Hubscher, Charles H

    2014-11-01

    The sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder and distal colon project to similar regions of the central nervous system and often are affected simultaneously by various diseases and disorders, including spinal cord injury. Anatomical and physiological commonalities between the two organs involve the participation of shared spinally derived pathways, allowing mechanisms of communication between the bladder and colon. Prior electrophysiological data from our laboratory suggest that the bladder also may receive sensory innervation from a nonspinal source through the vagus nerve, which innervates the distal colon as well. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether anatomical evidence exists for vagal innervation of the male rat urinary bladder and to assess whether those vagal afferents also innervate the colon. Additionally, the relative contribution to bladder and colon sensory innervation of spinal and vagal sources was determined. By using lipophilic tracers, neurons that innervated the bladder and colon in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and L6/S1 and L1/L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were quantified. Some single vagal and spinal neurons provided dual innervation to both organs. The proportions of NG afferents labeled from the bladder did not differ from spinal afferents labeled from the bladder when considering the collective population of total neurons from either group. Our results demonstrate evidence for vagal innervation of the bladder and colon and suggest that dichotomizing vagal afferents may provide a neural mechanism for cross-talk between the organs. PMID:24845615

  19. [A role of the basal ganglia in the occurrence of visual hallucinations (a hypothetical mechanism)].

    PubMed

    Sil'kis, I G

    2005-01-01

    A hypothetical mechanism of the basal ganglia involvement in visual hallucinations is proposed. According to this mechanism, hallucination is the result of modulation of the efficacy of corticostriatal synaptic inputs and changes in spiny cell activity due to the rise of striatal dopamine concentration (or due to other reasons). These changes cause an inhibition of neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and subsequent disinhibition of neurons in the superior colliculus and pedunculopontine nucleus (including its cholinergic cells). In the absence of afferentation from the retina this disinhibition leads to activation of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar and other thalamic nuclei projecting to the primary and highest visual cortical areas, prefrontal cortex, and also back to the striatum. Hallucinations as conscious visual patterns are the result of selection of signals circulating in several interconnected loops each of which includes one of above mentioned neocortical areas, one of thalamic nuclei, limbic and one of visual areas of the basal ganglia, superior colliculus and/or pedunculopontine nucleus. According to our model, cannabinoids, opioids and ketamine may lead to hallucinations due to their promotional role in the LTD of cortical inputs to GABAergic spiny cells of striatal striosomes projecting to dopaminergic neurons, disinhibition of the lasts, and increase in striatal dopamine concentration. PMID:16316020

  20. Latency of Varicella Zoster Virus in Dorsal Root, Cranial, and Enteric Ganglia in Vaccinated Children

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Anne A.; Chen, Jason; Davis, Larry; Krinsky, Clarissa; Cowles, Robert; Reichard, Ross; Gershon, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite vaccination, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) remains an important pathogen. We investigated VZV latency in autopsy specimens from vaccinees, in gastrointestinal tissue removed surgically, and in a guinea pig model. We propose that retrograde transport from infected skin and viremia deliver VZV to neurons in which it becomes latent. Wild type (WT) VZV was found to be latent in many ganglia of vaccinated children with no history of varicella, suggesting that subclinical infection with WT-VZV occurs with subsequent viremic dissemination. The 30% to 40% rate of WT-VZV zoster reported in vaccinees and occasional trigeminal zoster due to vaccine type VZV (vOka) are consistent with viremic delivery of VZV to multiple ganglia. Most human intestinal specimens contained latent VZV within neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Induction of viremia in guinea pigs led to VZV latency throughout the ENS. The possibility VZV reactivation in the ENS is an unsuspected cause of gastrointestinal disease requires future investigation. PMID:23303966

  1. Distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 in the monkey basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, E; Ong, W Y; Connor, J R

    2004-01-01

    An accumulation of iron occurs in the brain with age, and it is thought that this may contribute to the pathology of certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we elucidated the distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) in the monkey basal ganglia by immunocytochemistry, and compared it with the distribution of ferrous iron in these nuclei by Turnbull's Blue histochemical staining. We observed a general correlation between levels of DMT1, and iron staining. Thus, regions such as the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata contained dense staining of DMT1 in astrocytic processes, and were also observed to contain large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The exceptions were the globus pallidus externa and interna, which contained light DMT1 staining, but large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra pars compacta contained neurons that were lightly stained for DMT1, but few or no iron granules. The high levels of DMT1 expression in some of the nuclei of the basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, may account for the high levels of iron in these regions. PMID:15381278

  2. The transthyretin gene is expressed in human and rodent dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2008-05-16

    The transthyretin (TTR) gene is mainly expressed in the liver and choroid plexus of the brain. Most cases of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) are caused by TTR gene mutations, and characterized by amyloid deposition in the peripheral nervous system. We hypothesized that the TTR gene may be expressed in the peripheral nervous system. We analyzed TTR gene expression in several parts of the human, mouse and rat peripheral nervous systems using RT-PCR. To determine the sites of TTR synthesis in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), mouse DRG were examined by in situ hybridization, laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. TTR mRNA was detected in the DRG and cauda equina of humans and rodents by RT-PCR. TTR mRNA was not detected in the sural nerve, lumbar plexus or sympathetic ganglia in humans, or in the sciatic nerve in rodents. In mouse DRG, TTR mRNA was localized in the peripheral glial cells. No TTR-like immunoreactivity was observed in these tissues except for the perineurium. The TTR gene is probably expressed in the peripheral glial cells of the DRG. TTR synthesis in the DRG may be important for the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in FAP. PMID:18406527

  3. Immunohistochemical demonstration of cholinergic structures in central ganglia of the slug (Limax maximus, Limax valentianus).

    PubMed

    D'Este, Loredana; Casini, Arianna; Kimura, Shin; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Ito, Etsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Renda, Tindaro G

    2011-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distribution of cholinergic neurons containing choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine, in the central nervous system of the slug Limax maximus and Limax valentianus. Because the antiserum applied here was raised against a recombinant protein encoded by exons 7 and 8 of the rat gene for ChAT, three methods were used in order to validate antibody specificity for the Limax counterpart enzyme. Western blot combined with ChAT activity assay following native gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation analysis both indicated that immunoreactive Limax brain molecules were capable of synthesizing acetylcholine. Western blot after denatured gel electrophoresis of Limax brain extracts revealed a single band of about 67kDa. All findings obtained with these three methods clearly indicated that the antiserum effectively recognized Limax cChAT. 1400 neuronal cell bodies positive for cChAT, mainly small to medium-sized, were found in various brain regions in the buccal, cerebral, pleural, parietal, visceral and pedal ganglia. cChAT immunoreactive nerve fibers were distributed extensively in the neuropil, connectives and commissures of these central ganglia. The map of cChAT-positive cells provided here are valuable for understanding the cholinergic mechanism in the slug brain, as well as giving an important hint to clarifying the mechanisms of learning and memory in higher vertebrates including humans. PMID:21315127

  4. Expression of muscarinic acetylcholine and dopamine receptor mRNAs in rat basal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, D.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (USA) Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)); Levey, A.I. (National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (USA) Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Brann, M.R. (National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Within the basal ganglia, acetylcholine and dopamine play a central role in the extrapyramidal control of motor function. The physiologic effects of these neurotransmitters are mediated by a diversity of receptor subtypes, several of which have now been cloned. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are encoded by five genes (m1-m5), and of the two known dopamine receptor subtypes (D1 and D2) the D2 receptor gene has been characterized. To gain insight into the physiological roles of each of these receptor subtypes, the authors prepared oligodeoxynucleotide probes to localize receptor subtype mRNAs within the rat striatum and substantia nigra by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Within the striatum, three muscarinic (m1, m2, m4) receptor mRNAs and the D2 receptor mRNA were detected. The m1 mRNA was expressed in most neurons; the m2 mRNA, in neurons which were both very large and rare; and the m4 and D2 mRNAs, in 40-50% of the neurons, one-third of which express both mRNAs. Within the substantia nigra, pars compacta, only the m5 and D2 mRNAs were detected, and most neurons expressed both mRNAs. These data provide anatomical evidence for the identity of the receptor subtypes which mediate the diverse effects of muscarinic and dopaminergic drugs on basal ganglia function.

  5. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. (Sandoz Pharma Ltd., Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  6. Cysteinyl leukotrienes mediate the response of submucosal ganglia from rat colon to bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Matthias; Diener, Martin

    2012-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to find out the mechanism by which the inflammatory mediator, bradykinin, induces an increase of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in enteric neurons. For this purpose, ganglia in the isolated submucosa from rat colon were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, fura-2, and were exposed to bradykinin (2·10(-8)mol/l). Under control conditions, the kinin evoked a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Preincubation with quinacrine or arachidonyltrifluoromethylketone (AACOCF(3)), i.e. blockers of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), prevented the raise of [Ca(2+)](i). This inhibition was mimicked by 5,8,11,14-eicosatetrayonic acid (ETYA), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases as well as lipoxygenases, and by BWA4C, a selective inhibitor of lipoxygenases, whereas indomethacin was ineffective, suggesting the mediation of the kinin response by a lipoxygenase metabolite. Indeed, a leukotriene, leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4)), mimicked the effect of bradykinin. The LTD(4) receptor blocker, MK-571, inhibited the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) evoked by LTD(4) and by bradykinin. Consequently, bradykinin receptors in submucosal ganglia from rat colon are coupled to a stimulation of phospholipase A(2), the release of arachidonic acid and the production of LTD(4), which seems to be finally responsible for the change in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. PMID:22366210

  7. Characterization by immunocytochemistry of ionic channels in Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity. PMID:18228196

  8. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Mushahwar, V K; Stein, R B

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the dorsal root ganglia. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modeled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main Results Overall, firing-rate based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48±13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development. PMID:23928579

  9. fMRI of cocaine self-administration in macaques reveals functional inhibition of basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Joseph B; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jarraya, Bechir; Rosen, Bruce R; Jenkins, Bruce G; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-05-01

    Disparities in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal ganglia and motor/pre-motor cortex and produced subtle functional inhibition of prefrontal cortex. No brain regions exhibited significant elevation of CBV in response to cocaine challenge. Theses effects in NHP brain are opposite in sign to the cocaine-induced fMRI response in rats, but consistent with previous measurements in NHP based on glucose metabolism. Because the striatal ratio of D2 to D1 receptors is larger in human beings and NHP than rats, we hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of D2 receptor binding dominate the functional response in primates, whereas excitatory D1 receptor stimulation predominates in the rat. If the NHP accurately models the human response to cocaine, downregulation of D2 receptors in human cocaine-abusing populations can be expected to blunt cocaine-induced functional responses, contributing to the weak and variable fMRI responses reported in human basal ganglia following cocaine infusion. PMID:21307843

  10. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Anjie; Huang, Zufa; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhang, Xianfang; Zhao, Jiuhong; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Quanpeng; Wu, Song; Yi, Xinan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identified whose expression was significantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3?-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization verified that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that microRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection. PMID:25206756

  11. Nerve growth factor promotes neurite outgrowth in guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Lally, K; Simeone, D M

    1994-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has important developmental actions in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Primary cultures of neonatal guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of NGF to stimulate morphological development in enteric neurons. NGF, in the presence of a serum-free medium, produced dose-dependent increases in neurite density, significant at 1 ng/ml and maximal at 100 ng/ml (4.5-fold increase vs. control). Maximum neurite length was also significantly increased at 1 ng/ml, with maximal effects at 100 ng/ml. Coincubation of NGF (50 ng/ml) with monoclonal NGF antibodies abolished increases in both neurite density (128 +/- 19 processes/mm for control, 369 +/- 19 for NGF, 183 +/- 28 for NGF+monoclonal antibodies) and neurite length. Exposure of enteric neurons to low concentrations of NGF (1 ng/ml) was also associated with increased mRNA levels for cytoskeletal genes. alpha-Tubulin mRNA levels were increased 3.9 +/- 0.7 times basal at 48 h. mRNA levels for microtubule-associated protein 2 were increased threefold at 48 h of NGF incubation. NGF demonstrates activities in cultured enteric ganglia that stimulate morphological development. PMID:7943336

  12. A comparative study of three cranial sensory ganglia projecting into the oral cavity: in situ hybridization analyses of neurotrophin receptors and thermosensitive cation channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Matsumoto; Yasufumi Emori; Yuzo Ninomiya; Keiko Abe

    2001-01-01

    Peripheral cranial sensory nerves projecting into the oral cavity receive food intake stimuli and transmit sensory signals to the central nervous system. To describe and compare the features of the cranial sensory ganglia that innervate the oral cavity, i.e., the trigeminal, petrosal, and geniculate ganglia (TG, PG, and GG, respectively), in situ hybridization was conducted using riboprobes for neurotrophin receptors

  13. Clinical and pathologic findings in two draft horses with progressive muscle atrophy, neuromuscular weakness, and abnormal gait characteristic of shivers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valentine, B A; de Lahunta, A; Divers, T J; Ducharme, N G; Orcutt, R S

    1999-12-01

    Two Belgian geldings, 4 and 14 years old, respectively, with muscle atrophy, weakness, and abnormal gait characteristic of severe advanced shivers were examined clinically and on necropsy. Neurologic examination revealed no evidence of ataxia, and the clinical diagnosis was neuromuscular weakness and shivers. Necropsies of both horses, including examination of pituitary, brain, spinal cord, spinal roots and ganglia, and peripheral nerves, revealed no gross or histologic abnormalities. Examination of multiple skeletal muscle specimens revealed chronic myopathic changes and periodic acid-Schiff positive, amylase-resistant inclusions within muscle fibers, characteristic of equine polysaccharide storage myopathy. It is suggested that underlying metabolic myopathy may be the cause of muscle weakness and cramping in horses with shivers. PMID:14567431

  14. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  15. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  16. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

  17. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  18. Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schedl

    2007-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

  19. Pathophysiology of Cancer: Hormonal and Metabolic Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heber; N. S. Tchekmedyian

    1992-01-01

    Despite the development of advanced nutritional support technology, malnutrition remains a significant morbid and mortal complication of cancer. A number of metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated in malnourished cancer patients, including increased protein breakdown, increased glucose production, increased lipolysis, hypogonadism in male patients, and insulin resistance. Previous studies conducted under metabolic ward conditions have demonstrated that metabolic abnormalities interfere with

  20. Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

  1. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  2. Sonographically detected abnormalities of the umbilical cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Shipp; B. Bromley; B. R. Benacerraf

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken as a retrospective chart review to evaluate the range of umbilical cord abnormalities detected by prenatal sonography, as well as the outcome and pathologic correlation. Methods: We identified 13 cases of umbilical cord abnormalities detected sonographically over a 46-month period. We evaluated the ultrasound appearance, size, location, and color Doppler characteristic in each case. Results:

  3. Unsupervised Abnormality Detection in Video Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Nanri; Nobuyuki Otsu

    2005-01-01

    The detection of abnormal movements is an important prob- lem in video surveillance applications. We propose an unsupervised method for abnormal movement detection in scenes containing multiple persons. Our method uses cu- bic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) to extract movement features. We show that the additive property of CHLAC in combination with a linear subspace method is well suited to

  4. Detecting electrocardiogram abnormalities with independent component analysis

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    detection of abnormal conditions in the heart. Unsupervised ICA neural networks can demix the components of measured ECG signals. Such components may correspond to individual heart functions, either normal for diagnosis well in advance of the actual onset of heart attack, in which abnormalities in the original

  5. Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

    Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

  6. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  7. Ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cunniff; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Kurt Benirschke

    1991-01-01

    To understand better the pathogenesis of ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with abnormalities such as 45,X Turner syndrome, trisomy 13, and trisomy 18, we have examined microscopically the ovaries of 36 infants with a number of chromosomal abnormalities confirmed by karyotype analysis. All infants with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, triploidy, and 45,X were found to have severe ovarian dysgenesis characterized by

  8. Modulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Neuropeptide Y, Glutamate, and Substance P in Ganglia and Brain Areas Involved in Cardiovascular Control after Chronic Exposure to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Merari F. R.; Coelho, Emerson F.; Farizatto, Karen L. G.; Chadi, Gerson; Fior-Chadi, Debora R.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that nicotine instantly interacts with central and peripheral nervous systems promoting cardiovascular effects after tobacco smoking, we evaluated the modulation of glutamate, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P (SP) in nodose/petrosal and superior cervical ganglia, as well as TH and NPY in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after 8 weeks of nicotine exposure. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization data demonstrated increased expression of TH in brain and ganglia related to blood pressure control, preferentially in SHR, after nicotine exposure. The alkaloid also increased NPY immunoreactivity in ganglia, NTS, and PVN of SHR, in spite of decreasing its receptor (NPY1R) binding in NTS of both strains. Nicotine increased SP and glutamate in ganglia. In summary, nicotine positively modulated the studied variables in ganglia while its central effects were mainly constrained to SHR. PMID:21822476

  9. Shape Up!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Jordan

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (pages 8-9), learners investigate the properties of smart materials, which are materials that respond to things that happen around them. Learners train a piece of smart material (Nitinol) to adopt a particular shape. Learners discover that when the Nitinol wire is heated enough, its atoms can move around enough to "reset" its memory. This makes it possible to train the material to have a particular shape. Safety note: Young learners should have adult supervision. Be very careful with the flame and hot wire.

  10. Multidetector computed tomography of congenital aortic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Alistair C; Sriharan, Mona; Lazoura, Olga; Padley, Simon P G; Nicol, Edward D; Rubens, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    For many years invasive angiographic techniques have been considered as the gold standard for the assessment of large arterial abnormalities. However, the complexities and complications inherent to invasive imaging have meant that more recently non-invasive techniques such as echocardiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and multidetector CT (MDCT) have been increasingly used in congenital cardiovascular disorders. In particular, MDCT has emerged as a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and pre-surgical work-up of aortic abnormalities due to its high spatial resolution, large area of coverage, and short scan time, and therefore is now one of the most widely used modalities for the detection of congenital abnormalities of the aorta. The purpose of this pictorial review is to review the spectrum of abnormalities of the aorta than can be reliably detected by MDCT both in infants and in adulthood. Abnormalities of the aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta will be described separately. PMID:24560026

  11. Cerebellar abnormalities in Huntington's disease: a role in motor and psychiatric impairment?

    PubMed

    Rees, Elin M; Farmer, Ruth; Cole, James H; Haider, Salman; Durr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Hobbs, Nicola Z

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum has received limited attention in Huntington's disease (HD), despite signs of possible cerebellar dysfunction, including motor incoordination and impaired gait, which are currently attributed to basal ganglia atrophy and disrupted fronto-striatal circuits. This study is the first to investigate a potential contribution of macro- and microstructural cerebellar damage to clinical manifestations of HD. T1- and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 12 controls and 22 early-stage HD participants. Manual delineation and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess between-group differences in cerebellar volume, and diffusion metrics were compared between groups within the cerebellar gray and white matter. Associations between these imaging measures and clinical scores were examined within the HD group. Reduced paravermal volume was detected in HD compared with controls using voxel-based morphometry (P?abnormalities were detected in both cerebellar gray matter and white matter. Smaller cerebellar volumes, although not significantly reduced, were significantly associated with impaired gait and psychiatric morbidity and of borderline significance with pronate/supinate-hand task performance. Abnormal cerebellar diffusion was associated with increased total motor score, impaired saccade initiation, tandem walking, and timed finger tapping. In conclusion, atrophy of the paravermis, possibly encompassing the cerebellar nuclei, and microstructural abnormalities within the cerebellum may contribute to HD neuropathology. Aberrant cerebellar diffusion and reduced cerebellar volume together associate with impaired motor function and increased psychiatric symptoms in stage I HD, potentially implicating the cerebellum more centrally in HD presentation than previously recognized. PMID:25123926

  12. White matter abnormalities revealed by diffusion tensor imaging in non-demented and demented HIV+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Zhu, Hongtu; Stone, Taylor; Smith, J. Keith; Hall, Colin; Bullitt, Elizabeth; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    HIV associated dementia (HAD) is the most advanced stage of central nervous system disease caused by HIV infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with HAD exhibit greater cerebral and basal ganglia atrophy than non-demented HIV+ (HND) patients. However, the extent to which white matter is affected in HAD patients compared to HND patients remains elusive. This study is designed to address the potential white matter abnormalities through the utilization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in both HND and HAD patients. DTI and T1-weighted images were acquired from 18 healthy controls, 21 HND and 8 HAD patients. T1 image-based registration was performed to 1) parcellate the whole brain white matter into major white matter regions, including frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital white matter, corpus callosum and internal capsule for statistical comparisons of the mean DTI values, and 2) warp all DTI parametric images towards the common template space for voxel-based analysis. The statistical comparisons were performed with four DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities. With Whitney U tests on the mean DTI values, both HND and HAD demonstrated significant differences from the healthy control in multiple white matter regions. In addition, HAD patients exhibited significantly elevated MD and RD in the parietal white matter when compared to HND patients. In the voxel-based analysis, widespread abnormal regions were identified for both HND and HAD patients, although a much larger abnormal volume was observed in HAD patients for all four DTI parameters. Furthermore, both region of interest (ROI) based and voxel-based analyses revealed that RD was affected to a much greater extent than AD by HIV infection, which may suggest that demyelination is the prominent disease progression in white matter. PMID:19376246

  13. Shape Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This interactive Java applet allows users to explore perimeter and area and the relationship between them. The activity gives irregular shapes or rectangles on a grid, and then the user enters the perimeter and area of the figure. An optional scoring feature allows users to keep track of the number correct.

  14. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  15. Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jack Han-Chao; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Erik Chihhung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize and compare microscopic differences in white matter integrity in the basal ganglia between elite professional athletes specializing in running and martial arts. Thirty-three young adults with sport-related skills as elite professional runners (n = 11) or elite professional martial artists (n = 11) were recruited and compared with non-athletic and healthy controls (n = 11). All participants underwent health- and skill-related physical fitness assessments. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), the primary indices derived from DTI, were computed for five regions of interest in the bilateral basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), globus pallidus external segment (GPe), and subthalamic nucleus. Results revealed that both athletic groups demonstrated better physical fitness indices compared with their control counterparts, with the running group exhibiting the highest cardiovascular fitness and the martial arts group exhibiting the highest muscular endurance and flexibility. With respect to the basal ganglia, both athletic groups showed significantly lower FA and marginally higher MD values in the GPi compared with the healthy control group. These findings suggest that professional sport or motor skill training is associated with changes in white matter integrity in specific regions of the basal ganglia, although these positive changes did not appear to depend on the type of sport-related motor skill being practiced. PMID:25929552

  16. Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara S. Manoach; Randy L. Gollub; Etienne S. Benson; Meghan M. Searl; Donald C. Goff; Elkan Halpern; Clifford B. Saper; Scott L. Rauch

    2000-01-01

    Background: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit different brain regions, particularly the basal ganglia and thalamus, components of frontostriatal circuitry thought to

  17. Neurotrophin3 administration alters neurotrophin, neurotrophin receptor and nestin mRNA expression in rat dorsal root ganglia following axotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L.-T. Kuo; M. J. Groves; F. Scaravilli; D. Sugden; S. F. An

    2007-01-01

    In the months following transection of adult rat peripheral nerve some sensory neurons undergo apoptosis. Two weeks after sciatic nerve transection some neurons in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia begin to show immunoreactivity for nestin, a filament protein expressed by neuronal precursors and immature neurons, which is stimulated by neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) administration. The aim of this study was

  18. ? 2Adrenergic receptor activation inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott C Supowit; Diane M Hallman; Huawei Zhao; Donald J DiPette

    1998-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator, is produced in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons which extend nerves peripherally to blood vessels and centrally to the spinal cord. We previously reported that neuronal CGRP expression is significantly reduced in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) which could contribute to the elevated BP. Other studies suggest that the enhanced activity of the

  19. Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE CROSSON; HOPE BENEFIELD; M. ALLISON CATO; JOSEPH R. SADEK; ANNA BACON MOORE; CHRISTINA E. WIERENGA; KAUNDINYA GOPINATH; DAVID SOLTYSIK; RUSSELL M. BAUER; EDWARD J. AUERBACH; DIDEM GÖKÇAY; CHRISTIANA M. LEONARD; RICHARD W. BRIGGS

    2003-01-01

    f MRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During f MRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation

  20. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or ?Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process. PMID:25960862

  1. Studies of herpes virus latency in the sensory spinal ganglia of rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Tosolini, F. A.; McCarthy, K.; Baker, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental latent herpes infection of rabbit dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is reported. The simian herpes virus used was derived from fatal natural infection in owl monkeys and has limited neurotropism in the rabbit. Following intradermal injection of the flank it causes a local lesion followed only by dorsal root ganglionitis; segmental paraesthesia and/or sensory loss going on to clinical recovery. Methods were developed for mapping sensory losses. Virus could be immediately re-isolated from skin or DRG homogenates in the acute (first week) stage but from 8-550 days by DRG organ culture only. Spontaneous recurrence does not occur but reactivation can be provoked. The system provides an improved analogue model for the study of the pathogenesis and symptomatic treatment of herpes zoster. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:7153508

  2. Microcirculation of human fetal posterior root ganglia: a scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, J; Skawina, A; Litwin, J A; Miodo?ski, A J

    1998-02-01

    The vasculature of lumbar posterior root ganglia was investigated in human fetuses aged 17-24 weeks; using the corrosion casting technique and scanning electron microscopy. The arterial supply consisted of one main artery and occasional arterioles entering the ganglion at its pole and running axially, while the venous drainage was located at the periphery of the ganglion, thus indicating a centrifugal pattern of blood flow. The dense capillary network of the ganglion showed the roughly parallel course of the vessels in the central zone and an irregular arrangement in the peripheral zone where capillaries formed "nests", probably surrounding individual perikaryons of ganglionic cells. The capillaries had a sinusoidal character with numerous dilatations about twice the normal capillary size, as well as occasional larger vascular spaces resulting from capillary interconnections and suggesting the intussusceptive type of angiogenesis. PMID:9488902

  3. New Roles for the External Globus Pallidus in Basal Ganglia Circuits and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Joshua D.; Bevan, Mark D.; Chan, C. Savio; Mallet, Nicolas; Morrow, Michelle M.; Schmidt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The development of methodology to identify specific cell populations and circuits within the basal ganglia is rapidly transforming our ability to understand the function of this complex circuit. This mini-symposium highlights recent advances in delineating the organization and function of neural circuits in the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe). Although long considered a homogeneous structure in the motor-suppressing “indirect-pathway,” the GPe consists of a number of distinct cell types and anatomical subdomains that contribute differentially to both motor and nonmotor features of behavior. Here, we integrate recent studies using techniques, such as viral tracing, transgenic mice, electrophysiology, and behavioral approaches, to create a revised framework for understanding how the GPe relates to behavior in both health and disease. PMID:25392486

  4. The basal ganglia is necessary for learning spectral, but not temporal features of birdsong

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farhan; Fantana, Antoniu L.; Burak, Yoram; Ölveczky, Bence P.

    2013-01-01

    Executing a motor skill requires the brain to control which muscles to activate at what times. How these aspects of control - motor implementation and timing - are acquired, and whether the learning processes underlying them differ, is not well understood. To address this we used a reinforcement learning paradigm to independently manipulate both spectral and temporal features of birdsong, a complex learned motor sequence, while recording and perturbing activity in underlying circuits. Our results uncovered a striking dissociation in how neural circuits underlie learning in the two domains. The basal ganglia was required for modifying spectral, but not temporal structure. This functional dissociation extended to the descending motor pathway, where recordings from a premotor cortex analogue nucleus reflected changes to temporal, but not spectral structure. Our results reveal a strategy in which the nervous system employs different and largely independent circuits to learn distinct aspects of a motor skill. PMID:24075977

  5. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine's role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders. PMID:25907747

  6. Post-traumatic basal ganglia haemorrhage in a child with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Levy, Michael L; Crawford, John Ross

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumour of childhood with 15-20 cases reported yearly in North America. We present a case of a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with PCNSL who presented more than one-and-a-half years post-treatment with high dose cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate with a right-sided basal ganglia haemorrhage on MRI following a concussion while playing organised football against medical advice. There was no evidence of an underlying vascular malformation or recurrent disease by MRI, cerebrospinal fluid analysis or positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). However, 6 months post-injury he presented with asymptomatic disease recurrence of the frontal lobe. Our case reports an unusual MRI pattern of post-traumatic injury in a child previously treated for PCNSL that would support a recommendation for the avoidance of contact sports in this population. PMID:23904430

  7. Online Feedback Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation Using Dorsal Root Ganglia Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Matthew J.; Bruns, Tim M.; Wagenaar, Joost B.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Weber, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    In neuroprostheses that use functional electrical stimulation (FES) to restore motor function, closed-loop feedback control may compensate for muscle fatigue, perturbations and nonlinearities in the behavior of the effected muscles. Kinematic state information is naturally represented in the firing rates of primary afferent neurons, which may be recorded with multi-electrode arrays at the level of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Previous work in cats has shown that it is feasible to estimate the kinematic state of the hind limb with a multivariate linear regression model of the neural activity in the DRG. In this study we extend these results to estimate the limb state in real-time during intramuscular stimulation in an anesthetized cat. Furthermore, we used the limb state estimates as feedback to a finite state FES controller to generate rudimentary walking behavior. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using DRG activity in a closed-loop FES system. PMID:22256011

  8. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The cortico-basal ganglia integrative network: the role of the thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Suzanne N.; Calzavara, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus is a critical component of the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits that mediate motivation and emotional drive, planning and cognition for the development and expression of goal-directed behaviors. Each functional region of the frontal cortex is connected with specific areas of each basal ganglia (BG) structure and of the thalamus. In addition, the thalamus sends a massive, topographically organized projection directly to the striatum. Tract-tracing and physiological experiments have indicated a general topographic organization of the cortical-BG-thalamic loops and supported a model of BG function based on parallel and segregated pathways. However, the learning and execution of appropriate behavioral responses require integration of inputs related to emotional, cognitive, and motor cortical functions. Our recent data indicate that integration may occur via non-reciprocal connections between the striatum and substantia nigra and within “hot spots” of convergence between cortico-striatal projections from different functional regions. Similarly, integration may exist in the thalamus. There are non-reciprocal connections between the thalamus and cortex via thalamocortical projections that terminate in the superficial and deep cortical layers. These terminals can influence different functional cortical areas that, in turn, project to the striatum and back to the thalamus. In addition, a non-reciprocal corticothalamic projection terminates in thalamic regions that are parts of other circuits. Finally, ‘hot spots’ of convergence between terminals from different cortical regions may also occur in the thalamus as is seen in the striatum. Thus, via several different pathways, the thalamus may serve as an important center of integration of networks that underlie the ability to modulate behaviors. PMID:18950692

  10. Using a hybrid neuron in physiologically inspired models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Thibeault, Corey M.; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Our current understanding of the basal ganglia (BG) has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the BG, however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations. Motivated by a need for more hardware accessible networks, we replicate four published models of the BG, spanning single neuron and small networks, replacing the more computationally expensive neuron models with an Izhikevich hybrid neuron. This begins with a network modeling action-selection, where the basal activity levels and the ability to appropriately select the most salient input is reproduced. A Parkinson's disease model is then explored under normal conditions, Parkinsonian conditions and during subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS). The resulting network is capable of replicating the loss of thalamic relay capabilities in the Parkinsonian state and its return under DBS. This is also demonstrated using a network capable of action-selection. Finally, a study of correlation transfer under different patterns of Parkinsonian activity is presented. These networks successfully captured the significant results of the originals studies. This not only creates a foundation for neuromorphic hardware implementations but may also support the development of large-scale biophysical models. The former potentially providing a way of improving the efficacy of DBS and the latter allowing for the efficient simulation of larger more comprehensive networks. PMID:23847524

  11. Beta Frequency Synchronization in Basal Ganglia Output during Rest and Walk in a Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Brazhnik, Elena; Castańeda, Edward; Bergstrom, Debra A.; Walters, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease patients and hypothesized to be antikinetic. The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinson’s disease allows examination of this hypothesis by direct comparison of beta activity in basal ganglia output in non-lesioned and dopamine cell lesioned hemispheres during motor activity. Bilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) recordings of units and local field potentials (LFP) were obtained with EMG activity from the scapularis muscle in control and unilaterally nigrostriatal lesioned rats trained to walk on a rotary treadmill. After left hemispheric lesion, rats had difficulty walking contraversive on the treadmill but could walk in the ipsiversive direction. During inattentive rest, SNpr LFP power in the 12–25 Hz range (low beta) was significantly greater in the dopamine-depleted hemisphere than in non-lesioned and control hemispheres. During walking, low beta power was reduced in all hemispheres, while 25–40 Hz (high beta) activity was selectively increased in the lesioned hemisphere. High beta power increases were reduced by L-DOPA administration. SNpr spiking was significantly more synchronized with SNpr low beta LFP oscillations during rest and high beta LFP oscillations during walking in the dopamine-depleted hemispheres compared with non-lesioned hemispheres. Data show that dopamine loss is associated with opposing changes in low and high beta range SNpr activity during rest and walk and suggest that increased synchronization of high beta activity in SNpr output from the lesioned hemisphere during walking may contribute to gait impairment in the hemiparkinsonian rat. PMID:19948166

  12. A fate-map for cranial sensory ganglia in the sea lamprey?

    PubMed Central

    Modrell, Melinda S.; Hockman, Dorit; Uy, Benjamin; Buckley, David; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne E.; Baker, Clare V.H.

    2014-01-01

    Cranial neurogenic placodes and the neural crest make essential contributions to key adult characteristics of all vertebrates, including the paired peripheral sense organs and craniofacial skeleton. Neurogenic placode development has been extensively characterized in representative jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) but not in jawless fishes (agnathans). Here, we use in vivo lineage tracing with DiI, together with neuronal differentiation markers, to establish the first detailed fate-map for placode-derived sensory neurons in a jawless fish, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and to confirm that neural crest cells in the lamprey contribute to the cranial sensory ganglia. We also show that a pan-Pax3/7 antibody labels ophthalmic trigeminal (opV, profundal) placode-derived but not maxillomandibular trigeminal (mmV) placode-derived neurons, mirroring the expression of gnathostome Pax3 and suggesting that Pax3 (and its single Pax3/7 lamprey ortholog) is a pan-vertebrate marker for opV placode-derived neurons. Unexpectedly, however, our data reveal that mmV neuron precursors are located in two separate domains at neurula stages, with opV neuron precursors sandwiched between them. The different branches of the mmV nerve are not comparable between lampreys and gnatho-stomes, and spatial segregation of mmV neuron precursor territories may be a derived feature of lampreys. Nevertheless, maxillary and mandibular neurons are spatially segregated within gnathostome mmV ganglia, suggesting that a more detailed investigation of gnathostome mmV placode development would be worthwhile. Overall, however, our results highlight the conservation of cranial peripheral sensory nervous system development across vertebrates, yielding insight into ancestral vertebrate traits. PMID:24513489

  13. Creation of Computerized 3D MRI-Integrated Atlases of the Human Basal Ganglia and Thalamus.

    PubMed

    Sadikot, Abbas F; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Bertrand, Gilles; Rymar, Vladimir V; Al-Subaie, Fahd; Collins, D Louis

    2011-01-01

    Functional brain imaging and neurosurgery in subcortical areas often requires visualization of brain nuclei beyond the resolution of current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. We present techniques used to create: (1) a lower resolution 3D atlas, based on the Schaltenbrand and Wahren print atlas, which was integrated into a stereotactic neurosurgery planning and visualization platform (VIPER); and (2) a higher resolution 3D atlas derived from a single set of manually segmented histological slices containing nuclei of the basal ganglia, thalamus, basal forebrain, and medial temporal lobe. Both atlases were integrated to a canonical MRI (Colin27) from a young male participant by manually identifying homologous landmarks. The lower resolution atlas was then warped to fit the MRI based on the identified landmarks. A pseudo-MRI representation of the high-resolution atlas was created, and a non-linear transformation was calculated in order to match the atlas to the template MRI. The atlas can then be warped to match the anatomy of Parkinson's disease surgical candidates by using 3D automated non-linear deformation methods. By way of functional validation of the atlas, the location of the sensory thalamus was correlated with stereotactic intraoperative physiological data. The position of subthalamic electrode positions in patients with Parkinson's disease was also evaluated in the atlas-integrated MRI space. Finally, probabilistic maps of subthalamic stimulation electrodes were developed, in order to allow group analysis of the location of contacts associated with the best motor outcomes. We have therefore developed, and are continuing to validate, a high-resolution computerized MRI-integrated 3D histological atlas, which is useful in functional neurosurgery, and for functional and anatomical studies of the human basal ganglia, thalamus, and basal forebrain. PMID:21922002

  14. SLC20A2 and THAP1 deletion in familial basal ganglia calcification with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matt; Strongosky, Audrey J; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica Y; Yang, Shan; Ferguson, Will; Calne, Donald B; Calne, Susan; Stoessl, A Jon; Allanson, Judith E; Broderick, Daniel F; Hutton, Michael L; Dickson, Dennis W; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric and motor syndromes. In this study, we set out to determine the frequency of the recently identified IBGC gene SLC20A2 in 27 IBGC cases from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank using both Sanger sequencing and TaqMan copy number analysis to cover the complete spectrum of possible mutations. We identified SLC20A2 pathogenic mutations in two of the 27 cases of IBGC (7 %). Sequencing analysis identified a p.S113* nonsense mutation in SLC20A2 in one case. TaqMan copy number analysis of SLC20A2 further revealed a genomic deletion in a second case, which was part of a large previously reported Canadian IBGC family with dystonia. Subsequent whole-genome sequencing in this family revealed a 563,256-bp genomic deletion with precise breakpoints on chromosome 8 affecting multiple genes including SLC20A2 and the known dystonia-related gene THAP1. The deletion co-segregated with disease in all family members. The deletion of THAP1 in addition to SLC20A2 in the Canadian IBGC family may contribute to the severe and early onset dystonia in this family. The identification of an SLC20A2 genomic deletion in a familial form of IBGC demonstrates that reduced SLC20A2 in the absence of mutant protein is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that previously reported SLC20A2 mutation frequencies may be underestimated. PMID:24135862

  15. Optical recording of membrane potential responses from early embryonic chick ganglia using voltage-sensitive dyes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Hirota, A; Komuro, H; Fujii, S; Kamino, K

    1985-01-01

    Changes in absorbance of voltage-sensitive merocyanine-rhodanine dyes were used to monitor electrical responses in the semilunar ganglion of 4-10-day-old developing chick embryos. The electrical responses were simultaneously recorded from many positions in the ganglion. Stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers (the ophthalmic division of cranial nerve V) with a suction electrode led to changes in light absorption of the stained ganglia. With both the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pulses, the change was largest at 700 nm and was eliminated at a wavelength of 620 nm where the voltage-dependent absorption change of the dyes disappears. In the 4-10-day-old embryonic ganglia, two types of optical membrane potential responses, 'non-conducted' and 'conducted' responses, were identified. The non-conducted response varied with the intensity of the stimulus and had the nature of an electrotonic spread. Furthermore, this non-conducted response exhibited an 'initial upstroke-response' followed by the steady-state plateau evoked by larger depolarizing pulses. The conducted responses were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by high external potassium concentration. The incidence of the conducted responses increased as development proceeded from the 5th to the 10th day of age. Thus, the TTX-sensitive action potential activity is probably generated initially in the semilunar ganglion during the 5-10-day-stage of development. These data represent the first demonstration of membrane potential responses in early embryonic intact nervous system. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the usefulness of voltage-sensitive dyes in the analysis of the organizing process of embryonic neuronal functions during these early stages of development. PMID:3872700

  16. Functional expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat vestibular ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Takefumi; Ishida, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yukiko; Yamada, Takahiro; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Horii, Arata; Uno, Atsuhiko; Imai, Takao; Okazaki, Suzuyo; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2013-09-27

    Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are non-selective cation channels. They are co-expressed, and interact in sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), and are involved in nociception, being activated by nociceptive stimuli. Immunohistological localization of TRPV1 in vestibular ganglion (VG) neurons has been reported. Although TRPA1 is co-expressed with TRPV1 in DRG and TG neurons, it is unclear whether TRPA1 channels are expressed in VG neurons. Moreover, it is unknown whether TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are functional in VG neurons. We investigated the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat VG neurons by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Ca(2+) imaging experiments. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 RT-PCR products were amplified from the mRNA of rat VG neurons. In situ hybridization experiments showed TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression in the majority of VG neurons. Immunohistochemistry experiments confirmed TRPV1 protein expression. In Ca(2+) imaging experiments, capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, induced a significant increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in rat primary cultured VG neurons, which was almost completely blocked by capsazepine, a TRPV1-specific antagonist. Cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which was completely inhibited by HC030031, a TRPA1-specific antagonist. Moreover, in some VG neurons, a [Ca(2+)]i increase was evoked by both capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde in the same neuron. In summary, our histological and physiological studies reveal that TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed in VG neurons. It is suggested that TRPV1 and TRPA1 in VG neurons might participate in vestibular function and/or dysfunction such as vertigo. PMID:23916509

  17. Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; VanPatter, Matt; Voss, Michelle W; Pontifex, Matthew B; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation is the first to explore the association between childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia structure and function. Rodent research has revealed that exercise influences the striatum by increasing dopamine signaling and angiogenesis. In children, higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volumes, superior performance on tasks of attentional and interference control, and elevated event-related brain potential indices of executive function. The present study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate if higher-fit and lower-fit 9- and 10-year-old children exhibited differential volumes of other subcortical brain regions, specifically the basal ganglia involved in attentional control. The relationship between aerobic fitness, dorsal and ventral striatum volumes and performance on an attention and inhibition Eriksen flanker task was also examined. The results indicated that higher-fit children showed superior flanker task performance compared to lower-fit children. Higher-fit children also showed greater volumes of the dorsal striatum, and dorsal striatum volume was negatively associated with behavioral interference. The results support the claim that the dorsal striatum is involved in cognitive control and response resolution and that these cognitive processes vary as a function of aerobic fitness. No relationship was found between aerobic fitness, the volume of the ventral striatum and flanker performance. The findings suggest that increased childhood aerobic fitness is associated with greater dorsal striatal volumes and that this is related to enhanced cognitive control. Because children are becoming increasingly overweight, unhealthy and unfit, understanding the neurocognitive benefits of an active lifestyle during childhood has important public health and educational implications. PMID:20693803

  18. Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function. PMID:22982590

  19. Efferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Marcos, Alino; Ubeda-Bańon, Isabel; Lanuza, Enrique; Halpern, Mimi

    2005-05-01

    The olfactostriatum is a portion of the basal ganglia of snakes that receives substantial vomeronasal afferents through projections from the nucleus sphericus. In a preceding article, the olfactostriatum of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) was characterized on the basis of chemoarchitecture (distribution of serotonin, neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase) and pattern of afferent connections [Martinez-Marcos, A., Ubeda-Banon, I., Lanuza, E., Halpern, M., 2005. Chemoarchitecture and afferent connections of the "olfactostriatum": a specialized vomeronasal structure within the basal ganglia of snakes. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 29, 49-69]. In the present study, its efferent connections have been investigated. The olfactostriatum projects to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, septal complex, ventral pallidum, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in the nucleus accumbens proper, a structure closely associated with the olfactostriatum, result in a similar pattern of efferent connections with the exception of those reaching the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, lateral cortex, external, ventral anterior and dorsolateral amygdalae and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data, therefore, help to characterize the olfactostriatum, an apparently specialized area of the nucleus accumbens. Double labeling experiments after tracer injections in the nucleus sphericus and the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus demonstrate a pathway between these two structures through the olfactostriatum. Injections in the olfactostriatum and in the medial amygdala show parallel projections to the lateral posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Since this hypothalamic nucleus has been previously described as projecting to the hypoglossal nucleus, both, the medial amygdala and the olfactostriatum may mediate vomeronasal influence on tongue-flick behavior. PMID:15820623

  20. A basal ganglia pathway drives selective auditory responses in songbird dopaminergic neurons via disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Samuel D.; Perkel, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in mammals respond to rewards and reward-predicting cues, and are thought to play an important role in learning actions or sensory cues that lead to reward. The anatomical sources of input that drive or modulate such responses are not well understood; these ultimately define the range of behavior to which dopaminergic neurons contribute. Primary rewards are not the immediate objective of all goal-directed behavior. For example, a goal of vocal learning is to imitate vocal-communication signals. Here, we demonstrate activation of dopaminergic neurons in songbirds driven by a basal ganglia region required for vocal learning, Area X. Dopaminergic neurons in anesthetized zebra finches respond more strongly to bird's own song (BOS) than to other sounds, and Area X is critical for these responses. Direct pharmacological modulation of Area X output, in the absence of auditory stimulation, is sufficient to bidirectionally modulate the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons. The only known pathway from song-control regions to dopaminergic neurons involves a projection from Area X to the ventral pallidum (VP), which in turn projects to dopaminergic regions. We show that VP neurons are spontaneously active and inhibited preferentially by BOS, suggesting that Area X disinihbits dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting VP. Supporting this model, auditory-response latencies are shorter in Area X than VP, and shorter in VP than dopaminergic neurons. Thus, dopaminergic neurons can be disinhibited selectively by complex sensory stimuli via input from the basal ganglia. The functional pathway we identify may allow dopaminergic neurons to contribute to vocal learning. PMID:20089911

  1. Geometric Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hoskins

    2005-11-21

    We will be learning the names and properties (# of sides, vertices, parallel sides, etc.) of several different geometric shapes. By now, everybody should know how many sides a square has and be able to recognize a circle. But, do you know how many vertices a parallelogram has, or how many sides to a rhombus? After completing the following exercies, you should be able to answer those questions and many ...

  2. Anisotropic atomic packing model for abnormal grain growth mechanism of WC-25 wt.% Co alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoo, H.S.; Hwang, S.K. [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering] [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1998-11-03

    During liquid phase sintering, cemented carbide particles grow into either faceted or non-faceted grain shapes depending on ally system. In case of WC-Co alloy, prism-shape faceted grains with (0001) planes and {l_brace}1{bar 1}00{r_brace} planes on each face are observed, and furthermore an abnormal grain growth has been reported to occur. When abnormal grain growth occurs in WC crystals, dimension ratio, R, of the length of the side of the triangular prism face to the height of the prism is higher than 4 whereas that for normal grains is approximately 2. Abnormal grain growth in this alloy is accelerated by the fineness of starting powders and by high sintering temperature. To account for the mechanism of the abnormal grain growth, there are two proposed models which drew much research attention: nucleation and subsequent carburization and transformation of {eta} (W{sub 3}Co{sub 3}C) phase into WC, and coalescence of coarse WC grains through dissolution and re-precipitation. Park et al. proposed a two-dimensional nucleation theory to explain the abnormal grain growth of faceted grains. There are questions, however, on the role of {eta} phase on abnormal grain growth. The mechanism of coalescence of spherical grains as proposed by Kingery is also unsuitable for faceted grains. So far theories on abnormal grain growth do not provide a satisfactory explanation on the change of R value during the growth process. In the present work a new mechanism of nucleation and growth of faceted WC grains is proposed on the ground of anisotropic packing sequence of each atom.

  3. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  4. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... freeze abnormal cervical tissue, which then sloughs off. • Laser therapy—A focused beam of light is used ... tissue is removed from the cervix. Cryotherapy: A freezing technique used to destroy diseased tissue; also known ...

  6. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Common abnormalities include cysts in the pinna or skin tags . Many children are born with ears that stick ... affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, unless there is cartilage ...

  7. T cell immune abnormalities in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xuebin; Zhang, Liping; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal T cell immunity. Cytotoxic T cells, abnormal T regulatory cells, helper T cell imbalance, megakaryocyte maturation abnormalities and abnormal T cell anergy are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The loss of T cell-mediated immune tolerance to platelet auto-antigens plays a crucial role in immune thrombocytopenia. The induction of T cell tolerance is an important mechanism by which the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia can be studied. Studies regarding the roles of the new inducible costimulator signal transduction pathway, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and the nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction pathway in the induction of T cell tolerance can help improve our understanding of immune theory and may provide a new theoretical basis for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25274611

  8. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  9. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age. PMID:21289833

  10. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  11. Gummy Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    In this activity, learners use chemistry to “self-assemble” gummy shapes. Learners discover that self-assembly is a process by which molecules and cells form themselves into functional structures. Learners also learn that self-assembly is used to make nanocapsules that can deliver medication to diseased parts of the body, bypassing healthy parts. This activity is a fun way to talk about the connections between science and cooking, since the gummy capsules produced in this activity are also used in molecular gastronomy.

  12. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, apparatus, instrumentation, and controls necessary to isolate and identify abnormal genetically determined hemoglobin types. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, apparatus, instrumentation, and controls necessary to isolate and identify abnormal genetically determined hemoglobin types. (b)...

  14. Fetal Calcifications Are Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Ellika; Sirotkina, Meeli; Marnerides, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver) at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far. Methods One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection. Results Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001). The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%), trisomy 18 (22%), and monosomy X (18%). A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004). Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer special attention towards co-existence of malformations, as this would be a strong indicator for a chromosomal abnormality. PMID:25923652

  15. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in patients with snake bites.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Ganaikabahu, B; Pushparajan, K; Wijesekera, J

    1995-01-01

    Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were obtained for 26 patients with snake bite to observe the cerebral impact of snake venom. All snakes were identified; 19 (73%) were Russell's vipers, one (4%) was a common cobra, five (19%) were hump-nosed vipers, and one (4%) was a dog-faced fresh water snake. The EEG was abnormal in 25 patients (96%) and these results included all the snake species identified. The EEG abnormalities observed were reduced alpha activity, increased theta/beta activity or sharp waves (grade 1), sharp waves or spikes and slow waves (grade 2), or diffuse delta activity (grade 3). Grade 1 changes occurred in 16 patients (62%), grade 11 in eight patients (31%), and grade 111 in one patient (4%). Thus, grade 2 and 3 changes, which were moderately severe to severe abnormalities, occurred in nine patients (35%). One patient had acute renal failure and two others had mild jaundice and hyponatremia. These three patients had EEG abnormalities that were similar to those observed in the remaining 22 patients. The altered EEG, suggestive of an encephalopathy, appeared within hours of the bite and persisted for several days without clinical neurologic effects. The changes were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Similar changes occurred in both patients with and without antivenom therapy. It appeared that the EEG abnormalities are a consequence of the effects of venom from the bites of a variety of snakes. PMID:7856822

  16. The electrophysiological effects of neurotensin on neurones of guinea-pig prevertebral sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Stapelfeldt, W H; Szurszewski, J H

    1989-01-01

    1. The membrane effects of neurotensin on neurons of guinea-pig prevertebral ganglia were investigated by means of intracellular recording techniques in vitro. 2. Neurotensin (2-5 microM) applied by superfusion caused depolarizing responses in fifty-seven of seventy-four neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and thirty-seven of forty-seven neurones tested in the coeliac plexus. The remaining neurones tested showed no membrane response. 3. Responses to neurotensin could be discriminated into two different types of membrane depolarizations on the basis of their different time courses and pharmacological characteristics: a steady-state type of depolarization and a transient type of depolarization. Seven of fifty-seven responsive neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and ten of thirty-seven responsive neurones tested in the coeliac plexus responded to neurotensin with a depolarization which was maintained constant as long as neurotensin was superfused over the preparation (steady-state type). Forty-eight of fifty-seven responsive neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and twenty of thirty-seven responsive neurones tested in the coeliac plexus responded with a transient depolarization which was followed by a repolarization in the maintained presence of neurotensin (transient type). A combination of both types of responses was observed in two neurones tested in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and in seven neurones tested in the coeliac plexus. 4. Steady-state type responses were characterized by a slowly developing membrane depolarization which reached a plateau and lasted throughout the presence of neurotensin. Amplitude and time course of this response were not altered in a solution containing hexamethonium (10 microM) and atropine (10 microM) or by a solution low in calcium (1 mM) and high in magnesium (15 mM). 5. Transient type depolarizations evoked by neurotensin were faster in reaching their maximum and were followed by a repolarization during the maintained presence of neurotensin. Responses similar in time course and amplitude were obtained in solutions containing hexamethonium (10-100 microM) and atropine (10 microM). However, transient responses were abolished in a solution low in calcium (1 mM) and high in magnesium (15 mM) and were markedly attenuated in ganglia treated with capsaicin (3 microM). 6. Both types of depolarizations were associated with increases in membrane input resistance. Both responses converted subthreshold depolarizing electrotonic potentials and subthreshold fast EPSPs to action potentials. 7. Both types of depolarizations were observed when the C-terminal hexapeptide fragment neurotensin 8-13 was used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 8 PMID:2575666

  17. Curcumin Ameliorates Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kaewsema, Athitaya; Charoensub, Thuntawat

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of cisplatin; however, effective treatments are lacking. Curcumin is a polyphenol found in the root of Curcuma longa and has been shown neuroprotective against several neurological diseases. Nevertheless, its effects on cisplatin neuropathy remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify this issue by inducing neuropathy in the rats with intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 2 mg/kg twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Curcumin 200 mg/kg/day was given by gavage to a group of cisplatin-treated rats during these five weeks. The results showed that cisplatin induced thermal hypoalgesia in the 5th week which could be prevented by curcumin. In the 5th and 8th weeks, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity was reduced in the cisplatin compared with the control groups. Curcumin significantly attenuated this deficit. Morphometric analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglia from the cisplatin group revealed nuclear and nucleolar atrophy including loss of neurons in the 8th week. These alterations were significantly blocked by curcumin. Moreover, curcumin also ameliorated the reduced myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve of cisplatin-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest the favorable effects of curcumin on both functional and structural abnormalities in cisplatin neuropathy. Future studies are needed to clarify the exact underlying mechanisms.

  18. Curcumin Ameliorates Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Agthong, Sithiporn; Kaewsema, Athitaya; Charoensub, Thuntawat

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of cisplatin; however, effective treatments are lacking. Curcumin is a polyphenol found in the root of Curcuma longa and has been shown neuroprotective against several neurological diseases. Nevertheless, its effects on cisplatin neuropathy remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify this issue by inducing neuropathy in the rats with intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 2 mg/kg twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Curcumin 200 mg/kg/day was given by gavage to a group of cisplatin-treated rats during these five weeks. The results showed that cisplatin induced thermal hypoalgesia in the 5(th) week which could be prevented by curcumin. In the 5(th) and 8(th) weeks, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity was reduced in the cisplatin compared with the control groups. Curcumin significantly attenuated this deficit. Morphometric analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglia from the cisplatin group revealed nuclear and nucleolar atrophy including loss of neurons in the 8(th) week. These alterations were significantly blocked by curcumin. Moreover, curcumin also ameliorated the reduced myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve of cisplatin-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest the favorable effects of curcumin on both functional and structural abnormalities in cisplatin neuropathy. Future studies are needed to clarify the exact underlying mechanisms. PMID:26113793

  19. Hemichorea improved by carotid artery stenting in a 73-year-old man with hypoperfusion of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Yuka; Nakayama, Taira; Yutani, Sachiko; Uesugi, Tsuyoshi; Ohnuki, Youichi; Takizawa, Shunya

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with continuous hemichoreic movement of right arm and leg and with dyskinesia in his tongue. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no ischemic lesion within the basal ganglia, but magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and carotid duplex ultrasonography showed the left internal carotid occlusion and 80% stenosis in the right common carotid artery. Tc-99m-ECD-SPECT showed hypoperfusion of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus. A trial of haloperidol had no effect; therefore, the right carotid artery stenting was performed. Hypoperfusion in the left internal carotid artery area was improved by cross flow from the right side, and his hemichorea gradually improved. This result supports the notion that hypoperfusion-related hemichorea may occur, even in the absence of cerebral ischemia. PMID:26028201

  20. Rare co-occurrence of dural arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous malformation with bilateral subcortical and basal ganglia calcification.

    PubMed

    Sayani, Raza; Khan, Zahid Anwar; Tanveer-ul-Haq; Hamid, Rana Shoaib; Azeemuddin, Muhammed

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the imaging findings in a patient with dural arteriovenous fistula (AVR) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with bilateral subcortical and basal ganglia calcification. A 29 year old male patient presented with chief complaint of recent onset of generalized tonic clonic seizures and mild disorientation. The imaging studies on MCT demonstrated diffuse, symmetric calcification in the bilateral basal ganglia and subcortical white matter. MR imaging and angiography revealed AVM in parietooccipital region with supply predominantly from left posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. Multiple dural feeders from meningeal branches of occipital and superficial temporal branches of bilateral external carotid and right internal carotid arteries. Calcification is proposed to be due to chronic reflux into the parenchymal veins or vascular steal phenomenon. This rare co-occurrence of subcortical calcification in a patient with a dural AVF and AVM is being reported. PMID:22755350

  1. Inorganic-Organic Shape Memory Polymers and Foams for Bone Defect Repairs

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dawei

    2013-04-16

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a “self-fitting” shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold for the repair of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) bone defects. CMF defects may be caused by trauma, tumor removal or congenital abnormalities...

  2. Understanding, Modeling and Predicting Hidden Solder Joint Shape Using Active Thermography 

    E-print Network

    Giron Palomares, Jose

    2012-07-16

    Characterizing hidden solder joint shapes is essential for electronics reliability. Active thermography is a methodology to identify hidden defects inside an object by means of surface abnormal thermal response after applying a heat flux...

  3. Morphometric Analysis of Hippocampal Shape in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Imaging Genetics Study

    E-print Network

    Chung, Moo K.

    Morphometric Analysis of Hippocampal Shape in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Imaging Genetics Study MCI and Alzheimer's disease. I. INTRODUCTION Statistical morphometric analysis is used in biomedical imaging to study various structures of interest, and aims to identify morphometric abnormalities

  4. Identification of a Ca 2+ Sensing Receptor in Rat Trigeminal Ganglia, Sensory Axons, and Tooth Dental Pulp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin J. Heyeraas; Sivakami R. Haug; Richard D. Bukoski; Emmanuel M. Awumey

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular Ca2+ regulates dentin formation, but little information is available on this regulatory mechanism. We have previously reported\\u000a that sensory denervation reduces dentin formation, suggesting a role for sensory nerves in tooth mineralization. The G protein-coupled\\u000a Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) is expressed in dorsal root ganglia and perivascular sensory nerves in mesenteric arterioles, and\\u000a activation of these receptors by Ca2+ has

  5. Adenosine triphosphatase in nerves and ganglia of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes or galactosaemia; effects of aldose reductase inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Lambourne; A. M. Brown; N. Calcutt; D. R. Tomlinson; G. B. Willars

    1988-01-01

    Summary  This study measured the ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant adenosine triphosphatase activity in homogenates of the sciatic\\u000a nerves and of pooled fourth and fifth lumbar dorsal root ganglia from rats fed 20% galactose or made diabetic with streptozotocin\\u000a for either 4 or 8 weeks. Diabetes caused reductions in both fractions of sciatic nerve adenosine triphosphatase activity.\\u000a After 8 weeks the ouabainsensitive fraction

  6. GENSAT BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines to study the functional organization of cerebral cortical and basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Gerfen, Charles R.; Paletzki, Ronald; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent development of molecular genetic techniques are rapidly advancing understanding of the functional role of brain circuits in behavior. Critical to this approach is the ability to target specific neuron populations and circuits. The collection of over 250 BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines produced by the GENSAT project provides a resource for such studies. Here we provide characterization of GENSAT BAC-Cre driver lines with expression in specific neuroanatomical pathways within the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. PMID:24360541

  7. Basal ganglia calcification induced by excitotoxicity: an experimental model characterised by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Mahy; Alberto Prats; Alberto Riveros; Noemí Andrés; Fabián Bernal

    1999-01-01

    Activation of glutamate receptors induces an excitotoxic neurodegenerative process characterised in some brain areas by the\\u000a formation of calcium precipitates. To examine the pathogenesis of basal ganglia calcification (BGC), an improved procedure\\u000a of X-ray microanalysis was used to study experimental excitotoxic calcification in the rat. Three weeks after injection of\\u000a ibotenic acid (IBO) in the rat basal forebrain, calcified inclusions

  8. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  9. Referenceless stratification of parenchymal lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Robb, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces computational tools that could enable personalized, predictive, preemptive, and participatory (P4) Pulmonary medicine. We demonstrate approaches to (a) stratify lungs from different subjects based on the spatial distribution of parenchymal abnormality and (b) visualize the stratification through glyphs that convey both the grouping efficacy and an iconic overview of an individual's lung wellness. Affinity propagation based on regional parenchymal abnormalities is used in the referenceless stratification. Abnormalities are computed using supervised classification based on Earth Mover's distance. Twenty natural clusters were detected from 372 CT lung scans. The computed clusters correlated with clinical consensus of 9 disease types. The quality of inter- and intra-cluster stratification as assessed by ANOSIM R was 0.887 +/- 0.18 (pval < 0.0005). The proposed tools could serve as biomarkers to objectively diagnose pathology, track progression and assess pharmacologic response within and across patients. PMID:22003703

  10. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

  11. Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

    2014-01-01

    Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software – the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated. PMID:25071960

  12. A study of the distribution of chromaffin-positive (CH+) and small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in sympathetic ganglia of the rat at various ages.

    PubMed Central

    Santer, R M; Lu, K S; Lever, J D; Presley, R

    1975-01-01

    Small intensely fluorescent (SIF) and chromaffin-positive (CH+) cells were independently investigated by formol-induced fluorescence and by chromaffin techniques in the superior cervical, thoracic and coeliac-mesenteric ganglia of neonatal (2--10 days), adolescent (2--4 months) and adult (6--15 months) rats. Identification of CH+ cells was facilitated by glutaraldehyde fixation prior to chromatin. Intraganglionic blood vessels were displaced by antemortem injection of either India ink or the fluorescent dye Thioflavine-S. SIF and CH+ cells were randomly distributed through the ganglia, either singly or in pairs related to principal neurons, or in variably-sized, highly vascularized groups. In chromaffin preparations these groups either consisted entirely of CH+ cells or else they contained a mixture of CH+ and CH- cells. CH+ cells were present in some adolescent and adult ganglia of all types, and in the neonatal coeliac-mesenteric ganglion at 10 days. In neonatal material generally, SIF cells were mostly green fluorescent, occurring separately or in homogeneous or mixed groups, but both yellow and green cells occurred in coeliac-mesenteric ganglia at 10 days. All ganglia in adolescent and older animals contained both yellow and green cells. There were more green than yellow cells, and more SIF than CH+ cells in all ganglia studied. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:49346

  13. Biomimetic race model of the loop between the superior colliculus and the basal ganglia: Subcortical selection of saccade targets.

    PubMed

    Thurat, Charles; N'Guyen, Steve; Girard, Benoît

    2015-07-01

    The superior colliculus, a laminar structure involved in the retinotopic mapping of the visual field, plays a cardinal role in several cortical and subcortical pathways of the saccadic system. Although the selection of saccade targets has long been thought to be mainly the product of cortical processes, a growing body of evidence hints at the implication of the superior colliculus in selection processes independent from cortical inputs, capable of producing saccades at latencies incompatible with the cortical pathways. This selection ability could be produced firstly by the lateral connections between the neurons of its maps, and secondly by its interactions with the midbrain basal ganglia, already renowned for their role in decision making. We propose a biomimetic population-coded race model of selection based on a dynamic tecto-basal loop that reproduces the observed ability of the superior colliculus to stochastically select between similar stimuli. Our model's selection accuracy depends on the discriminability of the target and the distractors. Our model also offers an explanation for the phenomenon of Remote Distractor Effect based on the lateral connectivity within the basal ganglia circuitry rather than on lateral inhibitions within the collicular maps. Finally, we propose a role for the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, as stochastic integrators dynamically gated by the selective disinhibition of the basal ganglia channels that is consistent with the recorded activity profiles of these neurons. PMID:25884111

  14. Age-related changes of the functional architecture of the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry during motor task execution.

    PubMed

    Marchand, William R; Lee, James N; Suchy, Yana; Garn, Cheryl; Johnson, Susanna; Wood, Nicole; Chelune, Gordon

    2011-03-01

    Normal human aging is associated with declining motor control and function. It is thought that dysfunction of the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry may contribute to age-related sensorimotor impairment, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of age-related changes in the functional architecture of these circuits. Fifty-nine subjects, consisting of a young, middle and old group, were studied using functional MRI and a motor activation paradigm. Functional connectivity analyses and examination of correlations of connectivity strength with performance on the activation task as well as neurocognitive tasks completed outside of magnet were conducted. Results indicated that increasing age is associated with changes in the functional architecture of the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry. Connectivity strength increased between subcortical nuclei and cortical motor and sensory regions but no changes were found between subcortical components of the circuitry. Further, increased connectivity was correlated with poorer performance on a neurocognitive task independently of age. This result suggests that increased connectivity reflects a decline in brain function rather than a compensatory process. These findings advance our understanding of the normal aging process. Further, the methods employed will likely be useful for future studies aimed at disambiguating age-related versus illness progression changes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders that involve the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry. PMID:21167945

  15. How do the basal ganglia contribute to categorization? Their role in generalization, response selection, and learning via feedback

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how independent corticostriatal loops linking basal ganglia with cerebral cortex contribute to visual categorization. The first aspect of categorization discussed is the role of the visual corticostriatal loop, which connects the visual cortex and the body/tail of the caudate, in mapping visual stimuli to categories, including evaluating the degree to which this loop may generalize across individual category members. The second aspect of categorization discussed is the selection of appropriate actions or behaviors on the basis of category membership, and the role of the visual corticostriatal loop output and the motor corticostriatal loop, which connects motor planning areas with the putamen, in action selection. The third aspect of categorization discussed is how categories are learned with the aid of feedback linked dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia. These projections underlie corticostriatal synaptic plasticity across the basal ganglia, and also serve as input to the executive and motivational corticostriatal loops that play a role in strategic use of feedback. PMID:17919725

  16. Superordinate shape classification using natural shape statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as animal or leaf. We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each class, seeking shape statistics that effectively discriminated the classes. We conducted two experiments in which human subjects were asked to classify novel shapes into the same natural classes. We compared subjects’ classifications to those of a naive Bayesian classifier based on the natural shape statistics, and found good agreement. We conclude that human superordinate shape classifications can be well understood as involving a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton that has been “tuned” to the natural statistics of shape. PMID:21440250

  17. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-02-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  18. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  19. Photosensitivity, abnormal porphyrin profile, and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, H W; Cooper, D; Sassa, S; Dosik, H; Buchness, M R; Soter, N A

    1992-08-01

    Cutaneous photosensitivity in a 43-year-old man with idiopathic sideroblastic anemia associated with an abnormal porphyrin profile is reported. This condition was associated with elevated free erythrocyte porphyrin, plasma protoporphyrin, urine porphyrins (predominantly coproporphyrin), stool porphyrins (predominantly protoporphyrin), decreased ferrochelatase activity, and deletion of portions of the long arms of chromosomes 18 and 20. Five other patients with sideroblastic anemia and abnormal porphyrin profiles have been described; all but one of these patients had photosensitivity. The porphyrin profile of this patient is similar to that of three other previously described patients. PMID:1517489

  20. Abnormal structure of frontostriatal brain systems is associated with aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Barnes, Anna; Jones, P Simon; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2011-07-01

    A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by impulsive behaviours and compulsive drug-taking. Here we compared self-report, behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging data on a relatively large sample of cocaine-dependent individuals (n?=?60) with data on healthy volunteers (n?=?60); and we investigated the relationships between grey matter volume variation, duration of cocaine use, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in the cocaine-dependent group. Cocaine dependence was associated with an extensive system of abnormally decreased grey matter volume in orbitofrontal, cingulate, insular, temporoparietal and cerebellar cortex, and with a more localized increase in grey matter volume in the basal ganglia. Greater duration of cocaine dependence was correlated with greater grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, cingulate and insular cortex. Greater impairment of attentional control was associated with reduced volume in insular cortex and increased volume of caudate nucleus. Greater compulsivity of drug use was associated with reduced volume in orbitofrontal cortex. Cocaine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption. PMID:21690575

  1. Identifying enhanced cortico-basal ganglia loops associated with prolonged dance training.

    PubMed

    Li, Gujing; He, Hui; Huang, Mengting; Zhang, Xingxing; Lu, Jing; Lai, Yongxiu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have revealed that prolonged, specialized training combined with higher cognitive conditioning induces enhanced brain alternation. In particular, dancers with long-term dance experience exhibit superior motor control and integration with their sensorimotor networks. However, little is known about the functional connectivity patterns of spontaneous intrinsic activities in the sensorimotor network of dancers. Our study examined the functional connectivity density (FCD) of dancers with a mean period of over 10 years of dance training in contrast with a matched non-dancer group without formal dance training using resting-state fMRI scans. FCD was mapped and analyzed, and the functional connectivity (FC) analyses were then performed based on the difference of FCD. Compared to the non-dancers, the dancers exhibited significantly increased FCD in the precentral gyri, postcentral gyri and bilateral putamen. Furthermore, the results of the FC analysis revealed enhanced connections between the middle cingulate cortex and the bilateral putamen and between the precentral and the postcentral gyri. All findings indicated an enhanced functional integration in the cortico-basal ganglia loops that govern motor control and integration in dancers. These findings might reflect improved sensorimotor function for the dancers consequent to long-term dance training. PMID:26035693

  2. Expression and identification of olfactory receptors in sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia of rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Leilei; Chen, Qianqian; Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Shiying

    2015-07-23

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are expressed mainly in the cell membrane of olfactory sensory neurons of the nasal epithelium, and the binding of specific odorant ligands to OR proteins leads to odor detection. ORs are also expressed in non-olfactory tissues and cells, but their functions are often elusive. In this study, microarray analysis was used to detect the presence of ORs in peripheral nerves. We found that a number of ORs were differentially expressed in sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) following sciatic nerve injury. The expression and expression profile of several ORs in sciatic nerve were verified by in situ hybridization and real time quantitative RT-PCR. We also observed that the expression of some ORs in primary culture of Schwann cells was up-regulated under H2O2 stimulation. Overall, all the results suggest that there may be a possible relationship between the differential expression of ORs in injured peripheral nerves and peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26071906

  3. Increased TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV2 expression in dorsal root ganglia by nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Frederick, J; Buck, M E; Matson, D J; Cortright, D N

    2007-07-13

    Thermosensitive TRP channels display unique thermal responses, suggesting distinct roles mediating sensory transmission of temperature. However, whether relative expression of these channels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is altered in nerve injury is unknown. We developed a multiplex ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) to quantify rat TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 RNA levels in DRG. We used the multiplex RPA to measure thermosensitive TRP channel RNA levels in DRG from RTX-treated rats (300 microg/kg) or rats with unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). TRPV1 and TRPA1 RNA were significantly decreased in DRG from RTX-treated rats, indicating functional colocalization of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in sensory nociceptors. In DRG from CCI rats, TRPA1, TRPV2, and TRPM8 RNA showed slight but significant increases ipsilateral to peripheral nerve injury. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased TRP channel expression in sensory neurons may contribute to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity. PMID:17517374

  4. Focal basal ganglia lesions are associated with impairments in reward-based reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene

    2008-03-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are thought to play a key role in learning from feedback, with mesencephalic dopamine neurons coding errors in reward prediction, thereby mediating information processing in the BG and the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, reward-based learning was assessed in patients with focal BG lesions, by studying outcome-based acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus associations with different reward magnitudes in two probabilistic learning tasks. Eleven patients with selective BG lesions (three females) and 18 healthy control subjects (six females) participated in this study. Two cognitive transfer tasks provided a measure of declarative learning strategy application. On the group level, BG patients showed deficits in reversal learning, with dorsal striatum lesion patients being most severely affected. While basic mechanisms of learning from feedback such as the processing of different reward magnitudes appeared to be intact, patients needed more trials than controls to learn a second reward-based task, suggesting reduced carry-over effects in learning. A patient with a bilateral BG lesion showed better performance than controls on most learning tasks, applying a compensatory declarative learning strategy. The results are discussed in terms of the implication of different BG subregions in different aspects of learning from feedback. PMID:18263624

  5. Sildenafil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in pelvic ganglia neurons after bilateral cavernosal nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leah A; Hlaing, Su M; Gutierrez, Richard A; Sanchez, Maria D; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N; Ferrini, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) ?, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF?1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

  6. Histone acetylation inhibitors promote axon growth in adult dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could reinvigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families, the histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the histone acetyl transferases (HATs), acting in opposition. Whereas acetylated histones in the nucleus are associated with upregulation of growth-promoting genes, deacetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. This study investigates the effects of HAT and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and shows that inhibition of HATs by anacardic acid or CPTH2 improves axon outgrowth, whereas inhibition of HDACs by TSA or tubacin inhibits axon growth. Anacardic acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan border. Histone acetylation but not tubulin acetylation level was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor tubacin. Although the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. Determining the mechanistic basis will require future studies, but this study shows that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25702820

  7. Synchronization of Pancreatic Islet Oscillations by Intrapancreatic Ganglia: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Fendler, B.; Zhang, M.; Satin, L.; Bertram, R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Plasma insulin measurements from mice, rats, dogs, and humans indicate that insulin levels are oscillatory, reflecting pulsatile insulin secretion from individual islets. An unanswered question, however, is how the activity of a population of islets is coordinated to yield coherent oscillations in plasma insulin. Here, using mathematical modeling, we investigate the feasibility of a potential islet synchronization mechanism, cholinergic signaling. This hypothesis is based on well-established experimental evidence demonstrating intrapancreatic parasympathetic (cholinergic) ganglia and recent in vitro evidence that a brief application of a muscarinic agonist can transiently synchronize islets. We demonstrate using mathematical modeling that periodic pulses of acetylcholine released from cholinergic neurons is indeed able to coordinate the activity of a population of simulated islets, even if only a fraction of these are innervated. The role of islet-to-islet heterogeneity is also considered. The results suggest that the existence of cholinergic input to the pancreas may serve as a regulator of endogenous insulin pulsatility in vivo. PMID:19651030

  8. Intrastriatal grafts of rat colonic smooth muscle lacking myenteric ganglia stimulate axonal sprouting and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tew, E M; Anderson, P N; Saffrey, M J; Burnstock, G

    1998-01-01

    Grafts of living or freeze-killed freshly dissected colonic smooth muscle from young inbred Fischer rats were implanted into the corpus striatum of adult Fischer rats. Sections of brain were examined electron microscopically 3 and 6 wk after implantation. At both times, living grafts were vascularised and contained healthy differentiated smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, interstitial cells of Cajal and some macrophages. Large bundles of small nonmyelinated axons, identified as CNS axonal sprouts, could be observed in the brain at and near the interface between the living smooth muscle and the CNS tissue. Bundles of regenerating CNS axons, often associated with astrocyte processes, had grown into the grafts. Some axons within the grafts had matured, enlarged and become myelinated by oligodendrocyte processes or Schwann cells. In some cases, smooth muscle cells were observed in close and intricate association with axons. In contrast to the living grafts, grafts of freeze-killed smooth muscle, examined 3 and 6 wk after implantation, contained macrophages, fibroblasts, collagen and large amounts of cellular debris, but no living muscle cells, astrocytes or Schwann cells. The striatal neuropil around freeze-killed grafts did not contain large bundles of CNS axonal sprouts and bundles of axons were not observed within the freeze-killed graft. This study demonstrates that cells from the smooth muscle layers of the colon, in the absence of myenteric ganglia, can stimulate a vigorous regenerative response from CNS axons when implanted into the corpus striatum of adult rats. PMID:9568558

  9. Secondary insults and outcomes in patients with hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fei, Z; Zhang, X; Song, S J

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to monitor secondary insults and their impact on outcomes of patients with hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage (HBGH). One hundred and twelve patients with HBGH (male 73, female 39) of age 42 +/- 8 years (range from 38 to 57 years) were studied. Operations included craniotomy or trephination drainage with urokinase thrombolysis. Conventional therapies were also given to the patients including the administration of mannitol, crystalloid and colloid solution. In the meantime, blood pressure (MAP), temperature (T) and SaO2 and other parameters were recorded in the intensive care unit. The ICP values were recorded, and the early clinical outcome was assessed upon discharge according to Glasgow Outcome Scale. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure was calculated as CPP = MAP-MICP. Outcomes in the group without secondary insults were better than that in the group with secondary insults (P < 0.01). No unfavorable outcomes were found in the 59 cases managed by ultra-early surgery whereas 36.1% of the cases operated after 6 hours of onset had unfavorable outcomes. It is concluded that the high incident rate of secondary insults in HICH patients influences outcome. Ultra-early surgery may also contribute to improved quality of survival. PMID:16463862

  10. Unique Ca(2+)-activated ATPase in the nervous ganglia of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Rosane Souza; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Bogo, Maurício Reis; da Graça Fauth, Maria; Fin, Cyntia Alencar; Thomé, José Willibaldo; Bonan, Carla Denise; Dutra Dias, Renato

    2002-01-01

    Nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the regulation of intracellular and extracellular nucleotide levels. We studied ATPase activity in the nervous ganglia of Phyllocaulis soleiformis, a terrestrial slug. The ATPase was divalent cation-dependent, with a maximal rate for ATP hydrolysis at pH 6.0 and 7.2 in the presence of Ca(2+) (5 mM). Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was only 26% of the activity observed in the presence of Ca(2+) (5 mM). ZnCl2 (10 mM) produced a significant inhibition of 70%. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was insensitive to the classical ATPase inhibitors ouabain, N-ethylmaleimide, orthovanadate and sodium azide. Levamisole, an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, was ineffective. Among nucleotides, ATP was the best substrate. The apparent K(m) ((ATP)) for Ca(2+)-ATPase was 348+/-84 microM ATP and the V(max) was 829+/-114 nmol Pi min(-1) mg(-1) protein. The P. soleiformis ganglial ATPase does not appear to fit clearly into any of the previously described types of Ca(2+)-ATPases. PMID:11742758

  11. Nerve repair with adipose-derived stem cells protects dorsal root ganglia neurons from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reid, A J; Sun, M; Wiberg, M; Downes, S; Terenghi, G; Kingham, P J

    2011-12-29

    Novel approaches are required in the clinical management of peripheral nerve injuries because current surgical techniques result in deficient sensory recovery. Microsurgery alone fails to address extensive cell death in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), in addition to poor axonal regeneration. Incorporation of cultured cells into nerve conduits may offer a novel approach in which to combine nerve repair and enhance axonal regeneration with neuroprotective therapies. We examined apoptotic mediator expression in rat DRG neurons following repair of a 10-mm sciatic nerve gap using a novel synthetic conduit made of poly ?-caprolactone (PCL) and primed with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) differentiated towards a Schwann cell phenotype or with primary adult Schwann cells. Differentiated ADSC expressed a range of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-4 (NT4). Incorporation of either differentiated ADSC or Schwann cells significantly increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA expression (P<0.001) in the DRG, while significantly decreasing pro-apoptotic Bax (P<0.001) and caspase-3 mRNA (P<0.01) expression. Cleaved caspase-3 protein was observed in the DRG following nerve injury which was attenuated when nerve repair was performed using conduits seeded with cells. Cell incorporation into conduit repair of peripheral nerves demonstrates experimental promise as a novel intervention to prevent DRG neuronal loss. PMID:22020320

  12. Corazonin- and PDF-immunoreactivities in the cephalic ganglia of termites.

    PubMed

    Závodská, Radka; Wen, Chih-Jen; Sehnal, Frantisek; Hrdý, Ivan; Lee, How-Jing; Sauman, Ivo

    2009-05-01

    Antisera against the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and corazonin (Crz) reacted with distinct sets of neurons in the cephalic ganglia of termites. The locations of immunoreactive cells were similar but their numbers differed among the eight species examined: PDF-ir occurred in 0-6 cells in each optic lobe and 1-2 pairs of cells in the subosophageal ganglion (SOG), and Crz-ir in 0-2 pairs of cells in the pars intecerebralis, 3-14 cells in each lateral protocerebrum, and 0-6 pairs of cells in the SOG. Staining patterns were identical in the pseudergates, soldiers, and substitutive reproductives of Prorhinotermes simplex. Workers and soldiers were compared in the remaining 7 species. The only caste divergence was detected in Coptotermes formosanus, in which the soldiers differed from the workers by lack of 4 Crz-ir perikarya in the pars intercerebralis and occasionally also by the absence of 2 Crz-ir perikarya in the SOG. Diurnal changes in PDF-ir and Crz-ir were examined in P. simplex kept under long day (18:6h light:darkness) or short day (10:14 h) photoperiods. No circadian fluctuations in the distribution or the intensity of immunostaining were found in the pseudergates and soldiers that were sacrificed in 4h intervals or in the male and female substitutive reproductives examined in 6h intervals. PMID:19073190

  13. Technical Integration of Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia and Physical Models for Spatial Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Charles; Humphries, Mark; Mitchinson, Ben; Kiss, Tamas; Somogyvari, Zoltan; Prescott, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Computational neuroscience is increasingly moving beyond modeling individual neurons or neural systems to consider the integration of multiple models, often constructed by different research groups. We report on our preliminary technical integration of recent hippocampal formation, basal ganglia and physical environment models, together with visualisation tools, as a case study in the use of Python across the modelling tool-chain. We do not present new modeling results here. The architecture incorporates leaky-integrator and rate-coded neurons, a 3D environment with collision detection and tactile sensors, 3D graphics and 2D plots. We found Python to be a flexible platform, offering a significant reduction in development time, without a corresponding significant increase in execution time. We illustrate this by implementing a part of the model in various alternative languages and coding styles, and comparing their execution times. For very large-scale system integration, communication with other languages and parallel execution may be required, which we demonstrate using the BRAHMS framework's Python bindings. PMID:19333376

  14. Electrical injury alters ion channel expression levels and electrophysiological properties in rabbit dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Li, Yue-Jun; Li, Jin-Qing; Lv, Xiao-Xing; Chen, Shao-Zong; Li, Wang-Zhou; Feng, Jian; Li, Xue-Yong

    2011-03-01

    The electrophysiological and morphological changes of nerve fibers induced by electrical injury have been widely addressed. However, the changes of ion channels in neurons after electrical shocks have not been systematically investigated yet. In this study, the sciatic nerves of rabbit were injured by 50 V 50 Hz, 110 V 50 Hz, and 220 V 50 Hz alternating current, respectively. One week later, the expression levels and electrophysiological changes of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) and sodium (Nav) channels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were evaluated by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and patch clamp technique. The Nav1.1 expression was decreased by 50V injury. The Kv1.2, Kv1.4, Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 expression levels and Kv current densities were reduced after 110 V injury. Under the 220 V injury circumstance, Kv1.2, Nav1.1, Nav1.7 expression levels, Kv current densities and TTX-R Na(+) current densities were significantly decreased, while TTX-S Na(+) current densities increased. These findings suggest that the expression levels, subunit compositions, and electrophysiological properties of Kv and Nav channels are altered after electrical injury, and the severity of injury gets worse as injury voltage increases. PMID:21074329

  15. Tachykinins mediate slow excitatory postsynaptic transmission in guinea pig sphincter of Oddi ganglia.

    PubMed

    Manning, B P; Mawe, G M

    2001-08-01

    Intracellular recording techniques were used to test whether tachykinins could be mediators of slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in guinea pig sphincter of Oddi (SO) ganglia. Application of the tachykinin substance P (SP) onto SO neurons caused a prolonged membrane depolarization that was reminiscent of the slow EPSP in these cells. Pressure ejection of the neurokinin 3 (NK3) receptor-specific agonist senktide caused a similar depolarization; however, no responses were detected on application of NK1 or NK2 receptor agonists. The NK3 receptor antagonist SR-142801 (100 nM) significantly inhibited both SP-induced depolarization and the stimulation-evoked slow EPSP, as did NK3 receptor desensitization with senktide. Capsaicin, which causes the release of SP from small-diameter afferent fibers, induced a depolarization that was similar to the evoked slow EPSP in both amplitude and duration. The capsaicin-induced depolarization was significantly attenuated in the presence of SR-142801. These data indicate that tachykinins, released from extrinsic afferent fibers, act via NK3 receptors to provide slow excitatory synaptic input to SO neurons. PMID:11447015

  16. Disconnecting force from money: effects of basal ganglia damage on incentive motivation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Liane; d'Arc, Baudouin Forgeot; Lafargue, Gilles; Galanaud, Damien; Czernecki, Virginie; Grabli, David; Schüpbach, Michael; Hartmann, Andreas; Lévy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2008-05-01

    Bilateral basal ganglia lesions have been reported to induce a particular form of apathy, termed auto-activation deficit (AAD), principally defined as a loss of self-driven behaviour that is reversible with external stimulation. We hypothesized that AAD reflects a dysfunction of incentive motivation, a process that translates an expected reward (or goal) into behavioural activation. To investigate this hypothesis, we designed a behavioural paradigm contrasting an instructed (externally driven) task, in which subjects have to produce different levels of force by squeezing a hand grip, to an incentive (self-driven) task, in which subjects can win, depending on their hand grip force, different amounts of money. Skin conductance was simultaneously measured to index affective evaluation of monetary incentives. Thirteen AAD patients with bilateral striato-pallidal lesions were compared to thirteen unmedicated patients with Parkinson's; disease (PD), which is characterized by striatal dopamine depletion and regularly associated with apathy. AAD patients did not differ from PD patients in terms of grip force response to external instructions or skin conductance response to monetary incentives. However, unlike PD patients, they failed to distinguish between monetary incentives in their grip force. We conclude that bilateral striato-pallidal damage specifically disconnects motor output from affective evaluation of potential rewards. PMID:18344560

  17. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Leah A.; Hlaing, Su M.; Gutierrez, Richard A.; Sanchez, Maria D.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N.; Ferrini, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) ?, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF?1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

  18. Indirect basal ganglia pathway mediation of repetitive behavior: attenuation by adenosine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Yoko; Vaziri, Sasha; Lewis, Mark H

    2010-06-26

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and common in related neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their clinical importance, underlying mechanisms associated with the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. Our lab has previously shown that the rates of spontaneous stereotypy in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were negatively correlated with enkephalin content, a marker of striatopallidal but not striatonigral neurons. To investigate further the role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway, we examined neuronal activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in high- and low-stereotypy mice. CO activity in STN was significantly lower in high-stereotypy mice and negatively correlated with the frequency of stereotypy. In addition, exposure to environmental enrichment, which attenuated stereotypy, normalized the activity of STN. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 and the A(1) receptor agonist CPA attenuated stereotypy dose-dependently. The significant reduction associated with the lowest dose of the drug combination tested was due to its effects on mice with lower baseline levels of stereotypy. Higher doses of the drug combination were required to show robust behavioral effects, and presumably requisite activation of the indirect pathway, in high-stereotypy mice. These findings support that decreased indirect pathway activity is linked to the expression of high levels of stereotypy in deer mice and that striatal A(1) and A(2A) receptors may provide promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of repetitive behaviors in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20178817

  19. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-associated PDGFRB mutations impair the receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Florence A; Velghe, Amélie I; Stevens, Monique; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) bind to two related receptor tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by the PDGFRA and PDGFRB genes. Recently, heterozygous PDGFRB mutations have been described in patients diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC or Fahr disease), a rare inherited neurological disorder. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these mutations had a positive or negative impact on the PDGFRB activity. We first showed that the E1071V mutant behaved like wild-type PDGFRB and may represent a polymorphism unrelated to IBGC. In contrast, the L658P mutant had no kinase activity and failed to activate any of the pathways normally stimulated by PDGF. The R987W mutant activated Akt and MAP kinases but did not induce the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) after PDGF stimulation. Phosphorylation of phospholipase C? was also decreased. Finally, we showed that the R987W mutant was more rapidly degraded upon PDGF binding compared to wild-type PDGFRB. In conclusion, PDGFRB mutations associated with IBGC impair the receptor signalling. PDGFRB loss of function in IBGC is consistent with recently described inactivating mutations in the PDGF-B ligand. These results raise concerns about the long-term safety of PDGF receptor inhibition by drugs such as imatinib. PMID:25292412

  20. Side of basal ganglia degeneration influences freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Silveira, Carolina R A; Jones, Jeffery A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-04-01

    Although the role of hemispheric laterality in freezing of gait (FOG) remains a topic of debate, important new evidence has suggested that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) who experience freezing of gait (PD-FOG) may have decreased activity in the circuitry of the right fronto-parietal cortices, irrespective of the side of basal ganglia (BG) degeneration. Because the right hemisphere plays an important role in monitoring sensorimotor information during movements, and cortical regions interact with BG loops, one could expect that right cortical dysfunction in PD-FOG might be exacerbated by right sided BG damage (compared to left). The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of asymmetrical BG degeneration on self-paced gait in PD-FOG and PD-nonFOG. This study compared gait performance in predominantly left- or right-side affected PD patients with or without freezing of gait (LFOG = 11, RFOG = 10, LPD = 15, RPD = 11). Participants were instructed to walk 10m on a GaitRite® carpet. As expected, gait parameters in PD-FOG were worse compared to PD-nonFOG. The spatiotemporal aspects of gait did not differ between LPD and RPD (nonFOG patients). Contrary to our hypothesis, RFOG (predominantly right side symptoms) had a shorter step length, increased step time variability and tended to walk slower compared with LFOG. Thus, rather than severely impaired right hemisphere circuitries exacerbating gait impairments, worse gait may be a consequence of both hemispheres being affected in PD-FOG. PMID:25730121

  1. Role of myosin Va in neuritogenesis of chick dorsal root ganglia nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Tatiane Y N; Espreafico, Enilza M; Yan, Chao Yun Irene

    2014-03-01

    Myosin-Va, widely distributed throughout the developing nervous system, is involved in the transport of vesicles and other intracellular components with its globular tail domain (GTD) implicated in cargo recognition/interaction. Inactivation of myosin-Va in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of chick embryos, in vitro, decreases the rate of filopodial extension. MYO5A mutant mice have severe neurological defects. We have found that the overexpression of GTD in DRG cultures reduces the number of neurons with long neurites (above fourfold cell body length) and increased the number of neurons with short or no neurites. However, if transfection occurred after the onset of neuritogenesis, this was not seen. In embryo, we characterized the expression pattern of myosin-Va during neuritogenesis of TrkA-positive cells at different stages of chick DRG development. Myosin-Va expression was detected starting from HH25. At this stage, it was present in cells both with and without neurites. The presence of myosin-Va in DRG neurites persisted throughout the last stage analysed (HH34). The data suggest that Myosin Va can participate in embryonic DRG neuritogenesis. PMID:24302658

  2. Role of Beta-Arrestin 2 Downstream of Dopamine Receptors in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Del’Guidice, Thomas; Lemasson, Morgane; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multifunctional scaffolding protein beta-arrestins (?Arr) and the G protein-receptor kinases are involved in the desensitization of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). However, arrestins can also contribute to GPCR signaling independently from G proteins. In this review, we focus on the role of ?Arr in the regulation of dopamine receptor functions in the striatum. First, we present in vivo evidence supporting a role for these proteins in the regulation of dopamine receptor desensitization. Second, we provide an overview of the roles of ?Arr2 in the regulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases/MAP kinases and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathways downstream of the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Thereafter, we examine the possible involvement of ?Arr-mediated signaling in the action of dopaminergic drugs used for the treatment of mental disorders. Finally, we focus on different potential cellular proteins regulated by ?Arr-mediated signaling which could contribute to the regulation of behavioral responses to dopamine. Overall, the identification of a cell signaling function for ?Arr downstream of dopamine receptors underscores the intricate complexity of the intertwined mechanisms regulating and mediating cell signaling in the basal ganglia. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to a better comprehension of the several roles played by these structures in the regulation of mood and to the development of new psychoactive drugs having better therapeutic efficacy. PMID:21922001

  3. Effects of bilateral vagotomy on the ultrastructure of the cardiac ganglia in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed Central

    Wong, W C; Ling, E A; Yick, T Y; Tay, S S

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the effects of bilateral vagotomy on the ultrastructure of the cardiac ganglia of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). One to three days after bilateral vagotomy there is widespread glycogen accumulation in the cytoplasm of the principal cardiac neurons. This is associated with distension of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the loss of ribosomes from the cisternae. Between five and ten days after operation, about 10% of the neuronal profiles show an overall increase in electron density and intense darkening of the dendrites. From twenty one to twenty eight days postoperatively, the majority of the neuronal profiles have pale cytoplasm with reduction in granular endoplasmic reticulum and polyribosomes. The plasma membrane of the neuron is ruffled over the major portion of its surface. The satellite cells, which are reactive throughout the course of the experiments, exhibit a phagocytic capacity at this stage by removing portions of the neuronal cytoplasm. Vacuolation of the neuronal cytoplasm to a variable degree occurs in a small number of profiles between five to twenty eight days. The results suggest that bilateral vagotomy causes a widespread disturbance in the metabolic activity of the cardiac neurons. This is followed by transneuronal degenerative changes that are of a prolonged nature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:3654342

  4. 3D transvaginal ultrasound imaging for identification of endometrial abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olstad, Bjoern; Berg, Sevald; Torp, Anders H.; Schipper, Klaus P.; Eik-Nes, Sturla H.

    1995-05-01

    A multi-center study has previously evaluated the use of 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) to measure the thickness of the endometrium as a risk indicator for endometrial abnormality in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In this paper we present methods using 3-dimensional TVS in order to improve the measurement, shape analysis and visualization of the endometrium. Active contour techniques are applied to identify the endometrium in a 3D dataset. The shape of the endometrium is then visualized and utilized to do quantitative measurements of the thickness. The voxels inside the endometrium are volume rendered in order to emphasize inhomogeneities. Since these inhomogeneities can exist both on the outside and the inside of the endometrium, the rendering algorithm has a controllable opacity function. A 3-dimensional distance transform is performed on the data volume measuring the shortest distance to the detected endometrium border for each voxel. This distance is used as a basis for opacity computations which allows the user to emphasize different regions of the endometrium. In particular, the opacity function can be computed such that regions that violate the risk indicator for the endometrium thickness are highlighted.

  5. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  6. Kidney Transplantation: The Use of Abnormal Kidneys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauro Branding; Antonio Marcos Arnulf Fraga; Mauro Roberto Rufino Bergonse; Carl Kjellstrand; Anuar Michel Matni; Gilson Lacerda; Pedro Alejandro Gordan; Altair Jacob Mocelin

    1983-01-01

    We transplanted 6 anatomically abnormal kidneys: a horseshoe kidney that after division was transplanted into 2 recipients; 1 kidney with ureteral stones and hydronephrosis; 1 ectopic and 1 hydronephrotic kidney; 2 kidneys with extensive ureteric lesions, donated as free organs. All these kidneys ultimately had normal function in the recipients, long-term in 4. 2 patients died but in neither was

  7. Brain Stem MRI Signal Abnormalities in CADASIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chabriat; R. Mrissa; C. Levy; K. Vahedi; H. Taillia; M. T. Iba-Zizen; A. Joutel; E. Tournier-Lasserve; M.-G. Bousser

    Background—We recently showed that the severity of MRI signal abnormalities increases with age in CADASIL, an arteriopathy due to mutations of notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Previous results also suggest that the various hemispheric subcortical areas have a different vulnerability to ischemia in this disease. The distribution of the lesions at the brain stem level has not yet been

  8. Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

  9. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  10. Some pathological abnormalities of New Zealand fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Diggles

    2003-01-01

    A number of pathological abnormalities previously unrecorded in New Zealand fishes are described. A silver trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) captured from the Bay of Islands exhibited swim bladder ectasia. Black oreo (Allocyttus niger) and smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) had cysts of unknown aetiology (CUEs) in the gills at prevalences up to 76% and 81%, respectively, in some fishing areas. The CUEs

  11. Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

  12. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  13. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  14. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

    2000-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

  15. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  16. Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

  17. Function of basal ganglia in bridging cognitive and motor modules to perform an action

    PubMed Central

    Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Martinu, Kristina; Monchi, Oury

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are thought to be involved in the integration of multiple sources of information, and their dysfunction can lead to disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients show motor and cognitive dysfunction with specific impairments in the internal generation of motor actions and executive deficits, respectively. The role of the BG, then, would be to integrate information from several sources in order to make a decision on a resulting action adequate for the required task. Reanalyzing the data set from our previous study (Martinu et al., 2012), we investigated this hypothesis by applying a graph theory method to a series of fMRI data during the performance of self-initiated (SI) finger movement tasks obtained in healthy volunteers (HV) and early stage PD patients. Dorsally, connectivity strength between the medial prefrontal areas (mPFC) and cortical regions including the primary motor area (M1), the extrastriate visual cortex, and the associative cortex, was reduced in the PD patients. The connectivity strengths were positively correlated to activity in the striatum in both groups. Ventrally, all connectivity between the striatum, the thalamus, and the extrastriate visual cortex decreased in strength in the PD, as did the connectivity between the striatum and the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC). Individual response time (RT) was negatively correlated to connectivity strength between the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and the striatum and positively correlated to connectivity between the VLPFC and the striatum in the HV. These results indicate that the BG, with the mPFC and thalamus, are involved in integrating multiple sources of information from areas such as DLPFC, and VLPFC, connecting to M1, thereby determining a network that leads to the adequate decision and performance of the resulting action. PMID:25071432

  18. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  19. Basal ganglia contribution to rule expectancy and temporal predictability in speech.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Sonja A; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2015-07-01

    The current work set out to answer three questions: (1) Are reported syntactic deficits in patients with structural damage to the basal ganglia (BG) in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical systems (CSTCS) the result of a syntax specific computational deficit or are they potentially a consequence of a generalized timing deficit? (2) Do BG patients suffer from a simple beat perception deficit in speech comparable to the one reported in music? (3) Can regular speech meter (i.e., a pattern of beats induced by the regular alteration of stressed and unstressed syllable accents) ameliorate the computation of syntactically marked information by making speech events temporally predictable and salient? The latter 'remediation' hypothesis would predict that when speech events (i.e., those that are syntactically marked) are metrically aligned to the syllabic accent structure, the computation of syntactic information is facilitated or in the case of patients ameliorated. During continuous EEG measurement nineteen patients with focal BG lesions and matched healthy controls listened to metrically regular and syntactically well-formed sentences and metrically well-formed sentences that either violated syntactic expectancy, metrical expectancy, or both. While healthy controls showed an expected P600 response in the event-related brain potential (ERP) to all expectancy violations, BG patients showed overall comparable P600 responses to all, but the metrical expectancy violation. These results confirm that (1) BG patients suffer from a simple beat perception deficit in speech and (2) regular speech meter ameliorates the computation of syntactically marked information in the speech signal. We propose that a domain general sensorimotor cerebello-thalamo-cortical system (CTCS), involved in event-based temporal processing, engages in the remediation of dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical timing that affects the timely computation of linguistic (i.e., syntax) information in the speech signal. PMID:25863903

  20. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either “explore” or “exploit” or “not to take any action” for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction Induces Bilateral Stellate Ganglia Neural Remodeling in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bich Lien; Li, Hongmei; Fishbein, Michael C; Lin, Shien-Fong; Gaudio, Carlo; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Chen, Lan S

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Myocardial infarction (MI) results in cardiac nerve sprouting in the myocardium. Whether or not similar neural remodeling occurs in the stellate ganglia (SG) is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MI induces bilateral SG nerve sprouting. Methods Acute MI was created by coronary artery ligation in rabbits (n=12). Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The hearts and bilateral SGs were harvested for immunohistochemistry after 1 week in 6 rabbits, and after 1 month in 6 rabbits. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) and synaptophysin (SYN) was performed to determine the magnitude of nerve sprouting. Tissues from 6 normal rabbits were used as controls. Nerve density was determined by computerized morphometry. Results MI results in increased serum NGF levels at 1 week (1519.8±632.2 ng/ml) that persists to 1 month (1361.2±176.3 ng/ml) as compared to controls (89.6±34.9 ng/ml), (p=.0002, and , p=.0001, respectively). Immunostaining demonstrated nerve sprouting and hyperinnervation in both SGs after MI. The nerve densities (µm2/ganglion cell) in SG 1 week after MI, 1 month after MI and in control groups, respectively, were: GAP43, 278±96, 225±39 and 149±57 (p=.01); SYN, 244±152, 268±115 and 102±60 (p=.02); TH, 233±71, 180±50 and 135±68 (p=.047); ChAT, 244±100, 208±46 and 130±41 µm2/cell (p=.01). Conclusions MI increases serum NGF levels and induces nerve sprouting and hyperinnervation in bilateral SGs for at least 1 month after MI. The hyperinnervation includes both postganglionic adrenergic axons and preganglionic cholinergic axons in the SG. PMID:22001051

  2. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making.

    PubMed

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either "explore" or "exploit" or "not to take any action" for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  3. Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Bouju, Clémentine; Hyland, Brian I.; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.

    2013-01-01

    Motor thalamus (Mthal) is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG). The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarizes anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily “driven” by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new “super-integrator” theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum), which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs in the Mthal. PMID:24273509

  4. A Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor enriched highly in the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Springett, Gregory M.; Toki, Shinichiro; Canales, Juan J.; Harlan, Patricia; Blumenstiel, Justin P.; Chen, Emy J.; Bany, I. Amy; Mochizuki, Naoki; Ashbacher, Amy; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Housman, David E.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    1998-01-01

    Ras proteins, key regulators of growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation, recently have been implicated in synaptic function and region-specific learning and memory functions in the brain. Rap proteins, members of the Ras small G protein superfamily, can inhibit Ras signaling through the Ras/Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway or, through B-Raf, can activate MAP kinase. Rap and Ras proteins both can be activated through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Many Ras GEFs, but to date only one Rap GEF, have been identified. We now report the cloning of a brain-enriched gene, CalDAG-GEFI, which has substrate specificity for Rap1A, dual binding domains for calcium (Ca2+) and diacylglycerol (DAG), and enriched expression in brain basal ganglia pathways and their axon-terminal regions. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI activates Rap1A and inhibits Ras-dependent activation of the Erk/MAP kinase cascade in 293T cells. Ca2+ ionophore and phorbol ester strongly and additively enhance this Rap1A activation. By contrast, CalDAG-GEFII, a second CalDAG-GEF family member that we cloned and found identical to RasGRP [Ebinu, J. O., Bottorff, D. A., Chan, E. Y. W., Stang, S. L., Dunn, R. J. & Stone, J. C. (1998) Science 280, 1082–1088], exhibits a different brain expression pattern and fails to activate Rap1A, but activates H-Ras, R-Ras, and the Erk/MAP kinase cascade under Ca2+ and DAG modulation. We propose that CalDAG-GEF proteins have a critical neuronal function in determining the relative activation of Ras and Rap1 signaling induced by Ca2+ and DAG mobilization. The expression of CalDAG-GEFI and CalDAG-GEFII in hematopoietic organs suggests that such control may have broad significance in Ras/Rap regulation of normal and malignant states. PMID:9789079

  5. Developmental Changes in the Organization of Functional Connections between the Basal Ganglia and Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Timothy O.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Ihnen, S. Katie; Neta, Maital; Power, Jonathan D.; Pruett, John R.; Black, Kevin J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise a set of subcortical nuclei with sensorimotor, cognitive, and limbic subdivisions, indicative of functional organization. BG dysfunction in several developmental disorders suggests the importance of the healthy maturation of these structures. However, few studies have investigated the development of BG functional organization. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), we compared human child and adult functional connectivity of the BG with rs-fcMRI-defined cortical systems. Because children move more than adults, customized preprocessing, including volume censoring, was used to minimize motion-induced rs-fcMRI artifact. Our results demonstrated functional organization in the adult BG consistent with subdivisions previously identified in anatomical tracing studies. Group comparisons revealed a developmental shift in bilateral posterior putamen/pallidum clusters from preferential connectivity with the somatomotor “face” system in childhood to preferential connectivity with control/attention systems (frontoparietal, ventral attention) in adulthood. This shift was due to a decline in the functional connectivity of these clusters with the somatomotor face system over development, and no change with control/attention systems. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, we were able to reliably classify individuals as children or adults based on BG–cortical system functional connectivity. Interrogation of the features driving this classification revealed, in addition to the somatomotor face system, contributions by the orbitofrontal, auditory, and somatomotor hand systems. These results demonstrate that BG–cortical functional connectivity evolves over development, and may lend insight into developmental disorders that involve BG dysfunction, particularly those involving motor systems (e.g., Tourette syndrome). PMID:24760844

  6. Rule-based categorization deficits in focal basal ganglia lesion and Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ell, Shawn W; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B

    2010-08-01

    Patients with basal ganglia (BG) pathology are consistently found to be impaired on rule-based category learning tasks in which learning is thought to depend upon the use of an explicit, hypothesis-guided strategy. The factors that influence this impairment remain unclear. Moreover, it remains unknown if the impairments observed in patients with degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) are also observed in those with focal BG lesions. In the present study, we tested patients with either focal BG lesions or PD on two categorization tasks that varied in terms of their demands on selective attention and working memory. Individuals with focal BG lesions were impaired on the task in which working memory demand was high and performed similarly to healthy controls on the task in which selective-attention demand was high. In contrast, individuals with PD were impaired on both tasks, and accuracy rates did not differ between on and off medication states for a subset of patients who were also tested after abstaining from dopaminergic medication. Quantitative, model-based analyses attributed the performance deficit for both groups in the task with high working memory demand to the utilization of suboptimal strategies, whereas the PD-specific impairment on the task with high selective-attention demand was driven by the inconsistent use of an optimal strategy. These data suggest that the demands on selective attention and working memory affect the presence of impairment in patients with focal BG lesions and the nature of the impairment in patients with PD. PMID:20600196

  7. Age-related gene expression analysis in enteric ganglia of human colon after laser microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Hetz, Susan; Acikgoez, Ali; Moll, Corinna; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Robitzki, Andrea A.; Metzger, Roman; Metzger, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) poses the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a critical role for all stages of postnatal life. There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in acquired or age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions that can be manifested in diseases such as gut constipation or fecal incontinence. In this study, we sought to analyze age-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of the human ENS, particularly in the myenteric plexus. Therefore, we used the laser microdissection technique which has been proven as a feasible tool to analyze distinct cell populations within heterogeneously composed tissues. Full biopsy gut samples were prepared from children (4–12 months), middle aged (48–58 years) and aged donors (70–95 years). Cryosections were histologically stained with H&E, the ganglia of the myenteric plexus identified and RNA isolated using laser microdissection technique. Quantitative PCR was performed for selected neural genes, neurotransmitters and receptors. Data were confirmed on protein level using NADPH-diaphorase staining and immunohistochemistry. As result, we demonstrate age-associated alterations in site-specific gene expression pattern of the ENS. Thus, in the adult and aged distal parts of the colon a marked decrease in relative gene expression of neural key genes like NGFR, RET, NOS1 and a concurrent increase of CHAT were observed. Further, we detected notable regional differences of RET, CHAT, TH, and S100B comparing gene expression in aged proximal and distal colon. Interestingly, markers indicating cellular senescence or oxidative stress (SNCA, CASP3, CAT, SOD2, and TERT) were largely unchanged within the ENS. For the first time, our study also describes the age-dependent expression pattern of all major sodium channels within the ENS. Our results are in line with previous studies showing spatio-temporal differences within the mammalian ENS. PMID:25360110

  8. Lack of depotentiation at basal ganglia output neurons in PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Prescott, I A; Liu, L D; Dostrovsky, J O; Hodaie, M; Lozano, A M; Hutchison, W D

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease which produces bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-Dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of PD signs and symptoms, but long-term administration can lead to disabling motor fluctuations and L-Dopa-induced dyskinesias. In animal models of PD, a form of plasticity called depotentiation, or the reversal of previous potentiation, is selectively lost after the development of dyskinetic movements following L-Dopa treatment. We investigated whether low frequency stimulation (LFS) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) could induce depotentiation at synapses that had already undergone high frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced potentiation. To do so, we measured the field potentials (fEPs) evoked by stimulation from a nearby microelectrode in 28 patients undergoing implantation of deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or GPi. We found that GPi and SNr synapses in patients with less severe dyskinesia underwent greater depotentiation following LFS than in patients with more severe dyskinesia. This demonstration of impaired depotentiation in basal ganglia output nuclei in PD patients with dyskinesia is an important validation of animal models of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The ability of a synapse to reverse previous potentiation may be crucial to the normal function of the BG, perhaps by preventing saturation of the storage capacity required in motor learning and optimal motor function. Loss of this ability at the output nuclei may underlie, or contribute to the cellular basis of dyskinetic movements. PMID:25116960

  9. Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters

    E-print Network

    Dalca, Adrian Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles originating within the dural sac and exiting the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of ...

  10. Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters

    E-print Network

    Dalca, Adrian Vasile

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of ...

  11. Wavelet-based feature extraction technique for fruit shape classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slamet Riyadi; A. J. Ishak; M. M. Mustafa; A. Hussain

    2008-01-01

    For export, papaya fruit should be free of defects and damages. Abnormality in papaya fruit shape represents a defective fruit and is used as one of the main criteria to determine suitability of the fruit to be exported. This paper describes a wavelet-based technique used to perform feature extraction to extract unique features which are then used in the classification

  12. Detection of Shape Deformities using Yamabe flow and Beltrami coefficients

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    1 Detection of Shape Deformities using Yamabe flow and Beltrami coefficients Lok Ming Lui1,2 , Tsz are formulated as conformal deformations. We then detect abnormalities by computing the Beltrami coefficient associated uniquely with the quasi-conformal map. The Beltrami coefficient is a complex- valued function

  13. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment. PMID:24771247

  14. Behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Trauner, Doris A

    2014-11-01

    There is a high incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in children with autism even in the absence of clinical seizures. These findings are most prominent during sleep recordings. The significance of these abnormalities is unclear. Although studies do not all agree, there may be some association between cognitive function, behavior, and the presence or absence of epileptiform discharges. Small studies of anticonvulsant treatment mostly suggest an improvement in certain aspects of cognitive or behavioral functioning in these children, but larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to determine the potential relationship between epileptiform discharges on EEG, cognitive and behavioral functioning, and treatment effects in the population with autism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25453621

  15. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development. PMID:10441191

  16. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Vestibular and Saccadic Abnormalities in Gaucher's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke; Halmagyi, G Michael; Todd, Michael J; Aw, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease characterized by abnormal deposition of glucocerebroside due to the enzyme glucocerebrosidase deficiency, resulting in multi-organ pathology. GD type III has a progressive neurological involvement. We studied the vestibular and saccadic abnormalities in GD type III to determine if these parameters may be useful for assessing neurological involvement. We evaluated the vestibular and saccadic responses of two siblings with genetically identified GD type III on enzyme replacement therapy. Vestibular functions were assessed with the head impulse test (HIT), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Saccadic functions were investigated with volitional horizontal and vertical saccades to ±20°. Three-dimensional head and eye movements were recorded with dual-search coils and VEMP with surface electrodes. HIT showed impaired individual semicircular canal function with halved angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains and absent horizontal refixation saccade. Ocular and cervical VEMPs to air-conducted clicks were absent in the older sibling, and only cervical VEMP was present in the younger sibling indicating otolithic dysfunction. EVS showed prolonged onset latency and attenuated tonic and phasic responses suggesting impaired neural conduction and vestibular function. Horizontal saccadic velocity was miniscule (<30°/s) and multiple back-to-back saccades with saccade-vergence interaction were utilized to minimize eye position error in the older sibling. Vertical saccades were slightly abnormal, but vergence and smooth pursuit were normal in both siblings. Our findings suggest that GD affected the vestibular nuclei in addition to the paramedian pontine reticular formation. These vestibular and saccadic abnormalities may be useful biomarkers to monitor neurological deterioration. PMID:24142279

  19. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  20. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. KOCHAR; B. L. K UMAWAT; A. JOSHI; S. P. VYAS

    1998-01-01

    from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were severe anaemia ( p<0.001), as compared to uncom- plicated malaria ( p<0.01). The association of papil- treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haem- loedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria ( p< orrhages, 40

  1. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

  2. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Allin; M Rooney; T Griffiths; M Cuddy; J Wyatt; L Rifkin; R Murray

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Individuals born before 33 weeks’ gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS.Method: We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term-born controls at 17–18

  3. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  4. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  5. Screening for abnormal haemoglobins: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Schwartz, F C; Little, A J; Raine, D N

    1973-11-01

    A pilot study has been made of the implication of screening for abnormal haemoglobins in immigrant schoolchildren. An abnormality was detected by capillary blood haemoglobin electrophoresis in 8.4% of 6,835 children and a haemoglobinopathy outpatient clinic had to be established to deal with the heavy work load which resulted. The clinic was also used to determine the value of investigating the remaining members of the family once an abnormality had been detected in one child.Healthy siblings with normal haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns and normal iron and folate levels were studied to determine a normal range for haemoglobin in relation to age for adequately nourished immigrant children. The lower limit of the normal range was close to the mean value minus 1(1/2) S.D.; by using this definition 10.3% of 280 children were subsequently found to be anaemic.Population screening of this type is desirable, but further pilot studies of patient education, genetic counselling, organization of specimen collection, data processing, and follow-up health care facilities are required before screening is extended more widely in the United Kingdom. PMID:4753245

  6. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

    2013-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

  7. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered. PMID:24629711

  8. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

  9. Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-03-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

  10. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

  11. Effect of stellate ganglia stimulation on global and regional left ventricular function as assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Benharash, Peyman; Ajijola, Olujimi; Ennis, Daniel; Hadaya, Joseph; Vaseghi, Marmar; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Mahajan, Aman

    2013-03-15

    Left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics and regional strain during cardiac sympathetic efferent activation are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of left stellate ganglia (LSG) and right stellate ganglia (RSG) stimulation on cardiac twist/untiwst mechanics and regional strain. In nine pigs, echocardiographic imaging and LV pressure-volume measurements were performed before and during unilateral and bilateral stellate ganglion stimulation. LSG and RSG stimulation significantly augmented LV end-systolic pressure by 24% and 22% (P < 0.01), maximal rate of LV pressure change by 167% and 165% (P < 0.01), and time constant of LV relaxation by 20% and 12% (P < 0.01), respectively. RSG stimulation resulted in a greater chronotropic response than LSG stimulation (RSG: 68% vs. LSG: 12%, P < 0.01). Both LSG and RSG stimulation significantly increased global epicardial and endocardial LV rotation and diastolic untwisting rate and reduced the time to peak rotation (P < 0.05). However, LSG stimulation predominantly increased radial and circumferential strain in the LV inferoseptal, inferior, posterior, and lateral regions, whereas RSG stimulation primarily increased radial and circumferential strain in the anteroseptal, anterior, and lateral LV regions. Stimulation of both stellate ganglia led to a uniform increase in all LV segments. Our data suggest that LSG and RSG stimulation lead to a global increase in LV twist, driven by distinct regional strain heterogeneity that may result from myocardial innervation from the LSG and RSG. These findings provide a better understanding of the global and regional functional consequences of regional myocardial innervation from the LSG and RSG. PMID:23335795

  12. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ-like opioid peptide in nervous periesophageal ganglia of land snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    León-Olea, Martha; Miller-Pérez, Carolina; Sánchez-Islas, Eduardo; Mendoza-Sotelo, José; Garduńo-Gutiérrez, René; de Gortari, Patricia; Amaya, María Isabel

    2013-04-10

    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor are members of the endogenous opioid peptide family. In mammals N/OFQ modulates a variety of biological functions such as nociception, food intake, endocrine, control of neurotransmitter release, among others. In the molluscs Cepea nemoralis and Helix aspersa the administration of N/OFQ produces a thermopronociceptive effect. However, little is known about its existence and anatomic distribution in invertebrates. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomical distribution of N/OFQ like peptide immunoreactivity (N/OFQ-IL), to quantify the tissue content of this peptide, as well as to demostrate molecular evidence of N/OFQ mRNA in the nervous tissue of periesophageal ganglia of the land snail H. aspersa. Immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical, radioimmunoanalysis (RIA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were used. With regard to RT-PCR, the primers to detect expression of mRNA transcripts from H. aspersa were derived from the rat N/OFQ opioid peptide. We show a wide distribution of N/OFQ-IL in neurons and fibers in all perioesophageal ganglia, fibers of the neuropile, nerves, periganglionar connective tissue, aortic wall and neurohemal sinuses. The total amount of N/OFQ-IL in the perioesophageal ganglia (7.75 ± 1.75 pmol/g of tissue) quantified by RIA was similar to that found in mouse hypothalamus (10.1 ± 1.6 pmol/g of tissue). In this study, we present molecular evidence of N/OFQ mRNA expression. Some N/OFQ-IL neurons have been identified as neuroendocrine or involved in olfaction, hydro-electrolyte regulation, feeding, and thermonociception. Therefore, we suggest that N/OFQ may participate in these snail functions. PMID:23419890

  13. Localization of connexins in neurons and glia cells of the Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia by immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Azanza, M J; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Raso, M; Junquera, C; Lahoz, J M; Maestú, C; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Pérez-Castejón, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of cells expressing connexin 26 (Cx26) in the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal and left and right pleural ganglia of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. Altogether we have found approximately 452 immunoreactive neurons which represent the 4.7% of the total neurons counted. The stained large neurons (measured diameter 55-140 microm) occurred mostly on the peripheral surface of the ganglia while the small immunostained cells (5-25 microm diameter) were observed in groups near the neuropil. The number of large neurons giving positive Cx26-like immunostaining was small in comparison with that for medium (30-50 microm diameter) and small sized cells. The expression of Cx26 was also observed in the processes of glia cells localized among neurons somata and in the neuropil showing that the antiserum recognized epitopes in both protoplasmic and fibrous glia cells of Helix aspersa. The neuropils of all ganglia showed fibers densely immunostained. While we have observed a good specificity for Cx26-antiserum in neurons, a lack of reaction for Cx43 antiserum was observed in neurons and glia cells. The reaction for enolase antiserum in neurons was light and non-specific and a lack of reaction in glia cells and processes for GFAP antiserum was observed. Although the percentage of positive neurons for Cx26 antiserum was low is suggested that in normal physiological conditions or under stimulation the expression of connexin could be increased. The observed results can be considered of interest in the interpretation of Helix aspersa elemental two neuron networks synchronizing activity, observed under applied extremely low frequency magnetic fields. PMID:17330804

  14. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  15. How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Feet: Normal or Abnormal How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal Page Content The ... this extensive repetitive use leads to several normal changes associated with aging: The foot becomes wider and ...

  16. [Gait disturbances related to dysfunction of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Nobuo; Mizuno, Toshiki; Seo, Kazuya; Kondo, Masaki; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2010-11-01

    This review aimed to characterize the gait disturbances in Parkinson disease (PD) and highlight how a rehabilitation program would affect the care of patients with PD. The typical PD gait is a type of hypokinetic gait characterized by reduced stride length and velocity; shortening of the swing phase; and increase in the stance phase, double-limb support duration, and cadence rate. In the advanced phase of PD, start hesitation, shuffling and festinating gait, propulsion, and freezing of gait (FOG) become remarkable. Notably, in PD, attention may influence gait control, and sensory cueing may improve the stride length. Our study on gait impairment in PD by using a three-dimensional motion analysis system revealed that the stride length and walking speed decreased, but there was no change in cadence. The decreased stride length was due to reduction in the range of movement at the leg and pelvic joints. A 4-week physical rehabilitation program for PD improved the stride length and walking speed;this was achieved by increasing the range of movement of at the leg and pelvic joints. We also assessed the effects of a rehabilitation program for patients with PD who experienced FOG. Although the lower limb function was more impaired in patients with PD and FOG than in those with PD without FOG, the rehabilitation program was effective even for patients with PD and FOG. FOG might be associated with functional impairment of the lower limb as well as dysfunction of the fronto-basal ganglia circuit. We also reported 3 cases of camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) with autonomic dysfunction and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorders (RBD) and compared their symptoms with those reported elsewhere. We think that the pedunculopontine nuclear area may control the postural muscle tone and locomotion in PD. On the basis of the results of our rehabilitation programs, we speculate that physical modalities may modify synaptic plasticity by utilizing the cerebellar and/or afferent sensory system. These alternative systems are believed to be functionally intact in patients with PD. PMID:21068456

  17. Association between the basal ganglia and large-scale brain networks in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rektor, Ivan; Tom?ík, Jan; Mikl, Michal; Mare?ek, Radek; Brázdil, Milan; Rektorová, Irena

    2013-04-01

    Epilepsy may affect connectivity between the putamen and cortex even during the resting state. Putamen is part of the basal ganglia resting state network (BG-RSN) which is anti-correlated with the default mode network (DMN) in healthy subjects. Therefore, we aimed at studying the functional brain connectivity (FC) of the putamen with the cortical areas engaged in the DMN as well as with the primary somatomotor cortex which is a cortical region engaged in the BG-RSN. We compared the data obtained in patients with epilepsy with that in healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 10 HC and 24 patients with epilepsy: 14 patients with extratemporal epilepsy (PE) and 10 patients with temporal epilepsy (PT). Resting state fMRI data was obtained using the 1.5 T Siemens Symphony scanner. The Group ICA of fMRI Toolbox (GIFT) program was used for independent component analysis. The component representing the DMN was chosen according to a spatial correlation with a mask typical for DMN. The FC between the putamen and the primary somatomotor cortex was studied to assess the connectivity of the putamen within the BG-RSN. A second-level analysis was calculated to evaluate differences among the groups using SPM software. In patients with epilepsy as compared to HC, the magnitude of anti-correlation between the putamen and brain regions engaged in the DMN was significantly lower. In fact, the correlation changed the connectivity direction from negative in HC to positive in PE and PT. The disturbed FC of the BG in patients with epilepsy as compared with HC was further illustrated by a significant decrease in connectivity between the left/right putamen and the left/right somatomotor cortex, i.e. between regions that are engaged in the BG-RSN. The FC between the putamen and the cortex is disturbed in patients with epilepsy. This may reflect an altered function of the BG in epilepsy. PMID:23400553

  18. The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi induces inflammation and apoptosis in cells from dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, affects both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Radiculitis or nerve root inflammation, which can cause pain, sensory loss, and weakness, is the most common manifestation of peripheral LNB in humans. We previously reported that rhesus monkeys infected with B. burgdorferi develop radiculitis as well as inflammation in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), with elevated levels of neuronal and satellite glial cell apoptosis in the DRG. We hypothesized that B. burgdorferi induces inflammatory mediators in glial and neuronal cells and that this inflammatory milieu precipitates glial and neuronal apoptosis. Methods To model peripheral neuropathy in LNB we incubated normal rhesus DRG tissue explants with live B. burgdorferi ex vivo and identified immune mediators, producer cells, and verified the presence of B. burgdorferi in tissue sections by immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. We also set up primary cultures of DRG cells from normal adult rhesus macaques and incubated the cultures with live B. burgdorferi. Culture supernatants were subjected to multiplex ELISA to detect immune mediators, while the cells were evaluated for apoptosis by the in situ TUNEL assay. A role for inflammation in mediating apoptosis was assessed by evaluating the above phenomena in the presence and absence of various concentrations of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. As Schwann cells ensheath the dorsal roots of the DRG, we evaluated the potential of live B. burgdorferi to induce inflammatory mediators in human Schwann cell (HSC) cultures. Results Rhesus DRG tissue explants exposed to live B. burgdorferi showed localization of CCL2 and IL-6 in sensory neurons, satellite glial cells and Schwann cells while IL-8 was seen in satellite glial cells and Schwann cells. Live B. burgdorferi induced elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 in HSC and DRG cultures and apoptosis of sensory neurons. Dexamethasone reduced the levels of immune mediators and neuronal apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion In this model, B. burgdorferi induced an inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis of DRG. These pathophysiological processes could contribute to peripheral neuropathy in LNB. PMID:23866773

  19. Dental abnormalities associated with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, JR; Reiter, AM; Mauldin, EA; Casal, ML

    2009-01-01

    Objectives X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) occurs in several species, including humans, mice, cattle and dogs. The orofacial manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia in humans and mice have been extensively studied, but documentation of dental abnormalities in dogs is lacking. The current study describes the results of clinical and radiographic examinations of XLHED-affected dogs and demonstrates profound similarities to findings of XLHED-affected humans. Setting and sample population Section of Medical Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine. Clinical and radiographic oral examinations were performed on 17 dogs with XLHED, 3 normal dogs, and 2 dogs heterozygous for XLHED. Materials and methods The prevalence and severity of orofacial and dental abnormalities were evaluated by means of a sedated examination, photographs, and full-mouth intraoral radiographs. Results Crown and root abnormalities were common in dogs affected by XLHED, including hypodontia, oligodontia, conical crown shape, decreased number of cusps, decreased number of roots, and dilacerated roots. Persistent deciduous teeth were frequently encountered. Malocclusion was common, with Angle Class I mesioversion of the maxillary and/or mandibular canine teeth noted in 15 of 17 dogs. Angle Class III malocclusion (maxillary brachygnathism) was seen in one affected dog. Conclusion Dental abnormalities are common and severe in dogs with XLHED. Dental manifestations of canine XLHED share characteristics of brachyodont tooth type and diphyodont dentition, confirming this species to be an orthologous animal model for study of human disease. PMID:20078794

  20. Abnormal uterine cavity: differential diagnosis with MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Imaoka; Kazuro Sugimura; Takayuki Masui; Yasuo Takehara; Katsutoshi Ichijo; Masaaki Naito

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in distinguishing malignant from benign conditions in patients with an abnormal uterine cavity. Fifty-four patients that were suspected of having abnormal uterine cavities were retrospectively evaluated by using MR imaging. The diagnosis of an abnormal uterine cavity included a thickened endometrium, and\\/or a endometrial mass,

  1. Computed tomography and pulmonary function abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Sylvester; S. R. Desai; A. U. Wells; D. M. Hansell; M. Awogbade; S. L. Thein; A. Greenough

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in steady state had pulmonary abnormalities seen on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and whether any abnormalities correlated with contemporaneously diagnosed lung function abnormalities. A subsidiary question was whether the results of a noninvasive measure of haemolysis (end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCO) levels) correlated with pulmonary function

  2. Pulmonary function abnormalities in children with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K P Sylvester; R A Patey; P Milligan; M Dick; G F Rafferty; D Rees; S L Thein; A Greenough

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) have restrictive lung function abnormalities which are thought to result from repeated lung damage caused by episodes of pulmonary vaso-occlusion; such episodes start in childhood. A study was therefore undertaken to determine whether children with SCD have restrictive lung function abnormalities and whether the severity of such abnormalities increases with age.Methods: Sixty four

  3. Illness representations and emotion in people with abnormal screening results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin S. Hagger; Sheina Orbell

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of cognitive and emotional representations of illness specified by self-regulation theory on emotional responses of patients with abnormal screening results. Participants were 660 women who received an abnormal cervical smear and 701 men and women who received an abnormal colorectal cancer screening result. Participants completed postal questionnaires containing measures of illness representations and specific

  4. Electroacupuncture diminishes P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia of rats with visceral hypersensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Zhijun; Wu, Luyi; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Lidong; Tan, Linying; Dong, Ming; Xin, Yuhu

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was used to establish a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia from rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Results demonstrated that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores obviously increased following establishment of the model, indicating visceral hypersensitivity. Simultaneously, P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression increased in dorsal root ganglia. After bilateral electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu and Tianshu, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression decreased in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment improved visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by reducing P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia. PMID:25206727

  5. Electroacupuncture diminishes P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia of rats with visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zhijun; Wu, Luyi; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Lidong; Tan, Linying; Dong, Ming; Xin, Yuhu

    2013-03-25

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was used to establish a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia from rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Results demonstrated that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores obviously increased following establishment of the model, indicating visceral hypersensitivity. Simultaneously, P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression increased in dorsal root ganglia. After bilateral electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu and Tianshu, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression decreased in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment improved visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by reducing P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia. PMID:25206727

  6. Shapes and Shaping of Planetary Nebulae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Balick; Adam Frank

    2002-01-01

    We review the state of observational and theoretical studies of the shaping of planetary nebulae (PNe) and protoplanetary nebulae (pPNe). In the past decade, high-resolution studies of PNe have revealed a bewildering array of morphologies with elaborate symmetries. Recent imaging studies of pPNe exhibit an even richer array of shapes. The variety of shapes, sometimes multiaxial symmetries, carefully arranged systems

  7. Immunological and biological characteristics of the vasotocin-like activity in the head ganglia of gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, W H; Deyrup-Olsen, I; Martin, A W

    1984-04-01

    Extracts of cerebral and pleuro-pedal ganglia from two terrestrial slugs, Ariolimax columbianus and Limax maximus, and from the marine opisthobranch, Aplysia californica, contain immunoreactivity resembling that of a vasotocin or vasopressin. Radioimmunoassays using several antisera indicate that the immunoreactivity is not due to vasotocin, vasopressin, or any other known naturally occurring neurohypophyseal peptide. Immunoreactivity of extracts on a relatively nonspecific vasopressin antiserum is well correlated with activity on antidiuretic assays on rats. Both immunoreactivity and antidiuretic activity are adsorbed onto bovine neurophysin affinity columns. Thus these extracts contain one or more peptides that closely resemble the vertebrate antidiuretic hormones, vasotocin and vasopressin, both immunologically and pharmacologically. The amounts of immunoreactivity and antidiuretic activity in ganglion extracts do not appear to change during dehydration and rehydration. Although both ganglionic extracts and vasotocin stimulate exudation of fluid across the slug body wall, the present experiments provide no evidence that the vasotocin-like material(s) in these ganglia may participate as neurotransmitters or hormones in the regulation of fluid balance. This remains an attractive hypothesis. PMID:6724297

  8. Effects of castration on the immunoreactivity to NGF, BDNF and their receptors in the pelvic ganglia of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Squillacioti, Caterina; De Luca, A; Paino, G; Mirabella, N

    2008-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and are members of the neurotrophin family, a family of neurotrophic factors that also includes neurotrophin (NT) 3 and NT4/5. Neurotrophins have essential roles in the survival, development and differentiation of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophins exert their effects by binding to corresponding receptors which are formed by the tyrosine protein kinases TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and the low affinity neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR). In the present study, using immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis, we have investigated immunoreactivity to BDNF, NGF, TrkB, p75NTR and TrkA in the pelvic ganglia of normal and castrated rats. Neurons of the pelvic ganglia expressed both these neurotrophins and their receptors. After castration the immunoreactivity persisted. However, the number of BDNF- and p75NTR-IR cells statistically significant decreased after castration. These results suggest that castration modulates the expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in pelvic autonomic neurons. PMID:18591156

  9. Topographic organization of efferent neurons with different neurochemical characters in the cerebral ganglia of the snail Helix pomatia.

    PubMed

    Hernádi, L

    2000-06-15

    This study provides a description of the organization of neurons efferent to different head areas in the cerebral ganglia of Helix pomatia, revealed by simultaneous Ni-lysine and Co-lysine back-filling of different pairs of cerebral nerves. The backfills show that labeled cerebral neurons that innervate the head areas are concentrated in seven representation foci distributed in different parts of the cerebral ganglia. Almost each head area is represented in each focus. At a gross level, the representation of the different head areas in the representation foci shows a topographic arrangement. Each focus is constituted by neurochemically different groups of neurons. All head areas are innervated by serotonin-containing fibers from a single focus (Focus 2) and by dopamine-containing fibers from Foci 1, 2, and 4. However, they are innervated by CARP and FMRFamide-containing fibers from all of the foci. The combination of retrograde labeling with 5, 6-dihydroxytriptamine induced pigment labeling of serotonin-containing neurons or with fluorescence tyrosinehydroxylase immunocytochemistry to detect dopamine-containing neurons showed that the different head areas are topographycally represented in the clusters of both the serotonin- and dopamine-containing cells. The combination of Ni-lysine backfillings from different cerebral nerves with fluorescence CARP and FMRFamide immunocytochemistry revealed that the head areas are represented also in both the CARP and FMRFamide immunoreactive groups of neurons in the different foci. PMID:10862109

  10. The effects of age on resting state functional connectivity of the basal ganglia from young to middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Manza, Peter; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2015-02-15

    The basal ganglia nuclei are critical for a variety of cognitive and motor functions. Much work has shown age-related structural changes of the basal ganglia. Yet less is known about how the functional interactions of these regions with the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum change throughout the lifespan. Here, we took advantage of a convenient sample and examined resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 250 adults 18 to 49 years of age, focusing specifically on the caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN). There are a few main findings to report. First, with age, caudate head connectivity increased with a large region of ventromedial prefrontal/medial orbitofrontal cortex. Second, across all subjects, pallidum and putamen showed negative connectivity with default mode network (DMN) regions such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, in support of anti-correlation of the "task-positive" network (TPN) and DMN. This negative connectivity was reduced with age. Furthermore, pallidum, posterior putamen and VTA/SN connectivity to other TPN regions, such as somatomotor cortex, decreased with age. These results highlight a distinct effect of age on cerebral functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum and VTA/SN from young to middle adulthood and may help research investigating the etiologies or monitoring outcomes of neuropsychiatric conditions that implicate dopaminergic dysfunction. PMID:25514518

  11. Impaired L1 and executive control after left basal ganglia damage in a bilingual Basque-Spanish person with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferré, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Inés Ansaldo, Ana

    2011-06-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the left basal ganglia, presented with executive deficits and aphasia, characterised by more impaired language processing in Basque, his L1. Assessment with the Bilingual Aphasia Test revealed impaired spontaneous and automatic speech production and speech rate in L1, as well as impaired L2-to-L1 sentence translation. Later observation led to the assessment of verbal and non-verbal executive control, which allowed JZ's impaired performance on language tasks to be related to executive dysfunction. In line with previous research, we report the significant attrition of L1 following damage to the left basal ganglia, reported for the first time in a Basque-Spanish bilingual. Implications for models of declarative and procedural memory are discussed. PMID:21453016

  12. Surgery for Wrist Ganglia: One-Hundred and Twenty-Two Patients Reviewed 8 Years After Operation

    PubMed Central

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Hĺberg, Řyvind; Borchgrevink, Grethe Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Wrist ganglia give few symptoms, but are a common reason for referral to a hand surgeon. We studied patient long-term satisfaction after operation. We reviewed 122 patients, who were operated for dorsal (n=82) and volar (n=40) wrist ganglia 8 years before (range 3-11). Three radial arteries were injured during surgery for volar a ganglion. By the time of review 33 patients (27%) had a recurrence or had been re-operated. Radical surgery did not reduce the recurrence rate significantly. Reported general complaints from the wrist improved from a mean visual analogue scores (VAS, 0=best; 100= worst) of 56 before surgery to VAS 14 at review and unsightliness from VAS 50 to VAS 14. Patients were equally happy with transverse and longitudinal scars. Ten patients (8%) stated that they would not have consented to surgery if they had known the outcome in advance. We conclude that, in spite of a high recurrence rate, most patients are happy with the results of surgery. PMID:24744838

  13. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

  14. Consequences of chromosomal abnormalities in tumor development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, I

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights recent advances in the molecular structure and function of proteins that are activated or created by chromosomal abnormalities and discusses their possible role in tumor development. The molecular characterization of these proteins has revealed that tumor-specific fusion proteins are the consequence of most chromosome translocations associated with leukemias and solid tumors. An emerging common theme is that creation of these proteins disrupts the normal development of tumor-specific target cells by blocking apoptosis. These insights identify these chromosomal translocation-associated genes as potential targets for improved cancer therapies. PMID:9442903

  15. Functional networks in motor sequence learning: abnormal topographies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Ghilardi, M F; Mentis, M; Dhawan, V; Fukuda, M; Hacking, A; Moeller, J R; Ghez, C; Eidelberg, D

    2001-01-01

    We examined the neural circuitry underlying the explicit learning of motor sequences in normal subjects and patients with early stage Parkinson's disease (PD) using 15O-water (H2 15O) positron emission tomography (PET) and network analysis. All subjects were scanned while learning motor sequences in a task emphasizing explicit learning, and during a kinematically controlled motor execution reference task. Because different brain networks are thought to subserve target acquisition and retrieval during motor sequence learning, we used separate behavioral indices to quantify these aspects of learning during the PET experiments. In the normal cohort, network analysis of the PET data revealed a significant covariance pattern associated with acquisition performance. This topography was characterized by activations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFdl), rostral supplementary motor area (preSMA), anterior cingulate cortex, and in the left caudate/putamen. A second independent covariance pattern was associated with retrieval performance. This topography was characterized by bilateral activations in the premotor cortex (PMC), and in the right precuneus and posterior parietal cortex. The normal learning-related topographies failed to predict acquisition performance in PD patients and predicted retrieval performance less accurately in the controls. A separate network analysis was performed to identify discrete learning-related topographies in the PD cohort. In PD patients, acquisition performance was associated with a covariance pattern characterized by activations in the left PFdl, ventral prefrontal, and rostral premotor regions, but not in the striatum. Retrieval performance in PD patients was associated with a covariance pattern characterized by activations in the right PFdl, and bilaterally in the PMC, posterior parietal cortex, and precuneus. These results suggest that in early stage PD sequence learning networks are associated with additional cortical activation compensating for abnormalities in basal ganglia function. PMID:11198104

  16. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  17. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: detection and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C; Marks, W M

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies. PMID:3010374

  18. [Classification and genetic abnormalities of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Ichiro; Iida, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells which develops through genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes and the bone marrow microenvironment interaction. Despite recent tremendous progress in treatments for MM, a complete cure remains elusive. Further development of more effective therapeutic strategies is needed. The International Staging System (ISS) reported in 2005 has been used widely as the most simple and powerful prognostic classification in MM, but genetic abnormalities affecting prognosis were not considered in this model. In the past decade, non-random chromosomal aberrations such as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), amp1q21 and del17p have shown to be poor prognostic value, and moreover, recent progress in genome-wide deep sequencing studies has revealed novel mutations and intra-tumor subclonal heterogeneity which may explain clinical phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Here we review the current understanding of genetic abnormalities in MM for developing better prognostic classification and molecular targeted therapies leading to the stratified or personalized medicine. PMID:25626298

  19. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE. PMID:25383319

  20. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  1. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  2. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojun; Kim, Su-Hyun; Huh, So-Young; Kim, Ho Jin

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced. PMID:23259063

  3. Abnormal Reward System Activation in Mania

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Birgit; Greenhouse, Ian; Ongur, Dost; Walter, Henrik; Heckers, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of reward signals is a function of dopamine, a neurotransmitter known to be involved in the mechanism of psychosis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated how expectation and receipt of monetary rewards modulate brain activation in patients with bipolar mania and schizophrenia. We studied 12 acutely manic patients with a history of bipolar disorder, 12 patients with a current episode of schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia and 12 healthy subjects. All patients were treated with dopamine antagonists at the time of the study. Subjects performed a delayed incentive paradigm with monetary reward in the scanner that allowed for investigating effects of expectation, receipt, and omission of rewards. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects showed the expected activation of dopaminergic brain areas, that is, ventral tegmentum activation upon expectation of monetary rewards and nucleus accumbens activation during receipt vs omission of rewards. In manic patients, however, we did not find a similar pattern of brain activation and the differential signal in the nucleus accumbens upon receipt vs omission of rewards was significantly lower compared to the healthy control subjects. Our findings provide evidence for abnormal function of the dopamine system during receipt or omission of expected rewards in bipolar disorder. These deficits in prediction error processing in acute mania may help to explain symptoms of disinhibition and abnormal goal pursuit regulation. PMID:17987058

  4. Reduced basal ganglia volumes in trichotillomania measured via morphometric magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, R L; Rauch, S L; Breiter, H C; Grachev, I D; Baer, L; Kennedy, D N; Keuthen, N J; Savage, C R; Manzo, P A; Caviness, V S; Jenike, M A

    1997-07-01

    A morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study compared volumes of brain structures in 10 female subjects with trichotillomania (repetitive hair-pulling) versus 10 normal controls matched for sex, age, handedness, and education. Three-dimensional MRI scans were blindly normalized and segmented using well-characterized semiautomated intensity and differential contour algorithms by signal intensity-frequency histograms. Consistent with one a priori hypothesis, left putamen volume was found to be significantly smaller in trichotillomania subjects as compared with normal matched controls. This is the first report of a structural brain abnormality in trichotillomania. Results are discussed in terms of putative relationships between trichotillomania, Tourette's syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:9193740

  5. Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

  6. ABNORMAL SIREX NOCTILO F. (HYMENOPTERA: SIRICIDAE)

    E-print Network

    , one wasp was female in colour and morphology except for one male hind leg, easily distinguished from female legs by a greater thickness and the black colour (Plate IB). Another wasp had a normal male body shape but its coloration and leg morphology was female. The most spectacular of these gynandromorphs

  7. Hippocampal shape analysis: surface-based representation and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Ford, James; Makedon, Fillia; Saykin, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Surface-based representation and classification techniques are studied for hippocampal shape analysis. The goal is twofold: (1) develop a new framework of salient feature extraction and accurate classification for 3D shape data; (2) detect hippocampal abnormalities in schizophrenia using this technique. A fine-scale spherical harmonic expansion is employed to describe a closed 3D surface object. The expansion can then easily be transformed to extract only shape information (i.e., excluding translation, rotation, and scaling) and create a shape descriptor comparable across different individuals. This representation captures shape features and is flexible enough to do shape modeling, identify statistical group differences, and generate similar synthetic shapes. Principal component analysis is used to extract a small number of independent features from high dimensional shape descriptors, and Fisher's linear discriminant is applied for pattern classification. This framework is shown to be able to perform well in distinguishing clear group differences as well as small and noisy group differences using simulated shape data. In addition, the application of this technique to real data indicates that group shape differences exist in hippocampi between healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  8. Do triangles play tricks? Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Abell; F. Happé; U Frith

    2000-01-01

    Computer-presented animations were used to elicit attributions of actions, interactions and mental states. Two triangles moved around the screen according to one of three conditions. Descriptions of the animations were rated according to accuracy and type of description. Adults predominantly used action descriptions for Random animations (e.g. bouncing), interaction descriptions for Goal-directed (G-D) sequences (fighting), and mentalising descriptions for Theory

  9. Abnormal intracellular ca(2+)homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Missiaen, L; Robberecht, W; van den Bosch, L; Callewaert, G; Parys, J B; Wuytack, F; Raeymaekers, L; Nilius, B; Eggermont, J; De Smedt, H

    2000-07-01

    A whole range of cell functions are regulated by the free cytosolic Ca(2+)concentration. Activator Ca(2+)from the extracellular space enters the cell through various types of Ca(2+)channels and sometimes the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger, and is actively extruded from the cell by Ca(2+)pumps and Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchangers. Activator Ca(2+)can also be released from internal Ca(2+)stores through inositol trisphosphate or ryanodine receptors and is taken up into these organelles by means of Ca(2+)pumps. The resulting Ca(2+)signal is highly organized in space, frequency and amplitude because the localization and the integrated free cytosolic Ca(2+)concentration over time contain specific information. Mutations or functional abnormalities in the various Ca(2+)transporters, which in vitro seem to induce trivial functional alterations, therefore, often lead to a plethora of diseases. Skeletal-muscle pathology can be caused by mutations in ryanodine receptors (malignant hyperthermia, porcine stress syndrome, central-core disease), dihydropyridine receptors (familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia, muscular dysgenesis) or Ca(2+)pumps (Brody disease). Ca(2+)-pump mutations in cutaneous epidermal keratinocytes and cochlear hair cells lead to, skin diseases (Darier and Hailey-Hailey) and hearing/vestibular problems respectively. Mutated Ca(2+)channels in the photoreceptor plasma membrane cause vision problems. Hemiplegic migraine, spinocerebellar ataxia type-6, one form of episodic ataxia and some forms of epilepsy can be due to mutations in plasma-membrane Ca(2+)channels, while antibodies against these channels play a pathogenic role in all patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and may be of significance in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain inositol trisphosphate receptors have been hypothesized to contribute to the pathology in opisthotonos mice, manic-depressive illness and perhaps Alzheimer's disease. Various abnormalities in Ca(2+)-handling proteins have been described in heart during aging, hypertrophy, heart failure and during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and in diabetes mellitus. In some instances, disease-causing mutations or abnormalities provide us with new insights into the cell biology of the various Ca(2+)transporters. PMID:10942700

  10. Neural Stem Cells in Drosophila: Molecular Genetic Mechanisms Underlying Normal Neural Proliferation and Abnormal Brain Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nidhi; Reichert, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells in Drosophila are currently one of the best model systems for understanding stem cell biology during normal development and during abnormal development of stem cell-derived brain tumors. In Drosophila brain development, the proliferative activity of neural stem cells called neuroblasts gives rise to both the optic lobe and the central brain ganglia, and asymmetric cell divisions are key features of this proliferation. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the asymmetric cell divisions by which these neuroblasts self-renew and generate lineages of differentiating progeny have been studied extensively and involve two major protein complexes, the apical complex which maintains polarity and controls spindle orientation and the basal complex which is comprised of cell fate determinants and their adaptors that are segregated into the differentiating daughter cells during mitosis. Recent molecular genetic work has established Drosophila neuroblasts as a model for neural stem cell-derived tumors in which perturbation of key molecular mechanisms that control neuroblast proliferation and the asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants lead to brain tumor formation. Identification of novel candidate genes that control neuroblast self-renewal and differentiation as well as functional analysis of these genes in normal and tumorigenic conditions in a tissue-specific manner is now possible through genome-wide transgenic RNAi screens. These cellular and molecular findings in Drosophila are likely to provide valuable genetic links for analyzing mammalian neural stem cells and tumor biology. PMID:22737173

  11. Prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in Tourette Syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry and magnetization transfer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Kaufmann, Jörn; Grosskreutz, Julian; Dengler, Reinhard; Emrich, Hinderk M; Peschel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS). To identify TS related abnormalities in gray and white matter we used optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) which are more sensitive to tissue alterations than conventional MRI and provide a quantitative measure of macrostructural integrity. Methods Volumetric high-resolution anatomical T1-weighted MRI and MTI were acquired in 19 adult, unmedicated male TS patients without co-morbidities and 20 age- and sex-matched controls on a 1.5 Tesla neuro-optimized GE scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using an optimized version of VBM in SPM2. Results Using VBM, TS patients showed significant decreases in gray matter volumes in prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas, left caudate nucleus and left postcentral gyrus. Decreases in white matter volumes were detected in the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus and the anterior corpus callosum. Increases were found in the left middle frontal gyrus and left sensorimotor areas. In MTI, white matter reductions were seen in the right medial frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally and the right cingulate gyrus. Tic severity was negatively correlated with orbitofrontal structures, the right cingulate gyrus and parts of the parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex bilaterally. Conclusion Our MRI in vivo neuropathological findings using two sensitive and unbiased techniques support the hypothesis that alterations in frontostriatal circuitries underlie TS pathology. We suggest that anomalous frontal lobe association and projection fiber bundles cause disinhibition of the cingulate gyrus and abnormal basal ganglia function. PMID:19435502

  12. Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    de Simone, G.; Scalfi, L.; Galderisi, M.; Celentano, A.; Di Biase, G.; Tammaro, P.; Garofalo, M.; Mureddu, G. F.; de Divitiis, O.; Contaldo, F.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused demonstrable abnormalities of mitral valve motion and reduced left ventricular mass and filling associated with systolic dysfunction. PMID:8142200

  13. The Role of the Basal Ganglia and Its Cortical Connections in Sequence Learning: Evidence from Implicit and Explicit Sequence Learning in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Leonora; Khan, Zunera; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    Implicit (unconscious/incidental) and explicit (conscious/intentional) learning are considered to have distinct neural substrates. It is proposed that implicit learning is mediated by the basal ganglia (BG), while explicit learning has been linked to the medial temporal lobes (MTL). To test such a dissociation we investigated implicit and explicit…

  14. Stimulation of spermatogonial DNA synthesis in slug gonad by a factor released from cerebral ganglia under the influence of long days.

    PubMed

    Sokolove, P G; Melrose, G R; Gordon, T M; O'Neill, M C

    1983-04-01

    Incorporation of [3H]thymidine into gonadal DNA was shown to increase 1 week after implantation into an immature slug (Limax maximus) of a "brain" (circumesophageal ring of ganglia) from a male-phase donor. Light microscope autoradiography revealed that in stimulated gonads labeling was localized primarily in the nuclei of spermatagonia. Implant-stimulated spermatogonial DNA synthesis was found to depend upon implantation of supraesophageal (cerebral) ganglia. Neither subesophageal ganglia implants nor immature supraesophageal implants had an effect. Thymidine incorporation could also be stimulated by exposure of slugs to long-day lightcycles (LD 16:8) for 3 to 4 weeks. Similar duration of long-day treatment was also adequate to trigger male-phase development even after animals were returned to short days (LD 8:16). The results are consistent with the view that 3 to 4 weeks of long-day lightcycles are required to promote irreversibly the release from slug cerebral ganglia of a male-phase gonadotropic factor which directly or indirectly promotes spermatogonial proliferation. PMID:6600155

  15. Stimulation of spermatogonial DNA synthesis in slug gonad by a factor released from cerebral ganglia under the influence of long days

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolove, P.G.; Melrose, G.R.; Gordon, T.M.; O'Neill, M.C.

    1983-04-01

    Incorporation of (3H)thymidine into gonadal DNA was shown to increase 1 week after implantation into an immature slug (Limax maximus) of a ''brain'' (circumesophageal ring of ganglia) from a male-phase donor. Light microscope autoradiography revealed that in stimulated gonads labeling was localized primarily in the nuclei of spermatagonia. Implant-stimulated spermatogonial DNA synthesis was found to depend upon implantation of supraesophageal (cerebral) ganglia. Neither subesophageal ganglia implants nor immature supraesophageal implants had an effect. Thymidine incorporation could also be stimulated by exposure of slugs to long-day lightcycles (LD 16:8) for 3 to 4 weeks. Similar duration of long-day treatment was also adequate to trigger male-phase development even after animals were returned to short days (LD 8:16). The results are consistent with the view that 3 to 4 weeks of long-day lightcycles are required to promote irreversibly the release from slug cerebral ganglia of a male-phase gonadotropic factor which directly or indirectly promotes spermatogonial proliferation.

  16. Central projections of tibial sensory fibers within the three thoracic ganglia of crickets ( Gryllus campestris L., Gvyllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckehard Eibl; Franz Huber

    1979-01-01

    Summary Cobalt sulfide (CoS) staining, via axonal filling, was used to reveal the central projections of fibers of the tympanal nerves in the cricket prothoracic ganglion, as well as those of serially homonymous nerves in the mesothoracic and metathoracic ganglia. The main results are:1.The branch of the anterior leg nerve termed the tympanal nerve (TB in Fig. 2) comprises a

  17. The High Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA in Human Trigeminal Ganglia Is Not a Function of Age or Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Hill; Melvyn J. Ball; Donna M. Neumann; Ann M. Azcuy; Partha S. Bhattacharjee; Saadallah Bouhanik; Christian Clement; Walter J. Lukiw; Timothy P. Foster; Manish Kumar; Herbert E. Kaufman; Hilary W. Thompson

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in human trigeminal ganglia (TG) with respect to age, gender, and postmortem interval (PMI). Human TG (n 174, obtained from the Oregon Brain Bank, with data on age, gender, and PMI) were analyzed for HSV-1 DNA copies (HSV-1 DNA

  18. Temporal Coupling with Cortex Distinguishes Spontaneous Neuronal Activities in Identified Basal Ganglia-Recipient and Cerebellar-Recipient Zones of the Motor Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kouichi C.; Sharott, Andrew; Magill, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons of the motor thalamus mediate basal ganglia and cerebellar influences on cortical activity. To elucidate the net result of ?-aminobutyric acid-releasing or glutamatergic bombardment of the motor thalamus by basal ganglia or cerebellar afferents, respectively, we recorded the spontaneous activities of thalamocortical neurons in distinct identified “input zones” in anesthetized rats during defined cortical activity states. Unexpectedly, the mean rates and brain state dependencies of the firing of neurons in basal ganglia-recipient zone (BZ) and cerebellar-recipient zone (CZ) were matched during slow-wave activity (SWA) and cortical activation. However, neurons were distinguished during SWA by their firing regularities, low-threshold spike bursts and, more strikingly, by the temporal coupling of their activities to ongoing cortical oscillations. The firing of neurons across the BZ was stronger and more precisely phase-locked to cortical slow (?1 Hz) oscillations, although both neuron groups preferentially fired at the same phase. In contrast, neurons in BZ and CZ fired at different phases of cortical spindles (7–12 Hz), but with similar strengths of coupled firing. Thus, firing rates do not reflect the predicted inhibitory–excitatory imbalance across the motor thalamus, and input zone-specific temporal coding through oscillatory synchronization with the cortex could partly mediate the different roles of basal ganglia and cerebellum in behavior. PMID:23042738

  19. Adenosine A2A receptor in the monkey basal ganglia: ultrastructural localization and co-localization with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the striatum

    E-print Network

    Hall, Randy A

    localization in the monkey basal ganglia Associate Editor: Paul Sawchenko Keywords: mGluR5, Parkinson's Disease for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and other neurological disorders. In rodents, the therapeutic efficacy of A neuromodulator that binds to at least four known G-protein- coupled receptors in the brain (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3

  20. Clinical Significance of Basal Ganglia Alterations at Brain MRI and 1 H MRS in Cirrhosis and Role in the Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Spahr; Pierre R. Burkhard; Hannelore Grötzsch; Antoine Hadengue

    2002-01-01

    In hepatic encephalopathy, a progressive and diffuse impairment in brain function is associated with gradual alterations that can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). In some patients, a variety of movement disorders suggestive of extrapyramidal impairment points toward basal ganglia (BG) alterations. Accordingly, (i) hyperintensities at MRI predominant in the pallidum, an

  1. Abnormal migration of T lymphocyte clones.

    PubMed

    Dailey, M O; Fathman, C G; Butcher, E C; Pillemer, E; Weissman, I

    1982-05-01

    Several in vitro T cell clones were markedly deficient in their ability to home to peripheral lymphoid tissue. This was found for an alloreactive noncytolytic clone, a soluble antigen- (KLH)specific line, and cytotoxic clones specific for allogeneic cells and for Abelson virus-induced lymphoma cells. This abnormal circulation pattern was probably caused by the lack of the receptors of the lymphocytes for high endothelial venules (HEV), as implied by the lack of binding of these T cells to HEV in frozen sections of mouse lymph node and Peyer's patches. The loss of surface receptors that are necessary for normal lymphocyte migration may thereby alter the in vivo function of adoptively transferred T cells. PMID:6460817

  2. Cardiac abnormalities and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Joanna; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many factors have been implicated in SIDS cases including environmental influences such as sleeping arrangements and smoking. Most recently, cardiac abnormalities have been hypothesised to play a role in some cases, particularly the primary genetic arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both post-mortem and clinical studies of SIDS cases have provided supporting evidence for the involvement of cardiac genetic disorders in SIDS. This review provides a summary of this evidence focussing particularly on the primary hypothesis related to underlying familial LQTS. In addition, the current literature relating to other cardiac genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS) and structural heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is briefly presented. Finally, the implications of a possible cardiac genetic cause of SIDS is discussed with reference to the need for genetic testing in SIDS cases and subsequent clinical and genetic testing in family members. PMID:25301030

  3. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  4. Liver abnormalities in drug and substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine. PMID:24090944

  5. Dysmorphic syndromes with demonstrable biochemical abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P T; Thompson, E

    1988-01-01

    Many inborn errors of metabolism are associated with dysmorphic manifestations. In this review, we have attempted to correlate the dysmorphic features with the underlying metabolic defect or its consequences. Most of the defects which we have discussed affect the synthesis or degradation of macromolecules (for example, collagen, elastin, bone mineral, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and triglycerides). Such defects may affect either a single enzyme or multiple enzymes in specific organelles, such as lysosomes or peroxisomes, or they may affect hormonal control of synthesis and degradation. Examples are also included of defects affecting the catabolism of simple molecules when accumulating metabolites have a secondary effect on macromolecules, as in homocystinuria. In a number of instances, however, the correlation between the biochemical abnormality and the dysmorphic features are not understood. Ultimately, all dysmorphic syndromes will be attributable to a biochemical defect or its effects. The aim of this overview is to provide an insight into the relationship between the two at the present time. Images PMID:3050094

  6. Post the Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    In this game students use basic transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to make one or more shapes coincide with a congruent shape on a Cartesian plane. Players are challenged to complete the matching in the fewest possible moves.

  7. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L.; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ( vs. mmHg, ) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; vs. mmHg, ), and RV ? was significantly prolonged ( vs. ms, ). There were strong correlations between RV ? and RV minimum diastolic pressure (, ) and between RV ? and RVEDP (, ). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ( vs. mmHg/mL, ) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change (, ). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464

  8. Atypical face shape and genomic structural variants in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chinthapalli, Krishna; Bartolini, Emanuele; Novy, Jan; Suttie, Michael; Marini, Carla; Falchi, Melania; Fox, Zoe; Clayton, Lisa M. S.; Sander, Josemir W.; Guerrini, Renzo; Depondt, Chantal; Hennekam, Raoul; Hammond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Many pathogenic structural variants of the human genome are known to cause facial dysmorphism. During the past decade, pathogenic structural variants have also been found to be an important class of genetic risk factor for epilepsy. In other fields, face shape has been assessed objectively using 3D stereophotogrammetry and dense surface models. We hypothesized that computer-based analysis of 3D face images would detect subtle facial abnormality in people with epilepsy who carry pathogenic structural variants as determined by chromosome microarray. In 118 children and adults attending three European epilepsy clinics, we used an objective measure called Face Shape Difference to show that those with pathogenic structural variants have a significantly more atypical face shape than those without such variants. This is true when analysing the whole face, or the periorbital region or the perinasal region alone. We then tested the predictive accuracy of our measure in a second group of 63 patients. Using a minimum threshold to detect face shape abnormalities with pathogenic structural variants, we found high sensitivity (4/5, 80% for whole face; 3/5, 60% for periorbital and perinasal regions) and specificity (45/58, 78% for whole face and perinasal regions; 40/58, 69% for periorbital region). We show that the results do not seem to be affected by facial injury, facial expression, intellectual disability, drug history or demographic differences. Finally, we use bioinformatics tools to explore relationships between facial shape and gene expression within the developing forebrain. Stereophotogrammetry and dense surface models are powerful, objective, non-contact methods of detecting relevant face shape abnormalities. We demonstrate that they are useful in identifying atypical face shape in adults or children with structural variants, and they may give insights into the molecular genetics of facial development. PMID:22975390

  9. Shape Memory Polymer Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. Mather; Xiaofan Luo; Ingrid A. Rousseau

    2009-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed significant advances in the field of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the elucidation of new compositions for property tuning, the discovery of new mechanisms for shape fixing and recovery, and the initiation of phenomenological modeling. We critically review research findings on new shape memory polymers along these lines, emphasizing exciting progress in the areas

  10. The Shape of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markson, Lori; Diesendruck, Gil; Bloom, Paul

    2008-01-01

    When children learn the name of a novel object, they tend to extend that name to other objects similar in shape--a phenomenon referred to as the shape bias. Does the shape bias stem from learned associations between names and categories of objects, or does it derive from more general properties of children's understanding of language and the…

  11. Exon 11 skipping of SCN10A coding for voltage-gated sodium channels in dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Schirmeyer, Jana; Szafranski, Karol; Leipold, Enrico; Mawrin, Christian; Platzer, Matthias; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.8 (encoded by SCN10A) is predominantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and plays a critical role in pain perception. We analyzed SCN10A transcripts isolated from human DRGs using deep sequencing and found a novel splice variant lacking exon 11, which codes for 98 amino acids of the domain I/II linker. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed an abundance of this variant of up to 5–10% in human, while no such variants were detected in mouse or rat. Since no obvious functional differences between channels with and without the exon-11 sequence were detected, it is suggested that SCN10A exon 11 skipping in humans is a tolerated event. PMID:24763188

  12. A dorsal root ganglia cell line derived from trisomy 16 fetal mice, a model for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Allen, David D; Cárdenas, Ana María; Arriagada, Christian; Bennett, Lori B; García, Carlos J; Caviedes, Raúl; Rapoport, Stanley I; Caviedes, Pablo

    2002-03-25

    We have established two immortalized cell lines from dorsal root ganglia of normal (G4b) and trisomy 16 mice (GT1), a model for Down syndrome. By immunohistochemistry, both cell lines exhibit neuronal traits and lack glial markers. GTl cells exhibited greater [3H]choline uptake than G4b cells. K+ and nicotine-mediated acetylcholine release was greater in GT1 cells. Basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was significantly lower in GTl cells. More GTl cells responded to neurotransmitters with a transient [Ca2+]i increase compared to G4b cells, but both cell types showed similar amplitudes of [Ca2+]i responses. The results show that both cell lines retain neuronal characteristics and respond to specific neurotransmitter stimuli. Altered GT1 cell responses could be related to neuronal pathophysiology in Down's syndrome. PMID:11930168

  13. Study of baicalin on sympathoexcitation induced by myocardial ischemia via P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shuangmei; Xu, Baohua; Li, Guodong; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; Xie, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong; Xu, Xiaoling; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-05-01

    After the myocardial ischemia, injured myocardial tissues released large quantity of ATP, which activated P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia and made the SCG postganglionic neurons excited. Excitatory of sympathetic postganglionic efferent neurons increased the blood pressure and heart rates, which aggravated the myocardial ischemic injury. Baicalin has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Our study showed that baicalin reduced the incremental concentration of serum CK-MB, cTn-T, epinephrine and ATP, decreased the up-regulated expression levels of P2X3 mRNA and protein in SCG after MI, and then inhibited the sympathetic excitatory activity triggered by MI injury. These results indicated that baicalin acted on P2X3 receptor was involved in the transmission of sympathetic excitation after the myocardial ischemic injury. Baicalin might decrease sympathetic activity via inhibiting P2X3 receptor in rat SCG to protect the myocardium. PMID:25554221

  14. The effects of the acute administration of low-dosage ethanol on the phasic neurochemical oscillations of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Noori, H R

    2012-09-01

    The effects of the acute ethanol consumption on the brain's neurochemistry are largely studied at the synaptic level. Here, the acute action of low dosages of ethanol, in terms of the inhibition of the glutamatergic system through antagonizing the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, on the neurochemical oscillations along the neurocircuitry of the basal ganglia is investigated by mathematical models. Substantial alterations in the dynamical behaviour of the neurochemical oscillations after single administration of low dosages of ethanol have been observed. Significant dynamical changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate systems along the subthalamic-pallidal feedback loop and the dopamine system of the striatal complex suggest new perspectives in the understanding of the ethanol-induced motor dysfunctions. PMID:21543550

  15. Detection of Equid herpesvirus 9 DNA in the trigeminal ganglia of a Burchell's zebra from the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Kerstin; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Fukushi, Hideto; Allen, George; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) was isolated from a herd of Thomson's gazelles affected by encephalitis. The natural host of EHV-9 is unknown, but zebras are suspected to be the source of infection in gazelles. To prove this hypothesis, we analyzed 43 sera from Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) and 21 Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) from the Serengeti ecosystem for neutralizing antibodies. Seven zebra sera were positive for EHV-1, EHV-9 and EHV-1 from Grevy's zebra strains T965 and T616. The trigeminal ganglia of 17 other Burchell's zebras and one Thomson's gazelle were tested by EHV-9 gB and EHV-1 ICP0-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR sequencing confirmed that one zebra ganglion was positive for EHV-9. These results suggest that the Burchell's zebras were exposed to EHV-9 and latently infected. PMID:19122410

  16. Abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Drake, M E; Brendle, A; Erwin, C W

    1985-04-01

    A patient with typical clinical and electromyographic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was found to have abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Evoked responses are generally considered to be normal in ALS despite occasional pathological and clinical evidence of sensory involvement. Thus, abnormal SEPs are considered to argue against a diagnosis of ALS. Based on the present case and a review of the literature, we suggest that abnormal SEPs need not exclude a diagnosis of ALS. PMID:2579797

  17. Temporal Changes of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor in the Basal Ganglia as a Possible Structure-Specific Plasticity Process in 6-OHDA Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P.; Mazucanti, Caio H. Y.; Real, Caroline C.; Souza, Bruna M.; Britto, Luiz R. G.; Torrăo, Andréa S.

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in several neurobiological processes, including neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. The CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, the circuitry that is mostly affected in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Some studies show variation of CB1 expression in basal ganglia in different animal models of PD, however the results are quite controversial, due to the differences in the procedures employed to induce the parkinsonism and the periods analyzed after the lesion. The present study evaluated the CB1 expression in four basal ganglia structures, namely striatum, external globus pallidus (EGP), internal globus pallidus (IGP) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) of rats 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 days after unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections, that causes retrograde dopaminergic degeneration. We also investigated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), parvalbumin, calbindin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression to verify the status of dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. We observed a structure-specific modulation of CB1 expression at different periods after lesions. In general, there were no changes in the striatum, decreased CB1 in IGP and SNpr and increased CB1 in EGP, but this increase was not sustained over time. No changes in GAD and parvalbumin expression were observed in basal ganglia, whereas TH levels were decreased and the calbindin increased in striatum in short periods after lesion. We believe that the structure-specific variation of CB1 in basal ganglia in the 6-hydroxydopamine PD model could be related to a compensatory process involving the GABAergic transmission, which is impaired due to the lack of dopamine. Our data, therefore, suggest that the changes of CB1 and calbindin expression may represent a plasticity process in this PD model. PMID:24116178

  18. Why are enteric ganglia so small? Role of differential adhesion of enteric neurons and enteric neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Benjamin N; Zhang, Dongcheng; Simkin, Johanna E; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Newgreen, Donald F

    2015-01-01

    The avian enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of a vast number of unusually small ganglia compared to other peripheral ganglia. Each ENS ganglion at mid-gestation has a core of neurons and a shell of mesenchymal precursor/glia-like enteric neural crest (ENC) cells. To study ENS cell ganglionation we isolated midgut ENS cells by HNK-1 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from E5 and E8 quail embryos, and from E9 chick embryos. We performed cell-cell aggregation assays which revealed a developmentally regulated functional increase in ENS cell adhesive function, requiring both Ca (2+) -dependent and independent adhesion. This was consistent with N-cadherin and NCAM labelling. Neurons sorted to the core of aggregates, surrounded by outer ENC cells, showing that neurons had higher adhesion than ENC cells. The outer surface of aggregates became relatively non-adhesive, correlating with low levels of NCAM and N-cadherin on this surface of the outer non-neuronal ENC cells. Aggregation assays showed that ENS cells FACS selected for NCAM-high and enriched for enteric neurons formed larger and more coherent aggregates than unsorted ENS cells. In contrast, ENS cells of the NCAM-low FACS fraction formed small, disorganised aggregates.  This suggests a novel mechanism for control of ENS ganglion morphogenesis where i) differential adhesion of ENS neurons and ENC cells controls the core/shell ganglionic structure and ii) the ratio of neurons to ENC cells dictates the equilibrium ganglion size by generation of an outer non-adhesive surface. PMID:26064478

  19. Lineage and stage specific requirement for Dicer1 in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla formation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Stubbusch, Jutta; Narasimhan, Priyanka; Hennchen, Melanie; Huber, Katrin; Unsicker, Klaus; Ernsberger, Uwe; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-04-15

    The development of sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells is differentially controlled at distinct stages by various extrinsic and intrinsic signals. Here we use conditional deletion of Dicer1 in neural crest cells and noradrenergic neuroblasts to identify stage specific functions in sympathoadrenal lineages. Conditional Dicer1 knockout in neural crest cells of Dicer1(Wnt1Cre) mice results in a rapid reduction in the size of developing sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. In contrast, Dicer1 elimination in noradrenergic neuroblasts of Dicer1(DbhiCre) animals affects sympathetic neuron survival starting at late embryonic stages and chromaffin cells persist at least until postnatal week 1. A differential function of Dicer1 signaling for the development of embryonic noradrenergic and cholinergic sympathetic neurons is demonstrated by the selective increase in the expression of Tlx3 and the cholinergic marker genes VAChT and ChAT at E16.5. The number of Dbh, Th and TrkA expressing noradrenergic neurons is strongly decreased in Dicer1-deficient sympathetic ganglia at birth, whereas Tlx3(+)/ Ret(+) cholinergic neurons cells are spared from cell death. The postnatal death of chromaffin cells is preceded by the loss of Ascl1, mir-375 and Pnmt and an increase in the markers Ret and NF-M, which suggests that Dicer1 is required for the maintenance of chromaffin cell differentiation and survival. Taken together, these findings demonstrate distinct stage and lineage specific functions of Dicer1 signaling in differentiation and survival of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. PMID:25661788

  20. Why are enteric ganglia so small? Role of differential adhesion of enteric neurons and enteric neural crest cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Benjamin N.; Zhang, Dongcheng; Simkin, Johanna E.; Menheniott, Trevelyan R.; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2015-01-01

    The avian enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of a vast number of unusually small ganglia compared to other peripheral ganglia. Each ENS ganglion at mid-gestation has a core of neurons and a shell of mesenchymal precursor/glia-like enteric neural crest (ENC) cells. To study ENS cell ganglionation we isolated midgut ENS cells by HNK-1 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from E5 and E8 quail embryos, and from E9 chick embryos. We performed cell-cell aggregation assays which revealed a developmentally regulated functional increase in ENS cell adhesive function, requiring both Ca 2+ -dependent and independent adhesion. This was consistent with N-cadherin and NCAM labelling. Neurons sorted to the core of aggregates, surrounded by outer ENC cells, showing that neurons had higher adhesion than ENC cells. The outer surface of aggregates became relatively non-adhesive, correlating with low levels of NCAM and N-cadherin on this surface of the outer non-neuronal ENC cells. Aggregation assays showed that ENS cells FACS selected for NCAM-high and enriched for enteric neurons formed larger and more coherent aggregates than unsorted ENS cells. In contrast, ENS cells of the NCAM-low FACS fraction formed small, disorganised aggregates.  This suggests a novel mechanism for control of ENS ganglion morphogenesis where i) differential adhesion of ENS neurons and ENC cells controls the core/shell ganglionic structure and ii) the ratio of neurons to ENC cells dictates the equilibrium ganglion size by generation of an outer non-adhesive surface.

  1. Regionally selective atrophy of subcortical structures in prodromal HD as revealed by statistical shape analysis

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Laurent; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Brown, Timothy; Aylward, Elizabeth; Nopoulos, Peg; Johnson, Hans; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Paulsen, Jane S.; Margolis, Russell L.; Albin, Roger L.; Miller, Michael I.; Ross, Christopher A.; Investigators, PREDICT-HD

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that involves preferential atrophy in the striatal complex and related subcortical nuclei. In this paper, which is based on a dataset extracted from the PREDICT-HD study, we use statistical shape analysis with deformation markers obtained through Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping of cortical surfaces to highlight specific atrophy patterns in the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, at different prodromal stages of the disease. Based on the relation to cortico-basal-ganglia circuitry, we propose that statistical shape analysis, along with other structural and functional imaging studies, may help expand our understanding of the brain circuitry affected and other aspects of the neurobiology of HD, and also guide the most effective strategies for intervention. PMID:23281100

  2. Reversible shape memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Zhou, Jing; White, Sarah; Ashby, Valerie

    2012-02-01

    An ``Achilles' heel'' of shape memory materials is that shape transformations triggered by an external stimulus are usually irreversible. Here we present a new concept of reversible transitions between two well-defined shapes by controlling hierarchic crystallization of a dual-network elastomer. The reversibility was demonstrated for different types of shape transformations including rod bending, winding of a helical coil, and widening an aperture. The distinct feature of the reversible shape alterations is that both counter-shapes are infinitely stable at a temperature of exploitation. Shape reversibility is highly desirable property in many practical applications such as non-surgical removal of a previously inserted catheter and handfree wrapping up of an earlier unraveled solar sail on a space shuttle.

  3. Automated Detection of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Based on a Statistical Model Applied to Multislice Short-Axis Cardiac MR Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avan Suinesiaputra; Alejandro F. Frangi; Theodorus A. M. Kaandorp; Hildo J. Lamb; Jeroen J. Bax; Johan H. C. Reiber; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical shape analysis method for myocardial contraction is presented that was built to detect and locate regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). For each slice level (base, middle, and apex), 44 short-axis magnetic resonance images were selected from healthy volunteers to train a statistical model of normal myocardial contraction using independent component analysis (ICA). A classification algorithm

  4. Liver abnormalities in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Crotti, Chiara; Selmi, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    The liver is a lymphoid organ involved in the immune response and in the maintenance of tolerance to self molecules, but it is also a target of autoimmune reactions, as observed in primary liver autoimmune diseases (AILD) such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Further, the liver is frequently involved in connective tissue diseases (CTD), most commonly in the form of liver function test biochemical changes with predominant cholestatic or hepatocellular patterns. CTD commonly affecting the liver include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholypid syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, polimyositis, and anti-synthetase syndrome, while overlap syndromes between AILD and CTD may also be diagnosed. Although liver cirrhosis and failure are extremely rare in patients with CTD, unusual liver conditions such as nodular regenerative hyperplasia or Budd-Chiari syndrome have been reported with increasing frequency in patients with CTD. Acute or progressing liver involvement is generally related to viral hepatitis reactivation or to a concomitant AILD, so it appears to be fundamental to screen patients for HBV and HCV infection, in order to provide the ideal therapeutic regimen and avoid life-threatening reactivations. Finally, it is important to remember that the main cause of biochemical liver abnormalities in patients with CTD is a drug-induced alteration or coexisting viral hepatitis. The present article will provide a general overview of the liver involvement in CTD to allow rheumatologists to discriminate the most common clinical scenarios. PMID:24090941

  5. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = ?0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  6. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)] [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. F. Villagómez; A. Pinton

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known

  8. Discovering and Explaining Abnormal Nodes in Semantic Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-de Lin; Hans Chalupsky

    2008-01-01

    An important problem in the area of homeland security is to identify abnormal or suspicious entities in large data sets. Although there are methods from data mining and social network analysis focusing on finding patterns or central nodes from networks or numerical data sets, there has been little work aimed at discovering abnormal instances in large complex semantic graphs, whose

  9. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  10. Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer

    E-print Network

    Stengel, Robert F.

    Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer Dafna Tsafrir, 1; Departments of 3 Pathology and 4 Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; 5 chromosomal abnormalities in colon cancer. However, the relationships between DNA copy number and gene

  11. Trisomy 13: A New Recurring Chromosome Abnormality in Acute Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Dohner; Diane C. Arthur; Edward D. Ball; Robert E. Sobol; Frederick R. Davey; David Lawrence; Lawrence Gordon; Shivanand R. Patil; Rawatmal B. Surana; Joseph R. Testa; Ram S. Verma; Charles A. Schiffer; Doris H. Wurster-Hill; Clara D. Bloomfield

    1990-01-01

    A new recurring chromosome abnormality was identified in 8 of 621 consecutive successfully karyotyped adults with de novo acute leukemia. These eight patients had trisomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. On central morpho- logic review, five cases were classified as subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia, one as acute mixed lymphoid and my- eloid leukemia, one as acute lymphoid leukemia,

  12. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  13. Skeletal abnormalities in Refsum's disease (heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis).

    PubMed

    Plant, G R; Hansell, D M; Gibberd, F B; Sidey, M C

    1990-07-01

    Refsum's disease is a rare inborn error of phytanic acid metabolism in which skeletal abnormalities are part of the clinical syndrome. The reported incidence of bone changes in patients with Refsum's disease varies widely and reflects the small series published to date. An analysis of the skeletal abnormalities of the largest series of patients in the world is presented. PMID:1697202

  14. Parental decisions following the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanan A Hamamy; Sophie Dahoun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report parental decisions regarding pregnancy termination following the prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) in the fetus. Methods: Retrospective collection of data from records of 61 families receiving genetic counseling after prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality in the fetus in the Division of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of Geneva during the time period 1980–2001.

  15. Pessimal shapes for packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallus, Yoav

    2014-03-01

    The question of which convex shapes leave the most empty space in their densest packing is the subject of Reinhardt's conjecture in two dimensions and Ulam's conjecture in three dimensions. Such conjectures about pessimal packing shapes have proven notoriously difficult to make progress on. I show that the regular heptagon is a local pessimum among all convex shapes, and that the 3D ball is a local pessimum among origin-symmetric shapes. Any shape sufficiently close in the space of shapes to these local pessima can be packed at a greater efficiency than they. In two dimensions and in dimensions above three, the ball is not a local pessimum, so the situation in 3D is unusual and intriguing. I will discuss what conditions conspire to make the 3D ball a local pessimum and whether we can prove that it is also a global pessimum.

  16. Shaped charge perforating device

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, D.B.

    1986-04-22

    A shaped charge perforating apparatus is described which consists of: an elongated tubular housing member having recesses spirally spaced therealong; an elongated tubular carrier member having shaped charge mounting locations spirally spaced therealong; a plurality of shaped charge units positioned in the mounting locations of the carrier member; a length of detonator cord helically wound about the tubular carrier member for transferring detonation waves to the shaped charge units and for retaining the shaped charge units within the mounting locations; and means for aligning the tubular carrier within the tubular housing member so as to align the shaped charge units with the spaced recesses along the housing member, the alignment means further comprising an elongated slot in the housing member; and biasing means affixed to the carrier member for engagement within the slot.

  17. Ultrafast optical pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinelli, J. A.

    1980-03-01

    A passive pulse shaping system and two active pulse shaping systems are constructed and tested experimentally. Each system is analyzed and the analytical and experimental results are compared. For the active systems, the ultimate risetimes are calculated for the particular active devices which are utilized. A fairly comprehensive review of the entire field of ultrafast pulse shaping is undertaken. The passive system incorporates a pair of diffraction gratings and various filtering operations. It produces pulses of arbitrary temporal intensity profile from short (mode locked Nd:YAG) input pulses. The shape resolution in the output pulse is of the order of the input pulsewidth. The shaped output pulse is shown to be linearly frequency modulated. With the largest gratings available commercially, total pulse lengths of about 2 ns appear to be possible. The active pulse shaping systems include linear electro-optic (Pockels cell) and nonlinear electro-optic (Kerr cell) modulators, each driven by light activated semiconductor switch circuitry.

  18. Shaped charge well perforator

    SciTech Connect

    Mcphee, W.A.

    1983-06-14

    A shaped charge unit is claimed for well perforating having a outer shell with an internal cavity formed therein. An explosive charge material conforms in exterior shape with the inside surface of the cavity and is retained in place by a conical liner of nonexplosive material. The interior shape of the cavity is such that an increased amount of explosive material is provided in a circumferential channel located proximate to the periphery of the base of the conical liner.

  19. Shape-Memory Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch

    2002-01-01

    Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

  20. Keynote lecture: shape interrogation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M. Patrikalakis

    2003-01-01

    Shape interrogation is the process of extraction of informationfrom a geometric model. It is a fundamental component of CAD\\/CAMsystems. In this lecture, we focus on shape interrogation ofgeometric models bounded by free-form or sculptured surfaces. Suchsurfaces are widely used in the bodies of ships, automobiles,aircraft, propeller and turbine blades, and various consumerdevices. Our basic thesis is that shape interrogation problems