Sample records for ganglia shape abnormalities

  1. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  2. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of teeth. ... any medical conditions that may cause abnormal tooth shape? At what age ... spacing)? What other symptoms are also present? Fillings, ...

  3. Abnormal "Shape Activity" Detection and Tracking Namrata Vaswani

    E-print Network

    Vaswani, Namrata

    of activity, e.g. person taller/shorter · Scaled orthographic camera motion ­ Small field of view PTZ camera in traffic ­ Abnormal Human Action detection, e.g. motion disorders · Sequence Id & Tracking ­ Sequence, view invariant approaches, multiple levels of zoom, DBN, co-occurrence statistics Abnormal "Shape

  4. Abnormal basal ganglia outflow in Parkinson's disease identified with PET. Implications for higher cortical functions.

    PubMed

    Owen, A M; Doyon, J; Dagher, A; Sadikot, A; Evans, A C

    1998-05-01

    In this study we examined the effects of striatal dopamine depletion on cortical and subcortical blood flow changes during two tasks known to involve frontostriatal circuitry. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in six patients with moderate Parkinson's disease and in six age-matched control subjects while they performed easy and difficult versions of a modified Tower of London planning task and a mnemonic variant of this task that required short-term retention and reproduction of problem solutions, as well as a control condition that involved identical visual stimuli and motor responses. Relative to control conditions, the planning task was associated with an increase in cerebral blood flow centred on the internal segment of the right globus pallidus in the age-matched control subjects, and a decrease in the same region in the patients with Parkinson's disease. A similar inverse relationship between the task-specific blood flow change observed in the control group and that observed in the Parkinson's disease patients was not found in any other subcortical or cortical area examined, including regions of the dorsolateral frontal cortex known to be involved in this task. When blood flow in the spatial working memory task was examined, a similarly specific dissociation between the two groups of subjects was observed at similar coordinates in the right pallidum. We conclude that striatal dopamine depletion disrupts the normal pattern of basal ganglia outflow in Parkinson's disease and consequently, affects the expression of frontal-lobe functions by interrupting normal transmission of information through frontostriatal circuitry. PMID:9619196

  5. Sperm shape abnormalities in mice exposed to californium-252 radiation.

    PubMed

    Goud, S N; Feola, J M; Maruyama, Y

    1987-11-01

    Male mice of the B6C3F1 hybrid strain were whole-body irradiated with different doses of 252Cf/60Co. They were killed 35 days later and spermatozoa from cauda epididymides were stained with eosin-Y. The air-dried smears were examined under light microscope for sperm shape abnormalities. There was an increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm in all the treated groups compared to controls. The RBE for the mixed neutron and gamma radiation of 252Cf was 2.6. The RBE for the neutron component was 3.4. The increased frequency of abnormal sperm was associated with a concomitant decrease in testis weight in the irradiated animals. PMID:3316079

  6. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A.; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models, and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain following local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal DRG, quantitative PCR showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6? immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C-cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8, because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7, because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain, and that some pain conditions may be primarily mediated by myelinated A-fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  7. Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

  8. Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in…

  9. Correlation of dopaminergic terminal dysfunction and microstructural abnormalities of the basal ganglia and the olfactory tract in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Scherfler, Christoph; Esterhammer, Regina; Nocker, Michael; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Warwitz, Boris; Spielberger, Sabine; Pinter, Bernadette; Donnemiller, Eveline; Decristoforo, Clemens; Virgolini, Irene; Schocke, Michael; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    Signal abnormalities of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract detected either by diffusion tensor imaging, including measurements of mean diffusivity, a parameter of brain tissue integrity, and fractional anisotropy, a parameter of neuronal fibre integrity, or transcranial sonography, were recently reported in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. In this study, changes in the nigral and olfactory diffusion tensor signal, as well as nigral echogenicity, were correlated with clinical scales of motor disability, odour function and putaminal dopamine storage capacity measured with 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography in early and advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. Diffusion tensor imaging, transcranial sonography and positron emission tomography were performed on 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (mean disease duration 3.7 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to 4) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Odour function was measured by the standardized Sniffin' Sticks Test. Mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa influx constant, mean nigral echogenicity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract were identified by region of interest analysis. When compared with the healthy control group, the Parkinson's disease group showed significant signal changes in the caudate and putamen by 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography, in the substantia nigra by transcranial sonography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) and in the olfactory tract by mean diffusivity (P < 0.05). Regional mean diffusivity values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract correlated significantly with putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake (r = -0.52, P < 0.05 and r = -0.71, P < 0.01). Significant correlations were also found between nigral mean diffusivity values and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.48, P < 0.01) and between mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake and the total odour score (r = 0.58; P < 0.05) as well as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.53, P < 0.05). This study reports a significant association between increased mean diffusivity signal and decreased 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake, indicating that microstructural degradation of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract parallels progression of putaminal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Since increases in nigral mean diffusivity signal also correlated with motor dysfunction, diffusion tensor imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for disease progression in future studies of putative disease modifying therapies. PMID:24014521

  10. CELL ADHESION MOLECULE CADHERIN-6 FUNCTION IN ZEBRAFISH CRANIAL AND LATERAL LINE GANGLIA DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Q.; Dalman, M. R.; Sarmah, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, Y.; Hurlbut, A. K.; Spencer, M. A.; Pancoe, L.; Marrs, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadherins regulate the vertebrate nervous system development. We previously showed that cadherin-6 message (cdh6) was strongly expressed in the majority of the embryonic zebrafish cranial and lateral line ganglia during their development. Here, we present evidence that cdh6 has specific functions during cranial and lateral line ganglia and nerve development. We analyzed the consequences of cdh6 loss-of-function on cranial ganglion and nerve differentiation in zebrafish embryos. Embryos injected with zebrafish cdh6 specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs, which suppress gene expression during development; cdh6 morphant embryos) displayed a specific phenotype, including (i) altered shape and reduced development of a subset of the cranial and lateral line ganglia (e.g. the statoacoustic ganglion and vagal ganglion) and (ii) cranial nerves were abnormally formed. This data illustrates an important role for cdh6 in the formation of cranial ganglia and their nerves. PMID:21584906

  11. Striatal shape abnormalities as novel neurodevelopmental endophenotypes in schizophrenia: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Rapoport, Judith L; Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Shaw, Philip; Collins, D Louis; Lerch, Jason P; Gogtay, Nitin

    2015-04-01

    There are varying, often conflicting, reports with respect to altered striatal volume and morphometry in the major psychoses due to the influences of antipsychotic medications on striatal volume. Thus, disassociating disease effects from those of medication become exceedingly difficult. For the first time, using a longitudinally studied sample of structural magnetic resonance images from patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS; neurobiologically contiguous with the adult onset form of schizophrenia), their nonpsychotic siblings (COSSIBs), and novel shape mapping algorithms that are volume independent, we report the familial contribution of striatal morphology in schizophrenia. The results of our volumetric analyses demonstrate age-related increases in overall striatal volumes specific only to COS. However, both COS and COSSIBs showed overlapping shape differences in the striatal head, which normalized in COSSIBs by late adolescence. These results mirror previous studies from our group, demonstrating cortical thickness deficits in COS and COSSIBs as these deficits normalize in COSSIBs in the same age range as our striatal findings. Finally, there is a single region of nonoverlapping outward displacement in the dorsal aspect of the caudate body, potentially indicative of a response to medication. Striatal shape may be considered complimentary to volume as an endophenotype, and, in some cases may provide information that is not detectable using standard volumetric techniques. Our striatal shape findings demonstrate the striking localization of abnormalities in striatal the head. The neuroanatomical localization of these findings suggest the presence of abnormalities in the striatal-prefrontal circuits in schizophrenia and resilience mechanisms in COSSIBs with age dependent normalization. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1458-1469, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25504933

  12. Abnormalities of cortical thickness, subcortical shapes, and white matter integrity in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Thong, Jamie Yu Jin; Du, Jia; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Dong, Yanhong; Soon, Hock Wei; Saini, Monica; Tan, Ming Zhen; Ta, Anh Tuan; Chen, Christopher; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-05-01

    Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI) is caused by lacunar infarcts or extensive and/or diffuse lesions in the white matter that may disrupt the white matter circuitry connecting cortical and subcortical regions and result in the degeneration of neurons in these regions. This study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) techniques to examine cortical thickness, subcortical shapes, and white matter integrity in mild vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND Mild) and moderate-to-severe VCI (MSVCI). Our study found that compared to controls (n = 25), VCIND Mild (n = 25), and MSVCI (n = 30) showed thinner cortex predominantly in the frontal cortex. The cortex in MSVCI was thinner in the parietal and lateral temporal cortices than that in VCIND Mild. Moreover, compared to controls, VCIND Mild and MSVCI showed smaller shapes (i.e., volume reduction) in the thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus and ventricular enlargement. Finally, compared to controls, VCIND Mild, and MSVCI showed an increased mean diffusivity in the white matter, while decreased generalized fractional anisotropy was only found in the MSVCI subjects. The major axonal bundles involved in the white matter abnormalities were mainly toward the frontal regions, including the internal capsule/corona radiata, uncinate fasciculus, and anterior section of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and were anatomically connected to the affected cortical and subcortical structures. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in cortical, subcortical, and white matter morphology in sVCI occur in anatomically connected structures, and that abnormalities progress along a similar trajectory from the mild to moderate and severe conditions. PMID:23861356

  13. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Womer, Fay Y; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Smith, Matthew J; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M; Mamah, Daniel

    2014-08-30

    In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

  14. Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

  15. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

  16. Architectonics of crayfish ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mulloney, Brian; Tschuluun, Naranzogt; Hall, Wendy M

    2003-02-15

    The central nervous system of crayfish consists of a chain of segmental ganglia that are linked by cables of intersegmental axons. Each ganglion contains a highly-ordered core of longitudinal tracts, vertical tracts, commissures, and synaptic neuropils. We review from a technical perspective the history of the description of these ganglia, and recognize four episodes of progress. Each major innovation in anatomical methods has led to new insight into the structure and function of this nervous system, and new awareness of the structural patterns that are common to the CNS of all arthropods. Ganglia in different segments of the body differ in size, and appear to differ in anatomy. From a comparison of the structures of the cores of abdominal, thoracic, and subesophageal ganglia, we argue that this apparent difference is illusory. Rather, each of these ganglia is organized on the same plan, a plan also found in insect segmental ganglia. The apparent differences follow from longitudinal compression during development and from allometric growth of particular neuropils associated with innervation of the walking legs. Different authors have described the internal organization of ganglia in different segments, so we provide a cross-reference to the nomenclatures they have introduced. We compare the locations of cell bodies of motor neurons and accessory neurons that innervate different peripheral structures, and demonstrate double-labeling of certain GABAergic peripheral inhibitory neurons. Finally, we describe the construction of digital movies of serial sections of these ganglia, and discuss their utility. PMID:12539156

  17. Basal Ganglia and Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-14

    The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.

  18. Effects of Eating Abnormalities and Gender on Perceptions of Desirable Body Shape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra A. Zellner; Debra E. Harner; Robbie L. Adler

    1989-01-01

    Men and women differ when choosing the figure drawings that most resemble (a) their own current figures (CURRENT), (b) their ideal figures (IDEAL), and (c) the figure thought most attractive to the opposite sex (OPPOSITE) (Fallon & Rozin, 1985). In the present experiment, women with high Eating Attitude Test (EAT) scores, indicating abnormal eating patterns, choose differently from those with

  19. The Robot Basal Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony J. Prescott; Kevin Gurney; Fernando Montes-Gonzalez; Mark Humphries; Peter Redgrave

    \\u000a Action selection is the task of resolving conflicts between multiple sensorimotor systems seeking access to the final common\\u000a motor path. Recently,1,2 we proposed that the basal ganglia may act to provide a biological solution to the problem of selection. To test this notion\\u000a we have implemented a high level computational model of intrinsic basal ganglia circuitry and its interactions with

  20. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  1. Platelet size and shape in hereditary giant platelet syndromes on blood smear and in suspension: evidence for two types of abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Milton, J G; Hutton, R A; Tuddenham, E G; Frojmovic, M M

    1985-09-01

    Platelet size on blood smear is compared with platelet size and shape in suspension (i.e., whole blood and citrated platelet-rich plasma [PRP]) for normal donors and 16 patients with hereditary "giant" platelet syndromes (HGPS), including Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) (seven patients), Montreal platelet syndrome (MPS) (three patients), May-Hegglin anomaly (one patient) and Rafael platelet defect (one patient). In whole blood platelet shape is normal for HGPS, but in PRP for 10 of 16 patients with HGPS there is a decrease in the proportion of smooth, discoid-shaped platelets (discocytes [D]). The platelets of all patients with HGPS had abnormally large mean volume (VT) and increased size on peripheral blood smear. Furthermore, 12 of 16 patients with HGPS, including six of seven donors with BSS, had abnormally large discocytes. The measured size of HGPS shape-changed platelets was compared with the size predicted from the size of the D by assuming that the relationship between the size of shape-changed platelets and D was the same as observed for normal donors. In this manner it was shown that for all donors with BSS and MPS, the shape-changed platelets are disproportionately larger than the D. In contrast, in the remaining patients with HGPS the size of the shape-changed platelets was consistent with the size predicted from the D. Examination of VT for MPS as a function of time after addition of 10 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate to PRP revealed an abnormal time course, thereby pointing to an abnormality in the mechanisms that regulate platelet size during shape change. With the lone exceptions of BSS and MPS, the size of platelets on blood smear was well correlated with the total platelet plasma membrane surface area as measured by the osmotic spherocyte method. Our observations point to two distinct abnormalities in platelet size in HGPS: a disproportion between the size of D and "shape-changed" platelets, which may be related to an abnormal shape change and which is observed only for MPS and BSS, and an abnormal increase in platelet size on blood smear, which appears to reflect the increased amount of platelet plasma membrane in other HGPS platelets. PMID:4031633

  2. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  3. Probing ganglia dissolution and mobilization in a water-saturated porous medium using MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, M.L.; Gladden, L.F.

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to probe the evolution of geometric characteristics such as the volume, shape, surface area, and cluster size of octanol ganglia trapped in a model porous medium, in this case a packing of spheres, as they dissolve into a mobile aqueous phase. The resulting pore-scale information is used to assess various assumptions used in existing models of the dissolution process. Dissolution of the ganglia was characterized by a reduction in the overall number of ganglia with little effect on the shape and mean of the volume distribution of the ganglia. This apparently anomalous result is explained by dissolution of the ganglia until they reach a critical size, which is dependent on the structure of the pore space, at which point they are mobilized and subsequently removed from the porous medium. The shape of the entrapped ganglia is characterized by a fractal dimension in the range 2.2--2.3, suggesting that models which assume a Euclidean geometry for the entrapped ganglia are appropriate. No significant change in the shape of entrapped ganglia is observed during dissolution. In agreement with the results of earlier workers, most hydrocarbon ganglia exist as singlets within the pore structure.

  4. Basal ganglia damage and impaired visual function in the newborn infant

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Atkinson, J.; Braddick, O.; Anker, S.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Pennock, J.; Dubowitz, L.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To examine the effects of early lesions in the visual pathway on visual function; and to identify early prognostic indicators of visual abnormalities.?METHODS—The visual function of 37 infants with perinatal brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging was assessed using behavioural and electrophysiological variables.?RESULTS—Normal visual behaviour was observed in most infants with large bilateral occipital lesions, but all the infants with associated basal ganglia involvement had abnormal visual function. Visual abnormalities were also present in six infants with isolated basal ganglia lesions.?CONCLUSIONS—These observations suggest that basal ganglia may have an integral role in human visual development and that their presence on neonatal MRI could be an early marker of abnormal visual function.?? PMID:9377131

  5. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  6. The basal ganglia Ann M. Graybiel

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    of the basal ganglia lead to devastating motor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington of the cortical input to the basal ganglia. Degeneration of neurons in the striatum leads to Huntington's disease The leading model for motor disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases is that the basal ganglia

  7. Basal ganglia intensity indices and diffusion weighted imaging in manganese-exposed welders

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p?0.05). Combined basal ganglia (?=0.610), caudate (?=0.645), anterior (?=0.595) and posterior putamen (?=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (?=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions. PMID:22447645

  8. Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Fletcher

    2007-10-23

    Welcome! Let\\'s explore the world of shapes. At Kids Online Resources (OLR) Learning is Fun, click on Shapes and see what types of everyday items are made of different simple shapes. Here is a game to play using shapes in patterns.Crack hacker's cafe If you want to make shapes into 3D forms, go to this site 2D to 3D morphing : flat 2D shapes rise up to make 3D forms and follow the directions. You may need a parent to ...

  9. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  10. Phenotypic changes in satellite glial cells in cultured trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Belzer, Vitali; Shraer, Nathanael; Hanani, Menachem

    2010-11-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are specialized cells that form a tight sheath around neurons in sensory ganglia. In recent years, there is increasing interest in SGCs and they have been studied in both intact ganglia and in tissue culture. Here we studied phenotypic changes in SGCs in cultured trigeminal ganglia from adult mice, containing both neurons and SGCs, using phase optics, immunohistochemistry and time-lapse photography. Cultures were followed for up to 14 days. After isolation virtually every sensory neuron is ensheathed by SGCs, as in the intact ganglia. After one day in culture, SGCs begin to migrate away from their parent neurons, but in most cases the neurons still retain an intact glial cover. At later times in culture, there is a massive migration of SGCs away from the neurons and they undergo clear morphological changes, and at 7 days they become spindle-shaped. At one day in culture SGCs express the glial marker glutamine synthetase, and also the purinergic receptor P2X7. From day 2 in culture the glutamine synthetase expression is greatly diminished, whereas that of P2X7 is largely unchanged. We conclude that SGCs retain most of their characteristics for about 24 h after culturing, but undergo major phenotypic changes at later times. PMID:22032231

  11. Primary Cultures of Sympathetic Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary I. Johnson

    \\u000a A derivative of the neural crest, sympathetic neurons have been utilized in both in vivo and in vitro studies to approach\\u000a a number of basic questions concerning the development and function of the nervous system. The superior cervical ganglia (SCG),\\u000a and particularly the sympathetic chain, can provide significant numbers of neurons with relatively little effort in dissection,\\u000a and, with a

  12. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  13. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovi?ova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lan?ok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-?ež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Bo?a, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 ?m in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  14. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  15. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  16. A pilot study of basal ganglia and thalamus structure by high dimensional mapping in children with Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior brain imaging and autopsy studies have suggested that structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia (BG) nuclei may be present in Tourette Syndrome (TS). These studies have focused mainly on the volume differences of the BG structures and not their anatomical shapesShape differences of various brain structures have been demonstrated in other neuropsychiatric disorders using large-deformation, high dimensional brain mapping (HDBM-LD).  A previous study of a small sample of adult TS patients demonstrated the validity of the method, but did not find significant differences compared to controls. Since TS usually begins in childhood and adult studies may show structure differences due to adaptations, we hypothesized that differences in BG and thalamus structure geometry and volume due to etiological changes in TS might be better characterized in children. Objective: Pilot the HDBM-LD method in children and estimate effect sizes. Methods: In this pilot study, T1-weighted MRIs were collected in 13 children with TS and 16 healthy, tic-free, control children. The groups were well matched for age.  The primary outcome measures were the first 10 eigenvectors which are derived using HDBM-LD methods and represent the majority of the geometric shape of each structure, and the volumes of each structure adjusted for whole brain volume. We also compared hemispheric right/left asymmetry and estimated effect sizes for both volume and shape differences between groups. Results: We found no statistically significant differences between the TS subjects and controls in volume, shape, or right/left asymmetry.  Effect sizes were greater for shape analysis than for volume. Conclusion: This study represents one of the first efforts to study the shape as opposed to the volume of the BG in TS, but power was limited by sample size. Shape analysis by the HDBM-LD method may prove more sensitive to group differences. PMID:24715957

  17. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  18. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  19. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  20. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic integration of functionally diverse information derived from the cortex. It is concluded that the essential concept of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia remains intact but that the role of the indirect pathway is more complex than previously suggested and that neurons of the globus pallidus are in a position to control the activity of virtually the whole of the basal ganglia. PMID:10923985

  1. Neurogenesis in Postnatal Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Namaka; Mike Sawchuk; Stephen C. MacDonald; Larry M. Jordan; Shawn Hochman

    2001-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) throughout life. As the mitogen basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can proliferate neuronal precursors of CNS neurons in culture, and is also upregulated within adult dorsal root ganglia following axotomy, it is possible that the postnatal dorsal root ganglia contain bFGF-responsive neuronal precursors. We undertook cell culture of postnatal

  2. Functional anatomy: dynamic States in Basal Ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Arbuthnott, Gordon W

    2010-01-01

    The most appealing models of how the basal ganglia function propose distributed patterns of cortical activity selectively interacting with striatal networks to yield the execution of context-dependent movements. If movement is encoded by patterns of activity then these may be disrupted by influences at once more subtle and more devastating than the increase or decrease of neuronal firing that dominate the usual models of the circuit. In the absence of dopamine the compositional capabilities of cell assemblies in the network could be disrupted by the generation of dominant synchronous activity that engages most of the system. Experimental evidence about Parkinson's disease suggests that dopamine loss produces abnormal patterns of activity in different nuclei. For example, increased oscillatory activity arises in the GPe, GPi, and STN and is reflected as increased cortical beta frequency coherence disrupting the ability to produce motor sequences. When the idea of deep brain stimulation was proposed - it was supported by the information that lesions of the subthalamus reversed the effects of damage to the dopamine input to the system. However, it seems increasingly unlikely that the stimulation acts by silencing the nucleus as was at first proposed. Perhaps the increased cortical beta activity caused by the lack of dopamine could have disabled the patterning of network activity. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts the on-going cortical rhythms. Subsequently asynchronous firing is reinstated and striatal cell assemblies and the whole basal ganglia circuit engage in a more normal pattern of activity. We will review the different variables involved in the generation of sequential activity patterns, integrate our data on deep brain stimulation and network population dynamics, and thus provide a novel interpretation of functional aspects of basal ganglia circuitry. PMID:21151374

  3. Metabolite Alterations in Basal Ganglia Associated with Methamphetamine-related Psychiatric Symptoms: A Proton MRS Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshimoto Sekine; Yoshio Minabe; Masayoshi Kawai; Katsuaki Suzuki; Masaomi Iyo; Haruo Isoda; Harumi Sakahara; Charles R Ashby; Nori Takei; Norio Mori

    2002-01-01

    Following the chronic use of methamphetamine, some individuals experience psychosis and anxiety. One reason may be the persistence of metabolite abnormalities in the brain of currently abstinent former methamphetamine users. In this study, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr), and choline-containing compound (Cho) levels were measured in the left and right basal ganglia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Shapes, Shapes, Shapes!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Stringfield

    2008-11-17

    Let\\'s practice identifying our shapes! Look at all the choices and find the one that can Match that Shape. Help Pauly! Drag and drop to Match the Shapes! Listen closely to what color we should Paint the Shapes. ...

  6. Numerical deficits in a single case of basal ganglia dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zamarian, L; Bodner, T; Revkin, S K; Benke, T; Boesch, S; Donnemiller, E; Delazer, M

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation assesses specific numerical difficulties in a patient (SJ) with basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction. While previous studies on number processing in BG disorders typically tested arithmetic facts by production tasks, the present study uses production, recognition (verification, multiple-choice) and indirect (number-matching) arithmetic tasks. Patient SJ was severely impaired in production and to a lesser extent in verification and multiple-choice tasks. In number-matching, an abnormal latency pattern was found. This study extends previous research by indicating that BG dysfunction may not only affect production processes and sequencing, as was found in previous investigations, but may lead to a breakdown of semantic relationships of arithmetic facts. PMID:19370479

  7. Loss of Specificity in Basal Ganglia Related Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bronfeld, Maya; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of interconnected nuclei which play a pivotal part in limbic, associative, and motor functions. This role is mirrored by the wide range of motor and behavioral abnormalities directly resulting from dysfunction of the BG. Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events. In the normal BG, this modulation is highly specific, with each neuron related only to a small subset of behavioral events depending on specific combinations of movement parameters and context. In many pathological conditions involving BG dysfunction and motor abnormalities, this neuronal specificity is lost. Loss of specificity (LOS) manifests in neuronal activity related to a larger spectrum of events and consequently a large overlap of movement-related activation patterns between different neurons. We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG. The prevalence of LOS in a many BG-related disorders suggests that neuronal specificity may represent a key feature of normal information processing in the BG system. Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control. PMID:21687797

  8. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

  10. Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

  11. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2014-11-29

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By performing graph theoretical analyses it turns out that beside the caudate putamen further regions like the mesencephalic reticular formation, amygdaloid complex and ventral tegmental area are important nodes in the basal ganglia connectome. The connectome data of this meta-study of tract-tracing reports of the basal ganglia are available for further network studies, the integration into neocortical connectomes and further extensive investigations of the basal ganglia dynamics in population simulations. PMID:25432770

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2014 What is biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease? Biotin-thiamine-responsive ...

  13. Neuroimaging abnormalities in adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Philip; Truran, Diana; Vichinsky, Elliot P.; Neumayr, Lynne D.; Armstrong, F.D.; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Kesler, Karen; Brewer, Joseph; Weiner, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the relationship of frontal lobe cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes to measures of cognition in adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: Participants included 120 adults with SCA with no history of neurologic dysfunction and 33 healthy controls (HCs). Participants were enrolled at 12 medical center sites, and raters were blinded to diagnostic group. We hypothesized that individuals with SCA would exhibit reductions in frontal lobe cortex thickness and reduced basal ganglia and thalamus volumes compared with HCs and that these structural brain abnormalities would be associated with measures of cognitive functioning (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition). Results: After adjusting for age, sex, education level, and intracranial volume, participants with SCA exhibited thinner frontal lobe cortex (t = ?2.99, p = 0.003) and reduced basal ganglia and thalamus volumes compared with HCs (t = ?3.95, p < 0.001). Reduced volume of the basal ganglia and thalamus was significantly associated with lower Performance IQ (model estimate = 3.75, p = 0.004) as well as lower Perceptual Organization (model estimate = 1.44, p = 0.007) and Working Memory scores (model estimate = 1.37, p = 0.015). Frontal lobe cortex thickness was not significantly associated with any cognitive measures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that basal ganglia and thalamus abnormalities may represent a particularly salient contributor to cognitive dysfunction in adults with SCA. PMID:24523480

  14. 368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    368 Dispatch Basal ganglia: New therapeutic approaches to Parkinson's disease Ann M. Graybiel As the search for molecular therapies for basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, accelerates, new-9822 The motor symptoms of basal ganglia disorders fall at two extremes. In Parkinson's disease and related

  15. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  17. Basal ganglia physiology and pathophysiology: A reappraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin B. Montgomery Jr

    Current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function based on suppression of activity in the ventrolateral thalamic-cortical circuits by the globus pallidus internal segment are inconsistent with accumulating evidence, demonstrating the need for reconsideration. Changes in busting, oscillatory and synchronous neuronal activities have been indicted as pathophyisological mechanisms but they are unaccompanied by any mechanistic explanatory theory and rely on the

  18. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Parent; Lili-Naz Hazrati

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent findings on different aspects of the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia. Attempts have been made to delineate the anatomical substrate of information processing along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Emphasis has been placed on data obtained with highly sensitive anterograde tract-tracing methods applied to the study of the main axis of the loop,

  19. Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

  20. Active Decorrelation in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytoarchitecturally-homogeneous appearance of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra has long been said to imply a high degree of afferent convergence and sharing of inputs by nearby neurons. Moreover, axon collaterals of neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata arborize locally and make inhibitory synapses on other cells of the same type. These features suggest that the connectivity of the basal ganglia may impose spike-time correlations among the cells, and it has been puzzling that experimental studies have failed to demonstrate such correlations. One possible solution arises from studies of firing patterns in basal ganglia cells, which reveal that they are nearly all pacemaker cells. Their high rate of firing does not depend on synaptic excitation, but they fire irregularly because a dense barrage of synaptic inputs normally perturbs the timing of their autonomous activity. Theoretical and computational studies show that the responses of repetitively firing neurons to shared input or mutual synaptic coupling often defy classical intuitions about temporal synaptic integration. The patterns of spike timing among such neurons depend on the ionic mechanism of pacemaking, the level of background uncorrelated cellular and synaptic noise, and the firing rates of the neurons, as well as the properties of their synaptic connections. Application of these concepts to the basal ganglia circuitry suggests that the connectivity and physiology of these nuclei may be configured to prevent the establishment of permanent spike-timing relationships between neurons. The development of highly synchronous oscillatory patterns of activity in Parkinson’s disease may result from the loss of pacemaking by some basal ganglia neurons, and accompanying breakdown of the mechanisms responsible for active decorrelation. PMID:23892007

  1. Calretinin immunoreactivity in human sympathetic ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Huerta; S. Nori; M. M. Llamosas; M. T. Vázquez; E. Bronzetti; J. A. Vega

    1996-01-01

    Calretinin is an “EF-hand” calcium-binding protein involved in the maintenance of intracellular calcium ion homeostasis. This study was understaken to investigate the presence of calretinin in human lumbar paravertebral sympathetic ganglia from subjects of different ages (26–85 years) using immunohistochemical and immunoblotting methods. Calretinin-like immunoreactivity was found in a subpopulation of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, whose percentage decreased progressively with aging

  2. Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles J

    2014-12-01

    What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that fire spontaneously, even in the absence of synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed; only variations in its timing can carry the message. In the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus consist of neurons firing spontaneously. They each receive thousands of synaptic inputs, but these are not required to maintain their background firing. Instead, synaptic interactions among basal ganglia nuclei comprise a system of coupled oscillators that produces a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and uncorrelated, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson's disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by nearly all of the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134

  3. A selective role for right insula—basal ganglia circuits in appetitive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Lavanya; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Cassell, Martin; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization of hedonic evaluation (‘liking’) and incentive motivation (‘wanting’) in neural networks connecting the basal ganglia and insula (BG-I) in humans was examined. Participants with brain damage restricted to the BG-I of the right (n = 5) or left (n = 5) hemisphere, and 26 healthy participants matched on age, sex and intelligence quotient were tested on positively and negatively valenced pictures drawn from varied stimulus categories (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2008). Liking was assessed with explicit ratings of pleasantness using a nine-point Likert scale. Wanting was quantified as the amount of work (via repeated keypresses) that participants expended to increase (approach) or decrease (withdraw) viewing time. Right-lesion patients showed abnormally low viewing times and liking ratings for positive images. For a subset of positive images depicting sexual content, right-lesion patients exhibited active withdrawal, while the other two groups approached such stimuli. These results suggest that the right basal ganglia–insula complex plays a greater role than the left in supporting hedonic evaluation and motivational approach to positively valenced stimuli. The finding that active avoidance of stimuli that were not ‘liked’ was spared in both right- and left-sided lesion subjects suggests that unilateral damage to insula/basal ganglia circuits may not be sufficient to affect general incentive motivation independent of preference. PMID:22798397

  4. Intercellular communication in sensory ganglia by purinergic receptors and gap junctions: implications for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hanani, Menachem

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral injury can cause abnormal activity in sensory neurons, which is a major factor in chronic pain. Recent work has shown that injury induces major changes not only in sensory neurons but also in the main type of glial cells in sensory ganglia-satellite glial cells (SGCs), and that interactions between sensory neurons and SGCs contribute to neuronal activity in pain models. The main functional changes observed in SGCs after injury are an increased gap junction-mediated coupling among these cells, and augmented sensitivity to ATP. There is evidence that the augmented gap junctions contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability in pain models, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not known. The changes in SGCs described above have been found following a wide range of injuries (both axotomy and inflammation) in somatic, orofacial and visceral regions, and therefore appear to be a general feature in chronic pain. We have found that in cultures of sensory ganglia calcium signals can spread from an SGC to neighboring cells by calcium waves, which are mediated by gap junctions and ATP acting on purinergic P2 receptors. A model is proposed to explain how augmented gap junctions and greater sensitivity to ATP can combine to produce enhanced calcium waves, which can lead to neuronal excitation. Thus this simple scheme can account for several major changes in sensory ganglia that are common to a great variety of pain models. PMID:22771859

  5. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  6. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes linking etiology to pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:20005952

  7. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    E-print Network

    Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Fay Y. Womer a,n , Lei of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using Free

  8. Basal ganglia anatomy and schizophrenia: the role of antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, E; Bellani, M; Crespo-Facorro, B; Brambilla, P

    2014-12-01

    Progressive enlargement of basal ganglia volume has been observed in schizophrenia individuals, potentially being sustained by chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs. Here we briefly summarise the state of the art of the role of antipsychotic in leading to increased basal ganglia in schizophrenia, particularly focusing on the caudate nucleus. PMID:25335548

  9. UNMEDULLATED FIBERS ORIGINATING IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Herbert S.

    1950-01-01

    The compound action potential of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia, as recorded in cat skin nerves after conduction of simultaneously initiated impulses, shows among its components a temporal dispersion corresponding to velocities between 2.3 and 0.7 M.P.S. The maximum representation of the component velocities is at about 1.2 M.P.S. On both sides of the maximum the representation falls off irregularly, in such a way that groupings in the distribution produce in the action potential a configuration in which successive features appear always in the same positions at a given conduction distance. Through this demonstration of a characteristic configuration the system of the unmedullated fibers is brought into analogy with that of the medullated fibers. The unmedullated fibers originating in the dorsal root ganglia have distinctive physiological properties, among which is a large positive potential which reaches its maximum immediately after the spike and decrements to half relaxation in about 50 msec., at 37°C. The positive phases of the unit potentials in the compound action potential, owing to their duration, sum to a much greater extent than the temporally dispersed spikes; and, since they have sizes such that one equivalent to 25 per cent of the spike height would not be at the limit, in the summation process the major portion of the compound action potential is caused to be written at a potential level positive to the starting base line. The position of the spikes in the sequence can be seen in the analyses in Section III. The course of the activity in unit fibers is subject to variation in ways affecting the positive potential. Preliminary descriptions, based on orienting experiments, of how these variations are conditioned are given in Section I. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy. One is the high sensitivity of the dimensions of the postspike positivity to temperature in the range of temperatures at which skin nerves may be expected to function, even when the environmental temperatures of an animal are moderate. The other is the high sensitivity to conditioning by previous activity. The positivity is first decreased, then replaced by a negative potential of similar duration. Reasons have been given why it is inadvisable at the present time to call the postspike potential an after-potential. A comparison has been made of the properties of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia with those of fibers arising from sympathetic ganglia. The differences are so great that, in the interest of precision in designation, a division of the C group of fibers into two subgroups is indicated. It is suggested that the two subgroups be named respectively d.r.C and s.C. Measurements have been made of the diameters of the d.r.C fibers in a saphenous nerve stained with silver. Graphs showing the number of fibers at each diameter are presented in Section II. In Section III there are shown constructions, from histological data, of the action potential as it would appear, after 3 cm. of conduction, with the correlation between diameter and velocity in strict linearity. The degree of fit between the constructed and recorded potentials can be seen in Fig. 18. PMID:15428610

  10. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position ...

  11. Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters.

    PubMed

    Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation. PMID:22003741

  12. Segmentation of Nerve Bundles and Ganglia in Spine MRI Using Particle Filters

    PubMed Central

    Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation. PMID:22003741

  13. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    E-print Network

    Gershman, Samuel J.

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still ...

  14. Pseudohypoparathyroidism, parkinsonism syndrome, with no basal ganglia calcification.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, B K; Donley, D K

    1988-01-01

    A 20 year old woman with pseudohypoparathyroidism, Parkinsonism and no basal ganglia calcifications shown by computed tomography is reported. She has typical features of pseudohypoparathyroidism and biochemical evidence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. She is mentally retarded and has tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and stooped posture. The cause of Parkinsonism in pseudohypoparathyroidism is thought to be basal ganglia calcification. This patient must have another pathophysiology, perhaps directly related to a G protein defect, causing impaired neurotransmission. Images PMID:3404168

  15. Alarin in cranial autonomic ganglia of human and rat.

    PubMed

    Schrödl, Falk; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Bruckner, Daniela; Krefft, Karolina; Kofler, Barbara; Brandtner, Herwig; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-02-01

    Extrinsic and intrinsic sources of the autonomic nervous system contribute to choroidal innervation, thus being responsible for the control of choroidal blood flow, aqueous humor production or intraocular pressure. Neuropeptides are involved in this autonomic control, and amongst those, alarin has been recently introduced. While alarin is present in intrinsic choroidal neurons, it is not clear if these are the only source of neuronal alarin in the choroid. Therefore, we here screened for the presence of alarin in human cranial autonomic ganglia, and also in rat, a species lacking intrinsic choroidal innervation. Cranial autonomic ganglia (i.e., ciliary, CIL; pterygopalatine, PPG; superior cervical, SCG; trigeminal ganglion, TRI) of human and rat were prepared for immunohistochemistry against murine and human alarin, respectively. Additionally, double staining experiments for alarin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH), substance P (SP) were performed in human and rat ganglia for unequivocal identification of ganglia. For documentation, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used, while quantitative RT-PCR was applied to confirm immunohistochemical data and to detect alarin mRNA expression. In humans, alarin-like immunoreactivity (alarin-LI) was detected in intrinsic neurons and nerve fibers of the choroidal stroma, but was lacking in CIL, PPG, SCG and TRI. In rat, alarin-LI was detected in only a minority of cranial autonomic ganglia (CIL: 3.5%; PPG: 0.4%; SCG: 1.9%; TRI: 1%). qRT-PCR confirmed the low expression level of alarin mRNA in rat ganglia. Since alarin-LI was absent in human cranial autonomic ganglia, and only present in few neurons of rat cranial autonomic ganglia, we consider it of low impact in extrinsic ocular innervation in those species. Nevertheless, it seems important for intrinsic choroidal innervation in humans, where it could serve as intrinsic choroidal marker. PMID:25497346

  16. Role of the indirect pathway of the Basal Ganglia in perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Rubin, Jonathan E; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-03-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in motor control, reinforcement learning, and perceptual decision making. Modeling and experimental evidence suggest that, in a speed-accuracy tradeoff, the corticostriatal pathway can adaptively adjust a decision threshold (the amount of information needed to make a choice). In this study, we go beyond the focus of previous works on the direct and hyperdirect pathways to examine the contribution of the indirect pathway of the BG system to decision making in a biophysically based spiking network model. We find that the mechanism of adjusting the decision threshold by plasticity of the corticostriatal connections is effective, provided that the indirect pathway counterbalances the direct pathway in their projections to the output nucleus. Furthermore, in our model, changes within basal ganglia connections similar to those that arise in parkinsonism give rise to strong beta oscillations. Specifically, beta oscillations are produced by an abnormal enhancement of the interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of globus pallidus (GPe) in the indirect pathway, with an oscillation frequency that depends on the excitatory cortical input to the STN and the inhibitory input to the GPe from the striatum. In a parkinsonian state characterized by pronounced beta oscillations, the mean reaction time and range of threshold variation (a measure of behavioral flexibility) are significantly reduced compared with the normal state. Our work thus reveals a specific circuit mechanism for impairments of perceptual decision making associated with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25740532

  17. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Neurologic abnormalities in patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nofech-Mozes, Yehuda; Blaser, Susan I; Kobayashi, Jeff; Grunebaum, Eyal; Roifman, Chaim M

    2007-09-01

    Defects in adenosine deaminase enzyme cause severe immunodeficiency. Without enzyme replacement or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, patients often suffer fatal infection in infancy. Adenosine deaminase is expressed ubiquitously; deficiency may affect various organs, including the brain. Neurologic abnormalities occur in some adenosine deaminase-deficient patients, mostly in association with infection or after bone marrow transplantation. Three cases with significant neurologic abnormalities, including hypotonia, head lag, nystagmus, difficulty in focusing gaze, seizure disorder, and moderate-severe developmental delay but with no evidence of infection or transplant-related medication toxicity are presented. Computed tomographic scans and cranial MRI revealed volume loss and abnormalities of basal ganglia and thalamus, which may reflect accelerated nerve cell death or altered stimulation of adenosine receptors. Detailed neurologic and neuroimaging evaluation should be performed for all patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency upon diagnosis, to identify potentially significant brain lesions. PMID:17765813

  19. Basal ganglia and Dopamine Contributions to Probabilistic Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shohamy, D.; Myers, C.E.; Kalanithi, J.; Gluck, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward prediction and feedback processing. Here, we review behavioral, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging, and computational studies of basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to learning in humans. Collectively, these studies implicate the basal ganglia in incremental, feedback-based learning that involves integrating information across multiple experiences. The medial temporal lobes, by contrast, contribute to rapid encoding of relations between stimuli and support flexible generalization of learning to novel contexts and stimuli. By breaking down our understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms contributing to different aspects of learning, recent studies are providing insight into how, and when, these different processes support learning, how they may interact with each other, and the consequence of different forms of learning for the representation of knowledge. PMID:18061261

  20. Basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to probabilistic category learning.

    PubMed

    Shohamy, D; Myers, C E; Kalanithi, J; Gluck, M A

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems have recently been extended towards understanding the neural systems contributing to category learning. The basal ganglia, in particular, have been linked to probabilistic category learning in humans. A separate parallel literature in systems neuroscience has emerged, indicating a role for the basal ganglia and related dopamine inputs in reward prediction and feedback processing. Here, we review behavioral, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging, and computational studies of basal ganglia and dopamine contributions to learning in humans. Collectively, these studies implicate the basal ganglia in incremental, feedback-based learning that involves integrating information across multiple experiences. The medial temporal lobes, by contrast, contribute to rapid encoding of relations between stimuli and support flexible generalization of learning to novel contexts and stimuli. By breaking down our understanding of the cognitive and neural mechanisms contributing to different aspects of learning, recent studies are providing insight into how, and when, these different processes support learning, how they may interact with each other, and the consequence of different forms of learning for the representation of knowledge. PMID:18061261

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...

  2. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  3. Unmasking adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs) in monkey basal ganglia output neurons using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB).

    PubMed

    Luquin, Natasha; Sierra, Salvador; Rico, Alberto J; Gómez-Bautista, Virginia; Roda, Elvira; Conte-Perales, Lorena; Franco, Rafael; McCormick, Peter; Labandeira-García, José L; Lanciego, José L

    2012-09-01

    The A(2A)R has become a therapeutic target in Parkinson disease due to its functional role in the striatum, capable of modulating dopaminergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. No conclusive evidence, however, has been provided to demonstrate the existence of A(2A)Rs in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia: the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques we have confirmed the presence of A(2A)Rs in both the striatum (medium spiny and cholinergic neurons) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), in the monkey. The antibody routinely used to label A(2A)Rs failed to detect A(2A)R-positive neurons in the GPi and SNr, however, in situ hybridization showed that A(2A)R mRNA transcripts were indeed present in both these nuclei. Surprisingly, by labeling pallidothalamic and nigrothalamic projection neurons originating in the GPi and SNr with the neuronal retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), the receptor protein was unmasked and detectable using the antibody. This unmasking of the protein was specific to CTB and not an artifact of the tracer. We have shown unequivocally that the A(2A)R is present in the output nuclei of the primate basal ganglia, however, to be able to detect the receptor immunohistochemically, unmasking the protein with CTB was necessary. The presence of A(2A)Rs in the GPi and SNr suggests that these output nuclei could be targeted therapeutically in Parkinson disease to restore abnormal activity in the basal ganglia. PMID:22659306

  4. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  5. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  6. Altered functional connectivity of basal ganglia circuitry in dental phobia.

    PubMed

    Scharmüller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schöngaßner, Florian; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Schienle, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Recent symptom provocation studies that compared patients suffering from dental phobia with healthy controls identified hyperactivation of basal ganglia structures, but none have assessed striatal functional connectivity. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on dental phobia. Patients (20 men, 25 women) and healthy controls (18 men, 23 women) had been exposed to pictures showing dental treatment, and neutral contents. We conducted connectivity analyses via psychophysiological interactions (PPIs). Relative to non-phobic controls, the patients showed decreased connectivity between prefrontal and basal ganglia regions. Moreover, the clinical group was characterized by increased internal basal ganglia connectivity, which was more pronounced in female compared with male patients. This study provides first evidence for an altered information flow within a fronto-striatal network in dentophobic individuals during visual symptom provocation, which can be considered a neuromarker of this disorder. PMID:24084590

  7. The role of basal ganglia-forebrain circuitry in the vocal learning of songbirds

    E-print Network

    Andalman, Aaron Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The basal ganglia form the largest sub-cortical structure in the human brain and are implicated in numerous human diseases. In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and ...

  8. A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia to the cortex and is critical for motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the basal ganglia, ...

  9. Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians Kim L. Hoke the existence of a homologue of the mam- malian substantia nigra­basal ganglia circuit in the amphibian brain proposed that homologous basal ganglia circuits may exist in both amphibians and mammals (reviewed

  10. CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder,8 both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

  11. CODING OF BEHAVIORAL SEQUENCES IN THE BASAL GANGLIA

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder8 , both of which are associated with pathology of the basal disorders of the basal ganglia strongly supports a motor function. However, close scrutiny suggests is disturbed by this disorder. Huntington's patients also have deficits in related high-level "ideomotor

  12. Adenosine A2A receptors and basal ganglia physiology

    PubMed Central

    Schiffmann, S.N.; Fisone, G.; Moresco, R.; Cunha, R.A.; Ferré, S.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are highly enriched in the basal ganglia system. They are predominantly expressed in enkephalin-expressing GABAergic striatopallidal neurons and therefore are highly relevant to the function of the indirect efferent pathway of the basal ganglia system. In these GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, the A2A receptor tightly interacts structurally and functionally with the dopamine D2 receptor. Both by forming receptor heteromers and by targeting common intracellular signaling cascades, A2A and D2 receptors exhibit reciprocal antagonistic interactions that are central to the function of the indirect pathway and hence to basal ganglia control of movement, motor learning, motivation and reward. Consequently, this A2A / D2 receptors antagonistic interaction is also central to basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. However, recent evidence demonstrates that, in addition to this postsynaptic site of action, striatal A2A receptors are also expressed and have physiological relevance on presynaptic glutamatergic terminals of the cortico-limbic-striatal and thalamo-striatal pathways, where they form heteromeric receptor complexes with adenosine A1 receptors. Therefore, A2A receptors play an important fine-tuning role, boosting the efficiency of glutamatergic information flow in the indirect pathway by exerting control, either pre- and/or post-synaptically, over other key modulators of glutamatergic synapses, including D2 receptors, group I metabotropic mGlu5 glutamate receptors and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and by triggering the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling cascade. PMID:17646043

  13. Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

  14. ANATOMY REVIEW: Basal Ganglia A group of subcortical nuclei

    E-print Network

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    experienced by patients with cerebellar damage Cerebellum of a (former) alcoholicCerebellar atrophy Cerebellar by involuntary purposeless movements CIRCUITRY As with cerebellum, basal ganglia act indirectly · Highly brainstem and rest of cerebellum Cerebellum overview1. 2. 3. Regulatory system within a regulatory system

  15. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  16. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  17. Dual pathways regulate neurite outgrowth in enteric ganglia.

    PubMed

    Simeone, D M; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1994-10-01

    Primary cultures of guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of agents that activate adenylate cyclase or mimic intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to stimulate morphological growth. Dose-dependent increases in neurite length and density were produced in enteric neuronal cultures by forskolin (212% of control), cholera toxin (356% of control), or the permeant cAMP analogues 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and dibutyryl cAMP. (R)-p-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases, blocked the growth-promoting effects of cAMP analogues but not of nerve growth factor (NGF). Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways also increased production of mRNA for alpha-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2. Dual pathways, regulated by NGF and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, influence growth signaling in enteric ganglia. PMID:7943337

  18. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  19. The structure of tonic flexor motoneurons in crayfish abdominal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Wine; Jay E. Mittenthal; Donald Kennedy

    1974-01-01

    1.The tonic flexor motoneurons were filled with cobalt dye via the cut ends of their axons. All six physiologically defined cells were identified anatomically (Figs. 2–4).2.The cell somata are widely scattered in the ventral rind of the ganglia; three cells have ipsilateral and three cells have contralateral somata in reference to their axons; cells with contralateral somata tend to be

  20. The ganglia distributed monitoring system: design, implementation, and experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Massie; Brent N. Chun; David E. Culler

    2004-01-01

    Ganglia is a scalable distributed monitoring system for high performance computing sys- tems such as clusters and Grids. It is based on a hierarchical design targeted at federations of clusters. It relies on a multicast-based listen\\/announce protocol to monitor state within clus- ters and uses a tree of point-to-point connections amongst representative cluster nodes to fed- erate clusters and aggregate

  1. Functional properties of ryanodine receptors from rat dorsal root ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Lokuta; Hirochika Komai; Thomas S. McDowell; Héctor H. Valdivia

    2002-01-01

    The properties of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) have been studied. The density of RyRs (Bmax) determined by [3H]ryanodine binding was 63 fmol\\/mg protein with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5 nM. [3H]Ryanodine binding increased with caffeine, decreased with ruthenium red and tetracaine, and was insensitive to millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ or Ca2+. DRG RyRs reconstituted

  2. Facial nerve parasympathetic preganglionic afferents to the accessory otic ganglia by way of the chorda tympani nerve in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Kuchiiwa; T. Kuchiiwa; Satoru Nonaka; Shiro Nakagawa

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of accessory otic ganglia and connections between the ganglia and the chorda tympani nerve were investigated\\u000a in the cat in order to determine the parasympathetic preganglionic facial nerve afferents to the otic ganglia using whole\\u000a mount acetylthiocholinesterase (WATChE) histochemistry. The otic ganglia consist of a sigle main prominent ganglion and many\\u000a small accessory ganglia lying on a plexus

  3. Proactive Selective Response Suppression Is Implemented via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Majid, D. S. Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway. PMID:23946385

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  5. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

  6. Reactive oxygen species induce procalcitonin expression in trigeminal ganglia glia

    PubMed Central

    Raddant, Ann C.; Russo, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) gene expression under inflammatory conditions using trigeminal ganglia organ cultures as an experimental system. These cultures have increased proinflammatory signaling that may mimic neurogenic inflammation in the migraine state. Background The trigeminal nerve sends peripheral pain signals to the central nervous system during migraine. Understanding the dynamic processes that occur within the trigeminal nerve and ganglion may provide insights into events that contribute to migraine pain. A neuropeptide of particular interest is CGRP, which can be elevated and play a causal role in migraine. However, most studies have overlooked a second splice product of the CALCA gene, which encodes calcitonin (CT), a peptide hormone involved in calcium homeostasis. Importantly, a precursor form of calcitonin called procalcitonin (proCT) can act as a partial agonist at the CGRP receptor and elevated proCT has recently been reported during migraine. Methods We used a trigeminal ganglion whole organ explant model, which has previously been demonstrated to induce pro-inflammatory agents in vitro. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate changes in mRNA and protein levels of CGRP and proCT. Results Whole mouse trigeminal ganglia cultured for 24 h showed a 10-fold increase in CT mRNA, with no change in CGRP mRNA. A similar effect was observed in ganglia from adult rats. ProCT immunoreactivity was localized in glial cells. Cutting the tissue blunted the increase in CT, suggesting that induction required the close environment of the intact ganglia. Consistent with this prediction, there were increased reactive oxygen species in the ganglia and the elevated CT mRNA was reduced by antioxidant treatment. Surprisingly, reactive oxygen species were increased in neurons, not glia. Conclusions These results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species can activate proCT expression from the CGRP gene in trigeminal glia by a paracrine regulatory mechanism. We propose that this glial recruitment pathway may occur following cortical spreading depression and neurogenic inflammation to increase CGRP nociceptive actions in migraine. PMID:24512072

  7. Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia’s Role in Cognitive Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions by manipulating separately the selection of sources and destinations of information transfers. We suggest that such a mechanism provides an account for several cognitive functions of the basal ganglia. The model also incorporates a possible mechanism by which subsequent transfers of information control the release of dopamine. This signal is used to produce novel stimulus–response associations by internalizing transferred cortical representations in the striatum. We discuss how the model is related to production systems and cognitive architectures. A series of simulations is presented to illustrate how the model can perform simple stimulus–response tasks, develop automatic behaviors, and provide an account of impairments in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases. PMID:20438237

  8. Cerebral abnormalities: use of calculated T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images for diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential clinical importance of T1 and T2 relaxation times in distinguishing normal and pathologic tissue with magnetic resonance (MR) is discussed and clinical examples of cerebral abnormalities are given. Five patients with cerebral infarction, 15 with multiple sclerosis, two with Wilson disease, and four with tumors were imaged. Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents were distinguished using the spin echo technique. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, lesions had prolonged T1 and T2 times, but the definition of plaque was limited by spatial resolution. No abnormalities in signal intensity were seen in the patient with Wilson disease who was no longer severly disabled; abnormal increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found in the second patient with Wilson disease. Four tumors produced abnormal T1 and T2 relaxation times but these values alone were not sufficient for tumor characterization.

  9. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  10. Spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves from a patient with Tay-Sachs disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Abe; K. Ogawa; H. Fuziwara; K. Urayama; K. Nagashima

    1985-01-01

    We examined the spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves from a patient with Tay-Sachs disease, comparing the other nervous tissues morphologically and lipid-biochemically. The spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves showed numerous membranous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (MCBs), which are characteristic of GM2-ganglioside storage in the neuronal cell bodies of the patient brains. In spinal ganglia, all neurons and satellite cells around the

  11. Extensive basal ganglia edema caused by a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: a rare presentation related to a basal vein of Rosenthal anatomical variation.

    PubMed

    Ract, Isabelle; Drier, Aurélie; Leclercq, Delphine; Sourour, Nader; Gabrieli, Joseph; Yger, Marion; Nouet, Aurélien; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    The authors report a very rare presentation of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) with extensive edema of the basal ganglia and brainstem because of an anatomical variation of the basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR). A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' institution for left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and a comatose state caused by right orbital trauma from a thin metal rod. Brain MRI showed a right CCF and vasogenic edema of the right side of the brainstem, right temporal lobe, and basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed a high-flow direct CCF and revealed a hypoplastic second segment of the BVR responsible for the hypertension in inferior striate veins and venous congestion. Endovascular treatment was performed on an emergency basis. One month after treatment, the patient's symptoms and MRI signal abnormalities almost totally disappeared. Basal ganglia and brainstem venous congestion may occur in traumatic CCF in cases of a hypoplastic or agenetic second segment of the BVR and may provoke emergency treatment. PMID:24527815

  12. Motoneuron development influences dorsal root ganglia survival and Schwann cell development in a vertebrate model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Le Thi; Duy, Phan Q; Jontes, James D; Beattie, Christine E

    2015-01-15

    Low levels of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN) cause the disease spinal muscular atrophy. A primary characteristic of this disease is motoneuron dysfunction and paralysis. Understanding why motoneurons are affected by low levels of SMN will lend insight into this disease and to motoneuron biology in general. Motoneurons in zebrafish smn mutants develop abnormally; however, it is unclear where Smn is needed for motoneuron development since it is a ubiquitously expressed protein. We have addressed this issue by expressing human SMN in motoneurons in zebrafish maternal-zygotic (mz) smn mutants. First, we demonstrate that SMN is present in axons, but only during the period of robust motor axon outgrowth. We also conclusively demonstrate that SMN acts cell autonomously in motoneurons for proper motoneuron development. This includes the formation of both axonal and dendritic branches. Analysis of the peripheral nervous system revealed that Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons developed abnormally in mz-smn mutants. Schwann cells did not wrap axons tightly and had expanded nodes of Ranvier. The majority of DRG neurons had abnormally short peripheral axons and later many of them failed to divide and died. Expressing SMN just in motoneurons rescued both of these cell types showing that their failure to develop was secondary to the developmental defects in motoneurons. Driving SMN just in motoneurons did not increase survival of the animal, suggesting that SMN is needed for motoneuron development and motor circuitry, but that SMN in other cells types factors into survival. PMID:25180019

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of myenteric ganglia and interstitial cells of Cajal in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, Nunzia; Segnani, Cristina; Ippolito, Chiara; De Giorgio, Roberto; Colucci, Rocchina; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Chiarugi, Massimo; Campani, Daniela; Castagna, Maura; Mattii, Letizia; Blandizzi, Corrado; Dolfi, Amelio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with alterations of colonic motility, which influence clinical symptoms. Although morpho-functional abnormalities in the enteric nervous system have been suggested, in UC patients scarce attention has been paid to possible changes in the cells that control colonic motility, including myenteric neurons, glial cells and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). This study evaluated the neural-glial components of myenteric ganglia and ICC in the colonic neuromuscular compartment of UC patients by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. Full-thickness archival samples of the left colon were collected from 10 patients with UC (5 males, 5 females; age range 45–62 years) who underwent elective bowel resection. The colonic neuromuscular compartment was evaluated immunohistochemically in paraffin cross-sections. The distribution and number of neurons, glial cells and ICC were assessed by anti-HuC/D, -S100? and -c-Kit antibodies, respectively. Data were compared with findings on archival samples of normal left colon from 10 sex- and age-matched control patients, who underwent surgery for uncomplicated colon cancer. Compared to controls, patients with UC showed: (i) reduced density of myenteric HuC/D+ neurons and S100?+ glial cells, with a loss over 61% and 38%, respectively, and increased glial cell/neuron ratio; (ii) ICC decrease in the whole neuromuscular compartment. The quantitative variations of myenteric neuro-glial cells and ICC indicate considerable alterations of the colonic neuromuscular compartment in the setting of mucosal inflammation associated with UC, and provide a morphological basis for better understanding the motor abnormalities often observed in UC patients. PMID:21426484

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of myenteric ganglia and interstitial cells of Cajal in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Nunzia; Segnani, Cristina; Ippolito, Chiara; De Giorgio, Roberto; Colucci, Rocchina; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Chiarugi, Massimo; Campani, Daniela; Castagna, Maura; Mattii, Letizia; Blandizzi, Corrado; Dolfi, Amelio

    2012-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with alterations of colonic motility, which influence clinical symptoms. Although morpho-functional abnormalities in the enteric nervous system have been suggested, in UC patients scarce attention has been paid to possible changes in the cells that control colonic motility, including myenteric neurons, glial cells and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). This study evaluated the neural-glial components of myenteric ganglia and ICC in the colonic neuromuscular compartment of UC patients by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. Full-thickness archival samples of the left colon were collected from 10 patients with UC (5 males, 5 females; age range 45-62 years) who underwent elective bowel resection. The colonic neuromuscular compartment was evaluated immunohistochemically in paraffin cross-sections. The distribution and number of neurons, glial cells and ICC were assessed by anti-HuC/D, -S100? and -c-Kit antibodies, respectively. Data were compared with findings on archival samples of normal left colon from 10 sex- and age-matched control patients, who underwent surgery for uncomplicated colon cancer. Compared to controls, patients with UC showed: (i) reduced density of myenteric HuC/D(+) neurons and S100?(+) glial cells, with a loss over 61% and 38%, respectively, and increased glial cell/neuron ratio; (ii) ICC decrease in the whole neuromuscular compartment. The quantitative variations of myenteric neuro-glial cells and ICC indicate considerable alterations of the colonic neuromuscular compartment in the setting of mucosal inflammation associated with UC, and provide a morphological basis for better understanding the motor abnormalities often observed in UC patients. PMID:21426484

  15. A review of the thoracic splanchnic nerves and celiac ganglia.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Klaassen, Zachary; Merbs, William; Tubbs, R Shane; Gielecki, Jerzy; Zurada, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Anatomical variation of the thoracic splanchnic nerves is as diverse as any structure in the body. Thoracic splanchnic nerves are derived from medial branches of the lower seven thoracic sympathetic ganglia, with the greater splanchnic nerve comprising the more cranial contributions, the lesser the middle branches, and the least splanchnic nerve usually T11 and/or T12. Much of the early anatomical research of the thoracic splanchnic nerves revolved around elucidating the nerve root level contributing to each of these nerves. The celiac plexus is a major interchange for autonomic fibers, receiving many of the thoracic splanchnic nerve fibers as they course toward the organs of the abdomen. The location of the celiac ganglia are usually described in relation to surrounding structures, and also show variation in size and general morphology. Clinically, the thoracic splanchnic nerves and celiac ganglia play a major role in pain management for upper abdominal disorders, particularly chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Splanchnicectomy has been a treatment option since Mallet-Guy became a major proponent of the procedure in the 1940s. Splanchnic nerve dissection and thermocoagulation are two common derivatives of splanchnicectomy that are commonly used today. Celiac plexus block is also a treatment option to compliment splanchnicectomy in pain management. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided celiac injection and percutaneous methods of celiac plexus block have been heavily studied and are two important methods used today. For both splanchnicectomies and celiac plexus block, the innovation of ultrasonographic imaging technology has improved efficacy and accuracy of these procedures and continues to make pain management for these diseases more successful. PMID:20235178

  16. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional specialization of the cortex through the spinal stepping generator-fastigial nucleus-thalamus-cortex pathway. Early detection of locomotion failure and early adjustment of this condition through environmental factors can prevent the development of higher cortical dysfunction. PMID:21068458

  17. Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

  18. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  19. Abnormal Cats' Paws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hagen

    1887-01-01

    ABNORMITIES in cats' paws occur rather frequently in Massachusetts. They are called mitten cats, and are much in demand because they are considered to be good mousers. The first I ever saw was a male yellow tiger, whose four paws had two extra toes strongly developed. A little stray female kitten which was brought up at my house had two

  20. Abnormal Morphology Within Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARILYN L. POLAND; KAMRAN S. MOGHISSI; PAUL T. GIBLIN; JOEL W. AGER; JANE M. OLSON

    Semen from 15 healthy volunteers was assessed for basic semen measures every 2 weeks over a 6-month period to determine the relative stability of these factors. The parameters were: sperm count, semen volume, sperm motility, and normal morphology, along with the type of abnormal morphologic forms. Basic semen measures were generally more stable than the morphologic forms. Using three samples,

  1. Monitoring Temperature and Fan Speed Using Ganglia and Winbond Chips

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, Cattie; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    Effective monitoring is essential to keep a large group of machines, like the ones at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), up and running. SLAC currently uses Ganglia Monitoring System to observe about 2000 machines, analyzing metrics like CPU usage and I/O rate. However, metrics essential to machine hardware health, such as temperature and fan speed, are not being monitored. Many machines have a Winbond w83782d chip which monitors three temperatures, two of which come from dual CPUs, and returns the information when the sensor command is invoked. Ganglia also provides a feature, gmetric, that allows the users to monitor their own metrics and incorporate them into the monitoring system. The programming language Perl is chosen to implement a script that invokes the sensors command, extracts the temperature and fan speed information, and calls gmetric with the appropriate arguments. Two machines were used to test the script; the two CPUs on each machine run at about 65 Celsius, which is well within the operating temperature range (The maximum safe temperature range is 77-82 Celsius for the Pentium III processors being used). Installing the script on all machines with a Winbond w83782d chip allows the SLAC Scientific Computing and Computing Services group (SCCS) to better evaluate current cooling methods.

  2. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    PubMed

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease. PMID:24983277

  3. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  4. Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexxai V. Kravitz; Benjamin S. Freeze; Philip R. L. Parker; Kenneth Kay; Myo T. Thwin; Karl Deisseroth; Anatol C. Kreitzer

    2010-01-01

    Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function. According to this classical model, activation of the `direct' pathway facilitates movement and activation of the `indirect' pathway inhibits movement. However, more recent anatomical and functional evidence

  5. Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    LETTERS Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia of basal ganglia circuitry in vivo, using optogenetic control11­14 of direct- and indirect-pathway medium motor deficits. To obtain selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways in vivo, we

  6. Ganglia arising from the transverse acetabular ligament: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Botchu, Rajesh; Esler, Colin N; Lloyd, David M; Rennie, Winston J

    2013-12-01

    Ganglia arising from the hip are rare. Its diagnosis is difficult owing to the anatomic location. A high index of suspicion and high-resolution imaging is essential to make the diagnosis. Treatment depends on the size, location, and symptoms. This report is of 2 patients with ganglia arising from the transverse acetabular ligament. PMID:24366805

  7. Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-97 Behaviour of oil ganglia displaced by a surfactant solution in a porous medium J. C. Moulu'importance relative des forces de viscosité et des forces capillaires. Abstract. 2014 The velocity of oil ganglia residual oil phase by water injection in a porous medium [1, 2]. These studies have demonstrated

  8. Her4 is necessary for establishing peripheral projections of the trigeminal ganglia in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju-Hoon So; Hang-Suk Chun; Yong-Ki Bae; Hyun-Seo Kim; Yeoll-Mae Park; Tae-Lin Huh; Ajay B. Chitnis; Cheol-Hee Kim; Sang-Yeob Yeo

    2009-01-01

    Transcripts of notch and its target genes have been detected in some differentiating neurons. However, the role of Notch in neuronal differentiation remains poorly defined. Here, we show that a subset of differentiating sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglia express her4. Expression of her4 requires Notch signaling during neurogenesis but not during differentiation, when peripheral projections of the trigeminal ganglia

  9. Actor critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphna Joel; Yael Niv; Eytan Ruppin

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor- critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and

  10. Neurodegenerative effects of monopolar electrocauterization on spinal ganglia in lumbar disc surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Aydin; S. Dane; C. Gundogdu; N. Gursan

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background. Monopolar electrocauterization (MEC) is widely used in spine surgery however electrical currents are hazardous for neural tissues, such as the spinal ganglia sited in the intervertebral foramina. We aimed to investigate the effects of MEC on spinal ganglia. Method. Fifteen male hybrid rabbits were included in the study. Three of the animals were used to analyze the findings

  11. Shape Savvy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Popwell

    2010-09-22

    Help your students identify these different shapes! Learn your shapes with Big Bird s Shapes and then Make Designs with Shapes to create objects! You better know your colors to Paint the Shapes correctly! ...

  12. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  13. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  14. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Zonisamide regulates basal ganglia transmission via astroglial kynurenine pathway.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Kouji; Tanahashi, Shunske; Hoshikawa, Masamitsu; Shinagawa, Rika; Okada, Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the anti-parkinsonian mechanisms of action of zonisamide (ZNS), we determined the effects of ZNS on tripartite synaptic transmission associated with kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) in cultured astrocytes, and transmission in both direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia using microdialysis. Interactions between cytokines [interferon-? (IFN?) and tumor-necrosis factor-? (TNF?)] and ZNS on astroglial releases of KP metabolites, KYN, kynurenic-acid (KYNA), xanthurenic-acid (XTRA), cinnabarinic-acid (CNBA) and quinolinic-acid (QUNA), were determined by extreme liquid-chromatography with mass-spectrometry. Interaction among metabotropic glutamate-receptor (mGluR), KP metabolites and ZNS on striato-nigral, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission was examined by microdialysis with extreme liquid-chromatography fluorescence resonance-energy transfer detection. Acute and chronic ZNS administration increased astroglial release of KYN, KYNA, XTRA and CNBA, but not QUNA. Chronic IFN? administration increased the release of KYN, KYNA, CNBA and QUNA, but had minimal inhibitory effect on XTRA release. Chronic TNF? administration increased CNBA and QUNA, but not KYN, KYNA or XTRA. ZNS inhibited IFN?-induced elevation of KYN, KYNA and QUNA, but enhanced IFN?-induced that of CNBA. TNF?-induced rises in CNBA and QUNA were inhibited by ZNS. ZNS inhibited striato-nigral GABAergic, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission via activation of groups II and III mGluRs. ZNS enhanced astroglial release of endogenous agonists of group II mGluR, XTRA and group III mGluR, CNBA. Activated endogenous mGluR agonists inhibited transmission in direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia. These mechanisms contribute to effectiveness and well tolerability of ZNS as an adjunct treatment for Parkinson's disease during l-DOPA monotherapy. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. PMID:23973311

  16. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD. PMID:21541845

  17. MRI-identified abnormalities and wrist range of motion in asymptomatic versus symptomatic computer users

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown an association between restricted wrist range of motion (ROM) and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. We compared the prevalence of MRI-identified wrist abnormalities and wrist ROM between asymptomatic and symptomatic computer users. Methods MR images at 1.5 T of both wrists were obtained from 10 asymptomatic controls (8 F, 2 M) and 14 computer users (10 F, 4 M) with chronic wrist pain (10 bilateral; 4 right-side). Maximum wrist range of motion in flexion and radioulnar deviation was measured with an electrogoniometer. Results Extraosseous ganglia were identified in 66.6% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists. Intraosseous ganglia were identified in 45.8% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists, and were significantly (p < .05) larger in the symptomatic wrists. Distal ECU tendon instability was identified in 58.4% of both asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Dominant wrist flexion was significantly greater in the asymptomatic group (68.8 ± 6.7 deg.) compared to the symptomatic group (60.7 ± 7.3 deg.), p < .01. There was no significant correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden (p = .09) Conclusions This appears to be the first MRI study of wrist abnormalities in computer users. This study demonstrates that a variety of wrist abnormalities are common in computer users and that only intraosseous ganglia prevalence and size differed between asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Flexion was restricted in the dominant wrist of the symptomatic group, but the correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden did not reach significance. Flexion restriction may be an indicator of increased joint loading, and identifying the cause may help to guide preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21108817

  18. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  19. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  20. Frequency and Abundance of Alphaherpesvirus DNA in Human Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, April; Huntington, Jonathon; Kim, Forrest; Choe, Alexander; Gilden, Don

    2014-01-01

    Alphaherpesvirus reactivation from thoracic sympathetic ganglia (TSG) and transaxonal spread to target organs cause human visceral disease. Yet alphaherpesvirus latency in TSG has not been well characterized. In this study, quantitative PCR detected varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and HSV-2 DNA in 117 fresh TSG obtained postmortem from 15 subjects. VZV DNA was found in 76 (65%) ganglia from all subjects, HSV-1 DNA was found in 5 (4%) ganglia from 3 subjects, and no HSV-2 was found. PMID:24789785

  1. [Connections between neurons of sympathetic ganglia and the myenteric nerve plexus of the mammalian colon].

    PubMed

    Riakhovskaia, L V; Adamatski?, A I

    1986-10-01

    By means of retrograde transport of the fluorescent marker primulin the initial part of the sympathetic innervation of the myenteric nervous plexus of the descending colon has been characterized in cats and guinea pigs. When primulin is injected into the myenteric nervous plexus, marked neurons are revealed in the caudal mesenteric ganglion, in the celiac plexus ganglia, in the sympathetic trunk ganglia. The marked nervous populations of the extramural sympathetic ganglia differ in their form, size, number of neurons and their distribution. PMID:2432859

  2. Latent herpes simplex virus 1 infection does not induce apoptosis in human trigeminal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Himmelein, Susanne; Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8(+) T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  3. A rare stapes abnormality.

    PubMed

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  4. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  5. Anatomy of a songbird basal ganglia circuit essential for vocal learning and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Samuel D.; Perkel, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal learning in songbirds requires an anatomically discrete and functionally dedicated circuit called the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). The AFP is homologous to cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops in mammals. The basal ganglia portion of this pathway, Area X, shares many features characteristic of the mammalian striatum and pallidum, including cell-types and connectivity. The AFP also deviates from mammalian basal ganglia circuits in fundamental ways. In addition, the microcircuitry, role of neuromodulators, and function of Area X are still unclear. Elucidating the mechanisms by which both mammalian-like and unique features of the AFP contribute to vocal learning may help lead to a broad understanding of the sensorimotor functions of basal ganglia circuits. PMID:19596062

  6. A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors

    E-print Network

    Andalman, Aaron S.

    In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown. It has recently been shown ...

  7. The involvement of the primate frontal cortex-basal ganglia system in arbitrary visuomotor association learning

    E-print Network

    Machon, Michelle S

    2009-01-01

    It is the goal of this thesis to examine the frontal cortex-basal ganglia system during arbitrary visuomotor association learning, the forming of arbitrary links between visual stimuli and motor responses (e.g. red means ...

  8. Structural Findings in the Basal Ganglia in Genetically Determined and Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Gaser, Christian

    likely have an increased risk to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized BG morphological Key words: basal ganglia; magnetic resonance imaging; Parkinson's disease; Parkin mutation carriers; voxel-based morphometry Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, slowly pro- gressive neurodegenerative

  9. Modeling the role of the basal ganglia in motor control and motor programming

    E-print Network

    Mao, Zhi-Hong, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of highly interconnected nuclei buried deep in the brain. They are involved in an important range of brain functions, including both lower-level movement control and higher-level cognitive ...

  10. Basal Ganglia Subcircuits Distinctively Encode the Parsing and Concatenation of Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task where mice learn rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. Besides start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These results have important implications for understanding the functional organization of basal ganglia during the learning and execution of action sequences. PMID:24464039

  11. Quantitation of Latent Varicella-Zoster Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANIE R. PEVENSTEIN; RICHARD K. WILLIAMS; DANIEL MCCHESNEY; ERIK K. MONT; JOHN E. SMIALEK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

    1999-01-01

    Using real-time fluorescence PCR, we quantitated the numbers of copies of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) genomes in 15 human trigeminal ganglia. Eight (53%) and 1 (7%) of 15 ganglia were PCR positive for HSV-1 or -2 glycoprotein G genes, with means of 2,902 6 1,082 (standard error of the

  12. Expression patterns of erythropoietin and its receptor in the developing spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Knabe; Anna-Leena Sirén; Hannelore Ehrenreich; Hans-Jürg Kuhn

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in animal models of adult spinal cord injury, and reduces apoptosis\\u000a in adult dorsal root ganglia after spinal nerve crush. The present work demonstrates that spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia\\u000a share dynamic expression patterns of EPO and its receptor (EPOR) during development. C57Bl mice from embryonic days (E) 8\\u000a (E8) to E19 were

  13. Amino acid and protein metabolism in dorsal root ganglia of rabbits with experimental allergic neuritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Molnár; E. R. Korpi; H. Kalimo

    1985-01-01

    Amino acid and protein metabolism has been studied in the dorsal root ganglia of rabbits with experimental allergic neuritis\\u000a (EAN). The concentrations of a number of nonessential amino acids (glutamine, serine, aspartate, and glutamate) were reduced\\u000a in the spinal ganglia of EAN animals without any comparable change in the blood plasma. The short-term influx of glycine and\\u000a GABA was decreased

  14. Migratory neural crest cell ?N-catenin impacts chick trigeminal ganglia formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chyong-Yi; Hooper, Rachel M; Han, Kyeong; Taneyhill, Lisa A

    2014-08-15

    Neural crest cells are an embryonic cell population that is crucial for proper vertebrate development. Initially localized to the dorsal neural folds, premigratory neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate to their final destinations in the developing embryo. Together with epidermally-derived placode cells, neural crest cells then form the cranial sensory ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. Our prior work has shown that ?N-catenin, the neural subtype of the adherens junction ?-catenin protein, regulates cranial neural crest cell EMT by controlling premigratory neural crest cell cadherin levels. Although ?N-catenin down-regulation is critical for initial neural crest cell EMT, a potential role for ?N-catenin in later neural crest cell migration, and formation of the cranial ganglia, has not been examined. In this study, we show for the first time that migratory neural crest cells that will give rise to the cranial trigeminal ganglia express ?N-catenin and Cadherin-7. ?N-catenin loss- and gain-of-function experiments reveal effects on the migratory neural crest cell population that include subsequent defects in trigeminal ganglia assembly. Moreover, ?N-catenin perturbation in neural crest cells impacts the placode cell contribution to the trigeminal ganglia and also changes neural crest cell Cadherin-7 levels and localization. Together, these results highlight a novel function for ?N-catenin in migratory neural crest cells that form the trigeminal ganglia. PMID:24882712

  15. Dissociating hippocampal and basal ganglia contributions to category learning using stimulus novelty and subjective judgments

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.; Dennison, Christina S.; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J.; Roark, Aubrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accompanied by conscious awareness of category membership. Know-Intuition: A “gut feeling” without fully conscious knowledge of category membership. Guess: Guessing. In addition, new stimuli were introduced throughout the experiment to examine effects of novelty. Categorization overall recruited both the basal ganglia and posterior hippocampus. However, basal ganglia activity was found during Know judgments (both Automatic and Intuition), whereas posterior hippocampus activity was found during Remember judgments. Granger causality mapping indicated interactions between the basal ganglia and hippocampus, with the putamen exerting directed influence on the posterior hippocampus, which in turn exerted directed influence on the posterior caudate nucleus. We also found a region of anterior hippocampus that showed decreased activity relative to baseline during categorization overall, and showed a strong novelty effect. Our results indicate that subjective measures may be effective in dissociating basal ganglia from hippocampal dependent learning, and that the basal ganglia are involved in both conscious and unconscious learning. They also indicate a dissociation within the hippocampus, in which the anterior regions are sensitive to novelty, and the posterior regions are involved in memory based categorization learning. PMID:21255655

  16. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  17. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  18. Effect of diabetes and aging on human sympathetic autonomic ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R. E.; Plurad, S. B.; Parvin, C. A.; Roth, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    Although autonomic dysfunction frequently complicates the clinical course of patients with diabetes, relatively little is known of its underlying neuropathology. Using experimental animal models as a guide, the prevertebral superior mesenteric (SMG) and paravertebral superior cervical (SCG) sympathetic ganglia have been examined in a series of adult autopsied diabetic and non-diabetic patients of various ages using histochemical, ultrastructural, morphometric, and immunohistochemical methods. Quantitative studies demonstrated that markedly swollen argyrophilic terminal axons (neuroaxonal dystrophy) containing large numbers of disorganized neurofilaments developed in the SMG but not SCG as a function of diabetes, increasing age, and gender (males were more severely affected than females). As in experimental animals, diabetic (types I and II) patients developed histologically identical lesions prematurely and in greater numbers than age-matched nondiabetic patients. Morphometric studies showed a small but statistically significant decrease in neuronal density in the SMG but not SCG of diabetic patients. The dimensions of individual sympathetic neurons were not significantly different in aging or diabetes. The pathological lesions identified in the SMG may contribute to the autonomic dysfunction so commonly observed in diabetic patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:8317545

  19. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2015-02-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  20. Shape Cutter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

    2010-03-04

    "With this tool, you can explore how to decompose shapes and recompose them to make other shapes. You can draw and cut shapes and also use slides, turns, and flips to move pieces around" from NCTM Illuminations.

  1. Shape Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learn the relationship between perimeter and area. A random shape will be automatically generated. Calculate the area and perimeter of this shape. Shape Explorer is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  2. Shape Hunt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meghan Hauptli

    2012-06-11

    Students will go on a shape hunt in the classroom or designated area. During the shape hunt, students will draw pictures of the shapes they find and the object that it is found by, in order to show the position of the shape. After the shape hunt, students will use Timed-Pair-Share to explain to peers what shapes they found and their relative positions.

  3. abnormalities in infants and toddlers

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    Cerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome children with Williams syndrome. Clinical brain MRI was examined in nine young children with Williams

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

    2003-01-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

  5. Students' reactions to abnormal psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Taylor

    1932-01-01

    As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

  6. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  7. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  8. Intraneuronal angiotensinergic system in rat and human dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Jaspal; Schwab, Alexander; Nussberger, Juerg; Schaffner, Thomas; Saavedra, Juan M.; Imboden, Hans

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the local formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the neurons of sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we studied the expression of angiotensinogen (Ang-N)-, renin-, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)- and cathepsin D-mRNA, and the presence of protein renin, Ang II, Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the rat and human thoracic DRG. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) studies revealed that rat DRG expressed substantial amounts of Ang-N- and ACE mRNA, while renin mRNA as well as the protein renin were untraceable. Cathepsin D-mRNA and cathepsin D-protein were detected in the rat DRG indicating the possibility of existence of pathways alternative to renin for Ang I formation. Angiotensin peptides were successfully detected with high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay in human DRG extracts. In situ hybridization in rat DRG confirmed additionally expression of Ang-N mRNA in the cytoplasm of numerous neurons. Intracellular Ang II staining could be shown in number of neurons and their processes in both the rat and human DRG. Interestingly we observed neuronal processes with angiotensinergic synapses en passant, colocalized with synaptophysin, within the DRG. In the DRG, we also identified by qRT-PCR, expression of Ang II receptor AT1A and AT2-mRNA while AT1B-mRNA was not traceable. In some neurons Substance P and CGRP were found colocalized with Ang II. The intracellular localization and colocalization of Ang II with Substance P and CGRP in the DRG neurons may indicate a participation and function of Ang II in the regulation of nociception. In conclusion, these results suggest that Ang II may be produced locally in the neurons of rat and human DRG and act as a neurotransmitter. PMID:20346377

  9. Automated segmentation of multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted MRI hypointensities.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Andreas; Bastin, Mark E; Kiker, Alexander J; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Valdés Hernández, Maria C

    2015-01-15

    Multifocal basal ganglia T2*-weighted (T2*w) hypointensities, which are believed to arise mainly from vascular mineralization, were recently proposed as a novel MRI biomarker for small vessel disease and ageing. These T2*w hypointensities are typically segmented semi-automatically, which is time consuming, associated with a high intra-rater variability and low inter-rater agreement. To address these limitations, we developed a fully automated, unsupervised segmentation method for basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. This method requires conventional, co-registered T2*w and T1-weighted (T1w) volumes, as well as region-of-interest (ROI) masks for the basal ganglia and adjacent internal capsule generated automatically from T1w MRI. The basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities were then segmented with thresholds derived with an adaptive outlier detection method from respective bivariate T2*w/T1w intensity distributions in each ROI. Artefacts were reduced by filtering connected components in the initial masks based on their standardised T2*w intensity variance. The segmentation method was validated using a custom-built phantom containing mineral deposit models, i.e. gel beads doped with 3 different contrast agents in 7 different concentrations, as well as with MRI data from 98 community-dwelling older subjects in their seventies with a wide range of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities. The method produced basal ganglia T2*w hypointensity masks that were in substantial volumetric and spatial agreement with those generated by an experienced rater (Jaccard index = 0.62 ± 0.40). These promising results suggest that this method may have use in automatic segmentation of basal ganglia T2*w hypointensities in studies of small vessel disease and ageing. PMID:25451469

  10. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia in a Population-Based Sample: Relationship to Duration of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Päivikki; Ridler, Khanum; Murray, Graham K.; Haapea, Marianne; Veijola, Juha M.; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Jones, Peter B.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Isohanni, Matti K.

    2010-01-01

    Biased recruitment and sample selection may cause variability in neuroimaging studies. Epidemiologically principled population-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia are very rare. We gathered structural MRI data on 154 subjects from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, aged 33–35 (100 controls, 54 schizophrenia patients). Regional differences in density of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were identified between groups using nonparametric statistical analysis, and the relationship of the regional differences to duration of illness was explored. Gray matter reductions were found bilaterally in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, insula, superior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, cuneus, and lingual gyrus; in the left posterior cingulate, superior frontal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus; and in the right postcentral gyrus. Gray matter excesses were observed bilaterally in the basal ganglia, anterior cingulate, and medial orbitofrontal cortices. There were white matter deficits in an extensive network including inter- and intrahemispheric tracts bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, subcortical structures, cerebellum, and brain stem. CSF excesses were found bilaterally in the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, interhemispheric, and left Sylvian fissure. We replicated the previous findings of structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia on a general population level. Gray and white matter deficits were associated with duration of illness suggesting either that developmental brain deficits relate to an earlier age of onset or that brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are progressive in nature. PMID:19015212

  11. A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ganglia in particular. The aim of our review is to explore some of these basal ganglia pathologies and provide image illustrations. PMID:24900164

  12. Shape of Caudate Nucleus and Its Cognitive Correlates in Neuroleptic-Naive Schizotypal

    E-print Network

    for higher cognitive and limbic functions, originate, respectively, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex nucleus, prefrontal cortex, structural magnetic reso- nance imaging, shape analysis W e have chosen. Discrete motor and cognitive circuits anatomically link the prefrontal cortex to the basal ganglia in what

  13. Shape Up

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Shane Carter

    2006-10-23

    Get a better understanding of the importance of our basic geometric shapes. While going through the activity below see if you can create the following shapes: A triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, rectangle, kite, diamond. Having fun with quadrilaterals Now that you can create basic shapes see if you can create more difficult shapes on the geoboard. Geoboard Activity See if you can use the geoboard to create 3-D shapes ...

  14. Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

  15. Latency-associated transcripts of equine herpesvirus type 4 in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Borchers, K; Wolfinger, U; Ludwig, H

    1999-08-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) is a major respiratory pathogen of horses. Unlike most other members of the Alphaherpesvirinae, EHV-4 was regarded as non-neurotropic. Here, neural and lymphoid tissues of 17 horses have been analysed post-mortem. EHV-4 DNA was detected in 11 cases (65%) by PCR, exclusively in the trigeminal ganglia. In order to define the transcriptional activity, RNA preparations of 10 EHV-4 DNA-positive ganglia were investigated by nested RT-PCR. EHV-4-specific transcripts derived from genes 63 [herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICPO gene homologue] and 64 (HSV-1 ICP4 gene homologue) were detected in six trigeminal ganglia. In one other case, only gene 64-specific transcripts were present. All of the transcripts proved to be antisense orientated when a strand-specific RT-PCR was applied. Type-specific primers for gene 33 (encoding glycoprotein B) served to detect transcripts of an acute EHV-4-infection, which were found in only one of the six ganglia positive for gene 63- and gene 64-specific transcripts. Overall, these studies clearly demonstrate that EHV-4 is latent in trigeminal ganglia. PMID:10466816

  16. Do Basal Ganglia Amplify Willed Action by Stochastic Resonance? A Model

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia are usually attributed a role in facilitating willed action, which is found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease, a pathology of basal ganglia. We hypothesize that basal ganglia possess the machinery to amplify will signals, presumably weak, by stochastic resonance. Recently we proposed a computational model of Parkinsonian reaching, in which the contributions from basal ganglia aid the motor cortex in learning to reach. The model was cast in reinforcement learning framework. We now show that the above basal ganglia computational model has all the ingredients of stochastic resonance process. In the proposed computational model, we consider the problem of moving an arm from a rest position to a target position: the two positions correspond to two extrema of the value function. A single kick (a half-wave of sinusoid, of sufficiently low amplitude) given to the system in resting position, succeeds in taking the system to the target position, with high probability, only at a critical noise level. But for suboptimal noise levels, the model arm's movements resemble Parkinsonian movement symptoms like akinetic rigidity (low noise) and dyskinesias (high noise). PMID:24302984

  17. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  18. Type I IFN suppresses Cxcr2 driven neutrophil recruitment into the sensory ganglia during viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Infection induces the expression of inflammatory chemokines that recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Whereas tissues such as the intestine and skin express unique chemokines during homeostasis, whether different tissues express distinct chemokine profiles during inflammation remains unclear. With this in mind, we performed a comprehensive screen of the chemokines expressed by two tissues (skin and sensory ganglia) infected with a common viral pathogen (herpes simplex virus type 1). After infection, the skin and ganglia showed marked differences in their expression of the family of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands. Specifically, Cxcl1/2/3, which in turn controlled neutrophil recruitment, was up-regulated in the skin but absent from the ganglia. Within the ganglia, Cxcl2 expression and subsequent neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by type I interferon (IFN). Using a combination of bone marrow chimeras and intracellular chemokine staining, we show that type I IFN acted by directly suppressing Cxcl2 expression by monocytes, abrogating their ability to recruit neutrophils to the ganglia. Overall, our findings describe a novel role for IFN in the direct, and selective, inhibition of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands, which results in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment to neuronal tissue. PMID:24752295

  19. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  20. Morphometric Study of the Upper Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Beom; Park, Sukh Que; Cho, Sung Jin; Choi, Soon Kwan; Bae, Hack Gun

    2011-01-01

    Objective Morphometric data for the sympathetic ganglia (SG) of the upper thoracic spine was investigated to identify the exact location of the SG in order to reduce normal tissue injury in the thoracic cavity during thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Methods In 46 specimens from 23 formalin-fixed adult cadavers, the authors measured the shortest distance from the medial margin of the T1, T2 and T3 SG to the most prominent point and medial margin of the corresponding rib heads, and to the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle. In addition, the distance between the most prominent point of the rib head and the lateral margin of longus colli muscle and the width of each SG were measured. Results The shortest distance from the medial margin of the SG to the prominent point of corresponding rib head was on average 1.9 mm on T1, 4.2 mm, and 4.1 mm on T2, T3. The distance from the medial margin of the SG to the medial margin of the corresponding rib head was 4.2 mm on T1, 5.9 mm, and 6.3 mm on T2, T3. The mean distance from the medial margin of the SG to the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle was 6.7 mm on T1, 8.8 mm, 9.9 and mm on T2, T3. The mean distance between the prominent point of the rib head and the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle was 4.8 mm on T1, 4.6 mm, and 5.9 mm on T2, T3. The mean width of SG was 6.1 mm on T1, 4.1 mm, and 3.1 mm on T2, T3. Conclusion We present morphometric data to assist in surgical planning and the localization of the upper thoracic SG during thoracoscopic sympathectomy. PMID:21892401

  1. Friedreich ataxia: metal dysmetabolism in dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Friedreich ataxia (FA) causes distinctive lesions of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), including neuronal atrophy, satellite cell hyperplasia, and absorption of dying nerve cells into residual nodules. Two mechanisms may be involved: hypoplasia of DRG neurons from birth and superimposed iron (Fe)- and zinc (Zn)-mediated oxidative injury. This report presents a systematic analysis of DRG in 7 FA patients and 13 normal controls by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of polyethylene glycol-embedded DRG; double-label confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of Zn- and Fe-related proteins; and immunohistochemistry of frataxin and the mitochondrial marker, ATP synthase F1 complex V ?-polypeptide (ATP5B). Results XRF revealed normal total Zn- and Fe-levels in the neural tissue of DRG in FA (mean ± standard deviation): Zn=5.46±2.29 ?g/ml, Fe=19.99±13.26 ?g/ml in FA; Zn=8.16±6.19 ?g/ml, Fe=23.85±12.23 ?g/ml in controls. Despite these unchanged total metal concentrations, Zn- and Fe-related proteins displayed major shifts in their cellular localization. The Zn transporter Zip14 that is normally expressed in DRG neurons and satellite cells became more prominent in hyperplastic satellite cells and residual nodules. Metallothionein 3 (MT3) stains confirmed reduction of neuronal size in FA, but MT3 expression remained low in hyperplastic satellite cells. In contrast, MT1/2 immunofluorescence was prominent in proliferating satellite cells. Neuronal ferritin immunofluorescence declined but remained strong in hyperplastic satellite cells and residual nodules. Satellite cells in FA showed a larger number of mitochondria expressing ATB5B. Frataxin immunohistochemistry in FA confirmed small neuronal sizes, irregular distribution of reaction product beneath the plasma membrane, and enhanced expression in hyperplastic satellite cells. Conclusions The pool of total cellular Zn in normal DRG equals 124.8 ?M, which is much higher than needed for the proper function of Zn ion-dependent proteins. It is likely that any disturbance of Zn buffering by Zip14 and MT3 causes mitochondrial damage and cell death. In contrast to Zn, sequestration of Fe in hyperplastic satellite cells may represent a protective mechanism. The changes in the cellular localization of Zn- and Fe-handling proteins suggest metal transfer from degenerating DRG neurons to activated satellite cells and connect neuronal metal dysmetabolism with the pathogenesis of the DRG lesion in FA. PMID:24252376

  2. Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Redgrave, Peter; Rodriguez, Manuel; Smith, Yoland; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Lehericy, Stephane; Bergman, Hagai; Agid, Yves; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Obeso, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson’s disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson’s disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of the basal ganglia associated with the control of habitual behaviour. These patients may therefore be forced into a progressive reliance on the goal-directed mode of action control that is mediated by comparatively preserved processing in the rostromedial striatum. Thus, many of their behavioural difficulties may reflect a loss of normal automatic control owing to distorting output signals from habitual control circuits, which impede the expression of goal-directed action. PMID:20944662

  3. Dopamine transporter SPECT/CT and perfusion brain SPECT imaging in idiopathic basal ganglia calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Messinis, Lambros; Markaki, Elli; Constantoyannis, Constantine; Ellul, John; Vassilakos, Pavlos

    2009-07-01

    A case of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification in a 56-year-old woman with parkinsonism and cognitive impairment is described. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and regional cerebral blood flow were evaluated using dopamine transporter (DAT) brain single photon emission tomography combined with a low-dose x-ray computerized tomography transmission (hybrid SPECT/CT) and Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT study, respectively. DAT SPECT/CT imaging revealed a reduction in DAT binding in both striatum regions coinciding with bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia. Brain perfusion scan showed hypoperfusion in basal ganglia regions, posterior parietal cortex bilaterally, left frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left temporal lobe. These findings correlated well with the clinical condition of the patient. Mineralization may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration. Cortical perfusion changes in patients may better explain the patient's altered cognitive and motor functions. PMID:19542944

  4. Age and immune status of rhesus macaques impact simian varicella virus gene expression in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christine; Dewane, Jesse; Kerns, Amelia; Haberthur, Kristen; Barron, Alex; Park, Byung; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2013-08-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) recapitulates the hallmarks of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of humans, including the establishment of latency within the sensory ganglia. Various factors, including age and immune fitness, influence the outcome of primary VZV infection, as well as reactivation resulting in herpes zoster (HZ). To increase our understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the establishment of viral latency, we analyzed the latent SVV transcriptome in juvenile RMs depleted of CD4 T, CD8 T, or CD20 B lymphocytes during acute infection. We have previously shown that SVV latency in sensory ganglia of nondepleted juvenile RMs is associated with a limited transcriptional profile. In contrast, CD4 depletion during primary infection resulted in the failure to establish a characteristic latent viral transcription profile in sensory ganglia, where we detected 68 out of 69 SVV-encoded open reading frames (ORFs). CD-depleted RMs displayed a latent transcriptional profile that included additional viral transcripts within the core region of the genome not detected in control RMs. The latent transcriptome of CD20-depleted RMs was comparable to the latent transcription in the sensory ganglia of control RMs. Lastly, we investigated the impact of age on the establishment of SVV latency. SVV gene expression was more active in ganglia from two aged RMs than in ganglia from juvenile RMs, with 25 of 69 SVV transcripts detected. Therefore, immune fitness at the time of infection modulates the establishment and/or maintenance of SVV latency. PMID:23698305

  5. Age and Immune Status of Rhesus Macaques Impact Simian Varicella Virus Gene Expression in Sensory Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christine; Dewane, Jesse; Kerns, Amelia; Haberthur, Kristen; Barron, Alex; Park, Byung

    2013-01-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) recapitulates the hallmarks of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of humans, including the establishment of latency within the sensory ganglia. Various factors, including age and immune fitness, influence the outcome of primary VZV infection, as well as reactivation resulting in herpes zoster (HZ). To increase our understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the establishment of viral latency, we analyzed the latent SVV transcriptome in juvenile RMs depleted of CD4 T, CD8 T, or CD20 B lymphocytes during acute infection. We have previously shown that SVV latency in sensory ganglia of nondepleted juvenile RMs is associated with a limited transcriptional profile. In contrast, CD4 depletion during primary infection resulted in the failure to establish a characteristic latent viral transcription profile in sensory ganglia, where we detected 68 out of 69 SVV-encoded open reading frames (ORFs). CD-depleted RMs displayed a latent transcriptional profile that included additional viral transcripts within the core region of the genome not detected in control RMs. The latent transcriptome of CD20-depleted RMs was comparable to the latent transcription in the sensory ganglia of control RMs. Lastly, we investigated the impact of age on the establishment of SVV latency. SVV gene expression was more active in ganglia from two aged RMs than in ganglia from juvenile RMs, with 25 of 69 SVV transcripts detected. Therefore, immune fitness at the time of infection modulates the establishment and/or maintenance of SVV latency. PMID:23698305

  6. Leaf Shape

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of leaf shapes. The single Web page, which can be easily printed for use at field sites, shows five leaf shapes.

  7. Shape Builder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity operates in one of two modes: auto draw and create shape mode, allowing you to explore relationships between area and perimeter. Shape Builder is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  8. Shape Up!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-21

    In this lesson students will compare two and three dimensional shapes (circle, square, triangle, rectangle, cone, cylinder, sphere, cube) by differentiating them according to attributes. Students explain attributes of shapes by exploring real world objects.

  9. Does varicella-zoster virus infection of the peripheral ganglia cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Judith S

    2009-11-01

    This article posits that infection of the peripheral ganglia causes at least some cases of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), with a neurotropic herpesvirus, particularly varicella-zoster virus (VZV), as the most likely cause of the infection. Virtually all CFS symptoms could be produced by an infection of the peripheral ganglia, with infection of the autonomic ganglia causing fatigue, postural hypotension, and sleep disturbances, and infection of the sensory ganglia causing sensory symptoms such as chronic pain. Furthermore, infections of the peripheral ganglia are known to cause long-term nerve dysfunction, which would help explain the chronic course of CFS. Herpesviruses have long been suspected as the cause of CFS; this theory has recently been supported by studies showing that administering antiherpes agents causes substantial improvement in some CFS patients. VZV is known to frequently reactivate in the peripheral ganglia of previously healthy adults and cause sudden, debilitating illness, making it a likely candidate as a cause of CFS. Moreover, many of the symptoms of CFS overlap with those of herpes zoster (shingles), with the exception that painful rash is not one of the symptoms of CFS. A model is therefore proposed in which CFS is one of the many manifestations of zoster sine herpete; that is, herpes zoster without rash. Furthermore, re-exposure to VZV in the form of chickenpox has become less common in the past few decades; without such re-exposure, immunity to VZV drops, which could explain the increased incidence of CFS. Co-infection with multiple herpesviruses is a possibility, as some CFS patients show signs of infection with other herpesviruses including Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, and HHV6. These three herpesviruses can attack immune cells, and may therefore promote neurotropic herpesvirus reactivation in the ganglia. The possibility of VZV as the causal agent in CFS has previously received almost no attention; the possibility that CFS involves infection of the peripheral ganglia has likewise been largely overlooked. This suggests that the search for a viral cause of CFS has been far from exhaustive. Several antiherpes drugs are available, as is a vaccine for VZV; more research into such agents as possible treatments for CFS is urgently needed. PMID:19520522

  10. The convergence of sympathetic preganglionic fibres on vasomotor neurones of the ganglia in lumbar sympathetic chain.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, V P; Syromiatnikov, A V; Skok, V I

    1977-04-01

    By means of intracellular recordings from the neurones of isolated L(3)-L(6) ganglia it was shown that B(1)-, B(2)- and C-preganglionic fibres widely converge on these neurones. Besides, a part of the ganglionic neurones is activated by slow-conducting C-fibres coming into the ganglia through the grey rami. Identified vasomotor neurones have the distinctive feature of preganglionic fibre convergence. Only B(2)- and C-preganglionic fibres were able to activate them, but the efficacy of the B(2)-fibre excitatory action is considerably higher. PMID:19604952

  11. Stable Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-22

    In this activity (located on page 9 of PDF), learners compare the stability of a triangle- and square-shaped structure. Learners use straws and paper clips to construct the shapes and then press down on the tops to see which shape collapses. Learners are then encouraged to build stronger shapes, perhaps by using diagonal cross-pieces as triangular bases. Use this activity to introduce compression force and structural stability.

  12. Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Villa; Stefania Ceruti; Matteo Zanardelli; Giulia Magni; Luc Jasmin; Peter T Ohara; Maria P Abbracchio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glial cells have been shown to directly participate to the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain in both the sensory ganglia and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, glial cell activation has been reported in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord following injury or inflammation of the sciatic nerve, but no data are currently available in

  13. The cerebral ganglia of Milnesium tardigradum Doyère (Apochela, Tardigrada): Three dimensional reconstruction and notes on their ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HOLGER WIEDERHÖFT; HARTMUT GREVEN

    1996-01-01

    Differential interference contrast micrographs from stretched animals, serially sectioned semi-thin and ultrathin sections revealed that the cerebral ganglia (supraoesophageal mass) of the eutardigradeMilnesium tardigradumlie above the buccal tube and adjacent tissue like a saddle. It has an anterior indentation which is penetrated by two muscles that arise from the cuticle of the forehead. The cerebral ganglia consist of lateral outer

  14. Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-L Welter; P Burbaud; S Fernandez-Vidal; E Bardinet; J Coste; B Piallat; M Borg; S Besnard; P Sauleau; B Devaux; B Pidoux; P Chaynes; S Tézenas du Montcel; A Bastian; N Langbour; A Teillant; W Haynes; J Yelnik; C Karachi; L Mallet

    2011-01-01

    Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed

  15. Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

  16. Distribution of GABA B binding sites in the thalamus and basal ganglia of the rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Bowery; K. Parry; G. Goodrich; I. Ilinsky; K. Kultas-Ilinsky

    1999-01-01

    The regional distribution of GABAB receptor binding sites in the thalamus and basal ganglia of rhesus monkey has been determined by receptor autoradiography using the agonist ligand, [3H]-GABA. Whilst binding sites were evident throughout the thalamus, the internuclear differences in the Bmax were up to 10-fold. In the basal ganglia the binding density was on average lower than in the

  17. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Nerve Growth Factor Induces Gliogenesis in Sensory Ganglia, Dorsal Root, and within the Dorsal Root Entry Zone

    PubMed Central

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.; Pizzo, Donald P.; Morrissette, Debbi A.; Winkler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100? revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root. PMID:24738070

  18. Shape Detective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    carissa curran

    2012-06-11

    The students will identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons). The students will also be able to correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size by becoming detectives and going in a "hunt" to find the needed shapes.

  19. Same Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem challenges and extends students' spatial awareness with 2D shapes. The students are given three different irregular shapes. The goal is to divide each of them into two parts that are exactly the same shape and size. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation with a link to Happy Halving (cataloged seperately), discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

  20. Motor functions of cerebellum and basal ganglia: the cerebellocortical saccadic (ballistic) clock, the cerebellonuclear hold regulator, and the basal ganglia ramp (voluntary speed smooth movement) generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Kornhuber

    1971-01-01

    A theory of the motor functions of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia is presented. It is based on the following observations:1.Dysmetria of saccadic eye and rapid arm movements as well as adiadochokinesis as a consequence of cerebellar cortical lesions.2.Holding tremor of the arm and eyes (pendular nystagmus) due to lesions of the cerebellar nuclei.3.The precentral motor cortex is unnecessary

  1. Singing-Related Neural Activity Distinguishes Two Putative Pallidal Cell Types in the Songbird Basal Ganglia: Comparison to the Primate Internal and External Pallidal Segments

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    The songbird area X is a basal ganglia homolog that contains two pallidal cell types—local neurons that project within the basal ganglia and output neurons that project to the thalamus. Based on these projections, it has ...

  2. Intramuscular nerve distribution in bladder and the relationship between intramuscular ganglia and bladder function in man and dog

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeju; Xu, Qian; Lu, Li; Luo, Xu; Fu, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    In clinical, the relationship between bladder intramuscular nerve and function is also elusive. This study aims to compare the bladder intramuscular nerve distribution and its characteristics and significance in human and dog. Eleven dogs’ bladders were stained by Sihler’s and HE techniques. Fifteen human bladders were adopted by Sihler’s staining, using 10% formaldehyde to fix 12 weeks, 7 by HE dyeing fixes 24 hours. Results indicated that man’s bladder was triangularpyramid-shaped. While dog’s bladder was spherical-shaped and its muscle fibers arrange were irregularly shaped. Longitudinal muscle of the outer layer is fleshy, the terminal is at the bladder neck without exception, and vesical trigone has relatively obvious three layers of structure. After dyeing dog’s bladder was transparent jelly, the nerve was purple color, enter bladder at the ureter-bladder junction with different forms. Man’s bladder nerves, no ganglion, were more trivial than that of dogs, and with smaller branches, the large nerve ganglion. The links with the nerve fibers and forms the network on the dog’s bladder wall, and the nerve fibers crosses comparatively little on both the left and right sides in the midline. The right nerve branch gains advantage on the man’s bladder wall, the situations is opposite on the dog’s. In conclusion, bladder nerves which scatter to the bladder wall have branches to lower ureter at the ureter-bladder junction, the structure and distribution of intramuscular nerves are different, the existence of intramuscular ganglia is relating to the bladder function both in man and dog. PMID:25664008

  3. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  4. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    E-print Network

    the landing gear came down... #12;10 Emergency and Abnormal Situations Issues · Checklist and Procedure-board fire and when the aircraft ditches, conducts a forced landing, or crashes is 17 minutes. The Swissair 426768 During approach...the gear failed to come down...after notifying the tower we had a `Gear

  5. Synchronized Neuronal Discharge in the Basal Ganglia of Parkinsonian Patients Is Limited to Oscillatory Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Levy; William D. Hutchison; Andres M. Lozano; Jonathan O. Dostrovsky

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that an increase in synchronization be- tween neurons in the basal ganglia contributes to the clinical features of Parkinson's disease (PD). To examine this hypothe- sis, we looked for correlations in the discharge activity of pairs of neurons in the globus pallidus internus (GPi), globus pallidus externus (GPe), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Recordings

  6. Stuttering and the Basal Ganglia Circuits: A Critical Review of Possible Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    The possible relation between stuttering and the basal ganglia is discussed. Important clues to the pathophysiology of stuttering are given by conditions known to alleviate dysfluency, like the rhythm effect, chorus speech, and singing. Information regarding pharmacologic trials, lesion studies, brain imaging, genetics, and developmental changes…

  7. How may the basal ganglia contribute to auditory categorization and speech perception?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners must accomplish two complementary perceptual feats in extracting a message from speech. They must discriminate linguistically-relevant acoustic variability and generalize across irrelevant variability. Said another way, they must categorize speech. Since the mapping of acoustic variability is language-specific, these categories must be learned from experience. Thus, understanding how, in general, the auditory system acquires and represents categories can inform us about the toolbox of mechanisms available to speech perception. This perspective invites consideration of findings from cognitive neuroscience literatures outside of the speech domain as a means of constraining models of speech perception. Although neurobiological models of speech perception have mainly focused on cerebral cortex, research outside the speech domain is consistent with the possibility of significant subcortical contributions in category learning. Here, we review the functional role of one such structure, the basal ganglia. We examine research from animal electrophysiology, human neuroimaging, and behavior to consider characteristics of basal ganglia processing that may be advantageous for speech category learning. We also present emerging evidence for a direct role for basal ganglia in learning auditory categories in a complex, naturalistic task intended to model the incidental manner in which speech categories are acquired. To conclude, we highlight new research questions that arise in incorporating the broader neuroscience research literature in modeling speech perception, and suggest how understanding contributions of the basal ganglia can inform attempts to optimize training protocols for learning non-native speech categories in adulthood. PMID:25136291

  8. Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

  9. The inhibitory microcircuit of the substantia nigra provides feedback gain control of the basal ganglia output

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001 PMID:24849626

  10. New Syndrome Characterized by Hypomyelination with Atrophy of the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjo S. van der Knaap; SakkuBai Naidu; Petra J. W. Pouwels; Simona Bonavita; Rudy van Coster; Lieven Lagae; Jurgen Sperner; Robert Surtees; Raphael Schiffmann; Jakob Valk

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leukoencephalopathies of unknown origin constitute a considerable problem in child neurology. The purpose of our ongoing study of the subject was to define new disease entities among them by using primarily MR imaging pattern recognition. METHODS: We identified seven unrelated patients with a distinct MR imaging pattern consisting of hypomyelination and atrophy of the basal ganglia (neostriatum)

  11. Differential contributions of basal ganglia and thalamus to song initiation, tempo, and structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. R.; Doupe, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are multistage loops critical to motor behavior, but the contributions of individual components to overall circuit function remain unclear. We addressed these issues in a songbird basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit (the anterior forebrain pathway, AFP) specialized for singing and critical for vocal plasticity. The major known afferent to the AFP is the premotor cortical nucleus, HVC. Surprisingly, previous studies found that lesions of HVC alter song but do not eliminate the ability of the AFP to drive song production. We therefore used this AFP-driven song to investigate the role of basal ganglia and thalamus in vocal structure, tempo, and initiation. We found that lesions of the striatopallidal component (Area X) slowed song and simplified its acoustic structure. Elimination of the thalamic component (DLM) further simplified the acoustic structure of song and regularized its rhythm but also dramatically reduced song production. The acoustic structure changes imply that sequential stages of the AFP each add complexity to song, but the effects of DLM lesions on song initiation suggest that thalamus is a locus of additional inputs important to initiation. Together, our results highlight the cumulative contribution of stages of a basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit to motor output along with distinct involvement of thalamus in song initiation or “gating.” PMID:24174647

  12. Basal ganglia and supplementary motor area subtend duration perception: an fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Ferrandez; L. Hugueville; S. Lehericy; J. B. Poline; C. Marsault; V. Pouthasa

    2003-01-01

    Brain imaging studies on duration perception usually report the activation of a network that includes the frontal and mesiofrontal cortex (supplementary motor area, SMA), parietal cortex, and subcortical areas (basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum). To address the question of the specific involvement of these structures in temporal processing, we contrasted two visual discrimination tasks in which the relevant stimulus dimension

  13. Effects of Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions on Timing and Force Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, P.; Diedrichsen, J.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal ganglia dysfunction in humans have generally involved patients with degenerative disorders, notably Parkinson's disease. In many instances, the performance of these patients is compared to that of patients with focal lesions of other brain structures such as the cerebellum. In the present report, we studied the performance of…

  14. Direct NK Cell-Mediated Lysis of Syngenic Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons In Vitro1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Backstrom; Benedict J. Chambers; Krister Kristensson; Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren

    2000-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on the role of T and B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of the nervous system, little is known about NK cells and their potential role in the destruction of neural tissue. NK cells have been implicated in the selective death of sympathetic neurons resident in the superior cervical ganglia of rats after

  15. Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

  16. Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation in Parkinsonism

    E-print Network

    Bar-Gad, Izhar

    -basal ganglia (CBG) loop. Initially, the study of these changes focused on the baseline firing rate., 1997; Nini et al., 1995). Studies of functional changes in the CBG loop neurophysiology have revealed all assess the modulation of neuronal activity in the CBG loop in a static manner that reflects

  17. Motor phenotype and magnetic resonance measures of basal ganglia iron levels in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Bunzeck, Nico; Singh-Curry, Victoria; Eckart, Cindy; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Perry, Richard J.; Bain, Peter G.; Düzel, Emrah; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Background In Parkinson's disease the degree of motor impairment can be classified with respect to tremor dominant and akinetic rigid features. While tremor dominance and akinetic rigidity might represent two ends of a continuum rather than discrete entities, it would be important to have non-invasive markers of any biological differences between them in vivo, to assess disease trajectories and response to treatment, as well as providing insights into the underlying mechanisms contributing to heterogeneity within the Parkinson's disease population. Methods Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether Parkinson's disease patients exhibit structural changes within the basal ganglia that might relate to motor phenotype. Specifically, we examined volumes of basal ganglia regions, as well as transverse relaxation rate (a putative marker of iron load) and magnetization transfer saturation (considered to index structural integrity) within these regions in 40 individuals. Results We found decreased volume and reduced magnetization transfer within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease patients compared to healthy controls. Importantly, there was a positive correlation between tremulous motor phenotype and transverse relaxation rate (reflecting iron load) within the putamen, caudate and thalamus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that akinetic rigid and tremor dominant symptoms of Parkinson's disease might be differentiated on the basis of the transverse relaxation rate within specific basal ganglia structures. Moreover, they suggest that iron load within the basal ganglia makes an important contribution to motor phenotype, a key prognostic indicator of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. PMID:24025315

  18. Activity Patterns in a Model for the Subthalamopallidal Network of the Basal Ganglia

    E-print Network

    - struction of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease and in animal models of parkinsonism. Key words; Parkinson's disease Most current models of the basal ganglia are static models, in that they represent, com- monly used to explain the symptoms of Parkinsonism, views the interactions of the direct

  19. Providing Explicit Information Disrupts Implicit Motor Learning after Basal Ganglia Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lara A.; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite their purported neuroanatomic and functional isolation, empirical evidence suggests that sometimes conscious explicit processes can influence implicit motor skill learning. Our goal was to determine if the provision of explicit information affected implicit motor-sequence learning after damage to the basal ganglia. Individuals with stroke…

  20. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  1. The corticostriatal projection: from synaptic plasticity to dysfunctions of the basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Calabresi; Antonio Pisani; Nicola B. Mercuri; Giorgio Bernardi

    1996-01-01

    Corticostriatal transmission has an important function in the regulation of the neuronal activity of the basal ganglia. The firing activity of corticostriatal neurones excites striatal cells via the release of glutamate. Presynaptic receptors that are located on corticostriatal terminals and that regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum have been postulated for dopamine and glutamate. Activation of these receptors

  2. The Role of Neurotrophins in Development of Neural-Crest Cells that Become Sensory Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaya Kalcheim

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental issue of neural-crest ontogeny is understanding how different types of cells are created at the right time and in the correct numbers. Sensory ganglia are among the many derivatives of the vertebrate neural crest. Their proper formation requires the regulation of several processes such as cell fate specification, proliferation, survival, and terminal differentiation. The timescale of the occurrence

  3. Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    Dissociation between medial temporal lobe and basal ganglia memory systems in schizophrenia with schizophrenia. Acquired equivalence is a phenomenon in which prior training to treat two stimuli as equivalent generalization. Forty-three patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 28 matched healthy controls participated

  4. Contributions of the Prefrontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia to Set Shifting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Ravizza; Michael A. Ciranni

    2002-01-01

    Impairments of set shifting have been associated with damage to both the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and to the basal ganglia. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether damage to the PFC was associated with shifting impairments per se or whether any switching deficits could be attributed to a reduction of working memory capacity. In contrast, shifting impairments were

  5. Identifiable Achatina giant neurones: Their localizations in ganglia, axonal pathways and pharmacological features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Takeuchi; Yoko Araki; Muhammad Emaduddin; Wei Zhang; Xiao Yan Han; Thucydides L. Salunga; Shu Min Wong

    1996-01-01

    1.1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant neurones were identified in

  6. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  7. Basal Ganglia Atrophy in Prodromal Huntington's Disease Is Detectable Over One Year Using Automated Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Aron, Adam

    Basal Ganglia Atrophy in Prodromal Huntington's Disease Is Detectable Over One Year Using Automated disorders. VC 2011 Movement Disorder Society Key Words: Huntington's disease; prodromal HD; lon- gitudinal that modify the course of Huntington's disease (HD).1 For example, methods such as RNA interfer- ence have

  8. Dynamical states of the cortico basal ganglia circuits Thesis submitted for the degree of

    E-print Network

    anatomical pathways of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) circuit. The model explains the appearance. Nevertheless, I hypothesize that the overall negative feedback structure of the CBT circuit can give rise, in addition to single-unit discharge, in search of global oscillations throughout the CBT circuit

  9. The pallial basal ganglia pathway modulates the behaviorally driven gene expression of the

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    The pallial basal ganglia pathway modulates the behaviorally driven gene expression of the motor and Genetics, Moyzesova 61, 90028 Ivanka pri Dunaji, Slovakia Keywords: immediate-early gene, motor-driven gene activity-induced gene ZENK (or egr-1), which shows singing-regulated expression in a social context

  10. Purification and Characterization of a Cardioexcitatory Neuropeptide from the Central Ganglia of a Bivalve Mollusc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Price; M. J. Greenberg

    1977-01-01

    We have purified a cardioexcitatory substance, previously designated peak C, from ganglia of the Sunray Venus clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Low concentrations (10 -10M) of this substance not only excite the isolated clam heart, but also produce tonic contractions of the isolated radula protractor muscle of the whelk, Busycon contrarium. These two muscle preparations have therefore been used as a parallel

  11. Control of locomotion in marine mollusc Clione limacina II. Rhythmic neurons of pedal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Arshavsky; I. N. Beloozerova; G. N. Orlovsky; Yu. V. Panchin; G. A. Pavlova

    1985-01-01

    1.Activity from neurons in isolated pedal ganglia of Clione limacina was recorded intracellularly during generation of rhythmic swimming. To map the distribution of cells in a ganglion, one of two microelectrodes was used to monitor activity of the identified neuron (1A or 2A), while the second electrode was used to penetrate successively all the visible neurons within a definite area

  12. Pathological PrP is abundant in sympathetic and sensory ganglia of hamsters fed with scrapie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. McBride; Michael Beekes

    1999-01-01

    Although the ultimate target of infection is the CNS, there is evidence that the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is involved in the pathogenesis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). We used immunocytochemistry to identify the presence of pathological accumulations of a host protein, PrP, in the CNS and PNS (sensory and autonomic ganglia) of hamsters orally infected with 263K scrapie. All

  13. A biologically constrained model of the whole basal ganglia addressing the paradoxes of connections and selection.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Jean; Girard, Benoît

    2014-06-01

    The basal ganglia nuclei form a complex network of nuclei often assumed to perform selection, yet their individual roles and how they influence each other is still largely unclear. In particular, the ties between the external and internal parts of the globus pallidus are paradoxical, as anatomical data suggest a potent inhibitory projection between them while electrophysiological recordings indicate that they have similar activities. Here we introduce a theoretical study that reconciles both views on the intra-pallidal projection, by providing a plausible characterization of the relationship between the external and internal globus pallidus. Specifically, we developed a mean-field model of the whole basal ganglia, whose parameterization is optimized to respect best a collection of numerous anatomical and electrophysiological data. We first obtained models respecting all our constraints, hence anatomical and electrophysiological data on the intrapallidal projection are globally consistent. This model furthermore predicts that both aforementioned views about the intra-pallidal projection may be reconciled when this projection is weakly inhibitory, thus making it possible to support similar neural activity in both nuclei and for the entire basal ganglia to select between actions. Second, we predicts that afferent projections are substantially unbalanced towards the external segment, as it receives the strongest excitation from STN and the weakest inhibition from the striatum. Finally, our study strongly suggests that the intrapallidal connection pattern is not focused but diffuse, as this latter pattern is more efficient for the overall selection performed in the basal ganglia. PMID:24077957

  14. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  15. Allergic airway inflammation induces the migration of dendritic cells into airway sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A neuroimmune crosstalk between dendritic cells (DCs) and airway nerves in the lung has recently been reported. However, the presence of DCs in airway sensory ganglia under normal and allergic conditions has not been explored so far. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the localisation, distribution and proliferation of DCs in airway sensory ganglia under allergic airway inflammation. Methods Using the house dust mite (HDM) model for allergic airway inflammation BALB/c mice were exposed to HDM extract intranasally (25 ?g/50 ?l) for 5 consecutive days a week over 7 weeks. With the help of the immunohistochemistry, vagal jugular-nodose ganglia complex (JNC) sections were analysed regarding their expression of DC-markers (MHC II, CD11c, CD103), the neuronal marker PGP 9.5 and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and glutamine synthetase (GS) as a marker for satellite glia cells (SGCs). To address the original source of DCs in sensory ganglia, a proliferation experiment was also carried in this study. Results Immune cells with characteristic DC-phenotype were found to be closely located to SGCs and vagal sensory neurons under physiological conditions. The percentage of DCs in relation to neurons was significantly increased by allergic airway inflammation in comparison to the controls (HDM 51.38?±?2.38% vs. control 28.16?±?2.86%, p?ganglia, however, the proliferation rate of DCs is not significantly changed in the two treated animal groups (proliferating DCs/ total DCs: HDM 0.89?±?0.38%, vs. control 1.19?±?0.54%, p?=?0.68). Also, increased number of CGRP-positive neurons was found in JNC after allergic sensitisation and challenge (HDM 31.16?±?5.41% vs. control 7.16?±?1.53%, p?ganglia to interact with sensory neurons enhancing or protecting the allergic airway inflammation. The increase of DCs as well as CGRP-positive neurons in airway ganglia by allergic airway inflammation indicate that intraganglionic DCs and neurons expressing CGRP may contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. To understand this neuroimmune interaction in allergic airway inflammation further functional experiments should be carried out in future studies. PMID:24980659

  16. Mineral composition of and the relationships between them of human basal ganglia in very old age.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi; Ke, Lining; Ongkana, Nutcharin; Sinthubua, Apichat; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements and the relationships among them were investigated by direct chemical analysis in three basal ganglia regions in very old age individuals and age- and gender-related differences were assessed. After ordinary dissections at Nara Medical University were finished, the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus belonging to the basal ganglia were removed from the identical cerebra of the subjects who consisted of 22 men and 23 women, ranging in age from 70 to 101 years (average age?=?83.3?±?7.5 years). After incineration with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that the Ca, P, and Mg contents increased significantly in the putamen with aging and the Mg content increased significantly in the globus pallidus with aging, but no elements increased significantly in the caudate nucleus with aging. Regarding the relationships among elements in the basal ganglia, extremely significant direct correlations were found among the Ca, P, and Mg contents in the putamen. These results suggested that slight calcification occurred in the putamen in very old age. With regard to seven elements of Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Na, it was examined whether there were significant correlations among the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. It was found that there were extremely significant direct correlations among all of the three basal ganglia in the P content. Likewise, with regard to the Fe content, there were extremely or very significant direct correlations among all of the three basal ganglia. Regarding the gender difference in elements, it was found that the Ca content of the caudate nucleus was significantly higher in women than in men. PMID:23111949

  17. Remodelling of the intracardiac ganglia in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: an anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM. Methods Twelve GK rats (276?±?17 days of age; mean?±?standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262?±?5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area. Results The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0?±?0.6 vs. 5.9?±?0.1 mmol/l, p?ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4?±?0.1 vs. 2.2?±?0.1 mm2, p?ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state. PMID:23758627

  18. Decreased Basal Ganglia Activation in Subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Association with Symptoms of Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew H.; Jones, James F.; Drake, Daniel F.; Tian, Hao; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling) task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p?=?0.01) and right globus pallidus (p?=?0.02). Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2?=?0.49, p?=?0.001), general fatigue (r2?=?0.34, p?=?0.01) and reduced activity (r2?=?0.29, p?=?0.02) as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks. PMID:24858857

  19. Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

  20. Shape Detectives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stan Ward

    2012-07-31

    In this hands-on lesson, students will become Shape Detectives as they identify the two-dimensional shapes, such as triangles, squares and rectangles, needed to build three-dimensional figures including rectangular prisms, square pyramids and cubes. The students will gain an understanding of how two-dimensional shapes are joined together to form three-dimensional figures as well as creating an edible example!

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling. PMID:17389182

  2. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  3. Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein

    2003-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

  4. Abnormalities of the optic disc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo A. Sadun; Michelle Y. Wang

    2011-01-01

    The optic disc represents the anterior end of the optic nerve, the most forward extension of the central nervous system (CNS). The optic disc gives a rare glimpse into the CNS. Hence, diseases of the CNS are often manifested on fundus examination. Abnormalities of the optic disc may reflect eye disease (such as glaucoma), problems in development (as in various

  5. Late onset familial dystonia: could mitochondrial deficits induce a diffuse lesioning process of the whole basal ganglia system?

    PubMed Central

    Caparros-Lefebvre, D; Destee, A; Petit, H

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Striatal necrosis has been related to various clinical syndromes, with acute or chronic progression, and juvenile or late occurrence, but the most common type is Leigh's encephalopathy.?METHODS—Between 1967 and 1995, six out of seven related patients with chronic familial dystonia were examined. MRIs were performed in four, between 1992-1994. The seven members, affected over three generations, were the father, three daughters (one surviving), and three surviving grandsons.?RESULTS—The leading symptoms were gait disorders and dystonia in all, dysarthria in six, verbal and motor stereotypies in two, and parkinsonian and cerebellar signs in three. Optic neuropathy was found in three. A frontal lobe syndrome without amnesia occurred in two. Symptoms occurred between the second and the fifth decade, with progressive deterioration. Magnetic resonance imaging, performed in four, showed in the two patients with severe neurological signs diffuse striatopallidal abnormal hyposignal (comparable with CSF signal) in T1 weighted images, suggesting extensive necrosis of the striatum and pallidum, associated with thalamo-subthalamo-rubro-dentato-nigral and substantia innominata hypersignals in T2 weighted images suggesting gliosis in these respective areas. The same images were described to a lesser extent in a third patient. Concentrations of lactate in CSF and serum were normal in three. Muscle biopsy, performed in four, was shown to be normal. Enzyme histochemistry showed complex I, III, and IV deficiency in surviving patients.?CONCLUSION—This familial dystonia of chronic progression may be related to basal ganglia necrosis or gliosis, associated with alterations in the respiratory chain. These metabolic alterations probably play a part in the pathophysiology of these unusual brain lesions.?? PMID:9285458

  6. Widespread abnormality of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bagic, Anto; Simmons, Janine M.; Mari, Zoltan; Bonne, Omer; Xu, Ben; Kazuba, Diane; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Drevets, Wayne C.; Hallett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome may conceivably underlie the symptoms of motor disinhibition presenting as tics and psychiatric manifestations, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify a possible dysfunction of the ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette patients, especially involving the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits and the cerebellum. We studied 11 patients with Tourette syndrome and 11 healthy controls. Positron emission tomography procedure: after injection of 20?mCi of [11C]flumazenil, dynamic emission images of the brain were acquired. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained to provide an anatomical framework for the positron emission tomography data analysis. Images of binding potential were created using the two-step version of the simplified reference tissue model. The binding potential images then were spatially normalized, smoothed and compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping. We found decreased binding of GABAA receptors in Tourette patients bilaterally in the ventral striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus, amygdala and right insula. In addition, the GABAA receptor binding was increased in the bilateral substantia nigra, left periaqueductal grey, right posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral cerebellum. These results are consistent with the longstanding hypothesis that circuits involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are disinhibited in Tourette syndrome patients. In addition, the abnormalities in GABAA receptor binding in the insula and cerebellum appear particularly noteworthy based upon recent evidence implicating these structures in the generation of tics. PMID:22577221

  7. Strong Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Is a square stronger than a triangle? Use tongue depressors to build simple shapes. Then apply a little weight to them and see what happens! This activity comes with useful tips for building the shapes, like how to drill the wood without cracking it, and what drill works best.

  8. Endoscopic Evacuation of Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage via Keyhole Approach Using an Adjustable Cannula in Comparison with Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng-Zhu; Li, Yu-Ping; Yan, Zheng-cun; Wang, Xing-dong; She, Lei; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendoscopic (NE) surgery as a minimal invasive treatment for basal ganglia hemorrhage is a promising approach. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NE approach using an adjustable cannula to treat basal ganglia hemorrhage. In this study, we analysed the clinical and radiographic outcomes between NE group (21 cases) and craniotomy group (30 cases). The results indicated that NE surgery might be an effective and safe approach for basal ganglia haemorrhage, and it is also suggested that NE approach may improve good functional recovery. However, NE approach only suits the selected patient, and the usefulness of NE approach needs further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate. PMID:24949476

  9. Shapes lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2001-01-01

    This online activity features two simulations demonstrating the comparative strengths of rectangles, arches, and triangles when stress is applied at a point. Simulations offer a simplified version of real life conditions related to the strength and stability of structures. For comparison's sake, each tested shape is of equivalent thickness and has hinged joints. The shapes show load distribution arrows when force is applied. In one simulation, a student selects a shape and initiates a dynamic illustration, providing an explanation of the effect of applying force and demonstrating how the shape can be strengthened. The second simulation shows and explains what results when increasing numbers of elephants are stacked on each of the three shapes. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  10. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  11. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkin, A.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.; Rotrosen, J.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Cancro, R.

    1985-05-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities.

  12. A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, A; Ono, S; Shibata, M; Imai, T; Suzuki, M; Shimizu, N

    2001-12-01

    A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease. Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI. In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease. PMID:11723201

  13. Intraperitoneal administration of AAV9-shRNA inhibits target gene expression in the dorsal root ganglia of neonatal mice

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    root ganglia of neonatal mice. Molecular Pain 2013 9:36.Pain 2013, 9:36 http://www.molecularpain.com/content/9/1/36 target expression in neonatalthe neonatal period, when Machida et al. Molecular Pain

  14. Using point process models to determine the impact of visual cues on basal ganglia activity and behavior of Parkinson's patients

    E-print Network

    Brown, Emery N.

    Deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that has enabled microelectrode recordings from single-unit cells in the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. This rare data is important ...

  15. Shape Sorter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    In this web-based application from Illuminations students must sort shapes based on the categories of the Venn diagram. Users can choose the categories from a drop down menu. The application includes instructions and exploration steps.

  16. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    McMurtray, Aaron; Tseng, Ben; Diaz, Natalie; Chung, Julia; Mehta, Bijal; Saito, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief. PMID:25309765

  17. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-04-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis.

  18. Computational models of basal-ganglia pathway functions: focus on functional neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Henning; Hamker, Fred H.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, computational models have had a considerable impact on basal-ganglia research. Most of these models implement multiple distinct basal-ganglia pathways and assume them to fulfill different functions. As there is now a multitude of different models, it has become complex to keep track of their various, sometimes just marginally different assumptions on pathway functions. Moreover, it has become a challenge to oversee to what extent individual assumptions are corroborated or challenged by empirical data. Focusing on computational, but also considering non-computational models, we review influential concepts of pathway functions and show to what extent they are compatible with or contradict each other. Moreover, we outline how empirical evidence favors or challenges specific model assumptions and propose experiments that allow testing assumptions against each other. PMID:24416002

  19. Shape Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Tim Koslowski

    2011-08-26

    General Relativity can be reformulated as a geometrodynamical theory, called Shape Dynamics, that is not based on spacetime (in particular refoliation) symmetry but on spatial diffeomorphism and local spatial conformal symmetry. This leads to a constraint algebra that is (unlike General Relativity) a Lie algebra, where all local constraints are linear in momenta and may thus be quantized as vector fields on the geometrodynamic configuration space. The Hamiltonian of Shape Dynamics is complicated but admits simple expressions whenever spatial derivatives are negligible.

  20. Skeleton Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity gives students an opportunity to explore some of the common 3-D shapes and their names and properties. After discussion and an example, it asks students to count the required number of edges and vertices (corners) to build each of 5 given shapes. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a printable recording sheet (pdf).

  1. String Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners work together to make polygons (many-sided shapes) with string. Learners sit on the floor and hold onto a piece of string slid between their thumbs and index fingers. Learners explore how many different kinds of triangles and other shapes they can make by changing their hand positions. Use this activity to help learners explore polygons including convex and concave polygons and vertices.

  2. Selective vulnerability of dorsal root ganglia neurons in experimental rabies after peripheral inoculation of CVS11 in adult mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Rossiter; Lena Hsu; Alan C. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of dorsal root ganglia was studied in an in vivo model of experimental rabies virus infection using the challenge\\u000a virus standard (CVS-11) strain. Dorsal root ganglia neurons infected with CVS in vitro show prolonged survival and few morphological\\u000a changes, and are commonly used to study the infection. It has been established that after peripheral inoculation of mice with

  3. Connections of the basal ganglia with the limbic system: implications for neuromodulation therapies of anxiety and affective disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stathis; I. G. Panourias; M. S. Themistocleous; Damianos E. Sakas

    The basal ganglia are best known for their role in motor planning and execution. However, it is currently widely accepted\\u000a that they are also involved in cognitive and emotional behaviors. Parts of the basal ganglia play a key role in reward and\\u000a reinforcement, addictive behaviors and habit formation. Pathophysiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders such\\u000a as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and

  4. Post-stroke affective or apathetic depression and lesion location: left frontal lobe and bilateral basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Hama; Hidehisa Yamashita; Masaya Shigenobu; Atsuko Watanabe; Kaoru Kurisu; Shigeto Yamawaki; Tamotsu Kitaoka

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the correlation between damage to the basal ganglia or frontal lobe and depression status\\u000a (both affective and apathetic dimensions) in 243 stroke patients. We assessed the affective dimension in post-stroke depression\\u000a (PSD) using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the apathetic dimension in PSD using the apathy scale (AS). We\\u000a classified basal ganglia

  5. Developmental patterns of caspase-3, bax and bcl-2 proteins expression in the human spinal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Vukojevic; Dominko Carev; Damir Sapunar; Danijel Petrovic; Mirna Saraga-Babic

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of the bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 proteins was investigated in the cells of developing human spinal ganglia.\\u000a Paraffin sections of 10 human conceptuses between 5th and 9th gestational weeks were analysed morphologically, immunohistochemically\\u000a and by TUNEL-method. Cells positive to caspase-3 had brown stained nuclei or nuclear fragmentations. At earliest stages, 6%\\u000a of ganglion population were caspase-3 positive cells.

  6. [Heart-stimulating neurons in the subesophageal ganglia of the African snail Achatina fulica Férussac].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, V L; Kadyrov, S A; Bychkov, R E; Safonova, T A; D'iakov, A A

    1994-09-01

    5 cardiostimulating neurons belonging to 3 different functional groups were studied in visceral and right parietal ganglia of the African snail. The cell VG-1 formerly believed to be an interneuron, was shown to be a motoneuron of the heart producing the EPSPs in the myocardium. The data obtained show a considerable similarity in organization of the cardioregulating neurons system in different species of the gastropods. PMID:7536580

  7. [Decision-making and learning by cortico-basal ganglia network].

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide

    2008-07-01

    Animals and humans have a wide variety of motor repertoires, and for this reason they have to choose one motor action among many others. The mechanisms in the basal ganglia seem ideal for this purpose. The basal ganglia normally keep inhibiting their target structures, including the thalamocortical networks and the subcortical motor netwoks. This tonic inhibition can be removed by direct inhibitory inputs from the striatum carrying specific sensorimotor signals, leading to the execution of a particular movement, or can be enhanced by indirect inputs from the striatum carrying more diverse signals, leading to the suppression of unwanted movements. An important question is when this selection mechanism is deployed. Suppose you choose an action A, but not B. It may be because first, you can obtain more rewards by doing A than B, and second, you would be punished by doing B. Many recent studies have been aimed at understanding the first type of selection, reward-obtaining actions. Experiments on monkeys and humans performing goal-directed behaviors have shown that sensorimotor signals carried by striatal neurons are strongly modulated by the expected value of rewards. Such reward-dependent modulation may be caused by inputs from dopamine neurons located in the substantia nigra and surrounding areas. Importantly, the dopamine signal represents reward prediction errors which would guide the cortico-basal ganglia network to choose the optimal output for obtaining rewards. In contrast, the mechanisms for punishment-avoiding behaviors are less well known. If a punishment is predicted after an action, the indirect mechanism in the basal ganglia may become active to suppress the action. This enhancement of the indirect mechanism may be caused by a punishment-predictive signal which originates from the lateral habenula and is mediated by dopamine neurons. PMID:18646620

  8. Processing of temporal information and the basal ganglia: new evidence from fMRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Nenadic; Christian Gaser; Hans-Peter Volz; Thomas Rammsayer; Frank Häger; Heinrich Sauer

    2003-01-01

    .   Temporal information processing is a fundamental brain function, which might include central timekeeping mechanisms independent\\u000a of sensory modality. Psychopharmacological and patient studies suggest a crucial role of the basal ganglia in time estimation.\\u000a In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was applied in 15 healthy right-handed male subjects performing\\u000a an auditory time estimation task (duration discrimination of tone

  9. Bidirectional calcium signaling between satellite glial cells and neurons in cultured mouse trigeminal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Suadicani, Sylvia O.; Cherkas, Pavel S.; Zuckerman, Jonathan; Smith, David N.; Spray, David C.; Hanani, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    Astrocytes communicate with neurons, endothelial and other glial cells through transmission of intercellular calcium signals. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia share several properties with astrocytes, but whether this type of communication occurs between SGCs and sensory neurons has not been explored. In the present work we used cultured neurons and SGCs from mouse trigeminal ganglia to address this question. Focal electrical or mechanical stimulation of single neurons in trigeminal ganglion cultures increased intracellular calcium concentration in these cells and triggered calcium elevations in adjacent glial cells. Similar to neurons, SGCs responded to mechanical stimulation with increase in cytosolic calcium that spread to the adjacent neuron and neighboring glial cells. Calcium signaling from SGCs to neurons and among SGCs was diminished in the presence of the broad-spectrum P2 receptor antagonist suramin (50 µM) or in the presence of the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (100 µM), whereas signaling from neurons to SGCs was reduced by suramin, but not by carbenoxolone. Following induction of submandibular inflammation by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant injection, the amplitude of signaling among SGCs and from SGCs to neuron was increased, whereas the amplitude from neuron to SGCs was reduced. These results indicate for the first time the presence of bidirectional calcium signaling between neurons and SGCs in sensory ganglia cultures, which is mediated by the activation of purinergic P2 receptors, and to some extent by gap junctions. Furthermore, the results indicate that not only sensory neurons, but also SGCs release ATP. This form of intercellular calcium signaling likely plays key roles in the modulation of neuronal activity within sensory ganglia in normal and pathological states. PMID:19891813

  10. Quantitative reduction of the perineuronal glial sheath in the spinal ganglia of aged rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ennio Pannese; Carla Martinelli; Patrizia Sartori

    1996-01-01

    We carried out morphometric studies, using the electron microscope, on the nerve cell bodies and the enveloping satellite\\u000a cell sheaths from spinal ganglia of young adult and aged rabbits. We found that the volume ratio between the satellite cell\\u000a sheaths and the related nerve cell bodies was significantly smaller in the aged animals. It is known that satellite cells\\u000a play

  11. Varicella-Zoster Virus Neurotropism in SCID Mouse–Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zerboni; M. Reichelt; A. Arvin

    \\u000a Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of varicella and herpes zoster.\\u000a VZV reactivation from latency in sensory nerve ganglia is a direct consequence of VZV neurotropism. Investigation of VZV neuropathogenesis\\u000a by infection of human dorsal root ganglion xenografts in immunocompromised (SCID) mice has provided a novel system in which\\u000a to examine VZV neurotropism. Experimental

  12. Contrast optimization of Macaca mulatta basal ganglia in magnetic resonance images at 4.7 Tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M Bonny; F Durif; J. E Bazin; E Touraille; J Yelnik; J.-P Renou

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether high field MRI could distinguish among the different regions of the basal ganglia, the brains of two Macaca mulatta monkeys were explored in vivo using a 4.7 T MR imager. Gradient-echo (GE) and spin-echo images were acquired with proton-density, T1 and T2(*) weightings. Five GE images with increased susceptibility effects were generated using a GESFID sequence, from

  13. The ventral basal ganglia, a selection mechanism at the crossroads of space, strategy, and reward.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Mark D; Prescott, Tony J

    2010-04-01

    The basal ganglia are often conceptualised as three parallel domains that include all the constituent nuclei. The 'ventral domain' appears to be critical for learning flexible behaviours for exploration and foraging, as it is the recipient of converging inputs from amygdala, hippocampal formation and prefrontal cortex, putatively centres for stimulus evaluation, spatial navigation, and planning/contingency, respectively. However, compared to work on the dorsal domains, the rich potential for quantitative theories and models of the ventral domain remains largely untapped, and the purpose of this review is to provide the stimulus for this work. We systematically review the ventral domain's structures and internal organisation, and propose a functional architecture as the basis for computational models. Using a full schematic of the structure of inputs to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens core and shell), we argue for the existence of many identifiable processing channels on the basis of unique combinations of afferent inputs. We then identify the potential information represented in these channels by reconciling a broad range of studies from the hippocampal, amygdala and prefrontal cortex literatures with known properties of the ventral striatum from lesion, pharmacological, and electrophysiological studies. Dopamine's key role in learning is reviewed within the three current major computational frameworks; we also show that the shell-based basal ganglia sub-circuits are well placed to generate the phasic burst and dip responses of dopaminergic neurons. We detail dopamine's modulation of ventral basal ganglia's inputs by its actions on pre-synaptic terminals and post-synaptic membranes in the striatum, arguing that the complexity of these effects hint at computational roles for dopamine beyond current ideas. The ventral basal ganglia are revealed as a constellation of multiple functional systems for the learning and selection of flexible behaviours and of behavioural strategies, sharing the common operations of selection-by-disinhibition and of dopaminergic modulation. PMID:19941931

  14. Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiuhong; Liu, Xiangyan; Tang, Qiuping; Deng, Yunlong

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50–70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after surgery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is still unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical nociception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n = 32) and sham surgery (n = 8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group received anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3–5) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on small- and medium-sized neurons (diameter < 20 ?m and 20–40 ?m) and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L3–5) in the sham surgery group. By contrast, in the surgery group, high expression of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor appeared in large-sized neurons (diameter > 40 ?m) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to mechanical stimulus in the hind paw following incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by incision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws. PMID:25206654

  15. Processing emotional tone from speech in Parkinson’s disease: A role for the basal ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D. Pell; Carol L. Leonard

    2003-01-01

    In this study, individuals with Parkinson’s disease were tested as a model for basal ganglia dysfunction to infer how these\\u000a structures contribute to the processing of emotional speech tone (emotional prosody). Nondemented individuals with and without Parkinson’s disease (n = 21\\/group) completed neuropsychological tests and tasks that required them to process the meaning of emotional prosody in\\u000a various ways (discrimination,

  16. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  17. Deregulation of Mitochondria-Shaping Proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in Manganese-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M.; Beauquis, Juan; Muñoz, Manuel J.; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial ??m disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may provide new therapeutic tools for the treatment of Manganism and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24632637

  18. Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, Michael S.; Doupe, Allison J.

    2000-04-01

    Birdsong, like speech, is a learned vocal behaviour that relies greatly on hearing; in both songbirds and humans the removal of auditory feedback by deafening leads to a gradual deterioration of adult vocal production. Here we investigate the neural mechanisms that contribute to the processing of auditory feedback during the maintenance of song in adult zebra finches. We show that the deleterious effects on song production that normally follow deafening can be prevented by a second insult to the nervous system-the lesion of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit. The results suggest that the removal of auditory feedback leads to the generation of an instructive signal that actively drives non-adaptive changes in song; they also suggest that this instructive signal is generated within (or conveyed through) the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway. Our findings provide evidence that cortical-basal ganglia circuits may participate in the evaluation of sensory feedback during calibration of motor performance, and demonstrate that damage to such circuits can have little effect on previously learned behaviour while conspicuously disrupting the capacity to adaptively modify that behaviour.

  19. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  20. The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning. PMID:21945835

  1. Tortuosity of terminal arterioles in the basal ganglia is increased in status lacunaris.

    PubMed

    Poni, Esteban S; Liwnicz, Boleslaw H; Ying-Ying, Yue; North, Mary

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the participation of small (diameter between 26 microns and 90 microns) and terminal (diameter between 10 microns and 25 microns) arterioles in the status lacunaris of the basal ganglia and to classify tortuous vascular profiles based on morphometry. Paraffin sections, 40 microns thick, of the basal ganglia from autopsied patients over the age of 45, were stained with PAS. A three-dimensional microscope, R400 (edge) was used to evaluate the structure of the blood vessels. Six patterns of the tortuous profiles were identified: simple kink, loop, knot, tangle, coil, and wave, and well as their combinations. Tortuous arterioles in the basal ganglia were present both in control group and status lacunaris cases. However, statistical Student's t-test analysis revealed a significant increment in the number of microfields containing tortuous terminal arterioles in the status lacunaris group (mean 7.50 +/- 4.62) versus the control group (mean 2.92 +/- 1.38) (p = 0.001). A risk for status lacunaris was associated with the increased frequency of tortuous terminal arterioles (Odd ratio = 1.94, 95%-Confidence Interval = 1.17-3.22) (p = 0.008) but not small arterioles (Odd ratio = 1.64, 95%-Confidence Interval = 0.62-4.38) (p = 0.39). Our findings suggest than an increased number of tortuous terminal arterioles is associated with status lacunaris. Six characteristic patterns of the tortuous profiles as well as their combinations were identified. PMID:12815844

  2. Evidence for homologous peptidergic neurons in the buccal ganglia of diverse nudibranch mollusks.

    PubMed

    Watson, W H; Willows, A O

    1992-03-01

    The buccal ganglia of seven nudibranches (Aeolidia papillosa, Armina californica, Dirona albolineata, D. picta, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea) were examined to explore possible homologies between large cells that reacted with antibodies directed against small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB). The buccal ganglion of each species possessed a pair of large, dorsal-lateral, whitish neurons that contained an SCPB-like peptide. We refer to these neurons as the SLB (SCPB-immunoreactive Large Buccal) cells. In all species examined, the SLB cells project out the gastroesophageal nerves and appear to innervate the esophagus. In each species, an apparent rhythmic feeding motor program (FMP) was observed by intracellular recording from both SLB neurons and other neurons in isolated preparations of the buccal ganglia. SLB cells often fire at a high frequency, and usually burst in a specific phase relation to the FMP activity. Stimulation of SLB cells enhances expression of the feeding motor program, either by potentiating existing activity or eliciting the FMP in quiescent preparations. Finally, perfusion of isolated buccal ganglia with SCPB excites the SLB cells and activates FMPs. Thus, both the immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data suggest that the SLB cells within three suborders of the opisthobranchia (Dendronotacea, Arminacea, and Aeolidacea) are homologous. A comparison of our data with previously published studies indicates that SLB cell homologs may exist in other gastropods as well. PMID:1527526

  3. Brain tissue properties differentiate between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Ettore A; Dukart, Juergen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine; Chowdhury, Rumana; Hetzer, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan; Kühn, Andrea A; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties. On the basis of probabilistic diffusion tractography we identified STN subregions with predominantly motor, associative, and limbic connectivity. We then computed for each of the nonoverlapping STN subregions the covariance between local brain tissue properties and the rest of the brain using high-resolution maps of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation and longitudinal (R1) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*). The demonstrated spatial distribution pattern of covariance between brain tissue properties linked to myelin (R1 and MT) and iron (R2*) content clearly segregates between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits. We interpret the demonstrated covariance pattern as evidence for shared tissue properties within a functional circuit, which is closely linked to its function. Our findings open new possibilities for investigation of changes in the established covariance pattern aiming at accurate diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24777915

  4. Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas A.; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2013-01-01

    The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the “direct” and “indirect” pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward–evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome. PMID:24003130

  5. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage. PMID:25722894

  6. A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors

    PubMed Central

    Andalman, Aaron S.; Fee, Michale S.

    2009-01-01

    In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown. It has recently been shown that a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird, which projects directly to vocal–motor circuitry, has a premotor function driving exploration necessary for vocal learning. It has also been hypothesized that this circuit, known as the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), may generate an instructive signal that improves performance in the motor pathway. Here, we show that the output of the AFP directly implements a motor correction that reduces vocal errors. We use disruptive auditory feedback, contingent on song pitch, to induce learned changes in song structure over the course of hours and find that reversible inactivation of the output of the AFP produces an immediate regression of these learned changes. Thus, the AFP is involved in generating an error-reducing bias, which could increase the efficiency of vocal exploration and instruct synaptic changes in the motor pathway. We also find that learned changes in the song generated by the AFP are incorporated into the motor pathway within 1 day. Our observations support a view that basal ganglia-related circuits directly implement behavioral adaptations that minimize errors and subsequently stabilize these adaptations by training premotor cortical areas. PMID:19597157

  7. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Activation in Basal Ganglia Nuclei Relates to Specific Symptoms in De Novo Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Spraker, Mathew; Corcos, Daniel; Comella, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David

    2010-01-01

    To aid the development of symptomatic and disease modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a strong need to identify non-invasive measures of basal ganglia function that are sensitive to disease severity. This study examines the relation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation in every nucleus of the basal ganglia and symptom-specific disease severity in early stage, de novo PD. BOLD activation measured at 3 Tesla was compared between 20 early stage de novo PD patients and 20 controls during an established precision grip force task. In addition to the basal ganglia nuclei, activation in specific thalamic and cortical regions was examined. There were three novel findings. First, there were significant negative correlations between total motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and BOLD activation in bilateral caudate, bilateral putamen, contralateral external segment of the globus pallidus, bilateral subthalamic nucleus, contralateral substantia nigra, and thalamus. Second, bradykinesia was the symptom that most consistently predicted BOLD activation in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Also, BOLD activation in the contralateral internal globus pallidus was related to tremor. Third, the reduced cortical activity in primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area in de novo PD did not relate to motor symptoms. These findings demonstrate that BOLD activity in nuclei of the basal ganglia relates most consistently to bradykinesia. The findings demonstrate that functional magnetic resonance imaging has strong potential to serve as a non-invasive marker for the state of basal ganglia function in de novo PD. PMID:20725915

  8. Differential contribution of Neurog1 and Neurog2 on the formation of cranial ganglia along the anterior-posterior axis

    PubMed Central

    Takano-Maruyama, Masumi; Chen, Yiju; Gaufo, Gary O.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The neural crest (NC) and placode are transient neurogenic cell populations that give rise to cranial ganglia of the vertebrate head. The formation of the anterior NC- and placode-derived ganglia has been shown to depend on the single activity of either Neurog1 or Neurog2. The requirement of the more posterior cranial ganglia on Neurog1 and Neurog2 is unknown. Here we show that the formation of the NC-derived parasympathetic otic ganglia, and placode-derived visceral sensory petrosal and nodose ganglia are dependent on the redundant activities of Neurog1 and Neurog2. Tamoxifen-inducible Cre lineage labeling of Neurog1 and Neurog2 show a dynamic spatiotemporal expression profile in both NC and epibranchial placode that correlates with the phenotypes of the Neurog-mutant embryos. Our data, together with previous studies, suggest that the formation of cranial ganglia along the anterior-posterior axis is dependent on the dynamic spatiotemporal activities of Neurog1 and/or Neurog2 in both NC and epibranchial placode. PMID:22102600

  9. Differential effects of denervation on acetylcholinesterase activity in parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia of the frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Streichert, L C; Sargent, P B

    1990-09-01

    The transsynaptic regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied by recording the changes in enzymatic activity following denervation in two types of autonomic ganglia in the frog, Rana pipiens. Opposite effects on AChE were found in the parasympathetic cardiac ganglion and in the sympathetic lumbar ganglion; denervation produced a significant increase in AChE activity in cardiac ganglia but a significant decrease in lumbar ganglia. The relative effects of denervation on intracellular and total AChE were examined by selectively inhibiting extracellular AChE with echothiophate, a poorly lipid-soluble cholinesterase inhibitor. Denervation resulted in a significant increase in intracellular AChE in cholinergic cardiac ganglia but had no effect on intracellular AChE activity in adrenergic lumbar ganglia. Histochemical studies revealed little change in extracellular AChE staining upon denervation in the cardiac ganglion, whereas in the lumbar ganglia there was a loss of AChE-specific reaction product. These results raise the possibility that the transsynaptic control of AChE activity by innervation in the frog is influenced by the transmitter synthetic properties of the postsynaptic ganglion cells. PMID:2077105

  10. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  11. Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-01-01

    Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

  12. Shape Up!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Jordan

    2012-01-01

    In this activity (pages 8-9), learners investigate the properties of smart materials, which are materials that respond to things that happen around them. Learners train a piece of smart material (Nitinol) to adopt a particular shape. Learners discover that when the Nitinol wire is heated enough, its atoms can move around enough to "reset" its memory. This makes it possible to train the material to have a particular shape. Safety note: Young learners should have adult supervision. Be very careful with the flame and hot wire.

  13. Amygdala–hippocampal shape differences in schizophrenia: the application of 3D shape models to volumetric MR data

    PubMed Central

    Shenton, Martha E.; Gerig, Guido; McCarley, Robert W.; Székely, Gábor; Kikinis, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental in origin. There is also growing evidence to suggest that shape deformations in brain structure may reflect abnormalities in neurodevelopment. While many magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies have investigated brain area and volume measures in schizophrenia, fewer have focused on shape deformations. In this MR study we used a 3D shape representation technique, based on spherical harmonic functions, to analyze left and right amygdala-hippocampus shapes in each of 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls matched for age, gender, handedness and parental socioeconomic status. Left/right asymmetry was also measured for both shape and volume differences. Additionally, shape and volume measurements were combined in a composite analysis. There were no differences between groups in overall volume or shape. Left/right amygdala–hippocampal asymmetry, however, was significantly larger in patients than controls for both relative volume and shape. The local brain regions responsible for the left/right asymmetry differences in patients with schizophrenia were in the tail of the hippocampus (including both the inferior aspect adjacent to parahippocampal gyrus and the superior aspect adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus and more anteriorly to the cerebral peduncles) and in portions of the amygdala body (including the anterior–superior aspect adjacent to the basal nucleus). Also, in patients, increased volumetric asymmetry tended to be correlated with increased left/right shape asymmetry. Furthermore, a combined analysis of volume and shape asymmetry resulted in improved differentiation between groups. Classification function analyses correctly classified 70% of cases using volume, 73.3% using shape, and 87% using combined volume and shape measures. These findings suggest that shape provides important new information toward characterizing the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and that combining volume and shape measures provides improved group discrimination in studies investigating brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. An evaluation of shape deformations also suggests local abnormalities in the amygdala–hippocampal complex in schizophrenia. PMID:12165365

  14. Dynamic shape.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J

    1986-01-01

    Many useful notions of partial order and/or similarity and relatedness of different geometrical features of smooth shapes that occur in psychologically valid descriptions of shape have no equivalents in the usual geometrical shape theories. This is especially true where similarities are noted between objects of different connectivity: in almost all of the present theories the topological type generates the primary categorization. It is argued that such relations find a logical place only in shape theories that involve morphogenesis. Any object can be embedded uniquely in a morphogenetic sequence if one takes resolution as the parameter of the sequence. A theory of measurement is presented that allows one to define surfaces and (boundary-) curves on multiple levels of resolution. The embedding is essentially unique and is generated via a partial differential equation that governs the evolution. A canonical projection connects any high resolution specimen to lower resolution versions. The bifurcation set of the projection generates natural part boundaries. Singularities of the evolution are completely characterized as emergence, accretion and versification processes (involving topological change) and singularities by which inflections (inflection points for curves, parabolic curves for surfaces) are generated. The latter singularities involve a single process for the generation of inflections and three other processes by which the existing inflection structure may be changed. Relations with existing theories in vogue in robotics and AI, as well as in psychophysics are discussed. PMID:3697408

  15. Cerebellothalamocortical pathway abnormalities in torsinA DYT1 knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ulu?, Aziz M.; Vo, An; Argyelan, Miklos; Tanabe, Lauren; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen; Dauer, William T.; Eidelberg, David

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ?E mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans. PMID:21464304

  16. [Mineralization of the basal ganglia as the supposed cause of poor tolerance of zuclopenthixol in a patient with long-term untreated paranoid schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Wichowicz, Hubert M; Wilkowska, Alina; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Kummer, ?ukasz; Konarzewska, Joanna; Raczak, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Formations described as intracranial calcifications can appear in the course of diseases of the central nervous system, other systems and organs (e.g. endocrine), but also as a disorder of idiopathic character. They are frequently located in subcortical nuclei and usually constitute an incidental finding. This report presents the case of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia for approximately 40 years, who did not agree to any treatment and was hospitalized against her will because she was the threat to the lives of others. She was treated with zuklopentixol resulting in positive symptoms reduction and considerable improvement in social functioning. Unfortunately neurological symptoms appeared: bradykinesis, rigidity--of the type of the lead pipe, balance, posture and gait abnormalities, disturbances in precise hands movements, double-sided Rossolimo's sign, plantar reflex without the participation of the big toe on the left. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated changes in the form of lenticular nuclei calcification and reduction of signal intensity in posterior parts of both putamens. Neurological symptoms decreased significantly after switching to atypical neuroleptic (olanzapine), and the patient did not require any additional treatment. Mineralization of the basal ganglia can often be associated with psychiatric disorders and it shouldn't be neglected because it can require modification of pharmacotherapy or additional neurological treatment. PMID:24946467

  17. IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway. PMID:24109434

  18. Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, I A; Morel, Y; McElreavey, K; Rogol, A

    2012-12-01

    Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia is based on an ordered sequence of endocrine and genetic investigations that are predicated on knowledge obtained from a suitable history and detailed examination of the external genital anatomy. Investigations are particularly relevant in 46,XY DSD where the diagnostic yield is less successful than in the 46,XX counterpart. Advantage should be taken of spontaneous activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy rendering measurements of gonadotrophins and sex steroids by sensitive, validated assays key to assessing testicular function. Allied measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone completes a comprehensive testis profile of Leydig and Sertoli cell function. Genetic assessment is dominated by analysis of a plethora of genes that attempts to delineate a cause for gonadal dysgenesis. In essence, this is successful in up to 20% of cases from analysis of SRY and SF1 (NR5A1) genes. In contrast, gene mutation analysis is highly successful in 46,XY DSD due to defects in androgen synthesis or action. The era of next generation sequencing is increasingly being applied to investigate complex medical conditions of unknown cause, including DSD. The challenge for health professionals will lie in integrating vast amounts of genetic information with phenotypes and counselling families appropriately. How tissues respond to hormones is apposite to assessing the range of genital phenotypes that characterise DSD, particularly for syndromes associated with androgen resistance. In vitro methods are available to undertake quantitative and qualitative analysis of hormone action. The in vivo equivalent is some assessment of the degree of under-masculinisation in the male, such as an external masculinisation score, and measurement of the ano-genital distance. This anthropometric marker is effectively a postnatal readout of the effects of prenatal androgens acting during the masculinisation programming window. For investigation of the newborn with abnormal genitalia, a pragmatic approach can be taken to guide the clinician using appropriate algorithms. PMID:23168057

  19. Geometric Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hoskins

    2005-11-21

    We will be learning the names and properties (# of sides, vertices, parallel sides, etc.) of several different geometric shapes. By now, everybody should know how many sides a square has and be able to recognize a circle. But, do you know how many vertices a parallelogram has, or how many sides to a rhombus? After completing the following exercies, you should be able to answer those questions and many ...

  20. Neurochemical characterization of extrinsic nerves in myenteric ganglia of the guinea pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao Nan; Sharrad, Dale F; Hibberd, Timothy J; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Costa, Marcello; Brookes, Simon J H

    2015-04-01

    Extrinsic nerves to the gut influence the absorption of water and electrolytes and expulsion of waste contents, largely via regulation of enteric neural circuits; they also contribute to control of blood flow. The distal colon is innervated by extrinsic sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and spinal afferent neurons, via axons in colonic nerve trunks. In the present study, biotinamide tracing of colonic nerves was combined with immunohistochemical labeling for markers of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and spinal afferent neurons to quantify their relative contribution to the extrinsic innervation. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase, which selectively label spinal afferent, parasympathetic, and sympathetic axons, respectively, were detected immunohistochemically in 1?±?0.5% (n?=?7), 15?±?4.7% (n?=?6), and 24?±?4% (n?=?7) of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia. Immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide synthase, somatostatin, and vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 accounted for a combined maximum of 14% of biotinamide-labeled axons in myenteric ganglia. Thus, a maximum of 53% of biotinamide-labeled extrinsic axons in myenteric ganglia were labeled by antisera to one of these eight markers. Viscerofugal neurons were also labeled by biotinamide. They had distinct morphologies and spatial distributions that correlated closely with their immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase and choline acetyltransferase. As reported for the rectum, nearly half of all extrinsic nerve fibers to the distal colon lack the key immunohistochemical markers commonly used for their identification. Their abundance may therefore have been significantly underestimated in previous immunohistochemical studies. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:742-756, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25380190

  1. Increased volume and impaired function: the role of the basal ganglia in writer’s cramp

    PubMed Central

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Granert, Oliver; Götz, Julia; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Dressler, Dirk; Hefter, Harald; Hallett, Mark; Deuschl, Günther; van Eimeren, Thilo; Witt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of writer's cramp, a task-specific dystonia, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the basal ganglia circuit and the cerebellum during a complex motor sequence learning task carried out with the nonaffected hand in writer's cramp patients. Methods We applied structural and functional imaging in 22 writer's cramp patients and 28 matched controls using 3T MRI. With the asymptomatic left hand all participants learned a complex, sequential, five-element sequence-tapping task as accurately and quickly as possible. Functional imaging was measured during a repeated (15 times), fixed block design with tapping (30 sec) and rest (30 sec). Additionally, gray matter volume of the basal ganglia was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results While behavior was comparable between groups, after small volume correction the anterior part of the right putamen and the left globus pallidus exhibited reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in patients during the sequential finger-tapping task. VBM analysis showed larger gray matter volume bilateral in the posterior part of the putamen and globus pallidus. There were no group differences in the cerebellum. Conclusion The results indicate an impairment of anterior basal ganglia loops involved in producing complex sequential movements of the unaffected hand. These findings are in line with previous reports of reduced neuronal activity in the globus pallidus internus. Higher gray matter volume of the putamen and globus pallidus may stem from elevated activity of the direct pathway, which could reflect a compensatory phenomenon or a primary predisposition, that is, endophenotypic trait. PMID:25642386

  2. Delta-opioid receptors mediate inhibition of fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials in cat parasympathetic colonic ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, C.; Krier, J.

    1987-01-01

    1 The effects of opioids on synaptic transmission in cat sacral parasympathetic colonic ganglia were studied in vitro, using intracellular electrophysiological techniques. Electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.ps), which were blocked by hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin. 2 [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin and [Met5]enkephalinamide, delta-opioid receptor agonists, caused concentration-dependent, reversible depression of fast e.p.s.ps, but had no effect on depolarizations evoked by pressure ejection of the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium. Cell transmembrane potential and membrane input resistance were also unaffected. 3 U-50,488H, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, had a very small depressant action while [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5] enkephalin, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, had no effect on fast e.p.s.p. amplitude. Neither compound affected cell transmembrane potential or membrane input resistance. 4 The inhibitory actions of [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin were antagonized by both naloxone, an antagonist at each of the three opioid receptor types, and by ICI 174,864, an antagonist selective for delta-opioid receptors. 5 Naloxone and ICI 174,864 both also potentiated fast e.p.s.p. amplitude per se in 50% of cells tested. 6 It is concluded that exogenous opioids act at presynaptic delta-opioid receptors to inhibit sacral parasympathetic synaptic transmission in cat colonic ganglia in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of opioid antagonists alone, suggest that endogenous opioids may also be released by preganglionic nerve stimulation and so regulate the release of acetylcholine in these ganglia. PMID:2823950

  3. Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Reduced Basal Ganglia Responses to Hedonic Reward During Interferon Alfa Administration

    PubMed Central

    Capuron, Lucile; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Drake, Daniel F.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Spivey, James R.; Crowe, Ronald J.; Votaw, John R.; Goodman, Mark M.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Context Inflammatory cytokines or cytokine inducers can alter basal ganglia activity, including reducing responsiveness to rewarding stimuli that may be mediated by cytokine effects on dopamine function. Objectives To determine whether long-term administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon alfa reduces the basal ganglia response to reward and whether such changes are associated with decreased presynaptic striatal dopamine function and altered behavior. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Setting Outpatient research unit and neuroimaging facilities at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Patients Medically stable adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection eligible for interferon alfa treatment. Main Outcome Measures Neural activity in the ventral striatum during a hedonic reward task as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging, uptake and turnover of radiolabeled fluorodopa F 18 (18F-dopa) in caudate and putamen using positron emission tomography, and interferon alfa–induced depression, anhedonia, fatigue, and neurotoxicity. Results Patients with HCV receiving interferon alfa for 4 to 6 weeks (n=14) exhibited significantly reduced bilateral activation of the ventral striatum in the win vs lose condition of a gambling task compared with patients with HCV awaiting interferon alfa treatment (n=14). Reduced activation of the ventral striatum was, in turn, significantly correlated with anhedonia, depression, and fatigue. In a separate longitudinal study, patients with HCV treated with interferon alfa for 4 to 6 weeks (n=12) exhibited significantly increased 18F-dopa uptake and decreased 18F-dopa turnover in caudate and putamen and in the same ventral striatal regions identified in the functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Baseline and percentage change in 18F-dopa uptake and turnover were correlated with behavioral alterations, including depression, fatigue, and neurotoxicity, during interferon alfa administration. Conclusions These data replicate and extend findings that inflammatory stimuli, including inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon alfa, alter basal ganglia activity and behavior in association with significant changes in presynaptic striatal dopamine function consistent with decreased dopamine synthesis or release. PMID:23026954

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Primphon, Jeerawan; Seangcharoen, Tawanchay; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-02-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the distribution pattern of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of reproductively mature male abalone, H. asinina, by immunohistochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence. We found octopus (oct) GnRH and tunicate-I (t) GnRH-I immunoreactivities (ir) in type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) and they were expressed mostly within the ventral horn of the cerebral ganglion, whereas in pleuropedal ganglia they were localized primarily in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, tGnRH-I-ir were strongly detected in fibers at the caudal part of the cerebral ganglia and both ventral and dorsal horns of the pleuropedal ganglia. In the testis, only octGnRH-ir was found primarily in the granulated cell and central capillaries within the trabeculae. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia which could be the principal source of their production, whereas GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the testis and act as the paracrine control of testicular maturation. PMID:24446352

  5. Laboratory Validation of a Screening Model: Exploring the Interplay between Dissolution and Degradation Rates in Ganglia-Dominated Source Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, T. J.; Abriola, L. M.; Gibson, J. L.; Smits, K. M.; Christ, J.

    2013-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation is a widely applied treatment technology for source zones contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). It is both economical and reasonably efficient for long-term management and closure of contaminated sites. A number of laboratory studies have demonstrated enhancement in chlorinated ethene dissolution rates due to the presence of dehalogenating microorganisms, which may lead to increased mass removal rates and shorter cleanup times. Previous modeling efforts have suggested this dissolution enhancement can be a factor of 10 or more when the contaminant is located in high saturation DNAPL pools. Yet, laboratory studies with DNAPL trapped as ganglia have suggested dissolution enhancement is often less than 10. This presentation investigates the interplay between dissolution and degradation rates in ganglia-contaminated source zones using a one-dimensional, simplified, steady-state, analytical solution to the advection-dispersion-reaction equation. A linear driving force model is employed to simulate ganglia dissolution. Degradation kinetics are approximated as zero- or first-order. Model predictions are independently compared to laboratory data available in the literature. Results indicate that dissolution enhancement predictions in ganglia-dominated source zones are often much less than those predicted assuming high saturation pools, suggesting that the presented model is a better tool for estimating bioenhanced dissolution in ganglia-contaminated regions. Furthermore, this screening model provides a remarkably good prediction of laboratory results and could provide practitioners with a useful tool for estimating the extent to which bioenhanced dissolution may aid in site closure strategies.

  6. Identifiable Achatina giant neurones: their localizations in ganglia, axonal pathways and pharmacological features.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Araki, Y; Emaduddin, M; Zhang, W; Han, X Y; Salunga, T L; Wong, S M

    1996-01-01

    1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant neurones were identified in these ganglia by the series of studies conducted over about 20 years. The identifications were made by the localization of these neurones in the ganglia, their axonal pathways and their pharmacological features. 2. In the left buccal ganglion, the four giant neurones, d-LBAN, d-LBMB, d-LBCN and d-LBPN, were identified. In the left and right cerebral ganglia, d-LCDN, d-RCDN, v-LCDN and v-RCDN were identified. The suboesophageal ganglia are further composed of the left and right parietal, the visceral, the left and right pleural, and the left and right pedal ganglia. In the right parietal ganglion, PON, TAN, TAN-2, TAN-3, RAPN, d-RPLN, BAPN, LPPN, LBPN, LAPN and v-RPLN were identified. In the visceral ganglion, VIN, FAN, INN, d-VLN, v-VLN, v-VAN, LVMN, RVMN and v-VNAN were identified. In the left parietal ganglion, v-LPSN was identified. In the left and right pedal ganglia, LPeNLN, RPeNLN, d-LPeLN, d-LPeCN, d-RPeAN, d-LPeDN, d-LPeMN and d-LPeEN were identified. 3. Of the small molecule compounds tested, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, GABA, L-glutamic acid, threo- or erythro-beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid were effective on the Achatina giant neurones. We suppose that these compounds act as the neurotransmitters for these neurones. 4. Of the neuroactive peptides, achatin-I(Gly-D-Phe-Ala-Asp). APGW-amide(Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Achatina cardioexcitatory peptide (ACEP-1)(Ser-Gly-Gln-Ser-Trp-Arg-Pro-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2) were proposed as neurotransmitters, because these were effective on the Achatina giant neurones and their presence was demonstrated in the Achatina ganglia. Further, myomodulin (Pro-Met-Ser-Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-NH2), buccalin (Gly-Met-Asp-Ser-Leu-Ala-Phe-Ser-Gly-Gly-Leu-NH2), FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2). [Ser2]-Mytilus inhibitory peptide ([Ser2]-MIP) (Gly-Ser-Pro-Met-Phe-Val-NH2), catch-relaxing peptide (CARP) (Ala-Met-Pro-Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-NH2), oxytocin (Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) and small cardioactive peptideB (SCPB) (Met-Asn-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Arg-Met-NH2) could also be neurotransmitters because these peptides were also effective on the Achatina giant neurones, though their presence in the ganglia of this animal has not yet been demonstrated. 5. Calcium current (ICa) was recorded from Achatina giant neurones in the Na(+)-free solution containing K(+)-channel blockers under voltage clamp. The Ca2+ antagonistic effects of brovincamine, verapamil, eperisone, diltiazem, monatepil, etc., were compared using the ICa of the Achatina neurones. 6. Almost all of the mammalian small molecule neurotransmitters were effective on the Achatina giant neurones, suggesting that these compounds are acting on the neurones of a wide variety of animal species. However, the pharmacological features of the Achatina neurone receptors to these compounds were not fully comparable to those of the mammalian receptors. For example, we proposed that beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid (either threo- or erythro-) could be an inhibitory neurotransmitter for an Achatina neurone. 7. In contrast, the Achatina giant neurones appear to have no receptor for the mammalian neuroactive peptides, except for oxytocin and Arg-vasotocin. On the other hand, many neuroactive peptides were isolated from invertebrate nervous tissues, including achatin-I, a neuroexcitatory tetrapeptide having a D-phenylalanine residue. PMID:8742492

  7. Mytilus-inhibitory peptide analogues isolated from the ganglia of a pulmonate mollusc, Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, T; Yasuda-Kamatani, Y; Minakata, H; Kenny, P T; Nomoto, K; Muneoka, Y

    1992-02-01

    1. Ten peptides that showed an inhibitory effect on phasic contraction of the ABRM of Mytilus were isolated from the ganglia of the African giant snail, Achatina fulica. 2. Seven of the peptides were shown to be hexapeptides having -Pro-Xaa-Phe-Val-NH2 as a common structure, which was previously shown to be a characteristic of Mytilus inhibitory peptides (MIPs). 3. The remaining three were pentadecapeptides, each of which consisted of two MIP-related hexapeptides linked by -Gly-Arg-Arg-. PMID:1354098

  8. Induction of reactivation of herpes simplex virus in murine sensory ganglia in vivo by cadmium.

    PubMed

    Fawl, R L; Roizman, B

    1993-12-01

    Herpes simplex viruses maintained in a latent state in sensory neurons in mice do not reactivate spontaneously, and therefore the factors or procedures which cause the virus to reactivate serve as a clue to the mechanisms by which the virus is maintained in a latent state. We report that cadmium sulfate induces latent virus to reactivate in 75 to 100% of mice tested. The following specific findings are reported. (i) The highest frequency of induction was observed after two to four daily administrations of 100 micrograms of cadmium sulfate. (ii) Zinc, copper, manganese, or nickel sulfate administered in equimolar amounts under the same regimen did not induce viral reactivation; however, zinc sulfate in molar ratios 25-fold greater than those of cadmium induced viral replication in 2 of 16 ganglia tested. (iii) Administration of zinc, nickel, or manganese prior to the cadmium sulfate reduced the incidence of ganglia containing infectious virus. (iv) Administration of cadmium daily during the first week after infection and at 2-day intervals to 13 days after infection resulted in the recovery from ganglia of infectious virus in titers 10- to 100-fold higher than those obtained from animals given saline. Moreover, infectious virus was recovered as late as 11 days after infection compared with 6 days in mice administered saline. (v) Administration of cadmium immediately after infection or repeatedly after establishment of latency did not exhaust the latent virus harbored by sensory neurons, inasmuch as the fraction of ganglia of mice administered cadmium and yielding infectious virus was similar to that observed in mice treated with saline. We conclude that induction of cadmium tolerance precludes reactivation of latent virus. If the induction of metallothionein genes was the sole factor required to cause reactivation of latent virus, it would have been expected that all metals which induce metallothioneins would also induce reactivation, which was not observed. The results therefore raise the possibility that in addition to inducing the metallothionein genes, cadmium inactivates the factors which maintain the virus in latent state. PMID:8230427

  9. Control of feeding movements in the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus. I. Rhythmical neurons of buccal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky YuI; Deliagina, T G; Meizerov, E S; Orlovsky, G N; Panchin YuV

    1988-01-01

    (1) The buccal mass of the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus, dissected together with the buccal ganglia, performs rhythmic feeding movements. Radula movements and the electrical activity in various nerves of buccal ganglia were recorded in such a preparation. The cycle of radula movements consisted of three phases: quiescence (Q), protraction (P) and retraction (R). The activity in the radular nerve was observed mainly in the P-phase and that in the dorsobuccal nerve, largely in the R-phase. (2) Isolated buccal ganglia were capable of generating a feeding rhythm, the activity in buccal nerves being similar to that observed in the buccal mass-buccal ganglion preparation, i.e., a burst in the radular nerve preceded a burst in the dorsobuccal nerve. The activity of neurons in isolated buccal ganglia during generation of the feeding rhythm has been studied with intracellular microelectrodes. About 10% of ganglion neurons exhibited periodic activity related to the feeding rhythm ("rhythmic" neurons). (3) Rhythmic neurons have been divided into 7 groups according to the phase of their activity and to the characteristics of slow oscillations of the membrane potential during the feeding cycle. Group 1 neurons revealed a gradual increase of depolarization during the Q- and P-phases. In subgroup 1e neurons, spike discharges began in the Q-phase, while in subgroup 1d neurons activity started in the P-phase. During the R-phase, group 1 neurons were strongly hyperpolarized, and their discharges terminated. In group 2 neurons, small depolarization gradually increased during the Q- and P-phases. Then, in the R-phase, a large (20-50 mV) rectangular wave of depolarization arose with superimposed high-frequency oscillations. Group 3 neurons exhibited an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the P-phase and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) in the R-phase. The neurons of group 4 revealed two EPSPs: a small one in the P-phase and a larger one in the R-phase. Group 5 neurons exhibited an EPSP in the P-phase, those of group 7 - an IPSP in the R-phase, and those of group 9 - IPSPs in the P- and R-phases. Neurons within each of the groups 1, 2 and 4 were electrically coupled, and in addition, there were also electrical connections between neurons of groups 2 and 4. (4) Data are presented showing that neurons of groups 1 and 2 are the main source of postsynaptic potentials in rhythmic neurons in the P-phase and in the R-phase of the cycle, respectively. PMID:3384034

  10. Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Michael; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) act as a cohesive functional unit that regulates motor function, habit formation, and reward/addictive behaviors; but the debate has only recently started on how the BG maintain wakefulness and suppress sleep to achieve all these fundamental functions of the BG. Neurotoxic lesioning, pharmacological approaches, and the behavioral analyses of genetically modified animals revealed that the striatum and globus pallidus are important for the control of sleep and wakefulness. Here, we discuss anatomical and molecular mechanisms for sleep-wake regulation in the BG and propose a plausible model in which the nucleus accumbens integrates behavioral processes with wakefulness through adenosine and dopamine receptors. PMID:23465424

  11. Neuronal expression of copper transporter 1 in rat dorsal root ganglia: association with platinum neurotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson J. Liu; Stephen M. F. Jamieson; Joshuan Subramaniam; Virginia Ip; Nancy N. Jong; Julian F. B. Mercer; Mark J. McKeage

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  We report the neuronal expression of copper transporter 1 (CTR1) in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and its association with\\u000a the neurotoxicity of platinum-based drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  CTR1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The toxicity of platinum drugs to CTR1-positive and CTR1-negative\\u000a neurons was compared in DRG from animals treated with maximum tolerated doses of oxaliplatin (1.85 mg\\/kg), cisplatin (1 mg\\/kg)\\u000a or

  12. Abnormal High-Frequency Burst Firing of Cerebellar Neurons in Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fremont, Rachel; Calderon, D. Paola; Maleki, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the ?3 isoform of the Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump) are responsible for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). Recently, a pharmacological model of DYT12 was generated implicating both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder. Notably, partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum was necessary and sufficient for induction of dystonia. Thus, a key question that remains is how partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum induces dystonia. In vivo recordings from dystonic mice revealed abnormal high-frequency bursting activity in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which comprise the bulk of cerebellar output. In the same mice, Purkinje cells, which provide strong inhibitory drive to DCN cells, also fired in a similarly erratic manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to sodium pump dysfunction that alters the intrinsic pacemaking of these neurons, resulting in erratic burst firing similar to that identified in vivo. This abnormal firing abates when sodium pump function is restored and dystonia caused by partial block of sodium pumps can be similarly alleviated. These findings suggest that persistent high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons caused by sodium pump dysfunction underlies dystonia in this model of DYT12. PMID:25164667

  13. Glutamate and GABA receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia: What does their subsynaptic localization reveal about their function?

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Kuwajima, Masaaki; Smith, Yoland

    2006-01-01

    GABA and glutamate, the main transmitters in the basal ganglia, exert their effects through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. The dynamic activation of these receptors in response to released neurotransmitter depends, among other factors, on their precise localization in relation to corresponding synapses. The use of high resolution quantitative electron microscope immunocytochemical techniques has provided in-depth description of the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of these receptors in the CNS. In this article, we review recent findings on the ultrastructural localization of GABA and glutamate receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia, at synaptic, extrasynaptic and presynaptic sites. The anatomical evidence supports numerous potential locations for receptor-neurotransmitter interactions, and raises important questions regarding mechanisms of activation and function of synaptic versus extrasynaptic receptors in the basal ganglia. PMID:17059868

  14. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  15. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25691415

  16. Shape Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Tim Koslowski

    2013-01-09

    Barbour's formulation of Mach's principle requires a theory of gravity to implement local relativity of clocks, local relativity of rods and spatial covariance. It turns out that relativity of clocks and rods are mutually exclusive. General Relativity implements local relativity of clocks and spatial covariance, but not local relativity of rods. It is the purpose of this contribution to show how Shape Dynamics, a theory that is locally equivalent to General Relativity, implements local relativity of rods and spatial covariance and how a BRST formulation, which I call Doubly General Relativity, implements all of Barbour's principles.

  17. Gummy Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners use chemistry to “self-assemble” gummy shapes. Learners discover that self-assembly is a process by which molecules and cells form themselves into functional structures. Learners also learn that self-assembly is used to make nanocapsules that can deliver medication to diseased parts of the body, bypassing healthy parts. This activity is a fun way to talk about the connections between science and cooking, since the gummy capsules produced in this activity are also used in molecular gastronomy.

  18. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger. PMID:25595501

  19. Molecular microcircuitry underlies functional specification in a basal ganglia circuit dedicated to vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Austin T.; Miller, Julie E.; Fraley, Elizabeth; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Similarities between speech and birdsong make songbirds advantageous for investigating the neurogenetics of learned vocal communication; a complex phenotype likely supported by ensembles of interacting genes in cortico-basal ganglia pathways of both species. To date, only FoxP2 has been identified as critical to both speech and birdsong. We performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis on microarray data from singing zebra finches to discover gene ensembles regulated during vocal behavior. We found ~2,000 singing-regulated genes comprising 3 co-expression groups unique to area X, the basal ganglia subregion dedicated to learned vocalizations. These contained known targets of human FOXP2 and potential avian targets. We validated novel biological pathways for vocalization. Higher order gene co-expression patterns, rather than expression levels, molecularly distinguish area X from the ventral striato-pallidum during singing. The previously unknown structure of singing-driven networks enables prioritization of molecular interactors that likely bear on human motor disorders, especially those affecting speech. PMID:22325205

  20. Modeling effects of cerebellar and basal ganglia lesions on adaptation and anticipation during sensorimotor synchronization.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, M C Marieke; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A; Keller, Peter E

    2015-03-01

    This study addressed the role of subcortical brain structures in temporal adaptation and anticipation during sensorimotor synchronization. The performance of patients with cerebellar or basal ganglia lesions was compared with that of healthy control participants on tasks requiring the synchronization of drum strokes with adaptive and tempo-changing auditory pacing sequences. The precision of sensorimotor synchronization was generally lower in patients relative to controls (i.e., variability of asynchronies was higher in patients), although synchronization accuracy (mean asynchrony) was commensurate. A computational model of adaptation and anticipation (ADAM) was used to examine potential sources of individual differences in precision by estimating participants' use of error correction, temporal prediction, and the amount of variability associated with central timekeeping and peripheral motor processes. Parameter estimates based on ADAM indicate that impaired precision was attributable to increased variability of timekeeper and motor processes as well as to reduced temporal prediction in both patient groups. Adaptive processes related to continuously applied error correction were, by contrast, intact in patients. These findings highlight the importance of investigating how subcortical structures, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia, interact with a broader network of cortical regions to support temporal adaptation and anticipation during sensorimotor synchronization. PMID:25773623

  1. Basal Ganglia Neuronal Activity during Scanning Eye Movements in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sieger, Tomáš; Bonnet, Cecilia; Serranová, Tereza; Wild, Ji?í; Novák, Daniel; R?ži?ka, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; R?ži?ka, Evžen; Gaymard, Bertrand; Jech, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinso?s disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control. PMID:24223158

  2. Nerve growth factor promotes neurite outgrowth in guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Lally, K; Simeone, D M

    1994-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has important developmental actions in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Primary cultures of neonatal guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of NGF to stimulate morphological development in enteric neurons. NGF, in the presence of a serum-free medium, produced dose-dependent increases in neurite density, significant at 1 ng/ml and maximal at 100 ng/ml (4.5-fold increase vs. control). Maximum neurite length was also significantly increased at 1 ng/ml, with maximal effects at 100 ng/ml. Coincubation of NGF (50 ng/ml) with monoclonal NGF antibodies abolished increases in both neurite density (128 +/- 19 processes/mm for control, 369 +/- 19 for NGF, 183 +/- 28 for NGF+monoclonal antibodies) and neurite length. Exposure of enteric neurons to low concentrations of NGF (1 ng/ml) was also associated with increased mRNA levels for cytoskeletal genes. alpha-Tubulin mRNA levels were increased 3.9 +/- 0.7 times basal at 48 h. mRNA levels for microtubule-associated protein 2 were increased threefold at 48 h of NGF incubation. NGF demonstrates activities in cultured enteric ganglia that stimulate morphological development. PMID:7943336

  3. A volumetric study of basal ganglia structures in individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Kimberly E; Aldridge, Kristina; Moffitt, Amanda J; Peck, Dawn; White, Desirée A; Christ, Shawn E

    2012-11-01

    Whereas the impact of early-treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU) on cortical white matter is well documented, relatively little is known regarding the potential impact of this metabolic disorder on deep gray matter structures such as the basal ganglia. The current study used high-resolution (1mm(3)) magnetic resonance imaging to investigate bilateral basal ganglia structures (i.e., putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens) in a sample of 13 individuals with ETPKU and a demographically-matched sample of 13 neurologically intact individuals without PKU. Consistent with previous research, we found smaller whole brain volumes in the ETPKU group compared with the non-PKU group. Individuals with ETPKU also had significantly larger putamen volumes than non-PKU individuals. In addition, the degree of putamen enlargement was correlated with blood phenylalanine levels and full scale IQ in the ETPKU group. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ETPKU-related increases in phenylalanine lead to decreased central dopamine levels thus impacting dopamine-dependent brain regions such as the putamen that play an important role in cognition. PMID:23006929

  4. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the original injury, but these results suggest that a deep intracerebral haematoma is a primary event. If a deep intracerebral haematoma is identified on an early CT scan it is likely that the patient has sustained severe diffuse brain damage at the time of injury. In the majority of head injuries damage to blood vessels or axons predominates. In patients with a traumatic deep intracerebral haematoma, it would appear that the deceleration/acceleration forces are such that both axons and blood vessels within the brain are damaged at the time of injury. Images PMID:3760892

  5. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Mushahwar, V K; Stein, R B

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the dorsal root ganglia. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modeled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main Results Overall, firing-rate based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48±13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development. PMID:23928579

  6. Identification of bladder and colon afferents in the nodose ganglia of male rats.

    PubMed

    Herrity, April N; Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Hubscher, Charles H

    2014-11-01

    The sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder and distal colon project to similar regions of the central nervous system and often are affected simultaneously by various diseases and disorders, including spinal cord injury. Anatomical and physiological commonalities between the two organs involve the participation of shared spinally derived pathways, allowing mechanisms of communication between the bladder and colon. Prior electrophysiological data from our laboratory suggest that the bladder also may receive sensory innervation from a nonspinal source through the vagus nerve, which innervates the distal colon as well. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether anatomical evidence exists for vagal innervation of the male rat urinary bladder and to assess whether those vagal afferents also innervate the colon. Additionally, the relative contribution to bladder and colon sensory innervation of spinal and vagal sources was determined. By using lipophilic tracers, neurons that innervated the bladder and colon in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and L6/S1 and L1/L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were quantified. Some single vagal and spinal neurons provided dual innervation to both organs. The proportions of NG afferents labeled from the bladder did not differ from spinal afferents labeled from the bladder when considering the collective population of total neurons from either group. Our results demonstrate evidence for vagal innervation of the bladder and colon and suggest that dichotomizing vagal afferents may provide a neural mechanism for cross-talk between the organs. PMID:24845615

  7. Orexinergic innervation of the extended amygdala and basal ganglia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Usunoff, Kamen G; Lazarov, Nikolai E; Itzev, Dimitar E; Eipert, Peter; Rolfs, Arndt; Wree, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    The orexinergic system interacts with several functional states of emotions, stress, hunger, wakefulness and behavioral arousal through four pathways originating in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Hundreds of orexinergic efferents have been described by tracing studies and direct immunohistochemistry of orexin in the forebrain, olfactory regions, hippocampus, amygdala, septum, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem and spinal cord. Most of these tracing studies investigated the whole orexinergic projection to all regions of the intracranial part of the CNS. To identify the orexinergic efferents at the subnuclear level of resolution, we focussed on the orexinergic target in the amygdala, which is substantially involved in the LH output and contributes mostly to the functional outcome of the orexinergic system and the basal ganglia. Immunohistochemical identification of axonal orexin A and orexin B in male adult rats has been performed on serial sections. In the extended amygdala many new orexinergic targets were found in the anterior amygdaloid area (dense), anterior cortical nucleus (moderate), amygdalostriatal transition region (moderate), basolateral regions (moderate), basomedial nucleus (moderate), several bed nucleus of the stria terminals regions (few to dense), central amygdaloid subdivisions (dense), posteromedial cortical nucleus (moderate) and medial amygdaloid subnuclei (dense). Furthermore, the entopeduncular nucleus has been newly identified as another target for orexinergic fibers with a high density. These results suggest that subdivisions and subnuclei of the extended amygdala are specific targets of the orexinergic system. PMID:21935673

  8. Highly efficient method for gene delivery into mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingli; Reynaud, Florie; Falk, Julien; Spencer, Ambre; Ding, Yin-Di; Baumlé, Véronique; Lu, Ruisheng; Castellani, Valérie; Yuan, Chonggang; Rudkin, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5–16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60–80%) and low toxicity (>60% survival) were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, 3–50 times fewer cells are needed (6 × 104) compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures. PMID:25698920

  9. Highly efficient method for gene delivery into mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingli; Reynaud, Florie; Falk, Julien; Spencer, Ambre; Ding, Yin-Di; Baumlé, Véronique; Lu, Ruisheng; Castellani, Valérie; Yuan, Chonggang; Rudkin, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5-16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60-80%) and low toxicity (>60% survival) were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, 3-50 times fewer cells are needed (6 × 10(4)) compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures. PMID:25698920

  10. Antagonistic effects of phentolamine and octopamine on rhythmic motor output of crayfish thoracic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Gill, M D; Skorupski, P

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous rhythmic motor output of crayfish thoracic ganglia consists of bursts of activity in antagonistic leg motor neurons (MNs), alternating with a rather slow cycle period (typically > or = 20 s). The most common pattern (77% of preparations) consists of long coxal promotor bursts, the duration of which was correlated strongly with cycle period, and relatively short remotor bursts independent of cycle period. Octopamine, at a concentration of 2-30 microM reversibly retarded this rhythm, increasing both cycle period and promotor burst duration. Higher concentrations of octopamine inhibited promotor nerve activity and abolished rhythmic bursting. Phentolamine (10-50 microM) had the opposite effect of decreasing cycle period, mainly by decreasing promotor burst duration. Whereas in the presence of octopamine promotor bursts were lengthened and became even more strongly related to cycle period, phentolamine promoted a more symmetrical rhythm with shorter promotor bursts that were less dependent on cycle period. When octopamine was applied in the presence of phentolamine, there was no significant increase in cycle period or burst duration, although high octopamine concentrations (100 microM) were still capable of inhibiting promotor nerve activity. To our knowledge, pharmacological modulation of a spontaneous locomotor rhythm by an amine antagonist (applied by itself) has not been reported previously. The results raise the testable possibility that phentolamine exerts its modulatory effects by acting as an octopamine antagonist in crayfish thoracic ganglia. PMID:10601485

  11. The role of neurotrophins in development of neural-crest cells that become sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kalcheim, C

    1996-03-29

    A fundamental issue of neural-crest ontogeny is understanding how different types of cells are created at the right time and in the correct numbers. Sensory ganglia are among the many derivatives of the vertebrate neural crest. Their proper formation requires the regulation of several processes such as cell fate specification, proliferation, survival, and terminal differentiation. The timescale of the occurrence of processes involved in the regulation of cell number and identity, coincides with key morphogenetic events such as cell migration, homing and gangliogenesis. To gain insight into these processes, we characterized the cellular basis of metameric migration of neural-crest cells and of consequent ganglion organization, which are imposed by intrinsic differences within rostral and caudal sclerotomal compartments. We also established a transient requirement for neural tube-derived factors in regulating the proliferation, survival and differentiation of prospective DRG cells. Additionally, we showed that cooperation between the mesodermal cells and the neural tube is necessary for modulating cell number in the nascent ganglia. BDNF, NT-3 and basic FGF were found to mediate this environmental signalling. All the above factors display neurogenic activity for a subset of early-committed sensory neuron progenitors. This observation raises the possibility of an early redundancy in the response of individual neural-crest progenitors to distinct factors. This overlap in responsiveness progressively disappears upon the colonization of specific ganglionic sites and the subsequent establishment of selective innervation patterns by post-mitotic sensory neurons. PMID:8730774

  12. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. (Sandoz Pharma Ltd., Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  13. Atypical location of germinoma in basal ganglia in adolescents: radiological features and treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rasalkar, D D; Chu, W C W; Cheng, F W T; Paunipagar, B K; Shing, M K; Li, C K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the imaging findings, clinical profile and treatment response in four Chinese adolescent patients presenting with ectopic germinoma arising from basal ganglia. The clinical presentation, treatment regimens and the imaging findings at presentation and after treatment were described upon retrospective review of four Chinese adolescent patients. CT of the brain showed mixed solid cystic mass lesions in three patients. In one patient, only ill-defined hyperdensity was noted in the affected basal ganglia. Correlative MRI brain studies showed similar findings of large solid cystic masses in three patients, whereas the fourth patient showed small hyperintensities on T2 weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences. All lesions were confirmed to be germinomas on biopsy. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy was given to three patients. There was a dramatic response, with complete resolution of tumour bulk in two patients and >80% reduction in tumour bulk in one patient. Debulking surgery was performed in one subject who had received cranial radiotherapy; the last follow-up MRI showed no evidence of residual disease. PMID:19752170

  14. Characterization by immunocytochemistry of ionic channels in Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity. PMID:18228196

  15. Learning processing in the basal ganglia: a mosaic of broken mirrors.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Wietzikoski, Evellyn Claudia; Dombrowski, Patrícia; Bortolanza, Mariza; Santos, Lucélia Mendes; Boschen, Suelen Lucio; Miyoshi, Edmar

    2009-04-12

    In the present review we propose a model to explain the role of the basal ganglia in sensorimotor and cognitive functions based on a growing body of behavioural, anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical evidence accumulated over the last decades. This model proposes that the body and its surrounding environment are represented in the striatum in a fragmented and repeated way, like a mosaic consisting of the fragmented images of broken mirrors. Each fragment forms a functional unit representing articulated parts of the body with motion properties, objects of the environment which the subject can approach or manipulate, and locations the subject can move to. These units integrate the sensory properties and movements related to them. The repeated and widespread distribution of such units amplifies the combinatorial power of the associations among them. These associations depend on the phasic release of dopamine in the striatum triggered by the saliency of stimuli and will be reinforced by the rewarding consequences of the actions related to them. Dopamine permits synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal synapses. The striatal units encoding the same stimulus/action send convergent projections to the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that stimulate or hold the action through a thalamus-frontal cortex pathway. According to this model, this is how the basal ganglia select actions based on environmental stimuli and store adaptive associations as nondeclarative memories such as motor skills, habits, and memories formed by Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. PMID:18977393

  16. Distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 in the monkey basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, E; Ong, W Y; Connor, J R

    2004-01-01

    An accumulation of iron occurs in the brain with age, and it is thought that this may contribute to the pathology of certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we elucidated the distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) in the monkey basal ganglia by immunocytochemistry, and compared it with the distribution of ferrous iron in these nuclei by Turnbull's Blue histochemical staining. We observed a general correlation between levels of DMT1, and iron staining. Thus, regions such as the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata contained dense staining of DMT1 in astrocytic processes, and were also observed to contain large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The exceptions were the globus pallidus externa and interna, which contained light DMT1 staining, but large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra pars compacta contained neurons that were lightly stained for DMT1, but few or no iron granules. The high levels of DMT1 expression in some of the nuclei of the basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, may account for the high levels of iron in these regions. PMID:15381278

  17. Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

    1980-01-01

    Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

  18. COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    1&2 plus lecture notes Feb 2 Major Mental Disorders Ch 11 Feb 9 Anxiety Disorders Ch 7 Feb 16: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories, assessment, and treatments of Abnormal Behavior Final grades are based exclusively on total points. All

  19. Lipid abnormalities in uremia, dialysis, and transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man Kam Chan; Zachariah Varghese; John F Moorhead

    1981-01-01

    The institution of renal replacement therapy has sustained the lives of many patients with end-stage renal failure and has made it possible to study in depth the metabolic abnormalities associated with the uremic state. An important consequence of chronic uremia is the development of lipid abnormalities [1, 2], which continue to affect many patients on dialysis [1, 3, 4] and

  20. Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

    Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

  1. Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design

    E-print Network

    Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design Barbara Burian, Ph.D. San Jose State is funded through the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. #12;Emergency and Abnormal Situations Systems Training Human Performance under Stress Checklists and Procedures #12;Challenges in Emergency

  2. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  3. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  4. Is gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Holt; Robert C. Heading; Thomas V. Taylor; John A. Forrest; Peter Tothill

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the

  5. Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schedl

    2007-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

  6. Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in

    E-print Network

    Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in Congenital Amusia Isabelle Peretz, PhD,1 Elvira- sults suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200

  7. Severely Symptomatic Craniovertebral Junction Abnormalities in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with

  8. Expression of the short chain fatty acid receptor GPR41/FFAR3 in autonomic and somatic sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, M K; Egerod, K L; Christiansen, S H; Gille, A; Offermanns, S; Schwartz, T W; Møller, M

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) also called free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3) is a G?i-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mainly produced from dietary complex carbohydrate fibers in the large intestine as products of fermentation by microbiota. FFAR3 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells, but has recently also been shown to be present in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FFAR3 is present in other autonomic and sensory ganglia possibly influencing gut physiology. Cryostat sections were cut of autonomic and sensory ganglia of a transgenic reporter mouse expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) gene under the control of the FFAR3 promoter. Control for specific expression was also done by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the reporter protein. mRFP expression was as expected found not only in neurons of the superior cervical ganglion, but also in sympathetic ganglia of the thoracic and lumbar sympathetic trunk. Further, neurons in prevertebral ganglia expressed the mRFP reporter. FFAR3-mRFP-expressing neurons were also present in both autonomic and sensory ganglia such as the vagal ganglion, the spinal dorsal root ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion. No expression was observed in the brain or spinal cord. By use of radioactive-labeled antisense DNA probes, mRNA encoding the FFAR3 was found to be present in cells of the same ganglia. Further, the expression of the FFAR3 in the ganglia of the transgenic mice was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against the receptor protein, and double labeling colocalized mRFP and the FFAR3-protein in the same neurons. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on extracts from the ganglia supported the presence mRNA encoding the FFAR3 in most of the investigated tissues. These data indicate that FFAR3 is expressed on postganglionic sympathetic and sensory neurons in both the autonomic and somatic peripheral nervous system and that SCFAs act not only through the enteroendocrine system but also directly by modifying physiological reflexes integrating the peripheral nervous system and the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:25637492

  9. Rescue of Sensory Ganglia That Are Programmed to Degenerate in Normal Development: Evidence That NGF Modulates Proliferation of DRG Cells in Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Revital Geffen; Ronald S. Goldstein

    1996-01-01

    The dorsal root ganglia (DRG, spinal ganglia) are a metameric series of structures that develop from neural crest cells within the dorsal somitic mesoderm. A striking element of patterning within this meristic series is the disappearance of the five or six most rostral DRG early in the embryonic development of birds and mammals. The transient DRG have been named “Froriep's

  10. Neurogenesis in Postnatal Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia Michael P. Namaka* Mike Sawchuk, Stephen C. MacDonald, Larry M. Jordan,* and Shawn Hochman,1

    E-print Network

    Manitoba, University of

    fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can pro- liferate neuronal precursors of CNS neurons in cul- ture- natal dorsal root ganglia contain bFGF-responsive neuronal precursors. We undertook cell culture of postnatal mouse dorsal root ganglia to demonstrate neurogenesis. Basic FGF induced a cellular prolifera

  11. Modulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Neuropeptide Y, Glutamate, and Substance P in Ganglia and Brain Areas Involved in Cardiovascular Control after Chronic Exposure to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Merari F. R.; Coelho, Emerson F.; Farizatto, Karen L. G.; Chadi, Gerson; Fior-Chadi, Debora R.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that nicotine instantly interacts with central and peripheral nervous systems promoting cardiovascular effects after tobacco smoking, we evaluated the modulation of glutamate, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P (SP) in nodose/petrosal and superior cervical ganglia, as well as TH and NPY in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after 8 weeks of nicotine exposure. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization data demonstrated increased expression of TH in brain and ganglia related to blood pressure control, preferentially in SHR, after nicotine exposure. The alkaloid also increased NPY immunoreactivity in ganglia, NTS, and PVN of SHR, in spite of decreasing its receptor (NPY1R) binding in NTS of both strains. Nicotine increased SP and glutamate in ganglia. In summary, nicotine positively modulated the studied variables in ganglia while its central effects were mainly constrained to SHR. PMID:21822476

  12. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  13. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Deafferentation and axotomy each cause neurturin-independent upregulation of c-Jun in rodent pelvic ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Nangle; Janet R. Keast

    2009-01-01

    The pelvic ganglia provide autonomic innervation to pelvic viscera and urogenital organs. These neurons are susceptible to axonal injury during pelvic surgical procedures, yet their regenerative mechanisms are poorly understood. The AP-1 transcription factor component, c-Jun, has been strongly linked to regenerative events in injured sensory, sympathetic and somatic motor neurons and is considered to be required for regeneration. Our

  15. Neural Endothelin in Hypertension: Increased Expression in Ganglia and Nerves to Cerebral Arteries of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Milner; Andrzej Loesch; Geoffrey Burnstock

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin has previously been localised in perivascular nerves of the rat basilar artery. Considering its potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic properties on vascular smooth muscle, the potential role of a neural source of this peptide in hypertension has been investigated. The trigeminal, superior cervical and sphenopalatine ganglia of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 16 weeks of

  16. The percentage of nerve cell bodies arranged in clusters decreases with age in the spinal ganglia of adult rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pannese; P. Procacci; M. Ledda; V. Conte

    1993-01-01

    In the spinal ganglia of the rabbit the nerve cell bodies, which in early developmental stages are mutually in contact, come to be completely isolated from each other by a satellite cell sheath and by a connective envelope before birth. The present study demonstrates that in the early postnatal months some nerve cell bodies are still arranged in clusters, and

  17. Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE CROSSON; HOPE BENEFIELD; M. ALLISON CATO; JOSEPH R. SADEK; ANNA BACON MOORE; CHRISTINA E. WIERENGA; KAUNDINYA GOPINATH; DAVID SOLTYSIK; RUSSELL M. BAUER; EDWARD J. AUERBACH; DIDEM GÖKÇAY; CHRISTIANA M. LEONARD; RICHARD W. BRIGGS

    2003-01-01

    f MRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During f MRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation

  18. Lrrk2 localization in the primate basal ganglia and thalamus: a light and electron microscopic analysis in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Melrose, H L; Yue, M; Pare, Jean-Francois; Farrer, M J; Smith, Y

    2010-08-01

    The Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene is a common mutation target in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the cellular mechanisms by which such mutations underlie the pathophysiology of PD remain poorly understood. Thus, to better characterize the neuronal target sites of LRRK2 mutations in the primate brain, we studied the cellular and ultrastructural localization of Lrrk2 immunoreactivity in the monkey basal ganglia. As previously described, the monkey striatum was the most enriched basal ganglia structure in Lrrk2 labeling. Both projection neurons and parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons displayed Lrrk2 immunoreactivity. At the electron microscopic level, striatal Lrrk2 labeling was associated predominantly with dendritic shafts and subsets of putative glutamatergic axon terminals. At the pallidal level, moderate cellular Lrrk2 immunostaining was found in the external globus pallidus (GPe), while neurons in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) were devoid of Lrrk2 immunoreactivity. Strong labeling was associated with cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the primate substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area harbored a significant level of Lrrk2 labeling, while neurons in the subthalamic nucleus were lightly immunostained. Most thalamic nuclei were enriched in Lrrk2 immunoreactivity, except for the centromedian nucleus that was completely devoid of labeling. Thus, Lrrk2 protein is widely distributed in the monkey basal ganglia, suggesting that gene mutations in PD may result in multifarious pathophysiological effects that could impact various target sites in the functional circuitry of the primate basal ganglia. PMID:20483355

  19. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  20. Where neuroscience and dynamic system theory meet autonomous robotics: A contracting basal ganglia model for action selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoît Girard; Nicolas Tabareau; Quang-cuong Pham; Alain Berthoz; Jean-jacques E. Slotine

    2008-01-01

    Action selection, the problem of choosing what to do next, is central to any autonomous agent architecture. We use here a multi-disciplinary approach at the convergence of neuroscience, dynamical system theory and autonomous robotics, in order to propose an efficient action selection mechanism based on a new model of the basal ganglia. We first describe new developments of contraction theory

  1. Analysis of Nonproductive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Human Fetal Dorsal Root Ganglia Glial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Kunsch; Brian Wigdahl

    1990-01-01

    Summary Direct infection of glia by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been suggested as one of several mechanisms responsible for the severe neurologic complications observed in both neonates and adults with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We have demonstrated by protein immunoblotting analysis that HIV-1 infection of human fetal glial cells isolated from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of

  2. Schizophrenic subjects show aberrant fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia during working memory performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara S. Manoach; Randy L. Gollub; Etienne S. Benson; Meghan M. Searl; Donald C. Goff; Elkan Halpern; Clifford B. Saper; Scott L. Rauch

    2000-01-01

    Background: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia have been associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) dysfunction in neuroimaging studies. We previously found increased DLPFC activation in schizophrenic versus normal subjects during WM performance (Manoach et al 1999b). We now have investigated whether schizophrenic subjects recruit different brain regions, particularly the basal ganglia and thalamus, components of frontostriatal circuitry thought to

  3. Comparative processing of emotional prosody and semantics following basal ganglia infarcts: ERP evidence of selective impairments for disgust and fear.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Pell, Marc D; Kotz, Sonja A

    2009-10-27

    There is evidence from neuroimaging and clinical studies that functionally link the basal ganglia to emotional speech processes. However, in most previous studies, explicit tasks were administered. Thus, the underlying mechanisms substantiating emotional speech are not separated from possibly process-related task effects. Therefore, the current study tested emotional speech processing in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment using an implicit emotional processing task (probe verification). The interactive time course of emotional prosody in the context of emotional semantics was investigated using a cross-splicing method. As previously demonstrated, combined prosodic and semantic expectancy violations elicit N400-like negativities irrespective of emotional categories in healthy listeners. In contrast, basal ganglia patients show this negativity only for the emotions of happiness and anger, but not for fear or disgust. The current data serve as first evidence that lesions within the left basal ganglia affect the comparative online processing of fear and disgust prosody and semantics. Furthermore, the data imply that previously reported emotional speech recognition deficits in basal ganglia patients may be due to misaligned processing of emotional prosody and semantics. PMID:19664605

  4. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Rudolf Hoeksma; Chantal Kemner; J. Leon Kenemans; Herman van Engeland

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in selective attention. Adolescents with PDD showed abnormal selective attention,

  5. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

  6. Shape Comparison Using Perturbing Shape Registration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yifeng; Edmiston, Erin; Wang, Fei; Blumberg, Hilary P.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2010-01-01

    Shape registration is often involved in computing statistical differences between groups of shapes, which is a key aspect of morphometric study. The results of shape difference are found to be sensitive to registration, i.e., different registration methods lead to varied results. This raises the question of how to improve the reliability of registration procedures. This paper proposes a perturbation scheme, which perturbs registrations by feeding them with different resampled shape groups, and then aggregates the resulting shape differences. Experiments are conducted using three typical registration algorithms on both synthetic and biomedical shapes, where more reliable inter-group shape differences are found under the proposed scheme. PMID:20386618

  7. The highs and lows of beta activity in cortico-basal ganglia loops.

    PubMed

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Sharott, Andrew; Brown, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Oscillatory activity in the beta (13-30 Hz) frequency band is widespread in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, and becomes prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we develop the hypothesis that the degree of synchronization in this frequency band is a critical factor in gating computation across a population of neurons, with increases in beta band synchrony entailing a loss of information-coding space and hence computational capacity. Task and context drive this dynamic gating, so that for each state there will be an optimal level of network synchrony, and levels lower or higher than this will impair behavioural performance. Thus, both the pathological exaggeration of synchrony, as observed in PD, and the ability of interventions like deep brain stimulation (DBS) to excessively suppress synchrony can potentially lead to impairments in behavioural performance. Indeed, under physiological conditions, the manipulation of computational capacity by beta activity may itself present a mechanism of action selection and maintenance. PMID:24890470

  8. Rat dorsal root ganglia express distinctive forms of the alpha2 calcium channel subunit.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z D

    2000-11-01

    Calcium channel alpha2 delta subunit is a glycosylated structural subunit consistent of the alpha2 subunit and the delta peptide. Previous studies have indicated distinctive alpha2 subunit expression in rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This study examined whether differential glycosylation underlies the molecular basis of distinct alpha2 delta subunits. The migration patterns of deglycosylated alpha2 subunits from rat spinal cord, DRG, brain and skeletal muscle were compared in Western blots. The data reported indicate that there are two forms of the alpha2 subunit in DRG that are different from the alpha2 subunit in other tissues examined, at least at the glycosylation level. Thus, post-translational modification may be important in tissue specific and functional expression of the alpha2 delta subunit. PMID:11095497

  9. Molecular heterogeneity of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in canine intracardiac ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Moreno-Asso, Alba; Anderson, Seth; Thomas, Kristen; Desai, Mayurika; Brugada, Ramon; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in the nervous system. We have recently shown that principal neurons from canine intracardiac ganglia (ICG) express a paxilline- and TEA-sensitive BK current, which increases neuronal excitability. In the present work, we further explore the molecular constituents of the BK current in canine ICG. We found that the ?1 and ?4 regulatory subunits are expressed in ICG. Single channel voltage-dependence at different calcium concentrations suggested that association of the BK? with a particular ? subunit was not enough to explain the channel activity in this tissue. Indeed, we detected the presence of several splice variants of the BK? subunit. In conclusion, BK channels in canine ICG may result from the arrangement of different BK? splice variants, plus accessory ? subunits. The particular combinations expressed in canine IC neurons likely rule the excitatory role of BK current in this tissue. PMID:23807090

  10. Microcirculation of human fetal posterior root ganglia: a scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, J; Skawina, A; Litwin, J A; Miodo?ski, A J

    1998-02-01

    The vasculature of lumbar posterior root ganglia was investigated in human fetuses aged 17-24 weeks; using the corrosion casting technique and scanning electron microscopy. The arterial supply consisted of one main artery and occasional arterioles entering the ganglion at its pole and running axially, while the venous drainage was located at the periphery of the ganglion, thus indicating a centrifugal pattern of blood flow. The dense capillary network of the ganglion showed the roughly parallel course of the vessels in the central zone and an irregular arrangement in the peripheral zone where capillaries formed "nests", probably surrounding individual perikaryons of ganglionic cells. The capillaries had a sinusoidal character with numerous dilatations about twice the normal capillary size, as well as occasional larger vascular spaces resulting from capillary interconnections and suggesting the intussusceptive type of angiogenesis. PMID:9488902

  11. FROM REINFORCEMENT LEARNING MODELS OF THE BASAL GANGLIA TO THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PSYCHIATRIC AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Tiago V.; Frank, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade and a half, reinforcement learning models have fostered an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the functions of dopamine and cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBGTC) circuits. More recently, these models, and the insights that they afford, have started to be used to understand key aspects of several psychiatric and neurological disorders that involve disturbances of the dopaminergic system and CBGTC circuits. We review this approach and its existing and potential applications to Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction, schizophrenia, and preclinical animal models used to screen novel antipsychotic drugs. The approach’s proven explanatory and predictive power bodes well for the continued growth of computational psychiatry and computational neurology. PMID:21270784

  12. Mitochondria in perineuronal satellite cell sheaths of rabbit spinal ganglia: quantitative changes during life.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Carla; Sartori, Patrizia; Ledda, Maria; Pannese, Ennio

    2007-01-01

    We studied quantitative changes in mitochondria of perineuronal satellite cell sheaths (SCSs) of rabbit spinal ganglia from young to extremely advanced age (1, 3.6, 6.7 and 8.8 years). The mitochondrial structure did not differ in the four age groups, while mitochondrial size increased progressively and significantly with age. The mean percentage of cytoplasmic volume occupied by mitochondria decreased progressively and significantly from young to old animals. This decrease was mainly due to a progressive and significant reduction in the total mitochondrial volume. Lipofuscin accumulation had a negligible influence on this reduction. These results suggest that the ability of SCSs to produce energy decreases with age and that the reduced ability of spinal ganglion neurons to respond to high energy demands in old age may be in part due to the diminished contribution of perineuronal satellite cells. PMID:17587787

  13. Robust representation of stable object values in the oculomotor Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2012-11-21

    Our gaze tends to be directed to objects previously associated with rewards. Such object values change flexibly or remain stable. Here we present evidence that the monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the basal ganglia represents stable, rather than flexible, object values. After across-day learning of object-reward association, SNr neurons gradually showed a response bias to surprisingly many visual objects: inhibition to high-valued objects and excitation to low-valued objects. Many of these neurons were shown to project to the ipsilateral superior colliculus. This neuronal bias remained intact even after >100 d without further learning. In parallel with the neuronal bias, the monkeys tended to look at high-valued objects. The neuronal and behavioral biases were present even if no value was associated during testing. These results suggest that SNr neurons bias the gaze toward objects that were consistently associated with high values in one's history. PMID:23175843

  14. Learning to Select Actions with Spiking Neurons in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We expand our existing spiking neuron model of decision making in the cortex and basal ganglia to include local learning on the synaptic connections between the cortex and striatum, modulated by a dopaminergic reward signal. We then compare this model to animal data in the bandit task, which is used to test rodent learning in conditions involving forced choice under rewards. Our results indicate a good match in terms of both behavioral learning results and spike patterns in the ventral striatum. The model successfully generalizes to learning the utilities of multiple actions, and can learn to choose different actions in different states. The purpose of our model is to provide both high-level behavioral predictions and low-level spike timing predictions while respecting known neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. PMID:22319465

  15. New roles for the external globus pallidus in basal ganglia circuits and behavior.

    PubMed

    Gittis, Aryn H; Berke, Joshua D; Bevan, Mark D; Chan, C Savio; Mallet, Nicolas; Morrow, Michelle M; Schmidt, Robert

    2014-11-12

    The development of methodology to identify specific cell populations and circuits within the basal ganglia is rapidly transforming our ability to understand the function of this complex circuit. This mini-symposium highlights recent advances in delineating the organization and function of neural circuits in the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe). Although long considered a homogeneous structure in the motor-suppressing "indirect-pathway," the GPe consists of a number of distinct cell types and anatomical subdomains that contribute differentially to both motor and nonmotor features of behavior. Here, we integrate recent studies using techniques, such as viral tracing, transgenic mice, electrophysiology, and behavioral approaches, to create a revised framework for understanding how the GPe relates to behavior in both health and disease. PMID:25392486

  16. A basal ganglia pathway drives selective auditory responses in songbird dopaminergic neurons via disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Samuel D.; Perkel, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in mammals respond to rewards and reward-predicting cues, and are thought to play an important role in learning actions or sensory cues that lead to reward. The anatomical sources of input that drive or modulate such responses are not well understood; these ultimately define the range of behavior to which dopaminergic neurons contribute. Primary rewards are not the immediate objective of all goal-directed behavior. For example, a goal of vocal learning is to imitate vocal-communication signals. Here, we demonstrate activation of dopaminergic neurons in songbirds driven by a basal ganglia region required for vocal learning, Area X. Dopaminergic neurons in anesthetized zebra finches respond more strongly to bird's own song (BOS) than to other sounds, and Area X is critical for these responses. Direct pharmacological modulation of Area X output, in the absence of auditory stimulation, is sufficient to bidirectionally modulate the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons. The only known pathway from song-control regions to dopaminergic neurons involves a projection from Area X to the ventral pallidum (VP), which in turn projects to dopaminergic regions. We show that VP neurons are spontaneously active and inhibited preferentially by BOS, suggesting that Area X disinihbits dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting VP. Supporting this model, auditory-response latencies are shorter in Area X than VP, and shorter in VP than dopaminergic neurons. Thus, dopaminergic neurons can be disinhibited selectively by complex sensory stimuli via input from the basal ganglia. The functional pathway we identify may allow dopaminergic neurons to contribute to vocal learning. PMID:20089911

  17. Immunolocalization of serotonin in Onychophora argues against segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Georg; Harzsch, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Background Onychophora (velvet worms) represent the most basal arthropod group and play a pivotal role in the current discussion on the evolution of nervous systems and segmentation in arthropods. Although there is a wealth of information on the immunolocalization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in various euarthropods, as yet no comparable localization data are available for Onychophora. In order to understand how the onychophoran nervous system compares to that of other arthropods, we studied the distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons and histological characteristics of ventral nerve cords in Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae) and Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora, Peripatidae). Results We demonstrate that paired leg nerves are the only segmental structures associated with the onychophoran nerve cord. Although the median commissures and peripheral nerves show a repeated pattern, their arrangement is independent from body segments characterized by the position of legs and associated structures. Moreover, the somata of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons do not show any ordered arrangement in both species studied but are instead scattered throughout the entire length of each nerve cord. We observed neither a serially iterated nor a bilaterally symmetric pattern, which is in contrast to the strictly segmental arrangement of serotonergic neurons in other arthropods. Conclusion Our histological findings and immunolocalization experiments highlight the medullary organization of the onychophoran nerve cord and argue against segmental ganglia of the typical euarthropodan type being an ancestral feature of Onychophora. These results contradict a priori assumptions of segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods and, thus, weaken the traditional Articulata hypothesis, which proposes a sistergroup relationship of Annelida and Arthropoda. PMID:17629937

  18. A fate-map for cranial sensory ganglia in the sea lamprey?

    PubMed Central

    Modrell, Melinda S.; Hockman, Dorit; Uy, Benjamin; Buckley, David; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Bronner, Marianne E.; Baker, Clare V.H.

    2014-01-01

    Cranial neurogenic placodes and the neural crest make essential contributions to key adult characteristics of all vertebrates, including the paired peripheral sense organs and craniofacial skeleton. Neurogenic placode development has been extensively characterized in representative jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) but not in jawless fishes (agnathans). Here, we use in vivo lineage tracing with DiI, together with neuronal differentiation markers, to establish the first detailed fate-map for placode-derived sensory neurons in a jawless fish, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and to confirm that neural crest cells in the lamprey contribute to the cranial sensory ganglia. We also show that a pan-Pax3/7 antibody labels ophthalmic trigeminal (opV, profundal) placode-derived but not maxillomandibular trigeminal (mmV) placode-derived neurons, mirroring the expression of gnathostome Pax3 and suggesting that Pax3 (and its single Pax3/7 lamprey ortholog) is a pan-vertebrate marker for opV placode-derived neurons. Unexpectedly, however, our data reveal that mmV neuron precursors are located in two separate domains at neurula stages, with opV neuron precursors sandwiched between them. The different branches of the mmV nerve are not comparable between lampreys and gnatho-stomes, and spatial segregation of mmV neuron precursor territories may be a derived feature of lampreys. Nevertheless, maxillary and mandibular neurons are spatially segregated within gnathostome mmV ganglia, suggesting that a more detailed investigation of gnathostome mmV placode development would be worthwhile. Overall, however, our results highlight the conservation of cranial peripheral sensory nervous system development across vertebrates, yielding insight into ancestral vertebrate traits. PMID:24513489

  19. Endoscopic considerations treating hydrocephalus caused by basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Jonathan; Ram, Zvi; Constantini, Shlomi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deep basal-ganglia and large thalamic (BGT) tumors may cause secondary hydrocephalus by compressing the lateral and third ventricles. The ventricular distortion, as well as the infiltrative nature and friability of these tumors, raise specific considerations and risks when treating these patients. Treatment goals may therefore focus on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion and tissue sampling, followed by nonsurgical treatment options. We present our experience in applying endoscopic techniques for the initial management of such patients. Methods: Over a period of 15 months (January 2013 to April 2014), six patients with BGT tumors presented with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure secondary to hydrocephalus. Data was collected retrospectively, including clinical, surgical, and outcome variables. Results: Six patients aged 9–41 years (25.6 ± 12.5) were included. Endoscopic procedures included endoscopic third ventriculostomy (4), septum pellucidotomy (5), foramen of Monro stenting (2), and endoscopic biopsy (3). One patient underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and another stereotactic biopsy. Indications for endoscopic treatment included the infiltrative nature of the tumor preventing a resective procedure, combined with clinical deterioration related to increased intracranial pressure secondary to hydrocephalus. Pathology results included anaplastic astrocytoma (3) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (1). Pathological sampling was not possible in two patients. Five patients enjoyed a good clinical recovery with no associated morbidity. There was one perioperative death, secondary to preoperative herniation. Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery may potentially play a significant role in the initial management of patients with large basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Technical nuances and individualized goals are crucial for optimal outcomes.

  20. Extrastriatal D2-like receptors modulate basal ganglia pathways in normal and Parkinsonian monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hadipour-Niktarash, Arash; Rommelfanger, Karen S; Masilamoni, Gunasingh J; Smith, Yoland; Wichmann, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    According to traditional models of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network of connections, dopamine exerts D2-like receptor (D2LR)-mediated effects through actions on striatal neurons that give rise to the "indirect" pathway, secondarily affecting the activity in the internal and external pallidal segments (GPi and GPe, respectively) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). However, accumulating evidence from the rodent literature suggests that D2LR activation also directly influences synaptic transmission in these nuclei. To further examine this issue in primates, we combined in vivo electrophysiological recordings and local intracerebral microinjections of drugs with electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to study D2LR-mediated modulation of neuronal activities in GPe, GPi, and SNr of normal and MPTP-treated (parkinsonian) monkeys. D2LR activation with quinpirole increased firing in most GPe neurons, likely due to a reduction of striatopallidal GABAergic inputs. In contrast, local application of quinpirole reduced firing in GPi and SNr, possibly through D2LR-mediated effects on glutamatergic inputs. Injections of the D2LR antagonist sulpiride resulted in effects opposite to those of quinpirole in GPe and GPi. D2 receptor immunoreactivity was most prevalent in putative striatal-like GABAergic terminals and unmyelinated axons in GPe, GPi, and SNr, but a significant proportion of immunoreactive boutons also displayed ultrastructural features of glutamatergic terminals. Postsynaptic labeling was minimal in all nuclei. The D2LR-mediated effects and pattern of distribution of D2 receptor immunoreactivity were maintained in the parkinsonian state. Thus, in addition to their preferential effects on indirect pathway striatal neurons, extrastriatal D2LR activation in GPi and SNr also influences direct pathway elements in the primate basal ganglia under normal and parkinsonian conditions. PMID:22131382

  1. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy.

  2. Creation of Computerized 3D MRI-Integrated Atlases of the Human Basal Ganglia and Thalamus.

    PubMed

    Sadikot, Abbas F; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Bertrand, Gilles; Rymar, Vladimir V; Al-Subaie, Fahd; Collins, D Louis

    2011-01-01

    Functional brain imaging and neurosurgery in subcortical areas often requires visualization of brain nuclei beyond the resolution of current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. We present techniques used to create: (1) a lower resolution 3D atlas, based on the Schaltenbrand and Wahren print atlas, which was integrated into a stereotactic neurosurgery planning and visualization platform (VIPER); and (2) a higher resolution 3D atlas derived from a single set of manually segmented histological slices containing nuclei of the basal ganglia, thalamus, basal forebrain, and medial temporal lobe. Both atlases were integrated to a canonical MRI (Colin27) from a young male participant by manually identifying homologous landmarks. The lower resolution atlas was then warped to fit the MRI based on the identified landmarks. A pseudo-MRI representation of the high-resolution atlas was created, and a non-linear transformation was calculated in order to match the atlas to the template MRI. The atlas can then be warped to match the anatomy of Parkinson's disease surgical candidates by using 3D automated non-linear deformation methods. By way of functional validation of the atlas, the location of the sensory thalamus was correlated with stereotactic intraoperative physiological data. The position of subthalamic electrode positions in patients with Parkinson's disease was also evaluated in the atlas-integrated MRI space. Finally, probabilistic maps of subthalamic stimulation electrodes were developed, in order to allow group analysis of the location of contacts associated with the best motor outcomes. We have therefore developed, and are continuing to validate, a high-resolution computerized MRI-integrated 3D histological atlas, which is useful in functional neurosurgery, and for functional and anatomical studies of the human basal ganglia, thalamus, and basal forebrain. PMID:21922002

  3. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy. PMID:25803496

  4. Molecular cloning of the chicken trkA and its expression in early peripheral ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, A; Söderström, S; Kylberg, A; Ebendal, T

    1996-10-01

    The neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptors trkA, trkB, and trkC have been isolated and sequenced from several mammalian species. Their cognate ligands nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) act as survival and trophic factors for neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this study we have focused on the isolation and expression of the chicken trkA homologue. In addition to a near full-length cDNA sequence described, including an extracellular six amino-acid motif earlier found in neuronal TrkA in human and rat, a novel insert of 150 base pairs (bp) between subdomains IX and X in the otherwise well-conserved intracellular kinase domain is reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed the relationship between chicken trkA and the mammalian trkA receptors. Comparisons of the extracellular domains showed some amino-acid motifs of putative NGF binding function to be well conserved in chicken TrkA. The early expression of trkA mRNA, including the alternatively spliced insert form, was localized by in situ hybridization. As early as embryonal day 3 (E3), trkA mRNA is expressed in the condensing dorsal root ganglia, and at E4 distinct trkA mRNA expression appears in the primary sympathetic chain ganglia. Finally, using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach, we found that among several tested growth factors only fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) upregulated trkA mRNA expression in E9 sympathetic ganglion explants. This upregulation of trkA was corroborated by subsequent NGF-stimulated fiber outgrowth. PMID:8892107

  5. Optical recording of membrane potential responses from early embryonic chick ganglia using voltage-sensitive dyes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Hirota, A; Komuro, H; Fujii, S; Kamino, K

    1985-01-01

    Changes in absorbance of voltage-sensitive merocyanine-rhodanine dyes were used to monitor electrical responses in the semilunar ganglion of 4-10-day-old developing chick embryos. The electrical responses were simultaneously recorded from many positions in the ganglion. Stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers (the ophthalmic division of cranial nerve V) with a suction electrode led to changes in light absorption of the stained ganglia. With both the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing pulses, the change was largest at 700 nm and was eliminated at a wavelength of 620 nm where the voltage-dependent absorption change of the dyes disappears. In the 4-10-day-old embryonic ganglia, two types of optical membrane potential responses, 'non-conducted' and 'conducted' responses, were identified. The non-conducted response varied with the intensity of the stimulus and had the nature of an electrotonic spread. Furthermore, this non-conducted response exhibited an 'initial upstroke-response' followed by the steady-state plateau evoked by larger depolarizing pulses. The conducted responses were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by high external potassium concentration. The incidence of the conducted responses increased as development proceeded from the 5th to the 10th day of age. Thus, the TTX-sensitive action potential activity is probably generated initially in the semilunar ganglion during the 5-10-day-stage of development. These data represent the first demonstration of membrane potential responses in early embryonic intact nervous system. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the usefulness of voltage-sensitive dyes in the analysis of the organizing process of embryonic neuronal functions during these early stages of development. PMID:3872700

  6. Deep Arteriovenous Malformations in the Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, and Insula: Microsurgical Management, Techniques, and Results

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Matthew B.; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and insula are considered inoperable given their depth, eloquence, and limited surgical exposure. While many neurosurgeons opt for radiosurgery or observation, others have challenged the belief that deep AVMs are inoperable. Further discussion of patient selection, technique, and multimodality management is needed. Objective To describe and discuss the technical considerations of microsurgical resection for deep-seated AVMs. Methods Patients with deep AVMs who underwent surgery during a 14-year period were reviewed using a prospective AVM registry. Results Microsurgery was performed in 48 patients with AVMs in the basal ganglia (n=10), thalamus (n=13), or insula (n=25). The most common Spetzler-Martin grade was III- (68%). Surgical approaches included transsylvian (67%), transcallosal (19%), and transcortical (15%). Complete resection was achieved in 34 patients (71%), and patients with incomplete resection were treated with radiosurgery. Forty-five patients (94%) were improved or unchanged (mean follow-up 1.6 years). Conclusion This experience advances the notion that select deep AVMs may be operable lesions. Patients were highly selected for small size, hemorrhagic presentation, young age, and compactness – factors embodied in the Spetzler-Martin and Supplementary grading systems. Overall, 10 different approaches were used, exploiting direct, transcortical corridors created by hemorrhage or maximizing anatomical corridors through subarachnoid spaces and ventricles that minimize brain transgression. The same cautious attitude exercised in selecting patients for surgery was also exercised in deciding extent of resection, opting for incomplete resection and radiosurgery more than with other AVMs to prioritize neurological outcomes. PMID:23728451

  7. Beta Frequency Synchronization in Basal Ganglia Output during Rest and Walk in a Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Brazhnik, Elena; Castañeda, Edward; Bergstrom, Debra A.; Walters, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease patients and hypothesized to be antikinetic. The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinson’s disease allows examination of this hypothesis by direct comparison of beta activity in basal ganglia output in non-lesioned and dopamine cell lesioned hemispheres during motor activity. Bilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) recordings of units and local field potentials (LFP) were obtained with EMG activity from the scapularis muscle in control and unilaterally nigrostriatal lesioned rats trained to walk on a rotary treadmill. After left hemispheric lesion, rats had difficulty walking contraversive on the treadmill but could walk in the ipsiversive direction. During inattentive rest, SNpr LFP power in the 12–25 Hz range (low beta) was significantly greater in the dopamine-depleted hemisphere than in non-lesioned and control hemispheres. During walking, low beta power was reduced in all hemispheres, while 25–40 Hz (high beta) activity was selectively increased in the lesioned hemisphere. High beta power increases were reduced by L-DOPA administration. SNpr spiking was significantly more synchronized with SNpr low beta LFP oscillations during rest and high beta LFP oscillations during walking in the dopamine-depleted hemispheres compared with non-lesioned hemispheres. Data show that dopamine loss is associated with opposing changes in low and high beta range SNpr activity during rest and walk and suggest that increased synchronization of high beta activity in SNpr output from the lesioned hemisphere during walking may contribute to gait impairment in the hemiparkinsonian rat. PMID:19948166

  8. Modeling the Contributions of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus to Spatial Navigation Using Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze. PMID:23110073

  9. Functional contributions of the basal ganglia to emotional prosody: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Pell, Marc D; Kotz, Sonja A

    2008-06-27

    The basal ganglia (BG) have been functionally linked to emotional processing [Pell, M.D., Leonard, C.L., 2003. Processing emotional tone form speech in Parkinson's Disease: a role for the basal ganglia. Cogn. Affec. Behav. Neurosci. 3, 275-288; Pell, M.D., 2006. Cerebral mechanisms for understanding emotional prosody in speech. Brain Lang. 97 (2), 221-234]. However, few studies have tried to specify the precise role of the BG during emotional prosodic processing. Therefore, the current study examined deviance detection in healthy listeners and patients with left focal BG lesions during implicit emotional prosodic processing in an event-related brain potential (ERP)-experiment. In order to compare these ERP responses with explicit judgments of emotional prosody, the same participants were tested in a follow-up recognition task. As previously reported [Kotz, S.A., Paulmann, S., 2007. When emotional prosody and semantics dance cheek to cheek: ERP evidence. Brain Res. 1151, 107-118; Paulmann, S. & Kotz, S.A., 2008. An ERP investigation on the temporal dynamics of emotional prosody and emotional semantics in pseudo- and lexical sentence context. Brain Lang. 105, 59-69], deviance of prosodic expectancy elicits a right lateralized positive ERP component in healthy listeners. Here we report a similar positive ERP correlate in BG-patients and healthy controls. In contrast, BG-patients are significantly impaired in explicit recognition of emotional prosody when compared to healthy controls. The current data serve as first evidence that focal lesions in left BG do not necessarily affect implicit emotional prosodic processing but evaluative emotional prosodic processes as demonstrated in the recognition task. The results suggest that the BG may not play a mandatory role in implicit emotional prosodic processing. Rather, executive processes underlying the recognition task may be dysfunctional during emotional prosodic processing. PMID:18501336

  10. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  11. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

  12. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  13. Limiting Abnormal Mold Growth in Buildings

    E-print Network

    Graham, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    . Unfortunately, we are learning from studies of contemporary buildings that abnormal amounts of certain molds inside our buildings can adversely affect the health of humans and animals. The same conditions that support mold growth also support fungal decay...

  14. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  15. Hypertrophy of Neurons Within Cardiac Ganglia in Human, Canine, and Rat Heart Failure: The Potential Role of Nerve Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S.; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S.; Nee, Lisa M.; Wurster, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Methods and Results Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 ?m2; P<0.01) and canine hearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 ?m2; P<0.01) failing secondary to ischemia and neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 ?m2; P<0.01) failing secondary to hypertension reveal significant hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Conclusions Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia. PMID:23959444

  16. Shapes and Geometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Holmgren

    2006-10-27

    Today we will learn more about shapes. We will also have a chance to create new shapes out of the shapes we receive! First, click on Sorting. Sort the different shapes by size, color, or shape. You will have to decide which way the shapes are being sorted each time. Sort shapes five times. Next, create some Quadrilaterals. This Quadrilateral can move as you click the vertex with the mouse and move it. ...

  17. SHAPES and PATTERNS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Simpson

    2007-10-29

    Students will be working with extending a pattern, making shapes and comparing shapes! MATH IS FUN and lets have some fun with patterns! Click to begin: Making Patterns Now that we have worked with patterns, lets work on our shapes. The world is made up of shapes everywhere! Click to begin:Comparing Shapes to the Real World You have now seen that the world is full of shapes, lets make some shapes of ...

  18. Resting state EEG abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex and heterogeneous developmental disorders involving multiple neural system dysfunctions. In an effort to understand neurophysiological substrates, identify etiopathophysiologically distinct subgroups of patients, and track outcomes of novel treatments with translational biomarkers, EEG (electroencephalography) studies offer a promising research strategy in ASD. Resting-state EEG studies of ASD suggest a U-shaped profile of electrophysiological power alterations, with excessive power in low-frequency and high-frequency bands, abnormal functional connectivity, and enhanced power in the left hemisphere of the brain. In this review, we provide a summary of recent findings, discuss limitations in available research that may contribute to inconsistencies in the literature, and offer suggestions for future research in this area for advancing the understanding of ASD. PMID:24040879

  19. Inorganic-Organic Shape Memory Polymers and Foams for Bone Defect Repairs

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dawei

    2013-04-16

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a “self-fitting” shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold for the repair of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) bone defects. CMF defects may be caused by trauma, tumor removal or congenital abnormalities...

  20. Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken together, these data reveal three major correspondences between the segmental ganglia of tardigrades and arthropods, including (i) contralateral projections and commissures in each ganglion, (ii) segmentally repeated sets of immunoreactive neurons, and (iii) an anteriorly shifted (parasegmental) position of ganglia. These correspondences support the homology of segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods, suggesting that these structures were either lost in Onychophora or, alternatively, evolved in the tardigrade/arthropod lineage. PMID:24152256

  1. Extensive enteric nervous system abnormalities in mice transgenic for artificial chromosomes containing Parkinson disease-associated ?-synuclein gene mutations precede central nervous system changes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yien-Ming; Li, Zhishan; Jiao, Yun; Gaborit, Nathalie; Pani, Amar K.; Orrison, Bonnie M.; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Giasson, Benoit I.; Smeyne, Richard J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Nussbaum, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor as well as non-motor signs in the gastrointestinal tract that include dysphagia, gastroparesis, prolonged gastrointestinal transit time, constipation and difficulty with defecation. The gastrointestinal dysfunction commonly precedes the motor symptoms by decades. Most PD is sporadic and of unknown etiology, but a fraction is familial. Among familial forms of PD, a small fraction is caused by missense (A53T, A30P and E46K) and copy number mutations in SNCA which encodes ?-synuclein, a primary protein constituent of Lewy bodies, the pathognomonic protein aggregates found in neurons in PD. We set out to develop transgenic mice expressing mutant ?-synuclein (either A53T or A30P) from insertions of an entire human SNCA gene as models for the familial disease. Both the A53T and A30P lines show robust abnormalities in enteric nervous system (ENS) function and synuclein-immunoreactive aggregates in ENS ganglia by 3 months of age. The A53T line also has abnormal motor behavior but neither demonstrates cardiac autonomic abnormalities, olfactory dysfunction, dopaminergic neurotransmitter deficits, Lewy body inclusions or neurodegeneration. These animals recapitulate the early gastrointestinal abnormalities seen in human PD. The animals also serve as an in vivo system in which to investigate therapies for reversing the neurological dysfunction that target ?-synuclein toxicity at its earliest stages. PMID:20106867

  2. Colors and Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Campbell

    2012-04-04

    How do you name things by color and shape? Lets learn about shapes and colors! 1. Watch this Color Video 2. Play this Color Game 3. Complete this Color Page 4. Watch this Shape Video 5. Watch this Shape Video2 6. Play this Shape Game 7. ...

  3. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  4. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  5. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  6. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  7. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].

    PubMed

    Mladosievi?ová, B; Jurkovi?, R; Izakovi?ová Hollá, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.Key words: chemotherapy - radiotherapy - late effects - tooth abnormalities - childhood cancer The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or?services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE "uniform requirements" for biomedical papers.Submitted: 3. 3. 2014Accepted: 4. 12. 2014. PMID:25692751

  8. An abnormal pattern of multiple platelet function abnormalities and increased thromboxane generation in patients with primary thrombocytosis and thrombotic complications.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, J; Zahavi, M; Firsteter, E; Frish, B; Turleanu, R; Rachmani, R

    1991-11-01

    Platelet aggregation (PA) induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine, plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and serum TXB2 generation were studied in 11 patients with primary thrombocytosis (7 with essential thrombocythaemia and 4 with polycythaemia vera) and compared with 16 healthy subjects. 5 patients suffered from peripheral vascular ischaemia and another 3 had venous thrombosis, but none had bleeding complications. The patients showed an abnormal pattern of platelet function and of thromboxane generation distinct from the healthy subjects in three aspects. a) Shape change was 5-26 times greater, the lag-time of collagen PA was 2.3-2.9 times longer and the extent of epinephrine PA was nil or very low. ADP- or collagen-induced PA was also reduced (p less than 0.02). b) Plasma TXB2 generation (corrected to a normal platelet concentration) stimulated by the three PA inducers was within the range of the healthy subjects in spite of the reduced extent of PA. c) Plasma beta TG level and serum TXB2 generation (both corrected to a normal platelet concentration) were 2.9-7.1 times higher (p less than 0.001) indicating enhanced in vivo platelet activation and possibly increased thrombin generation. These abnormalities were not detected in another 4 patients with secondary thrombocytosis. The abnormal pattern of platelet function and thromboxane generation can be a useful laboratory method in the evaluation of patients with primary thrombocytosis. It might also explain the thrombotic complications which occurred in 8 of the patients in a manner such that increased or normal TXB2 generation overcomes the reduced extent of PA. In this respect, the pronounced serum TXB2 synthesis might be a marker of intravascular thrombosis. PMID:1836999

  9. Burst-patterned stimulation promotes nicotinic transmission in isolated perfused rat sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Birks, R I; Isacoff, E Y

    1988-08-01

    1. Intracellular recordings of small nicotinic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were made from rostral cells in superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of rats during and after test stimulation of small preganglionic fibre bundles, while perfusing the isolated ganglia via their arterial vasculature. Perfusion, in contrast to superfusion of desheathed ganglia, (a) produced much more rapid and complete equilibration of drugs and ions at synaptic sites, (b) greatly reduced depression of EPSPs during high-frequency stimulation, and (c) largely prevented slowing of conduction, presumably by minimizing accumulation of K+ in the intercellular spaces surrounding these sites. 2. Preganglionic inputs were found to fall into two major groups: those in which the EPSP amplitude during 200 pulse trains was facilitated and others in which it was depressed as stimulation frequency in the train was increased from 2 to 20 Hz or from 0.2 to 1.25 Hz. Both the facilitation and the depression were presynaptic, since they occurred without changes in miniature EPSP amplitude. 3. The maximum maintained facilitation was reached at 5-10 Hz with a value 1.26 times the 1.0 Hz control. This was associated with an increase in the binomial parameter n. While long 20 Hz trains produced a similar facilitation to an early plateau, and an increase in n, EPSP amplitude declined as the train progressed. This was associated with a decrease in the binomial parameter p. 4. Unlike the 20 Hz trains, stimulation with 0.5 s long, 20 Hz bursts given every 8 s produced a marked potentiation in facilitating units and this was maintained for as long as the stimulation was continued (3-11 min). Burst-patterned potentiation was 1.66 times larger than the facilitation evoked by tonic stimulation at the same average frequency (1.25 Hz), and more than twice that achieved with long, 200 pulse trains. The potentiation was associated with increases in both n and p in the first EPSP of the burst and mainly with an increase in n at the end of the burst. Potentiation persisted unchanged for about 30 s following the return to control 0.2 Hz stimulation, before declining to control levels over the next 2-3 min. Depressing units on average showed neither burst-patterned potentiation nor post-burst-patterned potentiation. 5. All inputs tested in Locke solution in which Ca2+ was reduced to 0.5 mM with addition of 1.2 mM-Mn2+ or 3.8 mM-MgCl2 exhibited a pronounced facilitation within each burst but no extension of potentiation into ensuing bursts. Both burst-patterned potentiation and the post-burst-patterned potentiation were abolished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2907049

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by frataxin deficiency is associated with cellular senescence and abnormal calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bolinches-Amorós, Arantxa; Mollá, Belén; Pla-Martín, David; Palau, Francesc; González-Cabo, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is considered a neurodegenerative disorder involving both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the major target tissue structures. This neuropathy is caused by mutations in the FXN gene that encodes frataxin. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial and cell consequences of frataxin depletion in a cellular model based on frataxin silencing in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line that has been used widely as in vitro models for studies on neurological diseases. We showed that the reduction of frataxin induced mitochondrial dysfunction due to a bioenergetic deficit and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the mitochondria that were associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. The depletion of frataxin did not cause cell death but increased autophagy, which may have a cytoprotective effect against cellular insults such as oxidative stress. Frataxin silencing provoked slow cell growth associated with cellular senescence, as demonstrated by increased SA-?gal activity and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. We postulate that cellular senescence might be related to a hypoplastic defect in the DRG during neurodevelopment, as suggested by necropsy studies. PMID:24860428

  11. Evidence for a serotonin-mediated slow excitatory potential in the guinea-pig coeliac ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Dun, N J; Kiraly, M; Ma, R C

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the putative transmitter(s) mediating the non-cholinergic excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) described in the preceding paper was investigated by means of electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunohistochemical methods. Serotonin (1-10 microM) when applied by superfusion caused a slow depolarization that closely mimicked the synaptic response in about 60% of the coeliac neurones that exhibited a non-cholinergic e.p.s.p. The serotonin depolarization evoked in low-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ solution or in a Krebs solution containing cholinergic antagonists was quantitatively similar to that elicited in normal Krebs solution. When compared in the same neurones the membrane resistance change during the course of the serotonin depolarization and of the non-cholinergic e.p.s.p., as well as their respective responses to conditioning polarization, were similar. The non-cholinergic e.p.s.p. was reversibly abolished during serotonin-induced depolarization; the blockade persisted when the membrane potential was restored to the resting level by hyperpolarizing current. The serotonin depolarization as well as the non-cholinergic e.p.s.p. were reversibly suppressed by cyproheptadine (20-50 microM), a serotonin antagonist, and enhanced by fluoxetine (30-50 microM), a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. On the other hand, pre-treating the ganglia with L-tryptophan (50 microM), a precursor of serotonin, preferentially augmented the synaptically induced response. A portion of the neurones (15%) were depolarized by substance P (1 microM) which also reversibly desensitized the non-cholinergic e.p.s.p. elicited in these neurones. The remaining neurones (25%) were insensitive to either serotonin or substance P, and the non-cholinergic e.p.s.p.s elicited in these cells were likewise not appreciably affected by these two agents. Furthermore, cyproheptadine, fluoxetine and L-tryptophan had no significant effect on the non-cholinergic e.p.s.p.s elicited in serotonin-insensitive neurones. Using the immunohistofluorescent techniques, dense but unevenly distributed serotonin immunoreactive nerve fibres could be observed surrounding many coeliac neurones. Immunoreactivity was not observed in the ganglia incubated with antisera pre-absorbed with excess serotonin. Collectively our results suggest that serotonin is the mediator of non-cholinergic e.p.s.p.s. elicited in about 60% of coeliac neurones sampled in this study, and that in the remaining neurones the slow depolarization may be generated by substance P and/or some unknown transmitter(s). Images Plate 1 PMID:6205146

  12. [Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reyes, G

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

  13. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  14. Electrocardiographic abnormalities associated with raised intracranial pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Jachuck, S J; Ramani, P S; Clark, F; Kalbag, R M

    1975-01-01

    Serial electrocardiographic (E.C.G.) recordings were taken in seven patients suffering from intracranial conditions, for which their intracranial pressure was directly and continuously monitored with a Konigsberg extradural transducer. The E.C.G. changes observed in patients with raised intracranial pressure were prominent U waves, ST-T segment changes, notched T waves, and shortening and prolongation of Q-T intervals. Two patients with normal intracranial pressure showed no E.C.G. abnormalities but also establish a relationship between E.C.G. abnormalities and changing intracranial pressure. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1111762

  15. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  16. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity. PMID:23066940

  17. [Research progress on hereditary fibrinogen abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Ou, Ning-Jiang; Tang, Min-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    As the most abundant component of coagulation system, fibrinogen not only takes part in clotting, but also works as one of acute phase proteins, which participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Studies of fibrinogen abnormalities contribute to understand the molecular basis of disorders of fibrinogen protein function and metabolism, caused mainly by gene mutation, commonly associated with bleeding, thrombophilia, or both. Diseases affecting fibrinogen could be classified to the acquired or inherited disease. In this review, the research progress on the molecular basis, possible action mechanism of the hereditary fibrinogen abnormalities and its clinical research are summarized. PMID:25130854

  18. The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultrafine titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

  19. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  20. Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations.

    PubMed

    Otitoloju, A A; Obe, I A; Adewale, O A; Otubanjo, O A; Osunkalu, V O

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of male mice to radiofrequency radiations from mobile phone (GSM) base stations at a workplace complex and residential quarters caused 39.78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group. Statistical analysis of sperm head abnormality score showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in occurrence of sperm head abnormalities in test animals. The major abnormalities observed were knobbed hook, pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed. PMID:19816647

  1. Estrogen receptor-a and -ß immunoreactivity and mRNA in neurons of sensory and autonomic ganglia and spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Papka; M. Storey-Workley; P. J. Shughrue; I. Merchenthaler; J. J. Collins; S. Usip; P. T. K. Saunders; M. Shupnik

    2001-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-! immunoreactivity and mRNAs are present in neurons in locales that innervate genital organs, e.g., parasympathetic pelvic autonomic ganglia, sensory dorsal root and nodose ganglia, and autonomic areas of the lumbosacral spinal cord. With the availability of probes for the #-isoform of the estrogen receptor, we studied this receptor in autonomic, sensory, and spinal cord neurons and compared it

  2. WWamide-1, -2 and -3: novel neuromodulatory peptides isolated from ganglia of the African giant snail, Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Minakata, H; Ikeda, T; Muneoka, Y; Kobayashi, M; Nomoto, K

    1993-05-24

    Three novel neuropeptides, isolated from ganglia of the African giant snail, Achatina fulica, were named WWamide-1, -2 and -3. These substances were biologically active heptapeptide amides with a Trp residue at both the N- and C-termini. WWamide-1, which displayed an inhibitory activity on a central neuron of the snail, exhibited peripherally modulatory effects on muscular contractions of not only the gut and other tissues of the snail but also certain tissues of other molluscs. PMID:8495720

  3. The perineuronal glial tissue of spinal ganglia. Quantitative changes in the rabbit from youth to extremely advanced age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Martinelli; P. Sartori; S. De Palo; M. Ledda; E. Pannese

    2006-01-01

    The volumes of the nerve cell bodies and those of the enveloping satellite cell sheaths from spinal ganglia were determined\\u000a by morphometric methods applied to electron micrographs in young, adult, old and very old rabbits. The mean volume of the\\u000a nerve cell bodies increased progressively with age; this is probably related to the increase with age of the body size

  4. Lrrk2 Localization in the Primate Basal ganglia and Thalamus: A Light and Electron Microscopic Analysis in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H.; Melrose, H.L.; Yu, M.; Pare, Jean-Francois; Farrer, M.J.; Smith, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene is a common mutation target in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the cellular mechanisms by which such mutations underlie the pathophysiology of PD remain poorly understood. Thus, to better characterize the neuronal target sites of LRRK2 mutations in the primate brain, we studied the cellular and ultrastructural localization of Lrrk2 immunoreactivity in the monkey basal ganglia. As previously described, the monkey striatum was the most enriched basal ganglia structure in Lrrk2 labeling. Both projection neurons and parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons displayed Lrrk2 immunoreactivity. At the electron microscopic level, striatal Lrrk2 labeling was associated predominantly with dendritic shafts and subsets of putative glutamatergic axon terminals. At the pallidal level, moderate cellular Lrrk2 immunostaining was found in the external globus pallidus (GPe), while neurons in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) were devoid of Lrrk2 immunoreactivity. Strong labeling was associated with cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the primate substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area harbored a significant level of Lrrk2 labeling, while neurons in the subthalamic nucleus were lightly immunostained. Most thalamic nuclei were enriched in Lrrk2 immunoreactivity, except for the centromedian nucleus that was completely devoid of labeling. Thus, Lrrk2 protein is widely distributed in the monkey basal ganglia, suggesting that gene mutations in PD may result in multifarious pathophysiological effects that could impact various target sites in the functional circuitry of the primate basal ganglia. PMID:20483355

  5. Vasogenic Edema of the Basal Ganglia after Intra-Arterial Administration of Nimodipine for Treatment of Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Kim, Eui-Jong

    2011-01-01

    The intra-arterial administration of nimodipine (IAN) is commonly used for cerebral vasospasm refractory to medical treatments. We report two cases of vasogenic edema after IAN. Our patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with vasospasm, which was treated by IAN. Consequently, vasogenic edema developed in the basal ganglia. Reperfusion following IAN for vasospasm may have the potential for inciting vasogenic edema in the ischemic brain. PMID:21519500

  6. Lack of Neurotrophin4 Causes Selective Structural and Chemical Deficits in Sympathetic Ganglia and Their Preganglionic Innervation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Roosen; Andreas Schober; Jens Strelau; Martina Bottner; Jorg Faulhaber; Gerald Bendner; Sabrina L. McIlwrath; Horst Seller; Heimo Ehmke; Gary R. Lewin; Klaus Unsicker

    2001-01-01

    Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) is perhaps the still most enigmatic mem- ber of the neurotrophin family. We show here that NT-4 is expressed in neurons of paravertebral and prevertebral sympa- thetic ganglia, i.e., the superior cervical (SCG), stellate (SG), and celiac (CG) ganglion. Mice deficient for NT-4 showed a significant reduction (20-30%) of preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the intermediolateral column (IML) of

  7. GENSAT BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines to study the functional organization of cerebral cortical and basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Gerfen, Charles R.; Paletzki, Ronald; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent development of molecular genetic techniques are rapidly advancing understanding of the functional role of brain circuits in behavior. Critical to this approach is the ability to target specific neuron populations and circuits. The collection of over 250 BAC Cre-recombinase driver lines produced by the GENSAT project provides a resource for such studies. Here we provide characterization of GENSAT BAC-Cre driver lines with expression in specific neuroanatomical pathways within the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. PMID:24360541

  8. Chronic compression of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine is associated with abnormal discharge of middle cervical ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qingguo; Jiang, Dongjie; Wang, Xinwei; Chen, Deyu; Yuan, Wen

    2014-01-01

    There are abundant sympathetic nerve fibers in cervical posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PLL in the occurrence of sympathetic symptoms. Ten healthy adult beagles were selected and anesthetized to establish a PLL compression model by C4/5 discectomy, nucleus pulposus tissue replantation, and plate internal fixation. The middle cervical ganglia (MCG) activities were recorded before modeling, shortly after modeling, and two months after modeling. The waveform parameters and spectral densities of autonomic discharge of MCG among the three periods were compared. There was significant difference only in terms of the area of waveform per unit time between before and shortly after modeling. Abnormal discharge waveforms of MCG were detected in two months after modeling. The wave amplitude and waveform area per unit time in two months after modeling were increased significantly compared with those in shortly after modeling. Functional spectral decomposition found a significant increase in 100-250 Hz in two months after modeling. In conclusion, abnormal discharge of MCG caused by chronic compression of PLL may be one of the pathological basis of sympathetic nervous symptoms. PMID:25550947

  9. Production of Plasminogen Activator in Cultures of Superior Cervical Ganglia and Isolated Schwann Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Valinsky, Jay E.

    1985-05-01

    Plasminogen activator has been implicated in tissue remodeling and cell migration during embryogenesis. In the developing nervous system, these processes are evident in the migration of neurons, axonal extension, Schwann cell migration, and the ensheathment and myelination of nerves. We have studied the production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia under conditions in which both neurons and glia are present. We have found that a principal source of the enzyme in these cultures is the glial cells and that the enzyme could not be detected at the growing tips of neurites. Plasminogen activator is also produced by Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve. The production of the enzyme by these cells is stimulated 6- to 10-fold by cholera toxin. Isolated Schwann cells and glial cells in the ganglion explant cultures produce the tissue form of plasminogen activator, a form of the enzyme not often found in nonmalignant cells. Preliminary experiments suggest that neuronal-glial interactions may regulate enzyme production by Schwann cells.

  10. Radiation Absorbed Dose to the Basal Ganglia from Dopamine Transporter Radioligand 18F-FPCIT

    PubMed Central

    Robeson, William; Dhawan, Vijay; Ma, Yilong; Bjelke, David; Margouleff, Claude; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Our previous dosimetry studies have demonstrated that for dopaminergic radiotracers, 18F-FDOPA and 18F-FPCIT, the urinary bladder is the critical organ. As these tracers accumulate in the basal ganglia (BG) with high affinity and long residence times, radiation dose to the BG may become significant, especially in normal control subjects. We have performed dynamic PET measurements using 18F-FPCIT in 16 normal adult subjects to determine if in fact the BG, although not a whole organ, but a well-defined substructure, receives the highest dose. Regions of interest were drawn over left and right BG structures. Resultant time-activity curves were generated and used to determine residence times for dosimetry calculations. S-factors were computed using the MIRDOSE3 nodule model for each caudate and putamen. For 18F-FPCIT, BG dose ranged from 0.029 to 0.069 mGy/MBq. In half of all subjects, BG dose exceeded 85% of the published critical organ (bladder) dose, and in three of those, the BG dose exceeded that for the bladder. The BG can become the dose-limiting organ in studies using dopamine transporter ligands. For some normal subjects studied with F-18 or long half-life radionuclide, the BG may exceed bladder dose and become the critical structure. PMID:25093172

  11. Mercury in the dorsal root ganglia of rats treated with inorganic or organic mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Schioenning, J.D.; Moeller-Madsen, B.; Danscher, G. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1991-10-01

    Autometallographic silver amplification has been used to demonstrate the localization of mercury deposits in rat dorsal root ganglia after repeated intraperitoneal injections of mercuric chloride or methylmercuric chloride. The silver-enhanced mercury deposits were demonstrated with the light and electron microscope. The degree of intracellular staining of the individual cells depended on the mercury compound and total dosage. Ganglion cells (types A and B) and macrophages were found to accumulate mercury after a total dosage of 400 {mu}g HgCl{sub 2}. After 600 {mu}g HgCl{sub 2}, satellite cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts were additionally found to contain mercury deposits. Treatment with 6,000 {mu}g CH{sub 3}HgCl caused faint staining of type A and B ganglion cells and fibroblasts. Macrophages, however, were the most heavily stained cells after treatment with CH{sub 3}HgCl. Ultrastructurally, mercury was exclusively located in lysosomes. This was irrespective of the cell type and mercury compound used for treatment.

  12. Localization of mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase in sensory neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Tonazzi, Annamaria; Mantovani, Cristina; Colella, Matilde; Terenghi, Giorgio; Indiveri, Cesare

    2013-12-01

    The carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter is a transport system whose function is essential for the mitochondrial ?-oxidation of fatty acids. Here, the presence of carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier (CACT) in nervous tissue and its sub-cellular localization in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons have been investigated. Western blot analysis using a polyclonal anti-CACT antibody produced in our laboratory revealed the presence of CACT in all the nervous tissue extracts analyzed. Confocal microscopy experiments performed on fixed and permeabilized DRG neurons co-stained with the anti-CACT antibody and the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker Red clearly showed a mitochondrial localization for the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter. The transport activity of CACT from DRG extracts reconstituted into liposomes was about 50 % in respect to liver extracts. The experimental data here reported represent the first direct evidence of the expression of the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter in sensory neurons, thus supporting the existence of the ?-oxidation pathway in these cells. PMID:24104610

  13. Technical Integration of Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia and Physical Models for Spatial Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Charles; Humphries, Mark; Mitchinson, Ben; Kiss, Tamas; Somogyvari, Zoltan; Prescott, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Computational neuroscience is increasingly moving beyond modeling individual neurons or neural systems to consider the integration of multiple models, often constructed by different research groups. We report on our preliminary technical integration of recent hippocampal formation, basal ganglia and physical environment models, together with visualisation tools, as a case study in the use of Python across the modelling tool-chain. We do not present new modeling results here. The architecture incorporates leaky-integrator and rate-coded neurons, a 3D environment with collision detection and tactile sensors, 3D graphics and 2D plots. We found Python to be a flexible platform, offering a significant reduction in development time, without a corresponding significant increase in execution time. We illustrate this by implementing a part of the model in various alternative languages and coding styles, and comparing their execution times. For very large-scale system integration, communication with other languages and parallel execution may be required, which we demonstrate using the BRAHMS framework's Python bindings. PMID:19333376

  14. Emotional Speech Perception Unfolding in Time: The Role of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Paulmann, Silke; Ott, Derek V. M.; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) have repeatedly been linked to emotional speech processing in studies involving patients with neurodegenerative and structural changes of the BG. However, the majority of previous studies did not consider that (i) emotional speech processing entails multiple processing steps, and the possibility that (ii) the BG may engage in one rather than the other of these processing steps. In the present study we investigate three different stages of emotional speech processing (emotional salience detection, meaning-related processing, and identification) in the same patient group to verify whether lesions to the BG affect these stages in a qualitatively different manner. Specifically, we explore early implicit emotional speech processing (probe verification) in an ERP experiment followed by an explicit behavioral emotional recognition task. In both experiments, participants listened to emotional sentences expressing one of four emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness) or neutral sentences. In line with previous evidence patients and healthy controls show differentiation of emotional and neutral sentences in the P200 component (emotional salience detection) and a following negative-going brain wave (meaning-related processing). However, the behavioral recognition (identification stage) of emotional sentences was impaired in BG patients, but not in healthy controls. The current data provide further support that the BG are involved in late, explicit rather than early emotional speech processing stages. PMID:21437277

  15. Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baojuan; Friston, Karl J.; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guopeng; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yao, Shuqiao; Lu, Hongbing; Hu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the neural basis of poor impulse control in Internet addiction (IA) is important for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of this syndrome. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways implicated in response inhibition were affected in IA using a Go-Stop paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three control subjects aged 15.2 ± 0.5 years (mean ± S.D.) and eighteen IA subjects aged 15.1 ± 1.4 years were studied. Effective connectivity within the response inhibition network was quantified using (stochastic) dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed that the indirect frontal-basal ganglia pathway was engaged by response inhibition in healthy subjects. However, we did not detect any equivalent effective connectivity in the IA group. This suggests the IA subjects fail to recruit this pathway and inhibit unwanted actions. This study provides a clear link between Internet addiction as a behavioral disorder and aberrant connectivity in the response inhibition network. PMID:24848380

  16. Eyes on MEGDEL: Distinctive Basal Ganglia Involvement in Dystonia Deafness Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Bari?, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Kalkan Ucar, Sema; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings. PMID:25642805

  17. Neurocomputational models of basal ganglia function in learning, memory and choice

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael X; Frank, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are critical for the coordination of several motor, cognitive, and emotional functions and become dysfunctional in several pathological states ranging from Parkinson's disease to Schizophrenia. Here we review principles developed within a neurocomputational framework of BG and related circuitry which provide insights into their functional roles in behavior. We focus on two classes of models: those that incorporate aspects of biological realism and constrained by functional principles, and more abstract mathematical models focusing on the higher level computational goals of the BG. While the former are arguably more “realistic”, the latter have a complementary advantage in being able to describe functional principles of how the system works in a relatively simple set of equations, but are less suited to making specific hypotheses about the roles of specific nuclei and neurophysiological processes. We review the basic architecture and assumptions of these models, their relevance to our understanding of the neurobiological and cognitive functions of the BG, and provide an update on the potential roles of biological details not explicitly incorporated in existing models. Empirical studies ranging from those in transgenic mice to dopaminergic manipulation, deep brain stimulation, and genetics in humans largely support model predictions and provide the basis for further refinement. Finally, we discuss possible future directions and possible ways to integrate different types of models. PMID:18950662

  18. Reduced basal ganglia function when elderly switch between coordinated movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Van Impe, Annouchka; De Vos, Jeroen; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2010-10-01

    Structural and neurochemical changes in frontostriatal circuits are thought to underlie age-related behavioral deficits on cognitive tasks. Here, we test the hypothesis that age-related motor switching deficits are associated with reduced basal ganglia (BG) function. Right-handed volunteers (15 Old, and 15 Young) made spatially and temporally coupled bimanual circular motions during event-related FMRI. A visual cue signaled the right hand to Switch or Continue its circling direction. Switching from mirror symmetric to asymmetric (SW»ASYMM) took longer and resulted in more contralateral (left-) hand disruptions than vice versa. These effects were more pronounced in the elderly, showing that the ability to suppress and flexibly adapt motor behavior (agility) declines with age. For both groups, switching activated the BG and a typical network for task-set implementation, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, SMA-proper) and anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus. A region of interest analysis revealed significantly reduced SW»ASYMM activation in bilateral subthalamic nucleus and right globus pallidus, only in the elderly. Age-related behavioral deficits may be related to inefficient recruitment of cortico-BG loops to suppress undesired movements. The elderly may use an alternative strategy to select the required movement pattern as indicated by increased activation of prefrontal cortex. PMID:20080932

  19. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Leah A.; Hlaing, Su M.; Gutierrez, Richard A.; Sanchez, Maria D.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N.; Ferrini, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) ?, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF?1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

  20. [Traumatic hematoma in the basal ganglia (caudate) with favorable prognosis: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Sobata, E; Suzuki, S; Nonogaki, Y; Iwabuchi, T

    1994-02-01

    Two cases of traumatic basal ganglial hematoma with fairly good prognosis were reported. Several cases with similarly favorable prognosis could be also found in the recent literature. In these cases, post-traumatic disturbance in consciousness was mostly slight or moderate and the patients were rarely comatose. The inquiries in these cases were commonly associated with superficial injuries such as skull fracture, epi-or sub-dural hematoma, brain contusion, or another traumatic ICH. The hematomas in the basal ganglia usually showed a mass effect causing focal neurological signs such as hemiparesis. Neurological improvement was achieved in the operated cases, and final outcome was mostly fair with some fully recovered cases. These clinical features are quite different from those of most cases of traumatic basal ganglial hematoma reported so far, which closely resemble diffuse axonal injury and whose prognoses are extremely poor. There may be two different categories in the traumatic basal ganglial hematomas, those with fair outcomes, and those with poor outcomes. PMID:8115011

  1. The unifying articular (synovial) origin of intraneural ganglia: evolution-revelation-revolution.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2009-10-01

    The pathogenesis of intraneural ganglia has been an issue of curiosity, controversy, and contention for 200 years. Three major theories have been proposed to explain their existence, namely, 1) degenerative, 2) synovial (articular), and 3) tumoral theories, each of which only partially explains the observations made by a number of investigators. As a result, differing operative strategies have been described; these generally meet with incomplete neurological recoveries and high rates of recurrence. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging and critical analysis of the literature have clarified the mechanisms underlying the formation and propagation of these cysts, thereby confirming the unifying articular (synovial) theory. By identifying the shared features of the typical cases and explaining atypical examples or clinical outliers, several fundamental principles have been described. These include: 1) a joint origin; 2) dissection of fluid from that joint along an articular nerve branch, extension occurring via a path of least resistance; and 3) cyst size, extent, and directionality being influenced by pressures and pressure fluxes. We believe that understanding the pathogenesis of these cysts will be reflected in optimal surgical approaches, improved outcomes, and decreased frequency, if not elimination, of recurrences. This article describes the ongoing process of critically analyzing and challenging previous observations and evidence in an effort to prove a concept and a theory. PMID:19927056

  2. The functional connectivity of intralaminar thalamic nuclei in the human basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Llanos, Catalina; Morales, Ingrid; Garcia-Alvarez, Roberto; Sabate, Magdalena; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the centromedian-parafasicularis neurons of the intralaminar thalamus are major inputs of the striatum. Their functional role in the activity of human basal ganglia (BG) is not well known. The aim of this work was to study the functional connectivity of intralaminar thalamic nuclei with other BG by using the correlations of the BOLD signal recorded during "resting" and a motor task. Intralaminar nuclei showed a marked functional connectivity with all the tested BG, which was observed during "resting" and did not change with the motor task. As regards the intralaminar nuclei, BG connectivity was much lower for the medial dorsal nucleus (a thalamic nucleus bordering the intralaminar nuclei) and for the default mode network (although intralaminar nuclei showed a negative correlation with the default mode network). After the "regression" of intralaminar nuclei activity (partial correlation), the functional connectivity of the caudate and putamen nuclei with other BG decreased (but not with the primary sensorimotor cortex). Present data provide evidence that intralaminar nuclei are not only critical for striatal activity but also for the global performance of human BG, an action involving subcortical BG loops more than cortico-subcortical loops. The high correlation found between BG suggest that, similarly to that reported in other brain centers, the very-slow frequency fluctuations are relevant for the functional activity of these centers. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1335-1347, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25429921

  3. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Mushahwar, V. K.; Stein, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach. In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the DRG. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modelled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main results. Overall, firing-rate-based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48 ± 13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance. Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development.

  4. Painful nerve injury upregulates thrombospondin-4 expression in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Yu, Hongwei; Park, John; Yu, Yanhui Peter; Luo, Z David; Hogan, Quinn H

    2015-03-01

    Thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) belongs to a family of large, oligomeric extracellular matrix glycoproteins that mediate interactions between cells and interactions of cells with underlying matrix components. Recent evidence shows that TSP4 might contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. However, there has been no systematic examination of TSP4 expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after injury. This study, therefore, investigates whether TSP4 protein level is changed in DRG after injury following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and spared nerve injury in rats by performing Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry. After nerve ligation, TSP4 protein level is upregulated in the axotomized somata of the fifth lumbar (L5) DRG. There is substantial additional TSP4 in the nonneuronal compartment of the L5 DRG that does not costain for markers of satellite glia, microglia, or Schwann cells and appears to be in the interstitial space. Evidence of intracellular overexpression of TSP4 persists in neurons dissociated from the L5 DRG after SNL. These findings indicate that, following peripheral nerve injury, TSP4 protein expression is elevated in the cytoplasm of axotomized sensory neurons and in the surrounding interstitial space. PMID:25327416

  5. Role of Beta-Arrestin 2 Downstream of Dopamine Receptors in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Del’Guidice, Thomas; Lemasson, Morgane; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multifunctional scaffolding protein beta-arrestins (?Arr) and the G protein-receptor kinases are involved in the desensitization of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). However, arrestins can also contribute to GPCR signaling independently from G proteins. In this review, we focus on the role of ?Arr in the regulation of dopamine receptor functions in the striatum. First, we present in vivo evidence supporting a role for these proteins in the regulation of dopamine receptor desensitization. Second, we provide an overview of the roles of ?Arr2 in the regulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases/MAP kinases and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathways downstream of the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Thereafter, we examine the possible involvement of ?Arr-mediated signaling in the action of dopaminergic drugs used for the treatment of mental disorders. Finally, we focus on different potential cellular proteins regulated by ?Arr-mediated signaling which could contribute to the regulation of behavioral responses to dopamine. Overall, the identification of a cell signaling function for ?Arr downstream of dopamine receptors underscores the intricate complexity of the intertwined mechanisms regulating and mediating cell signaling in the basal ganglia. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to a better comprehension of the several roles played by these structures in the regulation of mood and to the development of new psychoactive drugs having better therapeutic efficacy. PMID:21922001

  6. Electrophysiology of Basal Ganglia and Cortex in Models of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ellens, Damien J.; Leventhal, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete understanding of the systems-level pathophysiology of Parkinson Disease (PD) remains a significant barrier to improving its treatment. Substantial progress has been made, however, due to the availability of neurotoxins that selectively target monoaminergic (in particular, dopaminergic) neurons. This review discusses the in vivo electrophysiology of basal ganglia (BG), thalamic, and cortical regions after dopamine-depleting lesions. These include firing rate changes, neuronal burst-firing, neuronal oscillations, and neuronal synchrony that result from a combination of local microanatomic changes and network-level interactions. While much is known of the clinical and electrophysiological phenomenology of dopamine loss, a critical gap in our conception of PD pathophysiology is the link between them. We discuss potential mechanisms by which these systems-level electrophysiological changes may emerge, as well as how they may relate to clinical parkinsonism. Proposals for an updated understanding of BG function are reviewed, with an emphasis on how emerging frameworks will guide future research into the pathophysiology and treatment of PD. PMID:23948994

  7. Emotional speech perception unfolding in time: the role of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Ott, Derek V M; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) have repeatedly been linked to emotional speech processing in studies involving patients with neurodegenerative and structural changes of the BG. However, the majority of previous studies did not consider that (i) emotional speech processing entails multiple processing steps, and the possibility that (ii) the BG may engage in one rather than the other of these processing steps. In the present study we investigate three different stages of emotional speech processing (emotional salience detection, meaning-related processing, and identification) in the same patient group to verify whether lesions to the BG affect these stages in a qualitatively different manner. Specifically, we explore early implicit emotional speech processing (probe verification) in an ERP experiment followed by an explicit behavioral emotional recognition task. In both experiments, participants listened to emotional sentences expressing one of four emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness) or neutral sentences. In line with previous evidence patients and healthy controls show differentiation of emotional and neutral sentences in the P200 component (emotional salience detection) and a following negative-going brain wave (meaning-related processing). However, the behavioral recognition (identification stage) of emotional sentences was impaired in BG patients, but not in healthy controls. The current data provide further support that the BG are involved in late, explicit rather than early emotional speech processing stages. PMID:21437277

  8. Sex differences in mu opioid receptor expression in trigeminal ganglia under a myositis condition in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Asgar, J; Niu, KY; Lee, J; Lee, KS; Schneider, M; Ro, JY

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral opioid receptor expression is up-regulated under inflammatory conditions, which leads to the increased efficacy of peripherally administered opioids. Sex differences in the effects of inflammation, cytokines and gonadal hormones on ?–opioid receptor (MOR) expression in trigeminal ganglia (TG) are not well understood. Methods MOR mRNA and protein levels in TG from male and female Sprague Dawley rats following complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced muscle inflammation were assessed. Cytokine-induced changes in MOR mRNA expression from TG cultures prepared from intact and gonadectomized male and female, and gonadectomzed male rats with testosterone replacement were examined. Behavioral experiments were then performed to examine the efficacy of a peripherally administered MOR agonist in male, female and gonadectomized male rats under a myositis condition. Results CFA and cytokine treatments induced significant up-regulation of MOR expression in TG from male, but not from female, rats. The cytokine-induced up-regulation of MOR mRNA expression was prevented in TG from orchidectomized (GDX) male rats, which was restored with testosterone replacement. Peripherally administered DAMGO, a specific MOR agonist, significantly attenuated CFA-induced masseter mechanical hypersensitivity only in intact male rats. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that testosterone plays a key role in the regulation of MOR in TG under inflammatory conditions, and that sex differences in the anti-hyperalgesic effects of peripherally administered opioids are, in part, mediated by peripheral opioid receptor expression levels. PMID:23801566

  9. NEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and

    E-print Network

    of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimedNEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and Connectivity in Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Words: ADHD, amygdala, effective connectivity, fear, stimulant medication A lthough attention-deficit/hyperactivity

  10. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  11. Emergency Abnormal Conditions Animals on Campus

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    , but they are best left alone for your and their protection. In general, a healthy "wild" animal will make every1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Animals on Campus a. Domestic Animals on Campus. For reasons of safety, health and sanitation, domestic animals (pets) are not allowed inside Institute buildings

  12. Abnormal visual phenomena in posterior cortical atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian J. Crutch; Manja Lehmann; Nikos Gorgoraptis; Diego Kaski; Natalie Ryan; Masud Husain; Elizabeth K. Warrington

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) report a host of unusual and poorly explained visual disturbances. This preliminary report describes a single patient (CRO), and documents and investigates abnormally prolonged colour afterimages (concurrent and prolonged perception of colours complimentary to the colour of an observed stimulus), perceived motion of static stimuli, and better reading of small than large letters. We

  13. Abnormalities of cingulate gyrus neuroanatomy in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Wang; Malini Hosakere; Joshua C. L. Trein; Alex Miller; J. Tilak Ratnanather; Deanna M. Barch; Paul A. Thompson; Anqi Qiu; Mokhtar H. Gado; Michael I. Miller; John G. Csernansky

    2007-01-01

    Objective and methodsAbnormalities of the neuroanatomy of the gray matter of the cingulate gyrus, especially its anterior segment, have been suggested to be an important characteristic of schizophrenia. In this study, T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected in 53 individuals with schizophrenia and 68 comparison subjects matched for age, gender, race and parental socioeconomic status. We applied Labeled Cortical Mantle

  14. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Leaf; Jon Dorling; Steve Kempley; Kenny McCormick; Paul Mannix; Peter Brocklehurst

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late

  15. PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

  16. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Influence of Cerebral Palsy Subtype, Age, and Previous Surgery Tishya A. L. Wren, PhD,* Susan Rethlefsen, PT. These findings provide important information for counsel- ing ambulatory children with cerebral palsy

  18. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  19. Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood

    E-print Network

    Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders: Similarities in schizophrenia. This work has led to an increased emphasis on identifying and evaluating treatments that enhance cognition in schizophrenia, with the hope that this would translate into a better quality of life

  20. Renal Abnormalities in Psoriatic Patients: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Heuvels; A. Maximus; J. L. Bosmans; J. Lambert; M. E. De Broe

    1999-01-01

    Numerous systemic diseases affect both skin and kidneys: autoimmune diseases (e.g. lupus, vasculitis), hematologic abnormalities, genetic disorders and others have been described (table 1). Although psoriasis is considered an immunomediated disease, it is assumed to affect the skin and joints exclusively. Psoriasis [1] is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin, which affects more than 2% of people with

  1. Abnormal vasculature in intestinal neuronal dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo Rolle; Anna Piaseczna Piotrowska; Prem Puri

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is an intestinal motility disorder, which clinically resembles Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Adventitial fibromuscular dysplasia (AFMD) consists of proliferation of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in the adventitia of blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to investigate vascular abnormalities in large bowel biopsies from patients with isolated HD, IND associated with HD and isolated

  2. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  3. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N=39 and N=15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  4. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

    2000-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap Test: A test in ... document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  6. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  7. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  8. Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

  9. Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

  10. Post-stimulus potentiation of transmission in pelvic ganglia enhances sympathetic dilatation of guinea-pig uterine artery in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morris, Judy L; Gibbins, Ian L; Jobling, Phillip

    2005-07-01

    Vasodilatation produced by stimulation of preganglionic neurones in lumbar and sacral pathways to pelvic ganglia was studied using an in vitro preparation of guinea-pig uterine artery and associated nerves in a partitioned bath allowing selective drug application to the ganglia or artery. Arterial diameter was monitored using real time video imaging. Vasodilatations produced by hypogastric nerve stimulation (HN; 300 pulses, 10 Hz) were significantly larger and longer in duration than with pelvic nerve stimulation (N = 18). Stimulation of ipsilateral lumbar splanchnic nerves or ipsilateral third lumbar ventral roots also produced prolonged vasodilatations. Blockade of ganglionic nicotinic receptors (0.1-1 mM hexamethonium) delayed the onset and sometimes reduced the peak amplitude of dilatations, but slow dilatations persisted in 16 of 18 preparations. These dilatations were not reduced further by 3 microM capsaicin applied to the artery and ganglia, or ganglionic application of 1 microM hyoscine, 30-100 microM suramin or 10 microM CNQX. Dilatations were reduced slightly by ganglionic application of NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists (SR140333, SR142801; 1 microM), but were reduced significantly by bathing the ganglia in 0.5 mM Ca2+ and 10 mM Mg2+. Intracellular recordings of paracervical ganglion neurones revealed fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in all neurones on HN stimulation (300 pulses, 10 Hz), and slow EPSPs (3-12 mV amplitude) in 25 of 37 neurones. Post-stimulus action potential discharge associated with slow EPSPs occurred in 16 of 37 neurones (firing rate 9.4 +/- 1.5 Hz). Hexamethonium (0.1-1 mM) abolished fast EPSPs. Hexamethonium and hyoscine (1 microM) did not reduce slow EPSPs and associated post-stimulus firing in identified vasodilator neurones (with VIP immunoreactivity) or non-vasodilator paracervical neurones. These results demonstrate a predominantly sympathetic origin of autonomic pathways producing pelvic vasodilatation in females. Non-cholinergic mediators of slow transmission in pelvic ganglia produce prolonged firing of postganglionic neurones and long-lasting dilatations of the uterine artery. This mechanism would facilitate maintenance of pelvic vasodilatation on stimulation of preganglionic neurones during sexual activity. PMID:15802294

  11. Sequential synaptic excitation and inhibition shape readiness discharge for voluntary behavior.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Katsushi; Takahata, Masakazu

    2011-04-15

    How do animals initiate voluntary behavior? A key phenomenon in neuroscience is the readiness or preparatory neural activity in specific regions of the animal brain. The neurons and synaptic mechanisms mediating this activity are unknown. We found that the readiness discharge is shaped by sequential synaptic excitation and inhibition in the brain of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). The readiness discharge neurons extended axon collaterals that appeared to activate recurring local interneurons. Therefore, we propose that the readiness discharge is formed by sequential synaptic events within the brain without feedback signals from downstream ganglia. The circuit involved is suited for signal processing for self-generated voluntary initiation of behavior. PMID:21493864

  12. TESTING BASAL GANGLIA MOTOR FUNCTIONS THROUGH REVERSIBLE INACTIVATIONS IN THE POSTERIOR INTERNAL GLOBUS PALLIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Desmurget, M.; Turner, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    To test current hypotheses on the contribution of the basal ganglia (BG) to motor control, we examined the effects of muscimol-induced inactivations in the skeletomotor region of the internal globus pallidus (sGPi) on visually-directed reaching. Injections were made in 2 monkeys trained to perform four out-and-back reaching movements in quick succession toward four randomly-selected target locations. Following sGPi inactivations: (1) Peak velocity and acceleration were decreased in nearly all sessions whereas movement duration lengthened inconsistently. (2) Reaction times were unaffected on average, although minor changes were observed in several individual sessions. (3) Outward reaches showed a substantial hypometria that correlated closely with bradykinesia, but directional accuracy was unaffected. (4) End-point accuracy was preserved for the slow visually-guided return movements. (5) No impairments were found in the rapid chaining of out-and-back movements, in the selection or initiation of four independent reaches in quick succession, or in the quick on-line correction of initially mis-directed reaches. (6) Inactivation-induced reductions in the magnitude of movement-related muscle activity (EMG) correlated with the severity of slowing and hypometria. There was no evidence for inactivation-induced alterations in the relative timing of EMG bursts, excessive co-contraction, or impaired suppression of antagonist EMG. Therefore, disconnecting the BG motor pathway consistently produced bradykinesia and hypometria, but seldom affected movement initiation time, feedback-mediated guidance, the capacity to produce iterative reaches, or the ability to abruptly reverse movement direction. These results are discussed with reference to the idea that the BG motor loop may regulate energetic expenditures during movement (i.e., movement “vigor”). PMID:18077663

  13. Neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, vasculopathic changes, intracerebral granulomas and basal ganglia infarction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. Case presentation A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%), high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G positivity by standard tube agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (the tests had been negative until that day). He was treated successfully with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, doxycyline and rifampicin for six months. Conclusions Our patient illustrates the importance of suspecting brucellosis as a cause of meningoencephalitis, even if cultures and serological tests are negative at the beginning of the disease. As a result, in patients who have a history of residence or travel to endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurologic symptoms. If initial tests fail, repetition of these tests at appropriate intervals along with complementary investigations are indicated. PMID:20973948

  14. Side of basal ganglia degeneration influences freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Silveira, Carolina R A; Jones, Jeffery A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-04-01

    Although the role of hemispheric laterality in freezing of gait (FOG) remains a topic of debate, important new evidence has suggested that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) who experience freezing of gait (PD-FOG) may have decreased activity in the circuitry of the right fronto-parietal cortices, irrespective of the side of basal ganglia (BG) degeneration. Because the right hemisphere plays an important role in monitoring sensorimotor information during movements, and cortical regions interact with BG loops, one could expect that right cortical dysfunction in PD-FOG might be exacerbated by right sided BG damage (compared to left). The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of asymmetrical BG degeneration on self-paced gait in PD-FOG and PD-nonFOG. This study compared gait performance in predominantly left- or right-side affected PD patients with or without freezing of gait (LFOG = 11, RFOG = 10, LPD = 15, RPD = 11). Participants were instructed to walk 10m on a GaitRite® carpet. As expected, gait parameters in PD-FOG were worse compared to PD-nonFOG. The spatiotemporal aspects of gait did not differ between LPD and RPD (nonFOG patients). Contrary to our hypothesis, RFOG (predominantly right side symptoms) had a shorter step length, increased step time variability and tended to walk slower compared with LFOG. Thus, rather than severely impaired right hemisphere circuitries exacerbating gait impairments, worse gait may be a consequence of both hemispheres being affected in PD-FOG. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25730121

  15. Prolonged sympathetic innervation of sensory neurons in rat thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglia during chronic colitis

    PubMed Central

    XIA, C.-M.; COLOMB, D. G.; AKBARALI, H. I.; QIAO, L.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral irritation-induced sensory plasticity may involve catecholaminergic innervation of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Methods Catecholaminergic fiber outgrowth in the thoracolumbar DRG (T13-L2) was examined by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining, or by sucrosepotassium phosphate-glyoxylic acid histofluorescence method. TH level was examined by Western blot. Colonic afferent neurons were labeled by retrograde neuronal tracing. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Key Results The catecholaminergic fibers formed ‘basket-like’ structures around the DRG cells. At 7 days following TNBS treatment, the number of DRG neurons surrounded by TH-immunoreactive fibers and the protein levels of TH were significantly increased in T13, L1, and L2 DRGs (two- to threefold, P < 0.05). The DRG neurons that were surrounded by TH immunoreactivity were 200 kDa neurofilament-positive, but not isolectin IB4-positve or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive. The TH-immunoreactive fibers did not surround but adjoin the specifically labeled colonic afferent neurons, and was co-localized with glial marker S-100. Comparison of the level of TH and the severity of colonic inflammation showed that following TNBS treatment, the degree of colonic inflammation was most severe at day 3, subsided at day 7, and significantly recovered by day 21. However, the levels of TH in T13-L2 DRGs were increased at both 3 days and 7 days post TNBS treatment and persisted up to 21 days (two- to fivefold increase, P < 0.05) as examined. Conclusions & Inferences Colonic inflammation induced prolonged catecholaminergic innervation of sensory neurons, which may have relevance to colitis-induced chronic visceral hypersensitivity and/or referred pain. PMID:21605284

  16. Lack of depotentiation at basal ganglia output neurons in PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Prescott, I A; Liu, L D; Dostrovsky, J O; Hodaie, M; Lozano, A M; Hutchison, W D

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease which produces bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-Dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of PD signs and symptoms, but long-term administration can lead to disabling motor fluctuations and L-Dopa-induced dyskinesias. In animal models of PD, a form of plasticity called depotentiation, or the reversal of previous potentiation, is selectively lost after the development of dyskinetic movements following L-Dopa treatment. We investigated whether low frequency stimulation (LFS) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) could induce depotentiation at synapses that had already undergone high frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced potentiation. To do so, we measured the field potentials (fEPs) evoked by stimulation from a nearby microelectrode in 28 patients undergoing implantation of deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or GPi. We found that GPi and SNr synapses in patients with less severe dyskinesia underwent greater depotentiation following LFS than in patients with more severe dyskinesia. This demonstration of impaired depotentiation in basal ganglia output nuclei in PD patients with dyskinesia is an important validation of animal models of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The ability of a synapse to reverse previous potentiation may be crucial to the normal function of the BG, perhaps by preventing saturation of the storage capacity required in motor learning and optimal motor function. Loss of this ability at the output nuclei may underlie, or contribute to the cellular basis of dyskinetic movements. PMID:25116960

  17. Developmental changes in the organization of functional connections between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Greene, Deanna J; Laumann, Timothy O; Dubis, Joseph W; Ihnen, S Katie; Neta, Maital; Power, Jonathan D; Pruett, John R; Black, Kevin J; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2014-04-23

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise a set of subcortical nuclei with sensorimotor, cognitive, and limbic subdivisions, indicative of functional organization. BG dysfunction in several developmental disorders suggests the importance of the healthy maturation of these structures. However, few studies have investigated the development of BG functional organization. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), we compared human child and adult functional connectivity of the BG with rs-fcMRI-defined cortical systems. Because children move more than adults, customized preprocessing, including volume censoring, was used to minimize motion-induced rs-fcMRI artifact. Our results demonstrated functional organization in the adult BG consistent with subdivisions previously identified in anatomical tracing studies. Group comparisons revealed a developmental shift in bilateral posterior putamen/pallidum clusters from preferential connectivity with the somatomotor "face" system in childhood to preferential connectivity with control/attention systems (frontoparietal, ventral attention) in adulthood. This shift was due to a decline in the functional connectivity of these clusters with the somatomotor face system over development, and no change with control/attention systems. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, we were able to reliably classify individuals as children or adults based on BG-cortical system functional connectivity. Interrogation of the features driving this classification revealed, in addition to the somatomotor face system, contributions by the orbitofrontal, auditory, and somatomotor hand systems. These results demonstrate that BG-cortical functional connectivity evolves over development, and may lend insight into developmental disorders that involve BG dysfunction, particularly those involving motor systems (e.g., Tourette syndrome). PMID:24760844

  18. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  19. Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia and related structures

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Temel, Yasin; Roebroeck, Alard; Uluda?, Kâmil; Ivanov, Dimo; Kuijf, Mark L.; ter Haar Romenij, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for Parkinson's disease and other related disorders, involving the surgical placement of electrodes in the deeply situated basal ganglia or thalamic structures. Good clinical outcome requires accurate targeting. However, due to limited visibility of the target structures on routine clinical MR images, direct targeting of structures can be challenging. Non-clinical MR scanners with ultra-high magnetic field (7T or higher) have the potential to improve the quality of these images. This technology report provides an overview of the current possibilities of visualizing deep brain stimulation targets and their related structures with the aid of ultra-high field MRI. Reviewed studies showed improved resolution, contrast- and signal-to-noise ratios at ultra-high field. Sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility such as T2* and susceptibility weighted imaging and their maps in general showed the best visualization of target structures, including a separation between the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra, the lamina pallidi medialis and lamina pallidi incompleta within the globus pallidus and substructures of the thalamus, including the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). This shows that the visibility, identification, and even subdivision of the small deep brain stimulation targets benefit from increased field strength. Although ultra-high field MR imaging is associated with increased risk of geometrical distortions, it has been shown that these distortions can be avoided or corrected to the extent where the effects are limited. The availability of ultra-high field MR scanners for humans seems to provide opportunities for a more accurate targeting for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders. PMID:25414656

  20. Basal Ganglia Disorders Associated with Imbalances in the Striatal Striosome and Matrix Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Jill R.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny striatal projection neurons (MSNs) that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles, and input–output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include (1) those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, (2) those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and (3) those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input–output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia, and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in these disorders. PMID:21941467

  1. Volumetric Changes in the Basal Ganglia After Antipsychotic Monotherapy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebdrup, B.H; Nørbak, H; Borgwardt, S; Glenthøj, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to antipsychotic medication has been extensively associated with structural brain changes in the basal ganglia (BG). Traditionally antipsychotics have been divided into first and second generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) however, the validity of this classification has become increasingly controversial. To address if specific antipsychotics induce differential effects on BG volumes or whether volumetric effects are explained by FGA or SGA classification, we reviewed longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigating effects of antipsychotic monotherapy. Material and Methods: We systematically searched PubMed for longitudinal MRI studies of patients with schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis who had undergone a period of antipsychotic monotherapy. We used specific, predefined search terms and extracted studies were hand searched for additional studies. Results: We identified 13 studies published in the period from 1996 to 2011. Overall six compounds (two classified as FGAs and four as SGAs) have been investigated: haloperidol, zuclophentixol, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine, and quetiapine. The follow-up period ranged from 3-24 months. Unexpectedly, no studies found that specific FGAs induce significant BG volume increases. Conversely, both volumetric increases and decreases in the BG have been associated with SGA monotherapy. Discussion: Induction of striatal volume increases is not a specific feature of FGAs. Except for clozapine treatment in chronic patients, volume reductions are not restricted to specific SGAs. The current review adds brain structural support to the notion that antipsychotics should no longer be classified as either FGAs or SGAs. Future clinical MRI studies should strive to elucidate effects of specific antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23157636

  2. A map of distal leg motor neurons in the thoracic ganglia of four decapod crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Faulkes, Z; Paul, D H

    1997-01-01

    We describe the numbers, central positions, and axonal exit routes of the distal leg motor neurons of four decapod species: squat lobsters (Munida quadrispina), spiny sand crabs (Blepharipoda occidentalis), mole sand crabs (Emerita analoga), and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). As predicted by previous physiological and anatomical identification of axons at the periphery in crayfish and lobsters, cobalt backfills reveal about seventeen cell bodies, which are found in four areas in the ganglion. By comparing their positions and neurite morphologies with the previously identified neurons, functional identifications could be assigned to most of them. The common inhibitor and stretcher inhibitor are located posterior-medial. An anterior-lateral cluster of about twelve somata includes the opener identical to stretcher excitor, one of two bender excitors (bender excitor alpha), four flexor excitors, and two excitors each to the extensor, reductor, and closer muscles. Three cell bodies are posterior-lateral. Of these, the opener inhibitor and the second bender excitor (bender excitor beta) are on about the same dorsoventral plane. The third posterior-lateral cell, the accessory flexor excitor, is noticeably more dorsal than the other two posterior-lateral cell bodies. The reductor muscle is innervated by at least three neurons: the putative common inhibitor and fast and slow excitors. None of the leg motor neurons project into the contralateral hemiganglion. The most variable feature across species is the nerve through which motor axons exit the ganglion: axons leave the ganglia via different routes in each of the four species examined. These differences in the axons' pathway, however, are insufficient to explain the differences in motor output and behaviour of these four species. PMID:9063594

  3. The role of dorsal root ganglia activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenjun; Frost, Emma E; Begum, Farhana; Vora, Parvez; Au, Kelvin; Gong, Yuewen; MacNeil, Brian; Pillai, Prakash; Namaka, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by focal destruction of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of the disease are unknown. Many studies have shown that MS is predominantly an autoimmune disease with an inflammatory phase followed by a demyelinating phase. Recent studies alongside current treatment strategies, including glatiramer acetate, have revealed a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MS. However, the exact role of BDNF is not fully understood. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in adolescent female Lewis rats to identify the role of BDNF in disease progression. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were harvested for protein and gene expression analysis every 3 days post-disease induction (pdi) up to 15 days. We show significant increases in BDNF protein and gene expression in the DRG of EAE animals at 12 dpi, which correlates with peak neurological disability. BDNF protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly increased at 12 dpi, and maintained at 15 dpi. However, there was no significant change in mRNA levels. We show evidence for the anterograde transport of BDNF protein from the DRG to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. Increased levels of BDNF within the DRG and spinal cord in EAE may facilitate myelin repair and neuroprotection in the CNS. The anterograde transport of DRG-derived BDNF to the spinal cord may have potential implications in facilitating central myelin repair and neuroprotection. PMID:22050733

  4. Age-related gene expression analysis in enteric ganglia of human colon after laser microdissection

    PubMed Central

    Hetz, Susan; Acikgoez, Ali; Moll, Corinna; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Robitzki, Andrea A.; Metzger, Roman; Metzger, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) poses the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a critical role for all stages of postnatal life. There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in acquired or age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions that can be manifested in diseases such as gut constipation or fecal incontinence. In this study, we sought to analyze age-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of the human ENS, particularly in the myenteric plexus. Therefore, we used the laser microdissection technique which has been proven as a feasible tool to analyze distinct cell populations within heterogeneously composed tissues. Full biopsy gut samples were prepared from children (4–12 months), middle aged (48–58 years) and aged donors (70–95 years). Cryosections were histologically stained with H&E, the ganglia of the myenteric plexus identified and RNA isolated using laser microdissection technique. Quantitative PCR was performed for selected neural genes, neurotransmitters and receptors. Data were confirmed on protein level using NADPH-diaphorase staining and immunohistochemistry. As result, we demonstrate age-associated alterations in site-specific gene expression pattern of the ENS. Thus, in the adult and aged distal parts of the colon a marked decrease in relative gene expression of neural key genes like NGFR, RET, NOS1 and a concurrent increase of CHAT were observed. Further, we detected notable regional differences of RET, CHAT, TH, and S100B comparing gene expression in aged proximal and distal colon. Interestingly, markers indicating cellular senescence or oxidative stress (SNCA, CASP3, CAT, SOD2, and TERT) were largely unchanged within the ENS. For the first time, our study also describes the age-dependent expression pattern of all major sodium channels within the ENS. Our results are in line with previous studies showing spatio-temporal differences within the mammalian ENS. PMID:25360110

  5. Peripheral inflammation suppresses inward rectifying potassium currents of satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mamoru; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nasu, Masanori; Matsumoto, Shigeji

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that silencing Kir4.1, a specific inward rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel subunit, in sensory ganglionic satellite glial cells (SGCs) induces behavioral hyperalgesia. However, the function of Kir4.1 channels in SGCs in vivo under pathophysiological conditions remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether peripheral inflammation in anesthetized rats alters the SGC Kir4.1 current using in vivo patch clamp and immunohistochemical techniques. Inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the whisker pad. The threshold of escape from mechanical stimulation applied to the orofacial area in inflamed rats was significantly lower than in naïve rats. The mean percentage of small/medium diameter trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons encircled by Kir4.1-immunoreactive SGCs in inflamed rats was also significantly lower than in naïve rats. In vivo whole-cell recordings were made using SGCs in the trigeminal ganglia (TRGs). Increasing extracellular K(+) concentrations resulted in significantly smaller potentiation of the mean peak amplitude of the Kir current in inflamed compared with naïve rats. In addition, the density of the Ba(2+)-sensitive Kir current associated with small-diameter TRG neurons was significantly lower in inflamed rats compared with naïve rats. Mean membrane potential in inflamed rats was more depolarized than in naïve rats. These results suggest that inflammation could suppress Kir4.1 currents of SGCs in the TRGs and that this impairment of glial potassium homeostasis in the TRGs contributes to trigeminal pain. Therefore, the Kir4.1 channel in SGCs may be a new molecular target for the treatment of trigeminal inflammatory pain. PMID:21680091

  6. Endogenous reactive oxygen species modulates voltage-gated sodium channels in dorsal root ganglia of rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han-Jun; Li, Yu-Long; Zhang, Li-Bin; Zucker, Irving H.; Gao, Lie; Zimmerman, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an excitatory role in modulation of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) in normal rats. In this study, we further tested two independent hypotheses: 1) ROS interacts with EPR-related ionotropic receptors such as the purinergic receptors (P2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors (TRPV1) to indirectly modulate the EPR function; 2) ROS directly affects excitability of muscle afferents by modulating the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels. To test the first hypothesis, we performed animal experiments to investigate the effect of the SOD mimetic 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine 1-oxyl (Tempol) on the pressor response to hindlimb intra-arterial (IA) injection of either ?,?-methylene ATP (a P2X agonist) or capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in decerebrate rats. To test the second hypothesis, we used the patch-clamp technique to determine the effect of ROS on Nav channels on the soma of muscle afferents. We also performed local microinjection of a sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX), into ipsilateral L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to investigate whether the blockade of Nav channels by TTX affects the EPR function. We found that Tempol did not affect the pressor response to injection of either capsaicin or ?,?-methylene ATP but significantly decreased the Nav current in small and medium-sized 1,1?-dioctadecyl-3,3,3?,3?-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-labeled DRG neurons. A membrane-permeant superoxide dismutase, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-SOD, had an effect on the Nav current in these neurons similar to that of Tempol. Microinjection of TTX into L4/L5 DRGs dramatically attenuated the pressor response to static contraction induced by electrical stimulation of L4/L5 ventral roots. These data suggest that ROS modulates the EPR by affecting the activity of the Nav channels on muscle afferents. PMID:21292836

  7. Function of basal ganglia in bridging cognitive and motor modules to perform an action

    PubMed Central

    Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Martinu, Kristina; Monchi, Oury

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are thought to be involved in the integration of multiple sources of information, and their dysfunction can lead to disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients show motor and cognitive dysfunction with specific impairments in the internal generation of motor actions and executive deficits, respectively. The role of the BG, then, would be to integrate information from several sources in order to make a decision on a resulting action adequate for the required task. Reanalyzing the data set from our previous study (Martinu et al., 2012), we investigated this hypothesis by applying a graph theory method to a series of fMRI data during the performance of self-initiated (SI) finger movement tasks obtained in healthy volunteers (HV) and early stage PD patients. Dorsally, connectivity strength between the medial prefrontal areas (mPFC) and cortical regions including the primary motor area (M1), the extrastriate visual cortex, and the associative cortex, was reduced in the PD patients. The connectivity strengths were positively correlated to activity in the striatum in both groups. Ventrally, all connectivity between the striatum, the thalamus, and the extrastriate visual cortex decreased in strength in the PD, as did the connectivity between the striatum and the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC). Individual response time (RT) was negatively correlated to connectivity strength between the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and the striatum and positively correlated to connectivity between the VLPFC and the striatum in the HV. These results indicate that the BG, with the mPFC and thalamus, are involved in integrating multiple sources of information from areas such as DLPFC, and VLPFC, connecting to M1, thereby determining a network that leads to the adequate decision and performance of the resulting action. PMID:25071432

  8. Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 transcription during latent infection of mouse trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W J; Deshmane, S L; Dolan, A; McGeoch, D J; Fraser, N W

    1990-01-01

    Using a cornea trigeminal ganglion model, we have investigated transcription by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) during latency in mice. Latency was verified 2 months postinoculation by reactivation of HSV-2 after explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia from the majority of mice (83%). Transcription during latent HSV-2 infection was limited to the repeat regions of the viral genome as determined by in situ hybridization using restriction fragment probes representing 100% of the HSV-2 genome. Further mapping of the positively hybridizing region by using subfragments showed that transcription occurred from approximately 11.5 kb of contiguous DNA fragments. A 1.0-kb PvuI-BamHI fragment within the BamHI F fragment and a 0.3-kb BamHI-SalI fragment and a 3.4-kb SalI-BamHI fragment within the BamHI P fragment hybridized more strongly than other subfragments in in situ hybridization experiments. All positive signals were confined to the nucleus. The RNA that hybridized to the 3.4-kb SalI-BamHI DNA fragment probe by in situ hybridization corresponded to a 2.3-kb transcript on Northern (RNA) blots. Under our conditions for Northern blot hybridization, the 3.4-kb SalI-BamHI probe of HSV-2 hybridized to a limited degree with the latency-associated transcripts of HSV-1. Shorter spliced species of latency-associated transcript RNA, which are seen during HSV-1 latency, have not been detected in latent HSV-2 RNA. However, viral gene expression during HSV-2 latency appears to be very similar to that during HSV-1 latency. Images PMID:2170675

  9. GABAA receptor modulation in dorsal root ganglia in vivo affects chronic pain after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Naik, A K; Pathirathna, S; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V

    2008-07-17

    Neuropathic pain (NPP) due to sensory nerve injury is, in part, the result of peripheral sensitization leading to a long-lasting increase in synaptic plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. Thus, activation of GABA-mediated inhibitory inputs from sensory neurons could be beneficial in the alleviation of NPP symptoms. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) conduct painful stimulation from the periphery to the spinal cord. Long-lasting down-regulation in GABA tone or sensitivity in DRG neurons has been reported in animals with neuropathy. To determine the function of GABA in DRG in the development of NPP, we examined how the acute pharmacological GABA(A)-receptor modulation of L5 DRG in vivo affects the development of NPP in rats with crush injury to the sciatic nerve. Direct application of muscimol and gaboxadol, GABA(A) agonists, to L5 DRG immediately after injury induced dose-dependent alleviation, whereas bicuculline and picrotoxin, GABA(A) antagonists, worsened NPP postaxonal injury. The pain-alleviating effects of muscimol and gaboxadol were blocked by bicuculline. Muscimol, applied at the time of injury, caused complete and long-lasting abolishment of NPP development. However, when muscimol was applied after NPP had already developed, its pain-alleviating effect, although significant, was short-lived. Using a fluorescent tracer, sodium fluorescein, we confirmed that local DRG application results in minimal spread into the corresponding dorsal horn of the ipsilateral spinal cord. GABA(A) receptors in DRG are important in the development of NPP after peripheral nerve injury, making timely exogenous GABAergic manipulation at the DRG level a potentially useful therapeutic modality. PMID:18554816

  10. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    PubMed

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder. PMID:21596703

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Abnormal Pitch Perception Produced by Cochlear Implant Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects’ acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1–2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the “mean” shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large “variance” of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  13. Sonic Hedgehog Genetic Abnormalities and Tissue Donations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauren E. Yaich

    2001-01-01

    In this case study about a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly, students explore the “Sonic hedgehog” gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. The assignment involves students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality. Designed for an upper-level undergraduate biology course, the case could also be used in a cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, or other related upper-level course.

  14. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  15. Vestibular and Saccadic Abnormalities in Gaucher's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke; Halmagyi, G Michael; Todd, Michael J; Aw, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease characterized by abnormal deposition of glucocerebroside due to the enzyme glucocerebrosidase deficiency, resulting in multi-organ pathology. GD type III has a progressive neurological involvement. We studied the vestibular and saccadic abnormalities in GD type III to determine if these parameters may be useful for assessing neurological involvement. We evaluated the vestibular and saccadic responses of two siblings with genetically identified GD type III on enzyme replacement therapy. Vestibular functions were assessed with the head impulse test (HIT), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Saccadic functions were investigated with volitional horizontal and vertical saccades to ±20°. Three-dimensional head and eye movements were recorded with dual-search coils and VEMP with surface electrodes. HIT showed impaired individual semicircular canal function with halved angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains and absent horizontal refixation saccade. Ocular and cervical VEMPs to air-conducted clicks were absent in the older sibling, and only cervical VEMP was present in the younger sibling indicating otolithic dysfunction. EVS showed prolonged onset latency and attenuated tonic and phasic responses suggesting impaired neural conduction and vestibular function. Horizontal saccadic velocity was miniscule (<30°/s) and multiple back-to-back saccades with saccade-vergence interaction were utilized to minimize eye position error in the older sibling. Vertical saccades were slightly abnormal, but vergence and smooth pursuit were normal in both siblings. Our findings suggest that GD affected the vestibular nuclei in addition to the paramedian pontine reticular formation. These vestibular and saccadic abnormalities may be useful biomarkers to monitor neurological deterioration. PMID:24142279

  16. Central pain in multiple sclerosis - sensory abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, A; Boivie, J

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop central neuropathic pain (CP). In the present study somatosensory abnormalities have been analysed in detail in 62 patients with MS and CP (42 women, 20 men; mean age 52 years) and in a control group of 10 women and 6 men (mean age 47 years) with MS and sensory symptoms, but without pain. Assessment included clinical testing and quantitative methods (QST) for the measurement of perception thresholds for touch, vibration, and temperatures. All CP patients except two (97%) had abnormal thresholds for innoxious and/or noxious temperatures, compared to 81% in the control group (p<0.05). There was a tendency towards the opposite regarding sensibility to touch, which was decreased in 66% vs. 87% (n.s.), vibration (55% vs. 81%; n.s.) and to joint movement (32% vs. 62%; p<0.04). Comparisons between painful and non-painful regions showed both the absolute threshold values and the index values to be significantly more abnormal, in the CP regions, for warmth (p<0.001), cold (p<0.05), difference limen (innoxious warmth and cold, p<0.01), cold pain (p<0.01) and heat pain/cold pain combined (p<0.001). Also the comparisons between regions with central pain and regions with sensory symptoms in the controls showed significantly more abnormal thresholds in the CP patients for warmth (p<0.05), cold (p<0.01), difference limen (innoxious warmth and cold, p<0.01) and heat pain/cold pain combined (p<0.001). The results support the general hypothesis that only patients who have lesions affecting the spinothalamo-cortical pathways run the risk of developing central pain. PMID:19359204

  17. Surgical management of complete ureteric duplication abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sen; S. Ahmed; M. Borghol

    1997-01-01

    In 2 decades (1974–1993), the senior author (S.A.) managed 148 patients with various abnormalities associated with complete\\u000a ureteric duplication. Included were 72 patients with primary vesicoureteric reflux, 50 with ureteroceles, and 26 with upper-pole\\u000a ectopic ureters. The majority of the patients were female, and the common clinical presentations included urinary tract infection\\u000a (UTI), UTI with septicemia, and urinary incontinence. Ten

  18. Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Zunszain; Christoph Anacker; Annamaria Cattaneo; Livia A. Carvalho; Carmine M. Pariante

    2011-01-01

    Major depression (MD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex and multifactor aetiology. Potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disorder include monoamine deficits, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, inflammatory and\\/or neurodegenerative alterations. An increased secretion and reactivity of cortisol together with an altered feedback inhibition are the most widely observed HPA abnormalities in MD patients. Glucocorticoids, such as

  19. The Classification of Abnormal Behavior: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry E. Adams; Kristen A. Luscher; Jeffrey A. Bernat

    Tremendous progress in classifying abnormal behavior has been made in the past 25 years. With the advent of DSM-III and its\\u000a multiaxial system, along with the purging of psychodynamic theory from classification in favor of operational definitions,\\u000a we now have a much improved classification scheme. Nonetheless, there is still room for improvement within that system, including\\u000a a more open-minded evaluation

  20. Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters

    E-print Network

    Dalca, Adrian Vasile

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of ...