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Tooth - abnormal shape  


Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...


Basal ganglia abnormalities in tardive dyskinesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate CT abnormalities in tardive dyskinesia (TD) and to search for possible relationships with clinical data. A group of 30 psychotic patients (15 schizophrenic and 15 affective disorder) with TD was compared to a matched group of 30 psychiatric patients without TD and a matched group of 30 healthy controls. CT data

Paulo Dalgalarrondo; Wagner F. Gattaz



Cortical stimulation evokes abnormal responses in the dopamine-depleted rat basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The motor cortex (MC) sends massive projections to the basal ganglia. Motor disabilities in patients and animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be caused by dopamine (DA)-depleted basal ganglia that abnormally process the information originating from MC. To study how DA depletion alters signal transfer in the basal ganglia, MC stimulation-induced (MC-induced) unitary responses were recorded from the basal ganglia of control and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated hemi-parkinsonian rats anaesthetized with isoflurane. This report describes new findings about how DA depletion alters MC-induced responses. MC stimulation evokes an excitation in normally quiescent striatal (Str) neurons projecting to the globus pallidus external segment (GPe). After DA-depletion, the spontaneous firing of Str-GPe neurons increases, and MC stimulation evokes a shorter latency excitation followed by a long lasting inhibition that was invisible under normal conditions. The increased firing activity and the newly exposed long inhibition generate tonic inhibition and a disfacilitation in GPe. The disfacilitation in GPe is then amplified in basal ganglia circuitry and generates a powerful, long inhibition in the basal ganglia output nucleus, the globus pallidus internal segment (GPi). Intra-Str injections of a behaviorally effective dose of DA precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine effectively reversed these changes. These newly observed mechanisms also support the generation of pauses and burst activity commonly observed in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian subjects. These results suggest that the generation of abnormal response sequences in the basal ganglia contributes to the development of motor disabilities in PD and that intra-Str DA supplements effectively suppress abnormal signal transfer.

Kita, Hitoshi; Kita, Takako



Role of movement in long-term basal ganglia changes: implications for abnormal motor responses  

PubMed Central

Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and dyskinesias elicited by drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are a major issue in the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preclinical studies in dopamine-denervated animals have contributed to the modeling of these abnormal movements, but the precise neurochemical and functional mechanisms underlying these untoward effects are still elusive. It has recently been suggested that the performance of movement may itself promote the later emergence of drug-induced motor complications, by favoring the generation of aberrant motor memories in the dopamine-denervated basal ganglia. Our recent results from hemiparkinsonian rats subjected to the priming model of dopaminergic stimulation are in agreement with this. These results demonstrate that early performance of movement is crucial for the manifestation of sensitized rotational behavior, indicative of an abnormal motor response, and neurochemical modifications in selected striatal neurons following a dopaminergic challenge. Building on this evidence, this paper discusses the possible role of movement performance in drug-induced motor complications, with a look at the implications for PD management.

Simola, Nicola; Morelli, Micaela; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Frau, Lucia



The dorsal root ganglia in adrenomyeloneuropathy: neuronal atrophy and abnormal mitochondria.  


Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a disease of spinal cord, brain, adrenal, and testis, mostly affects men with spastic paraparesis or ataxia beginning in their second or third decade. The spinal cord displays bilateral, usually symmetrical, long tract degeneration particularly of the gracile tract in a "dying-back" pattern. The available data strongly indicate that the fundamental lesion in AMN is an axonopathy or neuronopathy. We compared lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from 3 AMN patients to 6 age-matched controls histologically, morphometrically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally. There was no apparent neuronal loss, necrosis or apoptosis, nor obvious atrophy; nodules of Nageotte were sparse in both groups. The morphometric studies, however, did reveal neuronal atrophy with a decrease in the number of large neurons and a corresponding increase in neurons less than 2,000 microm2, especially in the 1,500-1,999 microm2 range. No consistent immunohistochemical differences were observed, and no specific cell type appeared to be lost. Many mitochondria in the AMN neurons demonstrated lipidic inclusions; this raises the possibility that, in addition to the well-known peroxisomal defect, impaired mitochondrial function may lead to a failure of ATP-dependent axoplasmic transport in AMN spinal tracts with consequent "dying-back" axonal degeneration. The observation that the DRG parent neurons of the degenerate gracile tracts in AMN undergo atrophy and do not display appreciable evidence of cell death, even at autopsy, provides a wide window of opportunity for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat or prevent this myeloneuropathy. PMID:11379824

Powers, J M; DeCiero, D P; Cox, C; Richfield, E K; Ito, M; Moser, A B; Moser, H W



Shape abnormalities of caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we reported abnormal volume and global shape in the caudate nucleus in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Here, we use a new shape measure which importantly permits local in addition to global shape analysis, as well as local correlations with behavioral measures. Methods Thirty-two female and 15 male SPDs, and 29 female and 14 male normal controls (NCLs), underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We assessed caudate shape measures using spherical harmonic-point distribution model (SPHARM-PDM) methodology. Results We found more pronounced global shape differences in the right caudate in male and female SPD, compared with NCLs. Local shape differences, principally in the caudate head, survived statistical correction on the right. Also, we performed correlations between local surface deformations with clinical measures and found significant correlations between local shape deflated deformations in the anterior medial surface of the caudate with verbal learning capacity in female SPD. Conclusions Using SPHARM-PDM methodology, we found both global and local caudate shape abnormalities in male and female SPD, particularly right-sided, and largely restricted to limbic and cognitive anterior caudate. The most important and novel findings were bilateral statistically significant correlations between local surface deflations in the anterior medial surface of the head of the caudate and verbal learning capacity in female SPD. By extension, these local caudate correlation findings implicate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which innervates that area of the caudate, and demonstrate the utility of local shape analysis to investigate the relationship between specific subcortical and cortical brain structures in neuropsychiatric conditions.

Levitt, James J.; Styner, Martin; Niethammer, Marc; Bouix, Sylvain; Koo, Min-Seong; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Kikinis, Ron; Robert, W. McCarley; Shenton, Martha E.



Thalamic Shape Abnormalities in Antipsychotic Na?ve Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background: Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia states abnormal pruning as one of the pathogenetic mechanism in schizophrenia. Though thalamic volume abnormalities have been documented, the shape differences of thalamus in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers need validation. Materials and Methods: We examined antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia patients (n=60) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n=44). The thalamic shape abnormalities were analyzed from their coded structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three-dimensional automated image analysis software, FMRIB's (Oxford Center for the functional MRI of the brain) tools-FIRST (FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool) by creating deformable mesh model. Correlation with the psychopathology scores was carried out using F-statistics. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant inward deformations in the regions corresponding to anterior, ventromedial, mediodorsal, and pulvinar nuclei. There was a direct correlation between negative syndrome score and the deformation in the right mediodorsal and right pulvinar nuclei. Conclusion: The inward deformations of thalamus in antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients correspond to those nuclei which have reciprocal connections with frontal, superior temporal, and anterior cingulate regions and support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Danivas, Vijay; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.



Stereotactic MRI in Dyt1 Dystonia: Focal Signal Abnormalities in the Basal Ganglia Do Not Contraindicate Deep Brain Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To study stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the basal ganglia in DYT1 primary dystonia. Methods: Twenty-five genetically confirmed DYT1 dystonia patients (age range, 8–66 years; mean age, 22 years) underwent brain MRI under general anesthesia at the time of globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. MR images were retrospectively reviewed for signal intensity alterations.

S. Gavarini; N. Vayssière; P. Delort; L. Cif; B. Biolsi; C. Tancu; X. Vasques; S. Plagnol; A. Bonafe; P. Coubes



Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in…

Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin



Correlation of dopaminergic terminal dysfunction and microstructural abnormalities of the basal ganglia and the olfactory tract in Parkinson's disease.  


Signal abnormalities of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract detected either by diffusion tensor imaging, including measurements of mean diffusivity, a parameter of brain tissue integrity, and fractional anisotropy, a parameter of neuronal fibre integrity, or transcranial sonography, were recently reported in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. In this study, changes in the nigral and olfactory diffusion tensor signal, as well as nigral echogenicity, were correlated with clinical scales of motor disability, odour function and putaminal dopamine storage capacity measured with 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography in early and advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. Diffusion tensor imaging, transcranial sonography and positron emission tomography were performed on 16 patients with Parkinson's disease (mean disease duration 3.7 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to 4) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Odour function was measured by the standardized Sniffin' Sticks Test. Mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa influx constant, mean nigral echogenicity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract were identified by region of interest analysis. When compared with the healthy control group, the Parkinson's disease group showed significant signal changes in the caudate and putamen by 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography, in the substantia nigra by transcranial sonography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) and in the olfactory tract by mean diffusivity (P < 0.05). Regional mean diffusivity values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract correlated significantly with putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake (r = -0.52, P < 0.05 and r = -0.71, P < 0.01). Significant correlations were also found between nigral mean diffusivity values and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.48, P < 0.01) and between mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake and the total odour score (r = 0.58; P < 0.05) as well as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.53, P < 0.05). This study reports a significant association between increased mean diffusivity signal and decreased 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake, indicating that microstructural degradation of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract parallels progression of putaminal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Since increases in nigral mean diffusivity signal also correlated with motor dysfunction, diffusion tensor imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for disease progression in future studies of putative disease modifying therapies. PMID:24014521

Scherfler, Christoph; Esterhammer, Regina; Nocker, Michael; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Warwitz, Boris; Spielberger, Sabine; Pinter, Bernadette; Donnemiller, Eveline; Decristoforo, Clemens; Virgolini, Irene; Schocke, Michael; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus



Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The basal ganglia are a group of closely connected cell masses, forming a continuum, extending from the telencephalon to the\\u000a midbrain tegmentum (Sect. 11.2). This complex comprises the striatum (the nucleus caudatus and the putamen, largely separated\\u000a by the internal capsule), the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra. The output of the basal ganglia\\u000a is aimed at

Hans J. Donkelaar; Bart Warrenburg; Michèl Willemsen; Benno Küsters; Yoshio Hashizume; Akira Hori


Effect of Diesel Exhaust on Sperm-Shape Abnormalities in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sperm-shape abnormality bioassay in mice was used to determine whether chemical mutagens in diesel exhaust reach the testes. Strain A male mice (30 per group from 4 to 6 weeks of age) were exposed for 31 or 39 weeks to either diesel exhaust or clean a...

M. A. Pereira P. S. Sabharwal L. Gordon A. Wyrobek



Cerebellar hypoplasia and brainstem thinning associated with severe white matter and basal ganglia abnormalities in a child with an mtDNA deletion.  


Cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia may occur in different conditions, including those disorders designated as pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH). In particular, when PCH is combined with severe supratentorial white matter involvement and cerebral atrophy, mutations in the mitochondrial arginyl-tRNA synthethase (RARS2) gene causing PCH6 are possible. We describe a patient with a lethal mitochondrial encephalomyopathy due to a mtDNA deletion and no alterations in RARS2, whose magnetic resonance (MR) findings mimicked PCH6. A thorough diagnostic work-up for mitochondrial disorders should be carried out when facing with a PCH-like and severe white matter and basal ganglia involvement on brain MR imaging in children, even if clinical and laboratory mitochondrial "stigmata" are scant or nonspecific. PMID:21826524

Biancheri, Roberta; Bruno, Claudio; Cassandrini, Denise; Bertini, Enrico; Santorelli, Filippo M; Rossi, Andrea



Affect of Shape Abnormality in Foot and Toenail on Tumbling of Aged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the tumbling of the aged. The study of the static, as well as dynamic aspects, such as the muscular strength of the lower-limb and the postural stability, should be developed, especially from the viewpoint of the aged. This paper focuses on the external observation of the foot and toenail, as being correlated to the physical functions of the lower-limb against tumbling. The lower-limb functions are evaluated in terms of the 10 m walking time, the toe-gap force and single-foot standing period. The correlation to the personal tumbling experiences is also examined. It is seen that the groups, which exhibit external abnormalities in the foot and the toenail, generally decline in the muscular strength and postural stability. They also have more frequent tumbling experiences and express in their concern of the danger of tumbling. It seems that those shapes abnormalities can indicate, to some extent, the tumbling danger of the aged.

Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Nomoto, Yohei; Umezawa, Jun; Miyagawa, Haruki; Kawasumi, Masashi; Koyama, Hironori; Saito, Masao


Abnormal nuclear shape and impaired mechanotransduction in emerin-deficient cells.  


Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy can be caused by mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C and emerin. We recently demonstrated that A-type lamin-deficient cells have impaired nuclear mechanics and altered mechanotransduction, suggesting two potential disease mechanisms (Lammerding, J., P.C. Schulze, T. Takahashi, S. Kozlov, T. Sullivan, R.D. Kamm, C.L. Stewart, and R.T. Lee. 2004. J. Clin. Invest. 113:370-378). Here, we examined the function of emerin on nuclear mechanics and strain-induced signaling. Emerin-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts have abnormal nuclear shape, but in contrast to A-type lamin-deficient cells, exhibit nuclear deformations comparable to wild-type cells in cellular strain experiments, and the integrity of emerin-deficient nuclear envelopes appeared normal in a nuclear microinjection assay. Interestingly, expression of mechanosensitive genes in response to mechanical strain was impaired in emerin-deficient cells, and prolonged mechanical stimulation increased apoptosis in emerin-deficient cells. Thus, emerin-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts have apparently normal nuclear mechanics but impaired expression of mechanosensitive genes in response to strain, suggesting that emerin mutations may act through altered transcriptional regulation and not by increasing nuclear fragility. PMID:16115958

Lammerding, Jan; Hsiao, Janet; Schulze, P Christian; Kozlov, Serguei; Stewart, Colin L; Lee, Richard T



Severe congenital hypoplasia of tongue and abnormal shape of soft palate and tonsillar pillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an 8-year-old boy who presented with the very rare condition of congenital right-sided aglossia. The left side of tongue was hypoplastic and tethered to the floor of the mouth. The soft palate was short and almost absent on the right side with abnormal positioning of the right anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars; this situation resulted in significant

A. Rachmiel; I. T. Jackson; S. R. Sabapathy; R. A. Forté



Differential Effects of Abnormal Tactile Experience on Shaping Representation Patterns in Developing and Adult Motor Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influence of early somatosensory experience on shaping movement representation patterns in motor cortex. Electrical microstimulation was used to map bilaterally the motor cortices of adult rats subjected to altered tactile experience by unilateral vibrissa trimming from birth (birth-trimmed group) or for comparable periods that began in adulthood (adult-trimmed group). Findings demonstrated that (1) vibrissa trimming from

George W. Huntley



Automated classification of wall motion abnormalities by principal component analysis of endocardial shape motion patterns in echocardiograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principal Component Analysis of sets of temporal shape sequences renders eigenvariations of shape/motion, including typical normal and pathological endocardial contraction patterns. A previously developed Active Appearance Model for time sequences (AAMM) was employed to derive AAMM shape coefficients (ASCs) and we hypothesized these would allow classification of wall motion abnormalities (WMA). A set of stress echocardiograms (single-beat 4-chamber and 2-chamber sequences with expert-verified endocardial contours) of 129 infarct patients was split randomly into training (n=65) and testing (n=64) sets. AAMMs were generated from the training set and for all sequences ASCs were extracted and statistically related to regional/global Visual Wall Motion Scoring (VWMS) and clinical infarct severity and volumetric parameters. Linear regression showed clear correlations between ASCs and VWMS. Infarct severity measures correlated poorly to both ASCs and VWMS. Discriminant analysis showed good prediction from low #ASCs of both segmental (85% correctness) and global WMA (90% correctness). Volumetric parameters correlated poorly to regional VWMS. Conclusions: 1)ASCs show promising accuracy for automated WMA classification. 2)VWMS and endocardial border motion are closely related; with accurate automated border detection, automated WMA classification should be feasible. 3)ASC shape analysis allows contour set evaluation by direct comparison to clinical parameters.

Bosch, Johan G.; Nijland, Francisca; Mitchell, Steven C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Kamp, Otto; Sonka, Milan; Reiber, Johan H. C.



Basal Ganglia and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders.



ZHOUPI controls embryonic cuticle formation via a signalling pathway involving the subtilisin protease ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 and the receptor kinases GASSHO1 and GASSHO2.  


Seed production in angiosperms requires tight coordination of the development of the embryo and the endosperm. The endosperm-specific transcription factor ZHOUPI has previously been shown to play a key role in this process, by regulating both endosperm breakdown and the formation of the embryonic cuticle. To what extent these processes are functionally linked is, however, unclear. In order to address this issue we have concentrated on the subtilisin-like serine protease encoding gene ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1. Expression of ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 is endosperm specific, and dramatically decreased in zhoupi mutants. We show that, although ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 is required for normal embryonic cuticle formation, it plays no role in regulating endosperm breakdown. Furthermore, we show that re-introducing ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 expression in the endosperm of zhoupi mutants partially rescues embryonic cuticle formation without rescuing their persistent endosperm phenotype. Thus, we conclude that ALE1 can normalize cuticle formation in the absence of endosperm breakdown, and that ZHOUPI thus controls two genetically separable developmental processes. Finally, our genetic study shows that ZHOUPI and ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 promotes formation of embryonic cuticle via a pathway involving embryonically expressed receptor kinases GASSHO1 and GASSHO2. We therefore provide a molecular framework of inter-tissue communication for embryo-specific cuticle formation during embryogenesis. PMID:23318634

Xing, Qian; Creff, Audrey; Waters, Andrew; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Goodrich, Justin; Ingram, Gwyneth C



Linear Branching Echogenicities in the Basal Ganglia and Thalami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic vasculature in the basal ganglia and thalami of neonatal brain have been associated with congeni- tal infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, and syphilis, trisomy 13 syndrome, Down syndrome, maternal drug use, neonatal asphyxia, nonimmune hydrops, and fetal alcohol syndrome. This abnormality is believed to result from necrotizing vasculitis with subsequent mineralization. In our study, we encountered 8 small

Han-Hsi Wang; Chih-Hao Chien; Min-Hou Liao; Yu-Nian Wu; Yu-Hsien Su



Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes.

Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J



Determining normal and abnormal lip shapes at border positions for use as a longitudinal surgical outcome measure.  


Objective measures of facial movement are important for interventions where surgical repositioning of facial structures can influence soft tissue mobility and include the management of patients with cleft lip, facial nerve palsy and orthognathic surgery. As such, the aim of this study is to present a method for determining the outcome of surgical procedures on lip shape during speech. A control group (CG) of 115 average subjects and 30 patients with a Class 3 malocclusion requiring bimaxillary surgery performed four reproducible verbal utterances during image capture using a non-invasive, three-dimensional (3D) motion scanner (3dMDFace™ Dynamic System). Landmark coordinates around the lips of the 3D facial shells were extracted and subjected to discriminant analysis and principal component analysis to statistically differentiate lip shapes between the CG and the patient group (PG) pre- and post-surgery. Pre-surgically, the PG showed statistically significant differences in lip shape during speech in the lateral and vertical dimensions, preferring a wider, shorter lip shape when compared with the CG for all the utterances. The shape differences normalised towards the CG post-surgery. The method presented utilises pre-existing statistical shape analyses and can be reproduced in the clinical setting to provide a diagnostic and functional outcome tool. In this example, correction of the Class 3 skeletal disproportions appeared to normalise lip shape during speech. PMID:23397893

Popat, H; Zhurov, A I; Richmond, S; Marshall, D; Rosin, P L



Synaptic Transmission in Sympathetic Ganglia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties of the atropine-sensitive slow synaptic responses in mammalian sympathetic ganglia were further analysed as to their 1) postsynaptic origin, 2) transmitter substances, and 3) durations of synaptic delays for each. Intracellular studies on singl...

B. Libet



[Anti-basal ganglia antibody].  


Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

Hayashi, Masaharu



Mirror-writing and reversed repetition of digits in a right-handed patient with left basal ganglia haematoma.  

PubMed Central

A 57 year old right-handed Chinese man sustained a left basal ganglia haemorrhage resulting in speech disorder and right hemiplegia. He mirror-wrote with his left hand and during speech recovery repeated digits in reverse sequence. The abnormal right to left directionality possibly reflected release of right basal ganglia from left-sided control. Images

Chia, L G; Kinsbourne, M



Basal Ganglia Beta Oscillations Accompany Cue Utilization  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Beta oscillations in cortical-basal ganglia (BG) circuits have been implicated in normal movement suppression and motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease. To dissect the functional correlates of these rhythms we compared neural activity during four distinct variants of a cued choice task in rats. Brief beta (~20 Hz) oscillations occurred simultaneously throughout the cortical-BG network, both spontaneously and at precise moments of task performance. Beta phase was rapidly reset in response to salient cues, yet increases in beta power were not rigidly linked to cues, movements, or movement suppression. Rather, beta power was enhanced after cues were used to determine motor output. We suggest that beta oscillations reflect a postdecision stabilized state of cortical-BG networks, which normally reduces interference from alternative potential actions. The abnormally strong beta seen in Parkinson’s Disease may reflect overstabilization of these networks, producing pathological persistence of the current motor state.

Leventhal, Daniel K.; Gage, Gregory J.; Schmidt, Robert; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Case, Alaina C.; Berke, Joshua D.



Modulation of the basal ganglia dopaminergic system in a transgenic mouse exhibiting dystonia-like features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary excessive muscle activity and abnormal postures. There are data\\u000a supporting the hypothesis that basal ganglia dysfunction, and specifically dopaminergic system dysfunction, plays a role in\\u000a dystonia. In the present study, we used hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and compared the\\u000a basal ganglia dopaminergic system between transgenic mice

Dimitra Giannakopoulou; Ioanna Armata; Ada Mitsacos; Pullani Shashidharan; Panagiotis Giompres



Physiology of mammalian prevertebral ganglia.  


When assessing the physiological role of the prevertebral ganglia, the following should be considered. Ganglion cells in these ganglia receive continuous excitatory synaptic input from peripheral sensory mechanoreceptors and central preganglionic neurons. The latter may result from sensory afferents projecting from the gastrointestinal tract to spinal preganglionic neurons or as a result of endogenous oscillator activity located in the spinal cord (18) or within the ganglion (45). Peripheral and spinal reflex pathways probably do not operate as separate, independent pathways. Rather, they must be considered functionally integrated in the prevertebral ganglia. Because of continuous synaptic input, the prevertebral neuron operates at some level of "neurogenic tone" that provides capabilities for bi-directional responses. An increase in spinal or peripheral synaptic input will be matched by a proportional increase in output firing. The functional effect of spatial summation of peripheral and central input is to prime the prevertebral neuron so that adjustments in its firing frequency can be made without the lag inherent in building up a response in a quiescent system. Not all prevertebral ganglia participate in reflex activity. It may be that reflex activity between prevertebral ganglia and visceral smooth muscle depends upon the nature of the mechanical activity of the muscle. For example, the mechanical activity of smooth muscle of the vas deferens is not characterized by spontaneous, myogenic, regularly occurring contractions. Mechanical activity in this organ occurs in bursts. There is no evidence to suggest that sensory fibers project from the wall of the vas deferens to the hypogastric plexus thereby forming a peripheral reflex arc. Contraction of th smooth muscle of the vas deferens is brought about by bursts of nerve impulses through simple relay connections in the pelvic plexus. Smooth muscles supplied by this ganglion have a direct line to the central nervous system and are secured by a "fail-safe" system. In contrast, the mechanical activity of the gastrointestinal system is characterized by slow spontaneous myogenic activity. Pattern formation of motor activity is achieved by reflex activity within the enteric plexuses. Extrinsic alteration of the nature and pattern of contraction of smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract would be best served by prevertebral ganglia that modulate and adjust motor function by continuous integration of convergent weak synaptic input emanating from the peripheral and central nervous systems. When a prevertebral neuron is part of a peripheral reflex loop, its physiological role may be to modulate end organ activity; when it does not participate in a peripheral reflex loop, its role may be to relay CNS input and initiate end organ activity. PMID:6260023

Szurszewski, J H



Scrotal insulation and its relationship to abnormal morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape of spermatozoa in Holstein-Friesian and Belgian Blue bulls.  


The objectives of this study were to identify the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to elevated testicular temperature in terms of sperm motility, viability, morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape. The latter two valuable parameters are not included in routine semen analysis. Scrotal insulation (SI) was applied for 48 h in 2 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 2 Belgian Blue (BB) bulls and semen was collected at 7 d intervals along with semen collection of a non-insulated bull of each breed. Semen samples were frozen and assigned to 4 groups: period 1 (preinsulation) = -7 d and 0 d, where 0 d = initiation of SI after semen collection; period 2 = 7 d (sperm presumed in the epididymis during SI); period 3 = 14 d to 42 d (cells presumed at spermiogenesis and meiosis stages during SI); period 4 = 49 d to 63 d (cells presumed at spermatocytogenesis stage during SI). The percentages of progressively motile and viable spermatozoa as assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and fluorescence microscopy, respectively were decreased whereas abnormal sperm heads, nuclear vacuoles and tail defects were increased at period 3 (P < 0.05) compared to period 1, 2 or 4 in SI bulls of both HF and BB breeds. Protamine deficient spermatozoa as observed by chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3)) staining were more present (P < 0.05) at period 2 and 3 in both breeds compared to period 1 or 4. Sperm nuclear shape as determined by Fourier harmonic amplitude (FHA) was most affected by heat stress during period 3 (P < 0.01) and a higher response was observed in BB bulls than HF bulls. In conclusion, sperm cells at the spermiogenic and meiotic stages of development are more susceptible to heat stress. The lack of chromatin protamination is the most pertinent result of heat stress, together with subtle changes in sperm head shape, which can be detected by FHA but not by conventional semen analysis. PMID:21777969

Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Vandaele, Leen; Rijsselaere, Tom; Maes, Dominiek; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Frijters, Adrie; Noordman, Jakomien; Granados, Ana; Dernelle, Eric; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Parrish, John J; Van Soom, Ann



A comparative study on cardiac ganglia in midday gerbil, Egyptian spiny mouse, chinchilla laniger and pigeon.  


Using the thiocholine method and histological techniques, the topography and morphology of cardiac ganglia in midday gerbil, Egyptian spiny mouse, chinchilla laniger and pigeon were studied. The results demonstrated that cardiac ganglia in all investigated species are embedded in epicardial fat. They formed plexo-ganglionic structures. Each of them composed of many ganglia (from seven up to 36) different in size and shape, and interconnected by fascicles of nerve fibres. Comparative analysis showed that the density of neural network and cell aggregations was different in individual species. The richest plexo-ganglionic structure was in pigeon. It was organized in three plexo-ganglia with an average of 30 ganglia. The largest one was located along the anterior interventricular sulcus. The cardiac ganglia of investigated mammals were localized mainly on the epicardium of atria; in Egyptian spiny mouse and chinchilla laniger on the ventral surface of right atrium, but in midday gerbil on the dorsal surface of left atrium. Moreover, in midday gerbil and Egyptian spiny mouse the little plexo-ganglionic structure on the ventricle were noticed. Additionally, in midday gerbil the single nerve cells might be observed between cardiac muscle of atria. It can be said that, the strongly developed cardiac plexus in pigeon is probably connected with his behaviour and functional properties of the heart. The arrangement of neurones in cardiac ganglia of all examined mammals was uniform over the whole surface of the sections, while in the pigeon, neurones were located mainly in the peripheral part of the ganglion. PMID:12823098

Kuder, T; Nowak, E; Szczurkowski, A; Kuchinka, J



Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia.  


The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A



NMDA receptors in the basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia consist of several interconnected nuclei located in the telecephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon that are involved in a variety of motor and non-motor behavioural functions. Glutamate receptors play a major role in neurotransmission within the basal ganglia and are present in all nuclei of the basal ganglia. This review focuses on the contribution of the NMDA class of glutamatergic receptors to various movement disorders whose primary pathology lies within the basal ganglia and discusses how pharmacological manipulation of such receptors may be therapeutically useful.




Experimental Study of Acoustically Enhanced Multicomponent DNAPL Ganglia Dissolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of acoustic pressure waves on multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) ganglia dissolution in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Laboratory data from dissolution experiments with two and three component NAPL mixtures suggested that acoustic waves significantly enhance ganglia dissolution due to the imposed oscillatory interstitial water velocity. The dissolution enhancement was shown to be directly proportional to the acoustic wave frequency. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the greatest dissolution enhancement in the presence of acoustic waves is associated with the component of the NAPL mixture having the smallest equilibrium aqueous solubility. Finally, square shaped acoustic waves were shown to lead to greater NAPL dissolution enhancement compared to sinusoidal and triangular acoustic waves. The results of this study suggested that aquifer remediation using acoustic waves is a promising method particularly for aquifers contaminated with NAPLs containing components with very low equilibrium aqueous solubilities.

Vogler, E. T.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.



Deep brain stimulation changes basal ganglia output nuclei firing pattern in the dystonic hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystonia is a heterogeneous syndrome of movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal movements and postures. While medical treatment is often ineffective, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal pallidum improves dystonia. Here, we studied the impact of DBS in the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), the rodent equivalent of the human globus pallidus internus, on basal ganglia output

Arthur Leblois; René Reese; David Labarre; Melanie Hamann; Angelika Richter; Thomas Boraud; Wassilios G. Meissner



Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr's disease) without neurological, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms is not linked to the IBGC1 locus on chromosome 14q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterised by radiological, neurological, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. The associations between these abnormal phenotypes and abnormal genes remain unclear despite the recent mapping to chromosome 14q of a susceptibility locus for IBGC (IBGC1). We identified two siblings, from a large multigenerational pedigree, who had both been diagnosed with radiological IBGC, dementia, bipolar affective disorder

Henry Brodaty; Philip Mitchell; Georgina Luscombe; John B. J. Kwok; Renee F. Badenhop; Rod McKenzie; Peter R. Schofield



Multiple Output Channels in the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural circuits that link the basal ganglia with the cerebral cortex are critically involved in the generation and control of voluntary movement. Retrograde transneuronal transport or herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to examine the organization of connections in the cebus monkey between an output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi),

John E. Hoover; Peter L. Strick



Amphibian sympathetic ganglia in tissue culture.  


1. A culture medium has been developed for amphibian sympathetic nervous tissue but it is suggested that the ionic values should be adjusted to correspond to the concentrations of salts in the plasma of particular species. 2. The morphology, monoamine fluorescence, growth and differentiation of sympathetic ganglia of the frog, Limnodynastes dumerili, have been studied in culture. 3. Two types of neuron could be distinguished largely according to size, namely small, 18 X 20 mum and large, 38 X 42 mum. The possibility that these represent one type at different stages in development or represent functionally distinct neurons is discussed. 4. The sympathetic neurons are extremely sensitive to nerve growth factor (NGF) which caused an increase in the size of the cell bodies, the number of nerve fibres regenerating, the rate of axonal growth and synthesis of catecholamines. 5. Various other cell types appearing in the cultures have been described, including chromaffin, satellite, Schwann, multipolar and epithelial cells as well as fibroblasts, melanocytes and macrophages. The epithelial cells show slow contractions and changes in shape. PMID:171072

Hill, C E; Burnstock, G



Task-related "cortical" bursting depends critically on basal ganglia input and is linked to vocal plasticity.  


Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are critical for motor control and motor learning. Classically, basal ganglia nuclei are thought to regulate motor behavior by increasing or decreasing cortical firing rates, and basal ganglia diseases are assumed to reflect abnormal overall activity levels. More recent studies suggest instead that motor disorders derive from abnormal firing patterns, and have led to the hypothesis that surgical treatments, such as pallidotomy, act primarily by eliminating pathological firing patterns. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the basal ganglia normally influence task-related cortical activity to regulate motor behavior, and how lesions of the basal ganglia influence cortical firing properties. Here, we investigated these questions in a songbird circuit that has striking homologies to mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits but is specialized for singing. The "cortical" outflow nucleus of this circuit is required for song plasticity and normally exhibits increased firing during singing and song-locked burst firing. We found that lesions of the striato-pallidal nucleus in this circuit prevented hearing-dependent song changes. These basal ganglia lesions also stripped the cortical outflow neurons of their patterned burst firing during singing, without changing their spontaneous or singing-related firing rates. Taken together, these results suggest that the basal ganglia are essential not for normal cortical firing rates but for driving task-specific cortical firing patterns, including bursts. Moreover, such patterned bursting appears critical for motor plasticity. Our findings thus provide support for therapies that aim to treat basal ganglia movement disorders by normalizing firing patterns. PMID:23449880

Kojima, Satoshi; Kao, Mimi H; Doupe, Allison J



Task-related "cortical" bursting depends critically on basal ganglia input and is linked to vocal plasticity  

PubMed Central

Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are critical for motor control and motor learning. Classically, basal ganglia nuclei are thought to regulate motor behavior by increasing or decreasing cortical firing rates, and basal ganglia diseases are assumed to reflect abnormal overall activity levels. More recent studies suggest instead that motor disorders derive from abnormal firing patterns, and have led to the hypothesis that surgical treatments, such as pallidotomy, act primarily by eliminating pathological firing patterns. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the basal ganglia normally influence task-related cortical activity to regulate motor behavior, and how lesions of the basal ganglia influence cortical firing properties. Here, we investigated these questions in a songbird circuit that has striking homologies to mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits but is specialized for singing. The “cortical” outflow nucleus of this circuit is required for song plasticity and normally exhibits increased firing during singing and song-locked burst firing. We found that lesions of the striato-pallidal nucleus in this circuit prevented hearing-dependent song changes. These basal ganglia lesions also stripped the cortical outflow neurons of their patterned burst firing during singing, without changing their spontaneous or singing-related firing rates. Taken together, these results suggest that the basal ganglia are essential not for normal cortical firing rates but for driving task-specific cortical firing patterns, including bursts. Moreover, such patterned bursting appears critical for motor plasticity. Our findings thus provide support for therapies that aim to treat basal ganglia movement disorders by normalizing firing patterns.

Kojima, Satoshi; Kao, Mimi H.; Doupe, Allison J.



The effect of manganese inhalation on basal ganglia dopamine concentrations in rhesus monkey.  


Manganese (Mn) may produce neurotoxicity in man through inhalation of Mn dust. Animals exposed to excessive Mn develop neurological abnormalities, and neuropathological lesions in the brain mainly in the globus pallidus with decreased concentrations of the neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), in the brain. Monkeys exposed to Mn by inhalation did not produce any abnormal movements. After two years, the animals were sacrificed and certain brain areas were compared to controls. There were significant decreases in DA concentration in caudate and globus pallidus, and there was a 60-80% increase in Mn concentration in the basal ganglia of the brain. The DA system in the basal ganglia is vulnerable to the effects of Mn, but the amount of Mn inhaled and the period of exposure would appear to determine whether abnormal neurological signs develop. PMID:6538950

Bird, E D; Anton, A H; Bullock, B



[Changes in the adrenergic structures of the human stellate ganglia in pathological states].  


Stellate ganglia from patients who had succumbed to various diseases were examined by a fluorescent histochemical technique using 2% glyoxylic acid. Catecholamines were detectable in the major neurons, in small intensely fluorescent cells, and in adrenergic fibers with varicosities at levels that varied with the patient's age, cause of death, duration of the agonal period, the treatment administered, and the time when the material had been taken after death. All adrenergic structures of the ganglia were clearly demonstrable after early autopsies of those who had died suddenly from pulmonary artery thromboembolism in the absence of other abnormalities. The ganglia were found to be greatly depleted of catecholamines in cases of sudden cardiac death in the presence of ischemic heart disease before the development of myocardial infarction as well as in those of rapid death from stroke. PMID:3446109

Amvros'ev, A P; Rogov, Iu I



Structural and functional evolution of the basal ganglia in vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a basal ganglia with striatal and pallidal subdivisions is1Although by its structure the word basal ganglia is plural, the basal ganglia is typically regarded as a single entity. Thus, in the same sense that the structurally plural `United States' is treated as a singular noun, we here treat basal ganglia as a singular noun.1 clearly present in many extant

Anton Reiner; Loreta Medina; C. Leo Veenman



Birdbrains could teach basal ganglia research a new song  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in anatomical, physiological and histochemical characterization of avian basal ganglia neurons and circuitry have revealed remarkable simi- larities to mammalian basal ganglia. A modern revision of the avian anatomical nomenclature has now provided a common language for studying the function of the cortical-basal-ganglia-cortical loop, enabling neuros- cientists to take advantage of the specialization of basal ganglia areas in

Allison J. Doupe; David J. Perkel; Anton Reiner; Edward A. Stern



Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human Basal Ganglia.  


Detailed knowledge of the anatomy and connectivity pattern of cortico-basal ganglia circuits is essential to an understanding of abnormal cortical function and pathophysiology associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. We aim to study the spatial extent and topography of human basal ganglia connectivity in vivo. Additionally, we explore at an anatomical level the hypothesis of coexistent segregated and integrative cortico-basal ganglia loops. We use probabilistic tractography on magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging data to segment basal ganglia and thalamus in 30 healthy subjects based on their cortical and subcortical projections. We introduce a novel method to define voxel-based connectivity profiles that allow representation of projections from a source to more than one target region. Using this method, we localize specific relay nuclei within predefined functional circuits. We find strong correlation between tractography-based basal ganglia parcellation and anatomical data from previously reported invasive tracing studies in nonhuman primates. Additionally, we show in vivo the anatomical basis of segregated loops and the extent of their overlap in prefrontal, premotor, and motor networks. Our findings in healthy humans support the notion that probabilistic diffusion tractography can be used to parcellate subcortical gray matter structures on the basis of their connectivity patterns. The coexistence of clearly segregated and also overlapping connections from cortical sites to basal ganglia subregions is a neuroanatomical correlate of both parallel and integrative networks within them. We believe that this method can be used to examine pathophysiological concepts in a number of basal ganglia-related disorders. PMID:18614684

Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Klöppel, Stefan; Cook, Philip A; Alexander, Daniel C; Parker, Geoff J M; Deichmann, Ralf; Ashburner, John; Frackowiak, Richard S J



? oscillations in the human basal ganglia.  


Interest in beta activity in the basal ganglia has mushroomed since it was first identified in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease in Jonathan Dostrovsky's landmark paper (Levy et al., 2000). Here we consider a less explored phenomenon; namely gamma frequency synchronisation of neurons in the basal ganglia. Gamma oscillations have been reported in a distributed network involving the basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cortex, and have been described in a wide range of diseases as well as during increased arousal and voluntary movement. In Parkinson's disease, gamma activity is promoted by dopaminergic therapy. These features suggest that its elevation may be involved in the production of movement and this hypothesis is supported by the correlation between the amplitude of gamma activity and limb kinematics. Here we review these data, discuss the functional anatomy of gamma activity in basal ganglia and question how closely it relates to the coding of movement parameters. PMID:22841500

Jenkinson, Ned; Kühn, Andrea A; Brown, Peter



Functional anatomy: dynamic States in Basal Ganglia circuits.  


The most appealing models of how the basal ganglia function propose distributed patterns of cortical activity selectively interacting with striatal networks to yield the execution of context-dependent movements. If movement is encoded by patterns of activity then these may be disrupted by influences at once more subtle and more devastating than the increase or decrease of neuronal firing that dominate the usual models of the circuit. In the absence of dopamine the compositional capabilities of cell assemblies in the network could be disrupted by the generation of dominant synchronous activity that engages most of the system. Experimental evidence about Parkinson's disease suggests that dopamine loss produces abnormal patterns of activity in different nuclei. For example, increased oscillatory activity arises in the GPe, GPi, and STN and is reflected as increased cortical beta frequency coherence disrupting the ability to produce motor sequences. When the idea of deep brain stimulation was proposed - it was supported by the information that lesions of the subthalamus reversed the effects of damage to the dopamine input to the system. However, it seems increasingly unlikely that the stimulation acts by silencing the nucleus as was at first proposed. Perhaps the increased cortical beta activity caused by the lack of dopamine could have disabled the patterning of network activity. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts the on-going cortical rhythms. Subsequently asynchronous firing is reinstated and striatal cell assemblies and the whole basal ganglia circuit engage in a more normal pattern of activity. We will review the different variables involved in the generation of sequential activity patterns, integrate our data on deep brain stimulation and network population dynamics, and thus provide a novel interpretation of functional aspects of basal ganglia circuitry. PMID:21151374

Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Arbuthnott, Gordon W



Functional Anatomy: Dynamic States in Basal Ganglia Circuits  

PubMed Central

The most appealing models of how the basal ganglia function propose distributed patterns of cortical activity selectively interacting with striatal networks to yield the execution of context-dependent movements. If movement is encoded by patterns of activity then these may be disrupted by influences at once more subtle and more devastating than the increase or decrease of neuronal firing that dominate the usual models of the circuit. In the absence of dopamine the compositional capabilities of cell assemblies in the network could be disrupted by the generation of dominant synchronous activity that engages most of the system. Experimental evidence about Parkinson's disease suggests that dopamine loss produces abnormal patterns of activity in different nuclei. For example, increased oscillatory activity arises in the GPe, GPi, and STN and is reflected as increased cortical beta frequency coherence disrupting the ability to produce motor sequences. When the idea of deep brain stimulation was proposed – it was supported by the information that lesions of the subthalamus reversed the effects of damage to the dopamine input to the system. However, it seems increasingly unlikely that the stimulation acts by silencing the nucleus as was at first proposed. Perhaps the increased cortical beta activity caused by the lack of dopamine could have disabled the patterning of network activity. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus disrupts the on-going cortical rhythms. Subsequently asynchronous firing is reinstated and striatal cell assemblies and the whole basal ganglia circuit engage in a more normal pattern of activity. We will review the different variables involved in the generation of sequential activity patterns, integrate our data on deep brain stimulation and network population dynamics, and thus provide a novel interpretation of functional aspects of basal ganglia circuitry.

Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Arbuthnott, Gordon W.



Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.  


Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials. PMID:21326826

Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J


Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.



Abnormal posturing  


People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...


Walking abnormalities  


Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...


Loss of specificity in Basal Ganglia related movement disorders.  


The basal ganglia (BG) are a group of interconnected nuclei which play a pivotal part in limbic, associative, and motor functions. This role is mirrored by the wide range of motor and behavioral abnormalities directly resulting from dysfunction of the BG. Studies of normal behavior have found that BG neurons tend to phasically modulate their activity in relation to different behavioral events. In the normal BG, this modulation is highly specific, with each neuron related only to a small subset of behavioral events depending on specific combinations of movement parameters and context. In many pathological conditions involving BG dysfunction and motor abnormalities, this neuronal specificity is lost. Loss of specificity (LOS) manifests in neuronal activity related to a larger spectrum of events and consequently a large overlap of movement-related activation patterns between different neurons. We review the existing evidence for LOS in BG-related movement disorders, the possible neural mechanisms underlying LOS, its effects on frequently used measures of neuronal activity and its relation to theoretical models of the BG. The prevalence of LOS in a many BG-related disorders suggests that neuronal specificity may represent a key feature of normal information processing in the BG system. Thus, the concept of neuronal specificity may underlie a unifying conceptual framework for the BG role in normal and abnormal motor control. PMID:21687797

Bronfeld, Maya; Bar-Gad, Izhar



Psychosis revealing familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  


We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible. However, a fortuitous association between asymptomatic IBGC and schizophrenia cannot be ruled out. Only brain imaging, followed by an extensive etiological assessment, allows for diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23122487

Nicolas, Gaël; Guillin, Olivier; Borden, Alaina; Bioux, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Romain; Hannequin, Didier



Actions, Policies, Values, and the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia are widely believed to be involved in the learned selection of actions. Building on this idea, reinforcement learning (RL) theories of optimal control have had some success in explaining the responses of their key dopaminergic afferents. While these model-free RL theories offer a compelling account of a range of neurophysiological and behavioural data, they offer only an

Nathaniel D. Daw; Yael Niv; Peter Dayan


Noradrenergic innervation of rabbit pancreatic ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympathetic nerve stimulation indirectly regulates pancreatic endocrine and exocrine secretion, in part, through actions on the cholinergic parasympathetic innervation of the secretory tissues. Earlier work identified noradrenergic nerves in pancreatic ganglia and demonstrated the effects of exogenous norepinephrine (NE) on synaptic transmission but no quantitative studies of ganglionic NE content and release exist. Therefore, the distribution and density of catecholamine

Eunyoung Yi; Tina G. Smith; Jeffrey A. Love



Extrastriatal dopaminergic innervation of human basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemical analysis of the brains of normal human individuals has revealed nigrostriatal axons providing collaterals that arborize in the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course backward along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the ansa lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson’s pencils. Many of

Martine Cossette; Martin Lévesque; André Parent



Dopamine release in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action potential- and Ca2+ -dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic, mechanism. Even

M. E. Rice; J. C. Patel; S. J. Cragg



Microsoft Academic Search

From 1995 to 1998, 30 patients with dorsal wrist ganglia and four with recurrent dorsal ganglia underwent arthroscopic resection. At a mean follow-up of 16 months, no complications were seen, but minimal pain persisted in three patients. Two recurrences were seen after arthroscopic resection of primary ganglia.




Network-level neuroplasticity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The striatum, the largest input nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives massive inputs from the neocortex and thalamus, and gives rise to the direct, indirect and striosomal pathways of the basal ganglia. Here, the view is developed that the striatum is a major site for adaptive plasticity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, affecting in the normal state a broad range of

Ann M. Graybiel



Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases.  


Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman



Craniofacial Abnormalities  


... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...


Congenital Abnormalities  


... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...


Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.  


This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses. PMID:19588207

Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi



Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.  


Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. GLIA 2013;61:1571-1581. PMID:23918214

Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong



Amphibian sympathetic ganglia in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A culture medium has been developed for amphibian sympathetic nervous tissue but it is suggested that the ionic values should be adjusted to correspond to the concentrations of salts in the plasma of particular species.2.The morphology, monoamine fluorescence, growth and differentiation of sympathetic ganglia of the frog, Limnodynastes dumerili, have been studied in culture.3.Two types of neuron could be distinguished

C. E. Hill; G. Burnstock



Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio.  


We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. PMID:20022733

van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J



Abnormal Plasminogen  

PubMed Central

A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images

Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio



Dopamine release in the basal ganglia.  


Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action potential- and Ca²?-dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic, mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA, and acetylcholine (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

Rice, M E; Patel, J C; Cragg, S J



Multi-Neuronal Recordings in the Basal Ganglia in Normal and Dystonic Rats  

PubMed Central

Classical rate-based pathway models are invaluable for conceptualizing direct/indirect basal ganglia pathways, but cannot account for many aspects of normal and abnormal motor control. To better understand the contribution of patterned basal ganglia signaling to normal and pathological motor control, we simultaneously recorded multi-neuronal and EMG activity in normal and dystonic rats. We used the jaundiced Gunn rat model of kernicterus as our experimental model of dystonia. Stainless steel head fixtures were implanted on the skulls and EMG wires were inserted into antagonistic hip muscles in nine dystonic and nine control rats. Under awake, head-restrained conditions, neuronal activity was collected from up to three microelectrodes inserted in the principal motor regions of the globus pallidus (GP), subthalamic nucleus, and entopeduncular nucleus (EP). In normal animals, most neurons discharged in regular or irregular patterns, without appreciable bursting. In contrast, in dystonic animals, neurons discharged in slow bursty or irregular, less bursty patterns. In normal rats, a subset of neurons showed brief discharge bursts coinciding with individual agonist or antagonist EMG bursts. In contrast, in dystonics, movement related discharges were characterized by more prolonged bursts which persist over multiple dystonic co-contraction epics. The pattern of movement related decreases in discharge activity however did not differ in dystonics compared to controls. In severely dystonic rats, exclusively, simultaneously recorded units often showed abnormally synchronized movement related pauses in GP and bursts in EP. In conclusion, our findings support that slow, abnormally patterned neuronal signaling is a fundamental pathophysiological feature of intrinsic basal ganglia nuclei in dystonia. Moreover, from our findings, we suggest that excessive movement related silencing of neuronal signaling in GP profoundly disinhibits EP and in turn contributes to sustained, unfocused dystonic muscle contractions.

Baron, Mark S.; Chaniary, Kunal D.; Rice, Ann C.; Shapiro, Steven M.



The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru



Metabolite Alterations in Basal Ganglia Associated with Psychiatric Symptoms of Abstinent Toluene Users: A Proton MRS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term toluene abuse causes a variety of psychiatric symptoms. However, little is known about abnormalities at the neurochemical level in the living human brain after long-term exposure to toluene. To detect neurochemical changes in the basal ganglia of subjects with a history of long-term toluene use, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was performed in 12 abstinent toluene users and

Kiyokazu Takebayashi; Yoshimoto Sekine; Nori Takei; Yoshio Minabe; Haruo Isoda; Hiroyasu Takeda; Katsuhiko Nishimura; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Katsuaki Suzuki; Yasuhide Iwata; Harumi Sakahara; Norio Mori



A selective role for right insula--basal ganglia circuits in appetitive stimulus processing.  


Hemispheric lateralization of hedonic evaluation ('liking') and incentive motivation ('wanting') in neural networks connecting the basal ganglia and insula (BG-I) in humans was examined. Participants with brain damage restricted to the BG-I of the right (n = 5) or left (n = 5) hemisphere, and 26 healthy participants matched on age, sex and intelligence quotient were tested on positively and negatively valenced pictures drawn from varied stimulus categories (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2008). Liking was assessed with explicit ratings of pleasantness using a nine-point Likert scale. Wanting was quantified as the amount of work (via repeated keypresses) that participants expended to increase (approach) or decrease (withdraw) viewing time. Right-lesion patients showed abnormally low viewing times and liking ratings for positive images. For a subset of positive images depicting sexual content, right-lesion patients exhibited active withdrawal, while the other two groups approached such stimuli. These results suggest that the right basal ganglia-insula complex plays a greater role than the left in supporting hedonic evaluation and motivational approach to positively valenced stimuli. The finding that active avoidance of stimuli that were not 'liked' was spared in both right- and left-sided lesion subjects suggests that unilateral damage to insula/basal ganglia circuits may not be sufficient to affect general incentive motivation independent of preference. PMID:22798397

Vijayaraghavan, Lavanya; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P; Cassell, Martin; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio



Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are simply involved in the control of movement has been challenged in recent years. One of the pivotal reasons for this reappraisal has been new information about basal ganglia and cerebellar connections with the cerebral cortex. In essence, recent anatomical studies have revealed that these connections are organized into discrete circuits

Frank A Middleton; Peter L Strick



Germ cell tumors of the thalamus and the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the basal ganglia are presented and 40 previously reported cases are reviewed. The incidence of GCTs of the basal ganglia and thalamus was estimated as less than 14% of all intracranial GCTs. All patients except for two (95%) were male, aged 7–19 years. The clinical course was usually slow. The major symptoms

Norihiko Tamaki; Tingkai Lin; Kunio Shirataki; Kohkichi Hosoda; Hiromitsu Kurata; Satoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Ito




Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Although the mammalian,basal ganglia have long been implicated in motor behavior, it is generally recognized that the behavioral functions of this subcor- tical group of structures are not exclusively motoric in nature. Extensive evidence now indicates a role for the basal ganglia, in particular the dorsal striatum, in learning and memory. One prominent,hypothesis is that this brain region

Mark G. Packard; Barbara J. Knowlton



Immunohistochemical analysis of intracardiac ganglia of the rat heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurochemistry of intracardiac neurons in whole-mount preparations of the intrinsic ganglia was investigated. This technique allowed the study of the morphology of the ganglionated nerve plexus found within the atria as well as of individual neurons. Intracardiac ganglia formed a ring-like plexus around the entry of the pulmonary veins and were interconnected by a series of fine nerve fibres.

R. J. Richardson; I. Grkovic; C. R. Anderson



Functional changes of the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia circuitry processes the signals that flow from the cortex, allowing the correct execution of voluntary movements. In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta triggers a cascade of functional changes affecting the whole basal ganglia network. The most relevant alterations affect the output nuclei of the circuit, the medial globus pallidus

Fabio Blandini; Giuseppe Nappi; Cristina Tassorelli; Emilia Martignoni



Protocadherin 17 regulates presynaptic assembly in topographic corticobasal Ganglia circuits.  


Highly topographic organization of neural circuits exists for the regulation of various brain functions in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Although neural circuit-specific refinement during synapse development is essential for the execution of particular neural functions, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for synapse refinement are largely unknown. Here, we show that protocadherin 17 (PCDH17), one of the nonclustered ?2-protocadherin family members, is enriched along corticobasal ganglia synapses in a zone-specific manner during synaptogenesis and regulates presynaptic assembly in these synapses. PCDH17 deficiency in mice causes facilitated presynaptic vesicle accumulation and enhanced synaptic transmission efficacy in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Furthermore, PCDH17(-/-) mice exhibit antidepressant-like phenotypes that are known to be regulated by corticobasal ganglia circuits. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for PCDH17 in the synaptic development of specific corticobasal ganglia circuits and suggest the involvement of PCDH17 in such circuits in depressive behaviors. PMID:23684785

Hoshina, Naosuke; Tanimura, Asami; Yamasaki, Miwako; Inoue, Takeshi; Fukabori, Ryoji; Kuroda, Teiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Tezuka, Tohru; Sagara, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shinji; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi




PubMed Central

The compound action potential of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia, as recorded in cat skin nerves after conduction of simultaneously initiated impulses, shows among its components a temporal dispersion corresponding to velocities between 2.3 and 0.7 M.P.S. The maximum representation of the component velocities is at about 1.2 M.P.S. On both sides of the maximum the representation falls off irregularly, in such a way that groupings in the distribution produce in the action potential a configuration in which successive features appear always in the same positions at a given conduction distance. Through this demonstration of a characteristic configuration the system of the unmedullated fibers is brought into analogy with that of the medullated fibers. The unmedullated fibers originating in the dorsal root ganglia have distinctive physiological properties, among which is a large positive potential which reaches its maximum immediately after the spike and decrements to half relaxation in about 50 msec., at 37°C. The positive phases of the unit potentials in the compound action potential, owing to their duration, sum to a much greater extent than the temporally dispersed spikes; and, since they have sizes such that one equivalent to 25 per cent of the spike height would not be at the limit, in the summation process the major portion of the compound action potential is caused to be written at a potential level positive to the starting base line. The position of the spikes in the sequence can be seen in the analyses in Section III. The course of the activity in unit fibers is subject to variation in ways affecting the positive potential. Preliminary descriptions, based on orienting experiments, of how these variations are conditioned are given in Section I. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy. One is the high sensitivity of the dimensions of the postspike positivity to temperature in the range of temperatures at which skin nerves may be expected to function, even when the environmental temperatures of an animal are moderate. The other is the high sensitivity to conditioning by previous activity. The positivity is first decreased, then replaced by a negative potential of similar duration. Reasons have been given why it is inadvisable at the present time to call the postspike potential an after-potential. A comparison has been made of the properties of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia with those of fibers arising from sympathetic ganglia. The differences are so great that, in the interest of precision in designation, a division of the C group of fibers into two subgroups is indicated. It is suggested that the two subgroups be named respectively d.r.C and s.C. Measurements have been made of the diameters of the d.r.C fibers in a saphenous nerve stained with silver. Graphs showing the number of fibers at each diameter are presented in Section II. In Section III there are shown constructions, from histological data, of the action potential as it would appear, after 3 cm. of conduction, with the correlation between diameter and velocity in strict linearity. The degree of fit between the constructed and recorded potentials can be seen in Fig. 18.

Gasser, Herbert S.



Role of neurotrophin signalling in the differentiation of neurons from dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation of neurotrophin (NT) signalling by administration or depletion of NTs, by transgenic overexpression or by deletion\\u000a of genes coding for NTs and their receptors has demonstrated the importance of NT signalling for the survival and differentiation\\u000a of neurons in sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Combination with mutation of the proapoptotic Bax gene allows the\\u000a separation of survival and

Uwe Ernsberger



Mutation in the gene encoding ferritin light polypeptide causes dominant adult-onset basal ganglia disease.  


We describe here a previously unknown, dominantly inherited, late-onset basal ganglia disease, variably presenting with extrapyramidal features similar to those of Huntington's disease (HD) or parkinsonism. We mapped the disorder, by linkage analysis, to 19q13.3, which contains the gene for ferritin light polypeptide (FTL). We found an adenine insertion at position 460-461 that is predicted to alter carboxy-terminal residues of the gene product. Brain histochemistry disclosed abnormal aggregates of ferritin and iron. Low serum ferritin levels also characterized patients. Ferritin, the main iron storage protein, is composed of 24 subunits of two types (heavy, H and light, L) which form a soluble, hollow sphere. Brain iron deposition increases normally with age, especially in the basal ganglia, and is a suspected causative factor in several neurodegenerative diseases in which it correlates with visible pathology, possibly by its involvement in toxic free-radical reactions. We found the same mutation in five apparently unrelated subjects with similar extrapyramidal symptoms. An abnormality in ferritin strongly indicates a primary function for iron in the pathogenesis of this new disease, for which we propose the name 'neuroferritinopathy'. PMID:11438811

Curtis, A R; Fey, C; Morris, C M; Bindoff, L A; Ince, P G; Chinnery, P F; Coulthard, A; Jackson, M J; Jackson, A P; McHale, D P; Hay, D; Barker, W A; Markham, A F; Bates, D; Curtis, A; Burn, J



Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated.

Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul



The chelonian spinal nerve ganglia are a conglomerate of the spinal nerve ganglia proper and the sympathetic ganglia.  


A tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell mass is found in the caudal portion of the dorsal nerve ganglion of the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans. The ganglion appears as a flat oval structure in the horizontal plane, where the major axis runs latero-medially, and the minor axis rostro-caudally in the ventral view. A communicating branch to the sympathetic chain diverges from the top of each tubercle which lies on the caudo-lateral side of the ganglion. A tyrosine hydroxylase- immunoreactive cell mass is located in this tubercle. This cell mass exists in both sexes. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells, that contain Nissl bodies in cytoplasm and are enveloped by the satellite cells, are multipolar and their neural processes are distributed in a distal direction into the spinal nerve. The range of distribution of the synapsin I-immunoreactive structures is limited to the tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell mass. The chelonian dorsal spinal nerve ganglia are a conglomerate of the spinal nerve ganglion proper and the sympathetic ganglion. PMID:19468213

Kadota, Tetsuo; Nakano, Masato; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Goris, Richard C; Funakoshi, Kengo



The Basal Ganglia and Chunking of Action Repertoires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia have been shown to contribute to habit and stimulus–response (S–R) learning. These forms of learning have the property of slow acquisition and, in humans, can occur without conscious awareness. This paper proposes that one aspect of basal ganglia-based learning is the recoding of cortically derived information within the striatum. Modular corticostriatal projection patterns, demonstrated experimentally, are viewed

Ann M. Graybiel



Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of “wanted” and in the suppression of “unwanted” behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill

W. J. Schmidt



Localization of GABA receptors in the basal ganglia.  


The majority of neurons in the basal ganglia utilize GABA as their principal neurotransmitter and, as a consequence, most basal ganglia neurons receive extensive GABAergic inputs derived from multiple sources. In order to understand the diverse roles of GABA in the basal ganglia it is necessary to define the precise localization of GABA receptors in relation to known neuron subtypes and known afferents. In this chapter, we summarize data on the ultrastructural localization of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors and metabotropic GABA(B) receptors in the basal ganglia. In each of the regions of the basal ganglia that have been studied, GABA(A) receptor subunits are located primarily at symmetrical synapses formed by GABAergic boutons, where they display a several-hundred-fold enrichment over extrasynaptic sites. In contrast, GABA(B) receptors are widely distributed at synaptic and extrasynaptic sites on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. Presynaptic GABA(B) receptors are localized on striatopallidal, striatonigral and pallidonigral afferent terminals, as well as glutamatergic terminals derived from the cortex, thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. It is concluded that fast GABA transmission mediated by GABA(A) receptors in the basal ganglia occurs primarily at synapses whereas GABA transmission mediated by GABA(B) receptors is more complex, involving receptors located at presynaptic, postsynaptic and extrasynaptic sites. PMID:17499117

Boyes, Justin; Bolam, J Paul



Hyperpolarizing `?2'-adrenoceptors in rat sympathetic ganglia  

PubMed Central

1 Receptors mediating catecholamine-induced hyperpolarization of isolated superior cervical sympathetic ganglia of the rat have been characterized by means of an extracellular recording method. 2 (-)-Noradrenaline (EC50, 1.7 ± 0.6 ?M) produced an immediate low-amplitude (< 400 ?V) hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarization was increased on removal of external Ca2+ or on reduction of external K+ from 6 to 2 mM. Hyperpolarization was unaffected by changing the temperature from 25° to 37°C. 3 Hyperpolarization was also produced by the following agonists (potencies relative to (-)-noradrenaline): (-)-noradrenaline 1; (±)-isoprenaline 0.41; (-)-phenylephrine 0.40; (+)-noradrenaline 0.13; 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy tetrahydronaphthalene (ADTN) 0.25; dopamine 0.1; methoxamine 0.012; amidephrine 0.0015. 4 Responses were antagonized by phentolamine (1 ?M) but not by (±)-propranolol (1 ?M), haloperidol (10 ?M) or ?-flupenthixol (1 ?M). This suggested that hyperpolarization was mediated solely through ?-receptor stimulation not through stimulation of ?-receptors or dopamine-receptors. 5 Dose-ratio shifts produced by phentolamine varied with different agonists. The shift increased in inverse proportion to the ability of the agonists to inhibit [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline uptake, suggesting that uptake of agonists limited the dose-ratio shift. Cocaine and nortriptyline reduced catecholamine-induced hyperpolarization in concentrations (10 ?M and 1 ?M respectively) necessary to inhibit [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline uptake. 6 Clonidine (0.01 to 1 ?M), oxymetazoline (0.01 to 1 ?M) and ergometrine (0.1 to 10 ?M) produced a persistent, low-amplitude hyperpolarization, as though they were partial agonists. Responses to the agonists were blocked by yohimbine (1 ?M) but not be prazosin (1 ?M). 7 It is concluded that the adrenergic cell bodies in the ganglion were hyperpolarized through activation of the same type of ?-receptor (`?2-receptors') as those present at adrenergic nerve terminals.

Brown, D.A.; Caulfield, M.P.



Sperm Shape Abnormalities Induced by Energy-Related Hydrocarbons and Industrial Chemicals. EPA-1AG-D6-E681-AN, Progress Report, July 1, 1978-December 31, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the following subject areas: changes in murine sperm head dimensions induced by low doses of x-irradiation; genetic differences in the induction of abnormal sperm with polycyclic hydrocarbons; the role of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxyla...

A. J. Wyrobek



A case of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.  


Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a syndrome in which bilateral cerebral calcification occurs despite the absence of abnormal calcium metabolism. A 17-year-old Japanese female was admitted for investigation of intermittent proteinuria from the age of 12 years. On admission, her blood pressure was 126/60 mmHg and her serum creatinine was 0.8 mg/dL. Although computed tomography revealed bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis, her level of intelligence and neurological findings were normal, as were the results of endocrine tests including parathyroid hormone. Asymptomatic IBGC was diagnosed. Renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Peritoneal dialysis was started for end-stage renal failure when she was 24 years old. Pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs started to develop at the age of 27 years and progressed, resulting in death from aspiration pneumonia at the age of 32 years. Post-mortem revealed bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia, dentate nucleus, thalamus, and centrum semiovale. On light microscopy, there was circumferential calcification of the media and intima of affected vessels in the brain, including small arteries, small veins, and capillaries, and luminal narrowing was seen. On electron microscopy, layers of differing electron density were arranged in concentric laminae. This is the first report of IBGC with bilateral and symmetrical cerebral calcification accompanied by membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis resulting in end-stage renal failure. PMID:22001464

Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Anzai, Makoto; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Junichi; Sumida, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Eiko; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Marui, Yuji; Sawa, Naoki; Hara, Shigeko; Takaichi, Kenmei; Oohashi, Kenichi



Abnormal resonance behavior of the postural control loop in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human postural control of upright stance sporadically can show an oscillatory behavior. Based on previous work, we assessed whether an abnormal tendency for such oscillations might contribute to the motor impairments in patients with basal ganglia dysfunction such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated postural control during unperturbed stance in normal control subjects and in PD patients off and under

C. Maurer; T. Mergner; R. J. Peterka



[Case of painful muscle spasm induced by thoracic vertebral fracture: successful treatment with lumbar sympathetic ganglia block].  


We report a 70-year-old man, who developed painful involuntary muscle contraction of the left leg after the lumbar discectomy, which exacerbated after a vertebral fracture of Th12. This involuntary movement was accompanied with the abnormal position of left leg simulating triple flexion response, and was induced by active or passive movement of his left knee and foot joints. Several drugs including benzodiazepines and dantrolene were ineffective, although treatment with baclofen or carbamazepine was effective. These findings suggest that hyperexcitability of the anterior horn cells following the disturbance of spinal inhibitory interneurons was involved. Electophysiological studies suggested the disturbance of left lumber nerve roots. The spinal root blocks from L3 to S1 were performed, after which the painful involuntary muscle spasm was resolved. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia block was also effective; suggesting that abnormal afferent neuronal input to spinal cord was caused by the nerve root trauma which triggered the formation of secondary abnormal network in the spine. Lumbar sympathetic ganglia block should be recommended to a therapeutic option for the refractory painful muscle spasm of the leg. PMID:19086429

Shimizu, Fumitaka; Kawai, Motoharu; Koga, Michiaki; Ogasawara, Jun-ichi; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Takashi



Rhythmic cortical neurons increase their oscillations and sculpt basal ganglia signaling during motor learning.  


The function and modulation of neural circuits underlying motor skill may involve rhythmic oscillations (Feller, ; Marder and Goaillard, ; Churchland et al., ). In the proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the cortical nucleus HVC, the frequency and power of oscillatory bursting during singing increases with development (Crandall et al., ; Day et al., ). We examined the maturation of cellular activity patterns that underlie these changes. Single unit ensemble recording combined with antidromic identification (Day et al., ) was used to study network development in anesthetized zebra finches. Autocovariance quantified oscillations within single units. A subset of neurons oscillated in the theta/alpha/mu/beta range (8-20 Hz), with greater power in adults compared to juveniles. Across the network, the normalized oscillatory power in the 8-20 Hz range was greater in adults than juveniles. In addition, the correlated activity between rhythmic neuron pairs increased with development. We next examined the functional impact of the oscillators on the output neurons of HVC. We found that the firing of oscillatory neurons negatively correlated with the activity of cortico-basal ganglia neurons (HVCX s), which project to Area X (the song basal ganglia). If groups of oscillators work together to tonically inhibit and precisely control the spike timing of adult HVCX s with coordinated release from inhibition, then the activity of HVCX s in juveniles should be decreased relative to adults due to uncorrelated, tonic inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, HVCX s had lower activity in juveniles. These data reveal network changes that shape cortical-to-basal ganglia signaling during motor learning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 754-768, 2013. PMID:23776169

Day, Nancy F; Nick, Teresa A



Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation.  


Atypical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). "Neurally impaired" versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable's motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286

Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H



Osteopontin (Eta-1) is present in the rat basal ganglia.  


Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein that is responsive to oxidative stress and inflammation and controls cytokine production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and apoptotic cell death. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of OPN in the rat basal ganglia. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), OPN cDNA was found in the substantia nigra, and striatum. The presence of OPN mRNA was demonstrated in the same areas of the basal ganglia, using in situ hybridisation. OPN protein was found in the SN, using Western blotting and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The protein was localised to neurones but not to microglia or astroglia. This is the first report of the presence of OPN in the basal ganglia where it may be involved in the maintenance of neuronal viability. PMID:15548430

Iczkiewicz, Joanna; Rose, Sarah; Jenner, Peter



Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.  


We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S



Development and differentiation of fetal rat sensory ganglia and spinal cord segments in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal spinal ganglia and spinal cord segments with adhering spinal ganglia were explanted on collagen-coated coverslips. They were investigated with enzyme histochemical methods for the existence of hydrolases and dehydrogenases up to 54 days of cultivation.

Klaus Tischner; Ekkehard Thomas



Topography and neurochemistry of the enteric ganglia in the proventriculus of the duck ( Anas platyrhynchos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topographical distribution of the enteric ganglia has been investigated in the proventriculus of the duck using protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) immunohistochemistry. Myenteric ganglia were usually located between the outer longitudinal and the inner circular muscle layer. Submucous ganglia were sparsely distributed and seemed to be substituted by ganglia located in the tunica mucosa. The neurochemical profile of proventricular

Nicola Mirabella; Caterina Squillacioti; Angelo Genovese; Giuseppe Germano; Giuseppe Paino



Are periodic movements in sleep a basal ganglia dysfunction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Muscle activity during sleep is a new area of interest in sleep research. No precise brain structures are known to be involved in sleep movement. The etiology of periodic movements during sleep is unknown. The present study was dedicated to evaluate involvement of basal ganglia in periodic movements of the legs during sleep (PMS) in Parkinson's diseased patients. Sleep

J. J. M. Askenasy; E. D. Weitzman; M. D. Yahr



Toward a Functional Analysis of the Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson patients were tested in two paradigms to test the hypothesis that the basal ganglia are involved in the shifting of attentional set. Set shifting means a respecification of the conditions that regulate responding, a process sometimes referred to as an executive process. In one paradigm, upon the appearance of each stimulus, subjects were instructed to respond either to its

Amy E. Hayes; Matthew C. Davidson; Steven W. Keele; Robert D. Rafal



Injuries of Basal Ganglia following Head Trauma in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

7 pediatric patients with injuries of basal ganglia following head trauma were reported. They ranged in age from 10 months to 10 years. 5 boys and 2 girls comprised the patients. Cases 1–4 are mild cases in which the children fell down backward while playing, followed by a minimum loss of consciousness. In every case there was hemiparesis, but all

Yutaka Maki; Hiroshi Akimoto; Takao Enomoto



The role of the basal ganglia in data processing.  


Complex cerebral activities are likely to be composed of massively repeated simple data processing tasks since the cortical data processing unit, the cortical mini-column, is found throughout the cortex with only minor variations. It has been proposed that one task performed by the cortical mini-column may be to match afferent sensory data to learnt datasets in a process known as automatic association. We hypothesize that basal ganglia circuits, through the relative signal of the nigro-striatal and striato-pallidal pathways, determine the matching threshold for dataset matching within cortical mini-columns. Basal ganglia circuits are in a unique position to use parallel information to modulate the parameters of auto-association to increase the speed of data processing tasks. This hypothesis can explain motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease and also predicts that over and underactivity of basal ganglia circuits (the 'on' and 'off' states) will lead to characteristic errors in sensory data interpretation in all modalities - false negative data recognition when 'off' and false positive data recognition when 'on'. As a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis 16 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease were tested in voice and face recognition when 'off' and 'on'. Each patient exhibited errors in the recognition task according to basal ganglia activity as predicted by our hypothesis. Further experiments to test the hypothesis are proposed. PMID:18410994

Leyden, James; Kleinig, Tim



Selective extracellular stimulation of individual neurons in ganglia  

PubMed Central

Selective control of individual neurons could clarify neural functions and aid disease treatments. To target specific neurons, it may be useful to focus on ganglionic neuron clusters, which are found in the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. Because neuron cell bodies are found primarily near the surface of invertebrate ganglia, and often found near the surface of vertebrate ganglia, we developed a technique for controlling individual neurons extracellularly using the buccal ganglia of the marine mollusc Aplysia californica as a model system. We experimentally demonstrated that anodic currents can selectively activate an individual neuron and cathodic currents can selectively inhibit an individual neuron using this technique. To define spatial specificity, we studied the minimum currents required for stimulation, and to define temporal specificity, we controlled firing frequencies up to 45 Hz. To understand the mechanisms of spatial and temporal specificity, we created models using the NEURON software package. To broadly predict the spatial specificity of arbitrary neurons in any ganglion sharing similar geometry, we created a steady-state analytical model. A NEURON model based on cat spinal motorneurons showed responses to extracellular stimulation qualitatively similar to those of the Aplysia NEURON model, suggesting that this technique could be widely applicable to vertebrate and human peripheral ganglia having similar geometry.

Lu, Hui; Chestek, Cynthia A; Shaw, Kendrick M; Chiel, Hillel J



Computed tomography of germinomas in basal ganglia and thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT findings of 6 cases with germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus are reported. The early finding of germinoma in this region on plain CT, was an irregularly defined, slightly high density area without mass effect. Repeated CT scanning showed enlarging iso-density lesion accompanied by mass effect to high. Intratumorous cysts and calcifications were frequently observed. The tumor

T. Soejima; I. Takeshita; H. Yamamoto; Y. Tsukamoto; M. Fukui; S. Matsuoka




Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve cell bodies in the spiral and vestibular ganglia of the adult rat are surrounded by thin (about ten lamellae) myelin sheaths which differ in several respects from typical axonal myelin. In some instances lamellae surrounding perikarya appear as typical major dense lines, and in others as thin Schwann cell sheets in which cytoplasm persists. Discontinuities and irregularities appear in




Is Broca's Area Part of a Basal Ganglia Thalamocortical Circuit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized “channels” via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the

Michael T. Ullman



Glutamate–dopamine–GABA interactions in the aging basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of neurotransmitter interactions gives a better understanding of the physiology of specific circuits in the brain. In this review we focus mostly on our own results on the interaction of the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GABA in the basal ganglia during the normal process of aging. We review first the studies on the action of endogenous glutamate on

Francisco Mora; Gregorio Segovia; Alberto del Arco



Expectation of reward modulates cognitive signals in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action is controlled by both motivation and cognition. The basal ganglia may be the site where these kinds of information meet. Using a memory-guided saccade task with an asymmetric reward schedule, we show that visual and memory responses of caudate neurons are modulated by expectation of reward so profoundly that a neuron's preferred direction often changed with the change in

Reiko Kawagoe; Yoriko Takikawa; Okihide Hikosaka



Non-visual functions of crustacean eyestalk ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ablation experiments demonstrated that in several crustacean groups, the proximal eyestalk ganglia are important in a variety of behavior patterns:1.Chemical elicitation of feeding via the antennules is altered in lobsters, hermit crabs, and some brachyuran crabs by bilateral eyestalk ablation; the ablation of one antennule and the contralateral eyestalk is effective in lobsters and hermit crabs;2.increased chewing of inedible

Brian A. Hazlett



Cavernous Sinus Ganglia Are Sources for Parasympathetic Innervation of Cerebral Arteries in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry was used in rats to investigate whether the ganglia in the cavernous sinus contribute to cerebrovascular innervation. The cavernous sinus ganglia in rat include the cavernous part of the pterygopalatine ganglion (PGC) and small cavernous ganglia (CG). The tracers, fluorogold and fast blue, were applied to the middle cerebral artery in eight rats. After 1 to

Ronald L. A. W. Bleys; Chris Thrasivoulou; Tim Cowen; Ronald LAW Bleys



Intracellular recordings from pancreatic ganglia of the cat.  

PubMed Central

1. The anatomy, morphology, and electrophysiology of parasympathetic ganglia of cat pancreas were studied in vitro. 2. Pancreatic ganglia existed as an interconnected plexus of small ganglia (ten to fifty cells) lying in the interlobular connective tissue. Occasionally smaller ganglia (four to ten cells) were observed lying on or within nerve trunks. 3. Electron micrographs revealed the presence of neurones and satellite cells as well as unmyelinated axons and nerve terminals. Nerve terminals contained small clear vesicles and/or large, dense-cored vesicles. 4. Intracellular recording of electrical activity revealed the presence of two types of ganglion cells. Type I ganglion cells exhibited resting membrane potentials that ranged from -40 to -63 mV and input resistances that ranged from 8 to 168 M omega. They responded to intracellular depolarizing current with action potentials, and received synaptic inputs which when activated caused fast and slow depolarizing responses. Type I cells were considered to be ganglionic neurones. Type II ganglion cells had higher resting membrane potentials that ranged from -61 to -83 mV, lower input resistances that ranged from 5 to 83 M omega and were electrically unexcitable. Repetitive stimulation of preganglionic nerves evoked a slow depolarization that was frequency dependent. Type II cells were considered to be satellite cells. 5. Stimulation of nerve trunks both central and peripheral to the ganglia evoked multiple, subthreshold, fast EPSPs in all type I cells tested. Fast EPSPs were blocked by the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. 6. Antidromic potentials were also observed following stimulation of either central or peripheral nerve trunks but never both. 7. In type I cells repetitive stimulation of both central and peripheral nerve trunks resulted in a slow, synaptically mediated depolarization which persisted during superfusion with nicotinic and muscarinic receptor antagonists. 8. Periods of low-frequency, spontaneous fast EPSPs and action potentials were observed in all type I cells tested. 9. It was concluded that parasympathetic neurones in cat pancreatic ganglia receive convergent fast and slow synaptic inputs from central and possibly peripheral sources and may function in vivo as sites of integration. The occurrence of spontaneous synaptic potentials in pancreatic ganglia suggests the possibility of intrinsic neural control of pancreatic function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

King, B F; Love, J A; Szurszewski, J H



Incomplete and Inaccurate Vocal Imitation after Knockdown of FoxP2 in Songbird Basal Ganglia Nucleus Area X  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2.

Haesler, Sebastian; Rochefort, Christelle; Georgi, Benjamin; Licznerski, Pawel; Osten, Pavel; Scharff, Constance



Maintenance of neuronal positions in organized ganglia by SAX-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of L1  

PubMed Central

The L1 family of cell adhesion molecules is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. Mutations in human L1 cause neuronal diseases such as HSAS, MASA, and SPG1. Here we show that sax-7 gene encodes an L1 homologue in Caenorhabditis elegans. In sax-7 mutants, the organization of ganglia and positioning of neurons are abnormal in the adult stage, but these abnormalities are not observed in early larval stage. Misplacement of neurons in sax-7 mutants is triggered by mechanical force linked to body movement. Short and long forms of SAX-7 exhibited strong and weak homophilic adhesion activities in in vitro aggregation assay, respectively, which correlated with their different activities in vivo. SAX-7 was localized on plasma membranes of neurons in vivo. Expression of SAX-7 only in a single neuron in sax-7 mutants cell-autonomously restored its normal neuronal position. Expression of SAX-7 in two different head neurons in sax-7 mutants led to the forced attachment of these neurons. We propose that both homophilic and heterophilic interactions of SAX-7 are essential for maintenance of neuronal positions in organized ganglia.

Sasakura, Hiroyuki; Inada, Hitoshi; Kuhara, Atsushi; Fusaoka, Eri; Takemoto, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Kosei; Mori, Ikue




PubMed Central

Long-term organotypic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a single 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and studied in the living and fixed states by light or electron microscopy at 1–14 day intervals thereafter. Within the first 4 days following irradiation, over 30% of the neurons display chromatolytic reactions (eccentric nuclei, peripheral dispersal of Nissl substance, central granular zone) as well as abnormal nucleolar changes and dissociation of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Some satellite cells undergo retraction or acute degeneration, leaving only basement membrane to cover the neuron in these areas. 8 days after irradiation, neurons also exhibit (a) areas in which ribosomes are substantially reduced, (b) regions of cytoplasmic sequestration, (c) extensive vacuolization of granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and (d) diversely altered mitochondria (including the presence of ribosome-like particles or association with abnormal glycogen and lipid deposits). Nucleolar components become altered or reoriented and may form abnormal projections and ringlike configurations. Sizeable areas of the neuronal soma are now denuded of satellite cells; underlying these areas, nerve processes are found abnormally invaginated into the neuronal cytoplasm. By the 14th day following irradiation, most neurons display marked degenerative changes including extensive regions of ribosome depletion, sequestration, vacuolization, autolysis, and, in some areas, swirls of filaments, myelin figures, and heterogeneous dense bodies. These observations demonstrate that X-irradiation produces profound cytopathological changes in nervous tissue isolated from the host and that many of these changes resemble the effects of radiation on nervous tissue in vivo.

Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.



White matter abnormalities in dystonia normalize after botulinum toxin treatment  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of dystonia is still poorly understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging to screen for white matter abnormalities in regions between the basal ganglia and the thalamus in cervical and hand dystonia patients. All patients exhibited an abnormal hemispheric asymmetry in a focal region between the pallidum and the thalamus. This asymmetry was absent 4 weeks after the same patients were treated with intramuscular botulinum toxin injections. These findings represent a new systems-level abnormality in dystonia, which may lead to new insights about the pathophysiology of movement disorders. More generally, these findings demonstrate central nervous system changes following peripheral reductions in muscle activity. This raises the possibility that we have observed activity-dependent white matter plasticity in the adult human brain.

Blood, Anne J.; Tuch, David S.; Makris, Nikos; Makhlouf, Miriam L.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Sharma, Nutan



Abnormal Head Position  


... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...


Visualization of shape motions in shape space.  


Analysis of dynamic object deformations such as cardiac motion is of great importance, especially when there is a necessity to visualize and compare the deformation behavior across subjects. However, there is a lack of effective techniques for comparative visualization and assessment of a collection of motion data due to its 4-dimensional nature, i.e., timely varying three-dimensional shapes. From the geometric point of view, the motion change can be considered as a function defined on the 2D manifold of the surface. This paper presents a novel classification and visualization method based on a medial surface shape space, in which two novel shape descriptors are defined, for discriminating normal and abnormal human heart deformations as well as localizing the abnormal motion regions. In our medial surface shape space, the geodesic distance connecting two points in the space measures the similarity between their corresponding medial surfaces, which can quantify the similarity and disparity of the 3D heart motions. Furthermore, the novel descriptors can effectively localize the inconsistently deforming myopathic regions on the left ventricle. An easy visualization of heart motion sequences on the projected space allows users to distinguish the deformation differences. Our experimental results on both synthetic and real imaging data show that this method can automatically classify the healthy and myopathic subjects and accurately detect myopathic regions on the left ventricle, which outperforms other conventional cardiac diagnostic methods. PMID:24051831

Taimouri, Vahid; Hua, Jing



Canceling actions involves a race between basal ganglia pathways.  


Salient cues can prompt the rapid interruption of planned actions. It has been proposed that fast, reactive behavioral inhibition involves specific basal ganglia pathways, and we tested this by comparing activity in multiple rat basal ganglia structures during performance of a stop-signal task. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons exhibited low-latency responses to 'Stop' cues, irrespective of whether actions were canceled or not. By contrast, neurons downstream in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) only responded to Stop cues in trials with successful cancellation. Recordings and simulations together indicate that this sensorimotor gating arises from the relative timing of two distinct inputs to neurons in the SNr dorsolateral 'core' subregion: cue-related excitation from STN and movement-related inhibition from striatum. Our results support race models of action cancellation, with stopping requiring Stop-cue information to be transmitted from STN to SNr before increased striatal input creates a point of no return. PMID:23852117

Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel K; Mallet, Nicolas; Chen, Fujun; Berke, Joshua D



Surgery for ganglia of the flexor tendon sheath  

PubMed Central

There are very few reports in the literature on the results of surgery for ganglia of the flexor tendon sheaths of the digits. We reviewed 24 patients operated for flexor tendon sheath ganglia 8 (3–11) years previously. Two operations were for recurrences and one of these recurred again. There was one permanent digital nerve injury and one patient complained of cold sensibility. VAS (0=best; 100=worst) for mean general complaints from the hand was remembered as 51 before surgery and was 5 at review. Mean pain at review was reported as VAS 4 and general satisfaction with the operation as VAS 3. All stated that they would have consented to surgery if they had known the outcome in advance. We conclude that the results of surgery are good, although complications do occur.

Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Haberg, ?yvind; Borchgrevink, Grethe Elisabeth



Chronic alcohol exposure increases ganglia endogenous morphine levels  

PubMed Central

Introduction We have previously demonstrated that alcohol has the ability to release low levels of endogenously expressed, chemically authentic, morphine from neural tissues. Material and methods Presently, we demonstrate that chronic exposure of Mytilus edulis pedal ganglia tissues maintained in organotypic culture to very concentrations of 1 mM and 10 mM ethanol induces a time dependent increase in both endogenous morphine and dopamine (DA) levels. Results Chronic incubation of M. edulis pedal ganglia with 3 concentrations of DA resulted in statistically significant elevations of cellular morphine levels, thereby confirming previous studies from our laboratory establishing DA as an essential precursor in the morphine biosynthetic pathway. Conclusions By understanding multiple debilitating effects of alcohol on “morphinergic” signaling, we may understand the ravages of neural processes associated with alcohol abuse and how its treatment may be made more effective.

Li, Yiqing; Kream, Richard M.; Stefano, George B.



Centrality of Striatal Cholinergic Transmission in Basal Ganglia Function  

PubMed Central

Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction. Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

Bonsi, Paola; Cuomo, Dario; Martella, Giuseppina; Madeo, Graziella; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Puglisi, Francesca; Ponterio, Giulia; Pisani, Antonio



Modeling Basal Ganglia for Understanding Parkinsonian Reaching Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia\\u000a(BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the\\u000areinforcement learning (RL) framework with the correspondence between RL\\u000acomponents and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra\\u000apars compacta as the Temporal Difference error, striatum as the substrate for\\u000athe Critic, and the motor

K. N. Magdoom; D. Subramanian; V. S. Chakravarthy; B. Ravindran; Shun-ichi Amari; N. Meenakshisundaram



What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including:\\u000a action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of\\u000a data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of\\u000a functions. Computational models

V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Denny Joseph; Raju S. Bapi



Calcium-binding proteins in primate basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the distribution of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin-D28k, parvalbumin and calretinin in primate basal ganglia. The data derive from immunocytochemical studies undertaken in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and in normal human individuals. In the striatum, calbindin labels medium-sized spiny projection neurons whereas parvalbumin and calretinin mark two separate classes of aspiny interneurons. The striatal matrix compartment is markedly

A. Parent; M. Fortin; P.-Y. Côté; F. Cicchetti



Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus. Images

Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlocher, D; Dubois, B



Analysis of Candidate Genes at the IBGC1 Locus Associated with Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (“Fahr’s Disease”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal ganglia calcification (striatopallidodentate calcifications) can be caused by several systemic and neurological disorders.\\u000a Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC, “Fahr’s disease”), is characterized by basal ganglia and extrabasal\\u000a ganglia calcifications, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Because of an increased use of neuroimaging procedures,\\u000a calcifications of the basal ganglia are visualized more often and precociously. In 1999, a major American family

J. R. M. Oliveira; M. J. Sobrido; E. Spiteri; S. Hopfer; G. Meroni; E. Petek; M. Baquero; D. H. Geschwind



Shape Builder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet allows users to explore the relationship between area and perimeter of both rectangles and irregular shapes. In the "Auto Draw" mode a shape is given, and the user finds the area and the perimeter. In the "Create Shape" mode users create their own shape and give the area and perimeter of that shape. The activity allows users to explore the relationship between shapes with a fixed perimeter and variable area or shapes with a a fixed area and variable perimeter. An optional scoring feature allows users to keep track of the number correct.



Effect of high-dose methyl-prednisolone on brainstem encephalopathy and basal ganglia impairment complicating cat scratch disease.  


Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic illness caused by the Gram negative bacillus Bartonella henselae characterized by a small skin lesion at the site of a bite, lick or scratch by a cat, commonly followed by regional lymphadenopathy 1 or 2 weeks later. We report herein on severe neurological complications of CSD combining brainstem encephalopathy and basal ganglia impairment. This 12-year-old female acutely presented to a local hospital with profound coma and a prolonged tonic posturing of extremities. On the neurological examination she was deeply comatose with pin-point pupils and lack of vestibulo-ocular responses, suggestive of brainstem encephalopathy, along with marked rigid hypertonicity suggestive also of basal ganglia impairment. Initially suspecting Herpes simplex encephalitis or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis she was promptly started with high-dose methyl-prednisolone and acyclovir. Her parents apparently reported that she was scratched by a kitten some 4 weeks prior to her present admission and as such, suspecting CSD, she was begun with doxycycline and rifampicin. Her serology had proven positive for IgM antibodies to Bartonella henselae establishing the diagnosis. She regained consciousness after 4 days and the signs of brainstem and extra-pyramidal impairment also gradually abated and disappeared after 10 days. A follow-up exam after a month disclosed mild extra-pyramidal abnormalities which disappeared after 3 months. Although extremely rare, CSD should be also considered in a patient presenting with a severe encephalopathy and associated basal ganglia impairment. The prompt administration of high-dose methyl-prednisolone upon admission may have contributed to the favorable outcome in our patient and therefore should be advocated in any patient presenting with profound encephalopathy regardless the underlying etiology recovered later. PMID:17174500

Genizi, Jacob; Kasis, Imad; Schif, Aharon; Shahar, Eli



Shape Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get a better understanding of the importance of our basic geometric shapes. While going through the activity below see if you can create the following shapes: A triangle, square, parallelogram, trapezoid, rectangle, kite, diamond. Having fun with quadrilaterals Now that you can create basic shapes see if you can create more difficult shapes on the geoboard. Geoboard Activity See if you can use the geoboard to create 3-D shapes ...

Carter, Mr. S.



Progress in understanding basal ganglia dysfunction as a common target for methamphetamine abuse and HIV-1 neurodegeneration.  


HIV-1 infection with concurrent methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in exacerbated neurodegenerative changes and rapid progression of a form of sub-cortical dementia termed HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). A notable feature of HAD is the involvement of the dopaminergic system manifested as parkinsonian like movement abnormalities. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 infection, since the pathophysiological changes induced by Tat mirrors, in part, the means by which HIV-1 infection of the nervous system results in neuronal damage. Understanding the interaction of Tat and MA in the basal ganglia and the resultant injury to the dopaminergic system in rodent models as well as cell culture will shed light on the dopaminergic pathology occurring in HIV-1 infected-MA abusers. The aim of this review is to update the reader on the current knowledge of MA and HIV-1 neurotoxicity, specifically Tat, and discuss the progress in understanding how MA synergizes with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat to damage the basal ganglia. PMID:17504172

Theodore, Shaji; Cass, Wayne A; Nath, Avindra; Maragos, William F



Position of dorsal root ganglia in the lumbosacral region in patients with radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background When applying pulsed radiofrequency on dorsal root ganglia for treating chronic lower back pain, maximum efficiency can be expected when a needle is placed 1-2 cm peripheral to the dorsal root ganglion. The object of this study is to analyze images taken after adding contrast to transforaminal epidural injection, categorize root ganglia according to anatomical position, and provide a reference for efficient needle positioning in applying pulsed radiofrequency on dorsal root ganglia. Methods From January 2008 to January 2009, 457 patients who visited our hospital for root pain or radiculopathy were treated with transforaminal epidural injection on the nerve roots based on the dermatome of the painful area. Anteroposterior views were taken after injection of contrast. A virtual line was made by connecting the internal and external parts of the spinal pedicle from the contrast images. Then the dorsal root ganglia were categorized as intraspinal (IS), intraforaminal (IF), or extraforaminal (EF). Results In the fourth lumbar spine, dorsal root ganglia positions were 48% IF, 41% IS, and 6% EF. In the fifth lumbar spine, dorsal root ganglia positions were 75% IF, 10% IS, and 6% EF. In the first sacral spine, dorsal root ganglia locations were 8% IF and 83% IS. Conclusions Positional categorization of dorsal root ganglia according to contrast images was proven to be good anatomical references for effective radiofrequency or blocking of dorsal root ganglia.

Moon, Hyun Seog; Kim, Yeon Dong; Song, Bang Hoon; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho



Movements of radioactive potassium in isolated rat ganglia  

PubMed Central

1. Isolated rat superior cervical ganglia were continuously superfused with 42K (or 86Rb) solution and the amount of radioactivity taken up was monitored using scintillation counting. 2. Entry of 42K into the ganglia could be resolved into two components, one amounting to 83% of the total 42K uptake, with a rate constant of 0·015 min-1, and the other of 17% of the total, with a rate constant of 0·15 min-1. 3. With 6 mM-K in the bathing solution, the equilibrium uptake of 42K after 4 hr corresponded to an intracellular concentration of 147 mM-K. Changes in the K concentration of the bathing solution (0·5-20 mM) had little effect on this value. 4. Carbachol or nicotine caused a rapid net loss of 42K. 42K was recaptured on washing out the depolarizing agents, with a rate constant of about 0·3 min-1. This recapture rate was slowed by ouabain, dinitrophenol, cyanide, mersalyl and by reducing the K concentration in the bathing solution. 5. Efflux of 42K from preloaded ganglia occurred with a rate constant of 0·017 min-1. This rate was increased about sixfold by 180 ?M carbachol in 6 mM-K but not in 150 mM-K suggesting that the increase in efflux was mainly a consequence of the depolarization caused by carbachol. 6. 86Rb fluxes and the effects of carbachol thereon were similar.

Scholfield, C. N.



Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin



Midpoint Shapes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the importance of children exploring hands-on and minds-on mathematics. Presents a midpoint shape activity for students to explore the midpoint shape of familiar quadrilaterals, such as squares and rectangles. (KHR)

Welchman, Rosamond; Urso, Josephine



Stable Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 9 of PDF), learners compare the stability of a triangle- and square-shaped structure. Learners use straws and paper clips to construct the shapes and then press down on the tops to see which shape collapses. Learners are then encouraged to build stronger shapes, perhaps by using diagonal cross-pieces as triangular bases. Use this activity to introduce compression force and structural stability.

Museum, Chicago C.



Evaluation of Cytotoxic Responses Caused by Selected Organophosphorus Esters in Chick Sympathetic Ganglia Cultures  

PubMed Central

Ten day old chick sympathetic ganglia cultured in a microslide assembly were treated with a selected group of organophosphate pesticides to evaluate their cytotoxicity ranges, and the usefulness of such a model for screening pesticides. Examination by phase contrast and light microscopy for chemically-induced morphological alteration of nerve fibers, glial cells and neurons provided the criteria for quantitation and assessment of the toxic effects. Concentrations that produced half-maximal effects ranged from 1 × 10-6M (severely toxic) for methylparathian, diazinon, paraoxon, mevinphos, diisopropylfluorophosphate, tri-o-tolyl phosphate and its mixed isomers to a 1 × 10-3M (intermediate) for malathion, leptophos, coumaphos, mono- and dicrotophos. Some or no effects were evident at 1 × 102-M for O'ethyl-O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl phosphonothioate, tri-m-tolylphosphate, chlorpyriphos and triphenyl phosphate. In all instances, nerve fibers were more sensitive than neurons or glial cells to insecticides. All cellular growth was inhibited at 1 × 10-2M (except triphenyl phosphate). Below 1 x 10-7M, no inhibitory effects were evident. The secondary abnormalities included decreased cellular migration, diffuse cellular growth pattern, increased vacuolization, nerve fiber swelling and cellular degeneration. The cytotoxic effects of these chemicals do not appear to be related to in vivo toxicity or cholinesterase inhibition potential. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.

Obersteiner, E. J.; Sharma, R. P.



Competition between feedback loops underlies normal and pathological dynamics in the basal ganglia.  


Experiments performed in normal animals suggest that the basal ganglia (BG) are crucial in motor program selection. BG are also involved in movement disorders. In particular, BG neuronal activity in parkinsonian animals and patients is more oscillatory and more synchronous than in normal individuals. We propose a new model for the function and dysfunction of the motor part of BG. We hypothesize that the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus, the internal pallidum (GPi), the thalamus, and the cortex are involved in closed feedback loops. The direct (cortex-striatum-GPi-thalamus-cortex) and the hyperdirect loops (cortex-subthalamic nucleus-GPi-thalamus-cortex), which have different polarities, play a key role in the model. We show that the competition between these two loops provides the BG-cortex system with the ability to perform motor program selection. Under the assumption that dopamine potentiates corticostriatal synaptic transmission, we demonstrate that, in our model, moderate dopamine depletion leads to a complete loss of action selection ability. High depletion can lead to synchronous oscillations. These modifications of the network dynamical state stem from an imbalance between the feedback in the direct and hyperdirect loops when dopamine is depleted. Our model predicts that the loss of selection ability occurs before the appearance of oscillations, suggesting that Parkinson's disease motor impairments are not directly related to abnormal oscillatory activity. Another major prediction of our model is that synchronous oscillations driven by the hyperdirect loop appear in BG after inactivation of the striatum. PMID:16571765

Leblois, Arthur; Boraud, Thomas; Meissner, Wassilios; Bergman, Hagai; Hansel, David



Default Mode Network Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The default-mode network (DMN) consists of a set of brain areas preferentially activated during internally focused tasks. We used functional MRI to study the DMN in bipolar mania and acute schizophrenia. 17 bipolar disorder (BD), 14 schizophrenia (SZ) and 15 normal control (NC) subjects underwent 10-minute resting scans. The DMN was extracted using independent component analysis and template-matching; spatial extent and timecourse were examined. Both patient groups showed reduced DMN connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) (BD:x=-2,y=54,z=-12; SZ:x=-2,y=22,z=18). BD subjects showed abnormal recruitment of parietal cortex (correlated with mania severity) while SZ subjects showed greater recruitment of the frontopolar cortex/basal ganglia. Both groups had significantly higher frequency fluctuations than controls (frequency × diagnosis:F(43,2)=3.183,p=0.05). We found ventral mPFC abnormalities in BD and dorsal mPFC abnormalities in SZ. The higher frequency of BOLD signal oscillations observed in patients suggests abnormal functional organization of circuits in both disorders. Further studies are needed to determine how these abnormalities are related to specific symptoms of each condition.

Ongur, Dost; Lundy, Miriam; Greenhouse, Ian; Shinn, Ann K.; Menon, Vinod; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.



Data Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity asks students to recognize differences in shapes and sort them. They are given a set of 15 shape cards that they can sort by the criteria of color, size and shape. Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included along with a printable sheet of the cards.



Cellulose Shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter surveys the shapes of cellulose molecules. New, high-resolution experiments on the various crystalline polymorphs are reviewed, and their similar twofold helical shapes are compared. Conversion between cellulose I and II is discussed, including interdigitation and chain-folding as possible mechanisms. Information on molecular shape from cellotriose and tetraose is also reviewed along with data for derivatives and complexes. To

Alfred D. French; Glenn P. Johnson


Distribution pattern and chemical coding of neurons of the sympathetic chain ganglia supplying the descending colon in the pig.  


Sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the descending colon of the pig were studied by means of retrograde tracing (Fast Blue, FB) and double-labelling immunofluorescence methods. FB was injected into the gut wall and after three weeks survival time the animals were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde and the bilateral sympathetic trunks were collected. The FB-positive neurons were localised only in the lumbar (L(1)-L(5)) ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and appeared either as small (30-50 microm in diameter) round-shaped perikarya forming clusters localised in caudal-ventral area or, rarely, as bigger (50-80 microm) and dispersed solitary irregular perikarya. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-/dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive) character of the great majority of FB-positive neurons which preferentially co-expressed neuropeptide Y. In addition, none of the FB-positive perikarya was immunopositive to galanin, somatostatin, choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, leu(5)-enkephalin, nitric oxide synthase, substance P and calcitonin-generelated peptide. PMID:20460218

Skobowiat, Cezary; Calka, Jaros?aw; Wasowicz, Krzysztof; Majewski, Mariusz



An Avian Basal Ganglia Pathway Essential for Vocal Learning Forms a Closed Topographic Loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical pathway is im- portant for motor control, motor learning, and cognitive func- tions. It contains parallel, closed loops, at least some of which are organized topographically and in a modular manner. Song- birds have a circuit specialized for vocal learning, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), forming a basal ganglia loop with only three stations: the pallial

Minmin Luo; Dj Perkel



Local vesicle populations in rat superior cervical ganglia and the vesicle hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ‘local vesicle population’ (LVP), namely the population of synaptic vesicles lying in a zone 0.25 µm wide adjacent to the presynaptic membrane, has been measured at synapses of rat superior cervical ganglia fixed for electron microscopy following experiments performed during a 60 min periodin vitro. The mean LVP of 78 synapses in three unstimulated control ganglia was 122.0

J. P. Quilliam; D. L. Tamarind



The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia: Models for the study of neuronal networks and basic neuronal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglia regulate various visceral functions and in particular the digestive tract motility. Several integrative properties of these ganglia have been described: convergence of central inputs, projection of visceral inputs at the pre- and post synaptic level and pacemaker activity of the neurones. This review presents the results obtained on another integrative property which has been widely

Caroline Fasano; Jean-Pierre Niel



Neuronal messengers and peptide receptors in the human sphenopalatine and otic ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of the parasympathetic nerve fibers to cranial structures derive from the sphenopalatine and otic ganglia. In particular, blood vessels are invested with a rich supply of dilator fibers of parasympathetic origin. In the present study, we have examined the occurrence of noncholinergic neuromessengers and neuropeptide receptors in the human sphenopalatine and otic ganglia. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive (ir)

R Uddman; J Tajti; S Möller; F Sundler; L Edvinsson



Inhibition of Ongoing Responses Following Frontal, Nonfrontal, and Basal Ganglia Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the role of the frontal lobes and the basal ganglia in the inhibition of ongoing responses. Seventeen patients with frontal lesions (FG), 20 patients with lesions outside the frontal cortex (NFG), 8 patients with lesions to the basal ganglia (BG), and 20 orthopedic controls (OG) performed the stop-signal task that allows the estimation of the time it

Martina Rieger; Siegfried Gauggel; Katja Burmeister



Reactivated and latent varicella-zoster virus in human dorsal root ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Ganglia obtained at autopsy were examined by in situ hybridization from one patient with zoster (also called herpes zoster or shingles), two varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-seropositive patients with clinical evidence of zoster, one VZV-seronegative child, and one fetus. Ganglia positive for VZV had a hybridization signal in both neuronal and nonneuronal satellite cells. Ganglia obtained from the fetus and from the seronegative infant were consistently negative for VZV. Two striking observations were evident regarding the presence of VZV DNA in ganglia obtained from the individual with zoster at the time of death. First, ganglia innervating the sites of reactivation and ganglia innervating adjacent sites yielded strongly positive signals in neurons and satellite cells, whereas ganglia from distant sites were rarely positive. Second, VZV DNA was found in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of neurons innervating areas of zoster. However, in neurons innervating zoster-free areas, VZV DNA was found only in the nucleus of neurons and their supporting satellite cells. Immunohistochemistry with a fluorescent monoclonal antibody to the VZV glycoprotein gpI, a late virus protein, revealed a positive signal in the cytoplasm of ganglia with clinical evidence of reactivation. These results illustrate that both neuronal and satellite cells become latently infected following primary VZV infection. The presence of VZV DNA and gpI in the cytoplasm of neurons demonstrates productive infection following reactivation at the site of latency. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Lungu, O; Annunziato, P W; Gershon, A; Staugaitis, S M; Josefson, D; LaRussa, P; Silverstein, S J



The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Neuropsychological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a common approach to understanding how the basal ganglia contribute to learning and memory in humans has been to study the deficits that occur in patients with basal ganglia pathology, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Pharmacological manipulations in patients and in healthy volunteers have also been conducted to investigate the role of dopamine, a neurotransmitter

Jessica A. Grahn; John A. Parkinson; Adrian M. Owen



What are the computations of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical notion that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia are dedicated to motor control is under dispute given increasing evidence of their involvement in non-motor functions. Is it then impossible to characterize the functions of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex in a simplistic manner? This paper presents a novel view that their computational roles can

Kenji Doya



Complementary roles of basal ganglia and cerebellum in learning and motor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical notion that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are dedicated to motor control has been challenged by the accumulation of evidence revealing their involvement in non-motor, cognitive functions. From a computational viewpoint, it has been suggested that the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex are specialized for different types of learning: namely, supervised learning, reinforcement learning

Kenji Doya



Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson's disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson's disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of

Manuel Rodriguez; Yoland Smith; Maria C. Rodriguez-Oroz; Stephane Lehericy; Hagai Bergman; Yves Agid; Mahlon R. DeLong; Peter Redgrave; Jose A. Obeso



Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interesting- ly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning—the ability to adaptively change a response when previously learned stimulus-outcome contingencies are re- versed. Here, we compared the

Daphna Shohamy; Catherine E. Myers; Ramona O. Hopkins; Jake Sage; Mark A. Gluck



Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning—the ability to adaptively change a response when previously learned stimulus–outcome contingencies are reversed. Here, we compared the contribution of

Daphna Shohamy; Catherine E. Myers; Ramona O. Hopkins; Jake Sage; Mark A. Gluck



Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function. According to this classical model, activation of the `direct' pathway facilitates movement and activation of the `indirect' pathway inhibits movement. However, more recent anatomical and functional evidence

Alexxai V. Kravitz; Benjamin S. Freeze; Philip R. L. Parker; Kenneth Kay; Myo T. Thwin; Karl Deisseroth; Anatol C. Kreitzer



Physiological aspects of information processing in the basal ganglia of normal and parkinsonian primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two views as to the character of basal-ganglia processing – processing by segregated parallel circuits or by information sharing. To distinguish between these views, we studied the simultaneous activity of neurons in the output stage of the basal ganglia with cross-correlation techniques. The firing of neurons in the globus pallidus of normal monkeys is almost always uncorrelated. However,

Hagai Bergman; Ariela Feingold; Asaph Nini; Aeyal Raz; Hamutal Slovin; Moshe Abeles; Eilon Vaadia



Functional Coupling Between Substantia Nigra and Basal Ganglia Homologues in Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical and pharmacological experiments support the existence of a homologue of the mammalian substantia nigra–basal ganglia circuit in the amphibian brain. Demarcation of borders between the striatum and pallidum in frogs, however, has been contentious, and direct evidence of functional coupling between the putative nigral and striatal homologues is lacking. To clarify basal ganglia function in anurans, the authors used expression of immediate–early gene egr-1 as a marker of neural activation in the basal ganglia of túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus). Regional variation in egr-1 mRNA levels distinguished striatal and pallidal portions of the basal ganglia and supported the grouping of the striatopallidal transition zone with the dorsal pallidum. As further evidence for a functional coupling between the dopaminergic cells in the posterior tuberculum (the putative substantia nigra homologue) and the basal ganglia, a positive relationship was demonstrated between the size of the dopaminergic cell population and the neural activation levels within the dorsal pallidum.

Hoke, Kim L.; Ryan, Michael J.; Wilczynski, Walter



How do the basal ganglia regulate sleep-wake behavior?  


The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in motor function, habit formation, and reward or addictive behaviors, but the question as to how the BG integrate arousal with these fundamental striatal functions has only recently received much attention. Findings based on electrophysiology, neurotoxic lesioning, and the use of transgenic animals have established that the striatum and globus pallidus are key structural elements for the control of sleep and wakefulness. Here, we discuss emerging anatomical and molecular mechanisms of sleep-wake regulation at work in the BG. Furthermore, we propose a model whereby adenosine and dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are involved in the integration of behavioral processes and the induction of wakefulness through cortical activation. PMID:22858523

Lazarus, Michael; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun; Urade, Yoshihiro; Chen, Jiang-Fan



Queuing of concurrent movement plans by basal ganglia.  


How the brain converts parallel representations of movement goals into sequential movements is not known. We tested the role of basal ganglia (BG) in the temporal control of movement sequences by a convergent approach involving inactivation of the BG by muscimol injections into the caudate nucleus of monkeys and assessing behavior of Parkinson's disease patients, performing a modified double-step saccade task. We tested a critical prediction of a class of competitive queuing models that explains serial behavior as the outcome of a selection of concurrently activated goals. In congruence with these models, we found that inactivation or impairment of the BG unmasked the parallel nature of goal representations such that a significantly greater extent of averaged saccades, curved saccades, and saccade sequence errors were observed. These results suggest that the BG perform a form of competitive queuing, holding the second movement plan in abeyance while the first movement is being executed, allowing the proper temporal control of movement sequences. PMID:23761894

Bhutani, Neha; Sureshbabu, Ramakrishnan; Farooqui, Ausaf A; Behari, Madhuri; Goyal, Vinay; Murthy, Aditya



[Immunoactive peptide obtained from the optical ganglia of squid].  


The data on the effect of a peptide from the squid optic ganglia named gangliin on some parameters of animal natural resistance are presented. It was shown that the prophylactic use of the peptide in mice 24 hours before their contamination with the lethal dose of E. coli protected 40 to 60 per cent of the animals from death. Gangliin accelerated elimination of E. coli from the host and increased the absorptive and digestive activity of the macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. With the use of gangliin it was possible to correct the phagocytosis defects in infectious processes having the phagocytic protection mechanism. Moreover, gangliin was supposed to be efficient in control of long-term persistence of various microbes in the cells of the system of mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:1953188

Besednova, N N; Zaporozhets, T S; Sergienko, A K; Krylova, N V; Epshte?n, L M; Borovskaia, G A



[Structural organization of neurons of spinal ganglia innervating the colon].  


The localization and morphological features of viscerosensory neurons of sacral spinal ganglia (SSG), innervating the colon, were investigated. In urethane anaesthetized cats, the solution of horseradish peroxidase was injected under the serosa of ascending and descending parts of the colon as well as of the rectum. After 48 hours animals were repeatedly anesthetized and transcardially perfused. Sections of SSG were stained according to Mezulam protocol (1978). All the regions of the colon studied were shown to receive afferent innervation from neurons of SSG SI, SII and SIII. Maximum number of the labeled cells was detected in SSG SII. The intensity of afferent innervation of the colon by the neurons of SSG was found to increase along its length in cranio-caudal direction. PMID:17338216

Dorofeeva, A A; Panteleev, S S; Markova, L A; Pluzhnichenko, E B; Bagaev, V A; Makarov, F N



Antibasal Ganglia Antibodies and Antistreptolysin O in Noncomorbid ADHD.  


Objective: An association between streptococcal infections, ABGA positivity, and no comorbidity ADHD (nc-ADHD) has been little investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the streptococcal infection frequency, defined entitled serum antistreptolysin O (ASO), and frequency of serum ABGA positivity in a sample of patients with nc-ADHD. Method: In all 40 participants were investigated the ASO titer and ABGA. Results: The results showed that ABGA positivity was statistically significantly higher in patients affected by ADHD than in patients of a control group, and pathological values of ASO were statistically more frequent in the ADHD group than the control group. Conclusion: These data suggest that streptococcal infections and autoimmune reactions against the basal ganglia are more frequent in ADHD patients than patients in a control group. PMID:22956712

Toto, Maddalena; Margari, Francesco; Simone, Marta; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Tafuri, Silvio; Margari, Lucia



Disconnection syndromes of basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebrocerebellar systems.  


Disconnection syndromes were originally conceptualized as a disruption of communication between different cerebral cortical areas. Two developments mandate a re-evaluation of this notion. First, we present a synopsis of our anatomical studies in monkey elucidating principles of organization of cerebral cortex. Efferent fibers emanate from every cortical area, and are directed with topographic precision via association fibers to ipsilateral cortical areas, commissural fibers to contralateral cerebral regions, striatal fibers to basal ganglia, and projection subcortical bundles to thalamus, brainstem and/or pontocerebellar system. We note that cortical areas can be defined by their patterns of subcortical and cortical connections. Second, we consider motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with lesions restricted to basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, and recognize that these lesions mimic deficits resulting from cortical lesions, with qualitative differences between the manifestations of lesions in functionally related areas of cortical and subcortical nodes. We consider these findings on the basis of anatomical observations from tract tracing studies in monkey, viewing them as disconnection syndromes reflecting loss of the contribution of subcortical nodes to the distributed neural circuits. We introduce a new theoretical framework for the distributed neural circuits, based on general, and specific, principles of anatomical organization, and on the architecture of the nodes that comprise these systems. We propose that neural architecture determines function, i.e., each architectonically distinct cortical and subcortical area contributes a unique transform, or computation, to information processing; anatomically precise and segregated connections between nodes define behavior; and association fiber tracts that link cerebral cortical areas with each other enable the cross-modal integration required for evolved complex behaviors. This model enables the formulation and testing of future hypotheses in investigations using evolving magnetic resonance imaging techniques in humans, and in clinical studies in patients with cortical and subcortical lesions. PMID:18614161

Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Pandya, Deepak N



Zonisamide regulates basal ganglia transmission via astroglial kynurenine pathway.  


To clarify the anti-parkinsonian mechanisms of action of zonisamide (ZNS), we determined the effects of ZNS on tripartite synaptic transmission associated with kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) in cultured astrocytes, and transmission in both direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia using microdialysis. Interactions between cytokines [interferon-? (IFN?) and tumor-necrosis factor-? (TNF?)] and ZNS on astroglial releases of KP metabolites, KYN, kynurenic-acid (KYNA), xanthurenic-acid (XTRA), cinnabarinic-acid (CNBA) and quinolinic-acid (QUNA), were determined by extreme liquid-chromatography with mass-spectrometry. Interaction among metabotropic glutamate-receptor (mGluR), KP metabolites and ZNS on striato-nigral, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission was examined by microdialysis with extreme liquid-chromatography fluorescence resonance-energy transfer detection. Acute and chronic ZNS administration increased astroglial release of KYN, KYNA, XTRA and CNBA, but not QUNA. Chronic IFN? administration increased the release of KYN, KYNA, CNBA and QUNA, but had minimal inhibitory effect on XTRA release. Chronic TNF? administration increased CNBA and QUNA, but not KYN, KYNA or XTRA. ZNS inhibited IFN?-induced elevation of KYN, KYNA and QUNA, but enhanced IFN?-induced that of CNBA. TNF?-induced rises in CNBA and QUNA were inhibited by ZNS. ZNS inhibited striato-nigral GABAergic, striato-pallidal GABAergic and subthalamo-nigral glutamatergic transmission via activation of groups II and III mGluRs. ZNS enhanced astroglial release of endogenous agonists of group II mGluR, XTRA and group III mGluR, CNBA. Activated endogenous mGluR agonists inhibited transmission in direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia. These mechanisms contribute to effectiveness and well tolerability of ZNS as an adjunct treatment for Parkinson's disease during l-DOPA monotherapy. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. PMID:23973311

Fukuyama, Kouji; Tanahashi, Shunske; Hoshikawa, Masamitsu; Shinagawa, Rika; Okada, Motohiro



An ultra-short dopamine pathway regulates basal ganglia output  

PubMed Central

Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a key basal ganglia output nucleus critical for movement control. Its ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing projection neurons intermingle with nigral dopamine (DA) neuron dendrites. Here we show that SNr GABA neurons co-express dopamine D1 and D5 receptor mRNAs and also mRNA for TRPC3 channels. Dopamine induced an inward current in these neurons and increased their firing frequency. These effects were mimicked by D1-like agonists, blocked by a D1-like antagonist. D1-like receptor blockade reduced SNr GABA neuron firing frequency and increased their firing irregularity. These D1-like effects were absent in D1 or D5 receptor knockout mice and inhibited by intracellularly applied D1 or D5 receptor antibody. These D1-like effects were also inhibited when the tonically active TRPC3 channels were inhibited by intracellularly applied TRPC3 channel antibody. Furthermore, stimulation of DA neurons induced a direct inward current in SNr GABA neurons that was sensitive to D1-like blockade. Manipulation of DA neuron activity and DA release and inhibition of dopamine reuptake affected SNr GABA neuron activity in a D1-like receptor-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that dendritically released dopamine tonically excites SNr GABA neurons via D1-D5 receptor co-activation that enhances constitutively active TRPC3 channels, forming an ultra-short SNc?SNr dopamine pathway that regulates the firing intensity and pattern of these basal ganglia output neurons.

Zhou, Fu-Wen; Jin, Ying; Matta, Shannon G.; Xu, Ming; Zhou, Fu-Ming



Molecule Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore molecule shapes by building molecules in 3D! How does molecule shape change with different numbers of bonds and electron pairs? Find out by adding single, double or triple bonds and lone pairs to the central atom. Then, compare the model to real molecules!

Simulations, Phet I.; Moore, Emily; Olson, Jonathan; Lancaster, Kelly; Chamberlain, Julia; Perkins, Kathy



Shapes lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online activity features two simulations demonstrating the comparative strengths of rectangles, arches, and triangles when stress is applied at a point. Simulations offer a simplified version of real life conditions related to the strength and stability of structures. For comparison's sake, each tested shape is of equivalent thickness and has hinged joints. The shapes show load distribution arrows when force is applied. In one simulation, a student selects a shape and initiates a dynamic illustration, providing an explanation of the effect of applying force and demonstrating how the shape can be strengthened. The second simulation shows and explains what results when increasing numbers of elephants are stacked on each of the three shapes. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse




Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No



Microcircuitry of the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia.  


Our understanding of the organization of the basal ganglia has advanced markedly over the last 10 years, mainly due to increased knowledge of their anatomical, neurochemical and physiological organization. These developments have led to a unifying model of the functional organization of the basal ganglia in both health and disease. The hypothesis is based on the so-called "direct" and "indirect" pathways of the flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia and has profoundly influenced the field of basal ganglia research, providing a framework for anatomical, physiological and clinical studies. The recent introduction of powerful techniques for the analysis of neuronal networks has led to further developments in our understanding of the basal ganglia. The objective of this commentary is to build upon the established model of the basal ganglia connectivity and review new anatomical findings that lead to the refinement of some aspects of the model. Four issues will be discussed. (1) The existence of several routes for the flow of cortical information along "indirect" pathways. (2) The synaptic convergence of information flowing through the "direct" and "indirect" pathways at the single-cell level in the basal ganglia output structures. (3) The convergence of functionally diverse information from the globus pallidus and the ventral pallidum at different levels of the basal ganglia. (4) The interconnections between the two divisions of the pallidal complex and the subthalamic nucleus and the characterization of the neuronal network underlying the indirect pathways. The findings summarized in this commentary confirm and elaborate the models of the direct and indirect pathways of information flow through the basal ganglia and provide a morphological framework for future studies. PMID:9881853

Smith, Y; Bevan, M D; Shink, E; Bolam, J P



Chondrogenic and Gliogenic Subpopulations of Neural Crest Play Distinct Roles during the Assembly of Epibranchial Ganglia  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, the sensory neurons of the epibranchial (EB) ganglia transmit somatosensory signals from the periphery to the CNS. These ganglia are formed during embryogenesis by the convergence and condensation of two distinct populations of precursors: placode-derived neuroblasts and neural crest- (NC) derived glial precursors. In addition to the gliogenic crest, chondrogenic NC migrates into the pharyngeal arches, which lie in close proximity to the EB placodes and ganglia. Here, we examine the respective roles of these two distinct NC-derived populations during development of the EB ganglia using zebrafish morphant and mutants that lack one or both of these NC populations. Our analyses of mutant and morphant zebrafish that exhibit deficiencies in chondrogenic NC at early stages reveal a distinct requirement for this NC subpopulation during early EB ganglion assembly and segmentation. Furthermore, restoration of wildtype chondrogenic NC in one of these mutants, prdm1a, is sufficient to restore ganglion formation, indicating a specific requirement of the chondrogenic NC for EB ganglia assembly. By contrast, analysis of the sox10 mutant, which lacks gliogenic NC, reveals that the initial assembly of ganglia is not affected. However, during later stages of development, EB ganglia are dispersed in the sox10 mutant, suggesting that glia are required to maintain normal EB ganglion morphology. These results highlight novel roles for two subpopulations of NC cells in the formation and maintenance of EB ganglia: chondrogenic NC promotes the early-stage formation of the developing EB ganglia while glial NC is required for the late-stage maintenance of ganglion morphology.

Culbertson, Maya D.; Lewis, Zachary R.; Nechiporuk, Alexei V.



Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.  


In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June



Modiolus-Hugging Intracochlear Electrode Array with Shape Memory Alloy  

PubMed Central

In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications.

Min, Kyou Sik; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June



Electrocardiographic manifestations: electrolyte abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because myocyte depolarization and repolarization depend on intra- and extracellular shifts in ion gradients, abnormal serum electrolyte levels can have profound effects on cardiac conduction and the electrocardiogram (EKG). Changes in extracellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels can change myocyte membrane potential gradients and alter the cardiac action potential. These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead EKG

Deborah B Diercks; George M Shumaik; Richard A Harrigan; William J Brady; Theodore C Chan



Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by



What is abnormal psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.

A. E. Davies



Character and abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormal psychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.

W. S. Taylor



Pigment abnormalities in flatfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigment abnormalities have been reported to occur on both sides of flatfish. Hypomelanosis or pseudo-albinism, characterized by white patches or areas devoid of normal pigmentation on the ocular surface of the skin, is common in both wild and hatchery reared flatfish. The blind side may display hypermelanosis in the form of dark spots, known as ambicoloration of the skin. The

Arietta Venizelos; Daniel D Benetti




Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, each participant in psychotherapy should be accepted as a unique individual with no reference to diagnosis. Most forms of psychotherapy are limited by assumptions about abnormality that focus on pathology while ignoring the potential for growth that exists in all. Effective psychotherapy requires respect for human complexity. Each person needs to be perceived as embodying a unique balance of





PubMed Central

Under suitable conditions rat dorsal root ganglia differentiate and myelinate in culture, providing an organotypic model of the ganglion (8). Mature cultures of this type were irradiated with a 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and, after daily observation in the living state, were fixed for light and electron microscopy. Within 24 hr after irradiation, numerous Schwann cells investing unmyelinated axons acutely degenerate. The axons thus denuded display little change. Conversely, few ultrastructural changes develop in Schwann cells investing myelinated axons until after the 4th day. During the 4–14 day period, these Schwann cells and their related myelin sheaths undergo progressive deterioration. Associated axons decrease in diameter but are usually maintained. Myelin deterioration begins as a nodal lengthening and then progresses along two different routes. In intact Schwann cells, fragmentation of myelin begins in a pattern reminiscent of Wallerian degeneration, but its slow breakdown thereafter suggests metabolic disturbances in these Schwann cells. The second pattern of myelin deterioration, occurring after complete degeneration of the related Schwann cell, involves unusual configurational changes in the myelin lamellae. Atypical repeating periods are formed by systematic splitting of lamellae at each major dense line with further splitting at the intraperiod line (Type I) or by splitting in the region of every other intraperiod line (Type II); some sheaths display a compact, wavy, inner zone and an abnormally widened lamellar spacing peripherally (Type III). Extensive blebbing of myelin remnants characterizes the final stages of this extracellular myelin degradation. These observations provide the first description of ultrastructural changes produced by ionizing radiation in nerve fascicles in vitro.

Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.



Sonographic basal ganglia alterations are related to non-motor symptoms in multiple sclerosis.  


The anatomical basis of cognitive dysfunction and other non-motor symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) is poorly understood. In MS patients, transcranial sonography (TCS) shows neurodegenerative disease-like lesions of the substantia nigra (SN) and basal ganglia, thought to reflect iron accumulation. The present study deals with the question of whether sonographic changes of SN, brainstem raphe, lenticular nucleus (LN) or caudate nucleus are related to non-motor symptoms of MS. We used TCS to investigate 54 MS patients and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Degree of cognitive (executive) dysfunction, fatigue, depression, and urinary urge incontinence in MS patients was assessed using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, the Faces Symbol Test, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Urinary Distress Inventory. Abnormal TCS findings of SN, brainstem raphe, LN, and caudate nucleus were found in 13, 7, 11, and 6% of the healthy subjects, but in 54, 43, 62, and 41% (each, p < 0.001) of the MS patients, with similar frequency in relapsing-remitting and primary or secondary progressive MS patients. Sonographic alteration of the LN correlated with cognitive dysfunction. Combined alteration of both, LN and SN, was clearly associated with cognitive dysfunction and cognitive fatigue. The combined sonographic alteration of SN and brainstem raphe indicated severe urinary urge incontinence irrespective of the presence of spinal MS lesions. No relation was found between depression and any of the TCS findings. These findings suggest that neurodegenerative processes affecting deep brain structures contribute to cognitive and autonomic dysfunction in MS. PMID:20740288

Horowski, Sebastian; Zettl, Uwe K; Benecke, Reiner; Walter, Uwe



SPL Shape  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Tablets with a capsule shape or a one part capsules (eg, soft gelatin capsules that are filled with a liquid) should be classified under OVAL. C48336. ... More results from


Shape Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (25th on the page) about learning and memory, learners explore a training method that animal trainers employ called "shaping." Working in pairs, learners will attempt to "shape" each other to complete a task through rewarding and reinforcing positive behavior. Learners will earn "treats" for each correct behavior. Use this activity to teach learners how behaviors can be learned and trained and/or how trainers use non-verbal techniques to work with animals.

Chudler, Eric H.



Shape Interrogation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape interrogation methods are of increasing interest in geometric modeling as well as in computer graphics. Originating\\u000a 20 years ago from CAD\\/CAM applications where “class A” surfaces are required and no surface imperfections are allowed, shape\\u000a interrogation has become recently an important tool for various other types of surface representations such as triangulated\\u000a or polygonal surfaces, subdivision surface, and algebraic

Stefanie Hahmann; Alexander Belyaev; Laurent Busé; Gershon Elber; Bernard Mourrain; Christian Rössl


Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  


Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James



Cerebrovascular projections from the sphenopalatine and otic ganglia to the middle cerebral artery of the cat.  


The location of the postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies projecting to cerebral arteries is unknown. Using axonal tracing techniques, we examined whether the sphenopalatine ganglia (associated with the seventh cranial nerve) and otic ganglia (associated with ninth cranial nerve) contain perikarya which send axons to the feline middle cerebral artery (MCA). The tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP: 3 cats) or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA: 6 cats) were applied to the MCA in a slow release polymeric system. Three days later the SPG, otic ganglia, and rete mirabile were harvested bilaterally and processed for tracer by the TMB method (HRP) or immunohistochemistry (WGA). In a given animal, approximately equal numbers of cells containing axonal tracer were found in both SPG. Labeled fibers occasionally could be seen extending into the vidian nerve. Positive cells were also found in the otic ganglia and in the walls of the internal rete mirabile. These results provide the first identification of parasympathetic cell bodies projecting to cerebral blood vessels. PMID:3715948

Walters, B B; Gillespie, S A; Moskowitz, M A


Autoradiographic Investigation of RNA Synthesis in Sensory Neurons of Spinal Ganglia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An autoradiographic investigation was undertaken to determine the similarity or difference between RNA synthesis in cells of the small and large spinal ganglia. Results of the studies indicate that differences are found between larger and smaller cells, b...

A. U. Mamatov



Chromosome abnormalities in glioma  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S. [Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada)] [and others



Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits.  


It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we investigated if these effects are found in other brain regions. We found that neurons in the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the striatum have increased dendrite lengths in the humanized mice whereas neurons in the amygdala and the cerebellum do not. In agreement with previous work we found increased LTD in medium spiny neurons, but did not detect alterations of synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells. We conclude that although Foxp2 is expressed in many brain regions and has multiple roles during mammalian development, the evolutionary changes that occurred in the protein in human ancestors specifically affect brain regions that are connected via cortico-basal ganglia circuits. PMID:21111790

Reimers-Kipping, S; Hevers, W; Pääbo, S; Enard, W



Basal Ganglia Contributions to Motor Control: A Vigorous Tutor  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY OF RECENT ADVANCES The roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control are much debated. Many influential hypotheses have grown from studies in which output signals of the BG were not blocked, but pathologically-disturbed. A weakness of that approach is that the resulting behavioral impairments reflect degraded function of the BG per se mixed together with secondary dysfunctions of BG-recipient brain areas. To overcome that limitation, several studies have focused on the main skeletomotor output region of the BG, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Using single-cell recording and inactivation protocols these studies provide consistent support for two hypotheses: the BG modulates movement performance (“vigor”) according to motivational factors (i.e., context-specific cost/reward functions) and the BG contributes to motor learning. Results from these studies also add to the problems that confront theories positing that the BG selects movement, inhibits unwanted motor responses, corrects errors online, or stores and produces well-learned motor skills.

Turner, Robert S.; Desmurget, Michel



Medical students' viewpoint regarding the integrated module of basal ganglia.  


Integration is an important educational strategy in medical education. Considering this idea, the goal of the present study was to design and implementation of longitudinal and vertical integrated education of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, neurology and neuropsychiatry subjects of brain's basal ganglia by a multidisciplinary team. Kern's approach to curriculum development was used. Participants were 20 medical students at basic science level who contribute in a 10 stations of pre-test exam at Medical School's Skill Lab. After the implementation of the module by a multidisciplinary team, post-test were done. A structured questionnaire was designed to assess student opinions about adequacy, usefulness of the module using a Likert scale with 5 categories ranging from "completely agreement" to "completely disagreement". The result of pre and post-test were also compared. Twenty questionnaires were completed, giving a 77.63% satisfaction rate. Seventy-five percent of students found it useful and appropriate at basic science level. About fifty percent of students suggested the implementation of this module for other medical students. The score of post-test was significantly (14.52 ± 0.47 vs 6.32 ± 0.62, P < 0.05) higher than pre-test results. The viewpoints of medical students were positive and they value the module highly. Since it is not easy to change the style we teach, these results suggest necessitate of supporting the faculty member's participation in these modules. PMID:22131247

Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Seyedian, Maziar; Arbabi, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Hatami, Farhad




PubMed Central

Nerve cell bodies in the spiral and vestibular ganglia of the adult rat are surrounded by thin (about ten lamellae) myelin sheaths which differ in several respects from typical axonal myelin. In some instances lamellae surrounding perikarya appear as typical major dense lines, and in others as thin Schwann cell sheets in which cytoplasm persists. Discontinuities and irregularities appear in the structure of perikaryal myelin. Lamellae may terminate anywhere within the sheaths; they may bifurcate; they may reverse their direction; or they may merge with each other. The number of lamellae varies from one part of a sheath to another. In addition, the myelin of a single perikaryal sheath may receive contributions from more than one Schwann cell, which overlap and interleave with each other. The ganglion cells are of two types: those which are densely packed with the usual cytoplasmic organelles but have few neurofilaments (granular neurons), and those which exhibit large areas containing few organelles but have a high concentration of neurofilaments (filamented neurons). The latter cell type is ensheathed by myelin which is generally more compact that that surrounding the former. The formation and the physiologic significance of perikaryal myelin are discussed.

Rosenbluth, Jack



Effect of diabetes and aging on human sympathetic autonomic ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Although autonomic dysfunction frequently complicates the clinical course of patients with diabetes, relatively little is known of its underlying neuropathology. Using experimental animal models as a guide, the prevertebral superior mesenteric (SMG) and paravertebral superior cervical (SCG) sympathetic ganglia have been examined in a series of adult autopsied diabetic and non-diabetic patients of various ages using histochemical, ultrastructural, morphometric, and immunohistochemical methods. Quantitative studies demonstrated that markedly swollen argyrophilic terminal axons (neuroaxonal dystrophy) containing large numbers of disorganized neurofilaments developed in the SMG but not SCG as a function of diabetes, increasing age, and gender (males were more severely affected than females). As in experimental animals, diabetic (types I and II) patients developed histologically identical lesions prematurely and in greater numbers than age-matched nondiabetic patients. Morphometric studies showed a small but statistically significant decrease in neuronal density in the SMG but not SCG of diabetic patients. The dimensions of individual sympathetic neurons were not significantly different in aging or diabetes. The pathological lesions identified in the SMG may contribute to the autonomic dysfunction so commonly observed in diabetic patients. Images Figure 1

Schmidt, R. E.; Plurad, S. B.; Parvin, C. A.; Roth, K. A.



Relationship between oscillations in the basal ganglia and synchronization of cortical activity.  


The functions of oscillations within the basal ganglia are poorly understood. We discuss in the present paper, the possible physiological or pathological roles of oscillatory activities within the basal ganglia, and their relationship to cortical oscillations. Three aspects are presented: 1. What do we know from animal studies? 2. What do we know from neurophysiological studies in parkinsonian patients? 3. What is the effect of L-dopa treatment and electrical stimulation within basal ganglia circuits on cortical oscillations? Animal studies suggest that neuronal oscillations are spontaneously generated within the basal ganglia system, especially from the GPE and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), but are mainly synchronized by cortical activity via the striatal inputs. Dopamine depletion results in a global increase of oscillations within the whole basal ganglia system, particularly in the GP-NST network. Oscillations within the basal ganglia may, in part, be related to tremor since they are enhanced, especially in the globus pallidus internus (GPI) and the STN, in human and animal dopaminergic depletion. However, they also play a role in the physiology of movement as revealed by coherence analysis between cortex, muscles and GPI/STN in parkinsonian patients undergoing deep brain stimulation. It is known that the basal ganglia may influence cortico-muscular oscillations such as the Piper rhythm and other rhythms in the beta band. In off-drug parkinsonian patients, low frequency oscillations (4-10 Hz) are favoured, presumably resulting in bradykinesia and low force. When medically (Ldopa) or surgically (deep brain stimulation) treated, these low frequency oscillations are replaced by high frequency (70 Hz) oscillations that are important for motor programs to be correctly executed. Studies of cortical reactivity related to planning of voluntary movement in parkinsonian patients provide evidence that it is possible to influence cortical reactivity through the basal ganglia system. PMID:12495873

Cassim, François; Labyt, Etienne; Devos, David; Defebvre, Luc; Destée, Alain; Derambure, Philippe



Catecholamines and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in guinea-pig sensory ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial and spinal sensory ganglia of the guinea-pig were investigated by means of histochemistry and biochemistry for the presence of catecholamines and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. Sensory neurons exhibiting immunoreactivity to the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine synthesis, tyrosine nydroxylase (TH), were detected by immunohistochemistry in lumbo-sacral dorsal root ganglia, the nodose ganglion and the petrosal\\/jugular ganglion complex. The carotid body was identified

Wolfgang Kummer; Ian L. Gibbins; Peter Stefan; Vimal Kapoor



The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate basal ganglia and its role in action-selection.  


The group of nuclei within the basal ganglia of the forebrain is central to the control of movement. We present data showing that the structure and function of the basal ganglia has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution over some 560 million years. The interaction between the different nuclei within the basal ganglia is conserved as well as the cellular and synaptic properties and transmitters. We consider the role of the conserved basal ganglia circuitry for basic patterns of motor behaviour controlled via brainstem circuits. The output of the basal ganglia consists of tonically active GABAergic neurones, which target brainstem motor centres responsible for different patterns of behaviour, such as eye and locomotor movements, posture, and feeding. A prerequisite for activating or releasing a motor program is that this GABAergic inhibition is temporarily reduced. This can be achieved through activation of GABAergic projection neurons from striatum, the input level of the basal ganglia, given an appropriate synaptic drive from cortex, thalamus and the dopamine system. The tonic inhibition of the motor centres at rest most likely serves to prevent the different motor programs from becoming active when not intended. Striatal projection neurones are subdivided into one group with dopamine 1 receptors that provides increased excitability of the direct pathway that can initiate movements, while inhibitory dopamine 2 receptors are expressed on neurones that instead inhibit movements and are part of the "indirect loop" in mammals as well as lamprey. We review the evidence showing that all basic features of the basal ganglia have been conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny, and discuss these findings in relation to the role of the basal ganglia in selection of behaviour. PMID:23318875

Grillner, Sten; Robertson, Brita; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus



Effects of tri-ortho-cresyl-phosphate on spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves of chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves of normal and tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP)-poisoned chickens were examined with the electron microscope. The normal ganglia contained two main neuron types, a large neuron with light cytoplasm and abundant neurofilaments, and a smaller, darker cell which contained few or no filaments. The “light” neurons reacted to TOCP with a very great increase in the

S. Vay; C. Meier; P. Glees



Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortical atrophy predicting slowed cognitive processing in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information-processing speed (IPS) slowing is a primary cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS). Basal ganglia, thalamus\\u000a and neocortex are thought to have a key role for efficient information-processing, yet the specific relative contribution\\u000a of these structures for MS-related IPS impairment is poorly understood. To determine if basal ganglia and thalamus atrophy\\u000a independently contribute to visual and auditory IPS impairment in

Sonia Batista; Robert Zivadinov; Marietta Hoogs; Niels Bergsland; Mari Heininen-Brown; Michael G. Dwyer; Bianca Weinstock-Guttman; Ralph H. B. Benedict


Basal ganglia volumetric studies in affective disorder: what did we learn in the last 15 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Until today, morphometric neuroimaging studies on affective disorders concentrate on the limbic system, especially the hippocampus,\\u000a amygdala, and anterior cingulate. In most of the studies and reviews available today, the basal ganglia are of secondary interest.\\u000a It seems that the basal ganglia are interest of neurologist, whereas the limbic system is reserved for psychiatric neuroimaging\\u000a studies. We follow a different

R. M. Bonelli; H.-P. Kapfhammer; S. S. Pillay; D. A. Yurgelun-Todd



The basal ganglia are hyperactive during the discrimination of tactile stimuli in writer's cramp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writer's cramp is a focal hand dystonia that specifically affects handwriting. Though writer's cramp has been attributedto adysfunctionof thebasal ganglia,theroleof thebasal ganglia inthepathogenesisofwriter'scramp remains to be determined. Seventeen patients with writer's cramp (nine females; age range: 24-71 years) and 17 healthy individuals (six females; age range: 27-68 years) underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while they dis- criminated the orientation of gratings

M. Peller; K. E. Zeuner; A. Munchau; A. Quartarone; M. Weiss; A. Knutzen; M. Hallett; G. Deuschl; H. R. Siebner



Localization and Function of GABA Transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

GABA transporter type 1 and 3 (GAT-1 and GAT-3, respectively) are the two main subtypes of GATs responsible for the regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the central nervous system. These transporters are widely expressed in neuronal (mainly GAT-1) and glial (mainly GAT-3) elements throughout the brain, but most data obtained so far relate to their role in the regulation of GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic tonic and phasic inhibition in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Taking into consideration the key role of GABAergic transmission within basal ganglia networks, and the importance for these systems to be properly balanced to mediate normal basal ganglia function, we analyzed in detail the localization and function of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the globus pallidus of normal and Parkinsonian animals, in order to further understand the substrate and possible mechanisms by which GABA transporters may regulate basal ganglia outflow, and may become relevant targets for new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of basal ganglia-related disorders. In this review, we describe the general features of GATs in the basal ganglia, and give a detailed account of recent evidence that GAT-1 and GAT-3 regulation can have a major impact on the firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons through pre- and post-synaptic GABAA- and GABAB-receptor-mediated effects.

Jin, Xiao-Tao; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland



A hypothetical role of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops in visual processing.  


The goal of the present work was to define the mechanisms underlying the contribution of sensory and limbic cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops to visual processing and its attentional modulation. We proposed that visual processing is promoted by dopamine-dependent long-term modifications of synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia that favour a selection of neocortical patterns representing a visual stimulus. This selection is the result of the opposite sign of modulation of strong and weak cortico-basal ganglia inputs and subsequent activity reorganization in each loop. Reorganization leads to disinhibition/inhibition of cortical neurons strongly/weakly excited by stimulus during dopamine release. Recruitment of the thalamo-basal ganglia-collicular pathway is proposed to be necessary for stimulus-evoked dopamine release that underlies bottom-up attentional effects. Visual excitation of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (via the thalamus), their cooperation in control of the basal ganglia and dopaminergic cell firing, and simultaneous modulation of activity in diverse cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops is proposed to underlie top-down attentional effects. It follows from our model that only those components of cortical responses can be modulated by attention, whose onset exceeds the latency of visual responses of dopaminergic cells (50-110 ms). This and other consequences of the model are in accordance with known experimental data. PMID:17204363

Silkis, Isabella



Reconsideration of the autonomic cranial ganglia: an immunohistochemical study of mid-term human fetuses.  


The cranial parasympathetic ganglia have been reported to paradoxically contain the sympathetic nerve marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in addition to neurons expressing parasympathetic markers such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). However, the distribution of these molecules in the cranial ganglia of human fetuses has not yet been examined. Using paraffin sections from 10 mid-term human fetuses (12-15 weeks), we performed immunohistochemistry for TH, VIP, and nNOS in the parasympathetic ciliary, pterygopalatine, otic, and submandibular ganglia, and for comparison, the sensory inferior vagal ganglion. The ciliary and submandibular ganglia contained abundant TH-positive neurons. In the former, TH-positive neurons were much more numerous than nNOS-positive neurons, whereas in the latter, nNOS immunoreactivity was extremely strong. No or a few cells in the pterygopalatine, otic, and inferior vagal ganglia expressed TH. Ciliary TH neurons appeared to compensate for classically described sympathetic fibers arising from the superior cervical ganglion, whereas in the submandibular ganglion, nNOS-positive neurons as well as TH neurons might innervate the lingual artery in addition to the salivary glands. Significant individual variations in the density of all these markers suggested differences in sensitivity to medicine affecting autonomic nerve function. Consequently, in the human cranial autonomic ganglia, it appears that there is no simple dichotomy between sympathetic and parasympathetic function. PMID:22095632

Kiyokawa, Hiromichi; Katori, Yukio; Cho, Kwang Ho; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Cho, Baik Hwan



Neuronal messengers and peptide receptors in the human sphenopalatine and otic ganglia.  


A majority of the parasympathetic nerve fibers to cranial structures derive from the sphenopalatine and otic ganglia. In particular, blood vessels are invested with a rich supply of dilator fibers of parasympathetic origin. In the present study, we have examined the occurrence of noncholinergic neuromessengers and neuropeptide receptors in the human sphenopalatine and otic ganglia. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive (ir) nerve cell bodies occurred in high numbers in the sphenopalatine and otic ganglia. Likewise, high numbers of NOS- and PACAP-containing nerve cell bodies were seen in both ganglia. Autofluorescent lipofuscin, characteristic of adult human nervous tissue, was present within many nerve cell bodies in both ganglia. Receptor mRNA was studied with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Total RNA from the sphenopalatine and otic ganglia was successfully extracted. By using appropriate sense and antisense primers, oligonucleotides were designed from the human sequences derived from GenBank, corresponding to human NPY Y1, CGRP1 and VIP1 receptors. In the sphenopalatine ganglion, we revealed the presence of mRNA for the human NPY Y1 and VIP1 receptors but not the CGRP1 receptor. The otic ganglion was found to react positively only for primers to mRNA for VIP1 but not for CGRP1 or NPY Y1 receptors. PMID:10224296

Uddman, R; Tajti, J; Möller, S; Sundler, F; Edvinsson, L



Differentiation of catecholaminergic cells in cultures of embryonic avian sensory ganglia.  

PubMed Central

From the results of previous studies in which developing peripheral ganglia from quail embryos were transplanted into younger chicken embryo hosts, we concluded that spinal and cranial sensory ganglia contain dormant precursors with autonomic potentialities. Here we describe the differentiation of these precursors in vitro, from dorsal root and nodose ganglion cell suspensions. Dorsal root ganglia were removed from quail embryos at 9 to 15 days of incubation, dissociated to single cells, and grown in tissue culture. The differentiation of cells with autonomic features was followed by monitoring properties associated with the adrenergic phenotype (absent from quail sensory ganglia during normal embryonic development). Provided that the medium was supplemented with chicken embryo extract, numerous cells displaying tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity could be detected from day 4 onward. They possessed long, multiple processes but appeared morphologically distinct from primary sensory neurons. The catalytic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and of other enzymes required for catecholamine production was demonstrated in the cultures by glyoxylic acid-induced histofluorescence and by radiochemical measurement of the conversion of exogenous tyrosine to norepinephrine. A large proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells were found to incorporate [3H]thymidine before and after differentiating. In contrast, recognizable sensory neurons never exhibited adrenergic properties and did not divide. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with cultures of dissociated nodose ganglia. These findings lend further weight to the assumption that latent autonomic precursors are included in the non-neuronal compartment of sensory ganglia. Images

Xue, Z G; Smith, J; Le Douarin, N M



[Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].  


Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243

Delsol, G



Shape Up!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (pages 8-9), learners investigate the properties of smart materials, which are materials that respond to things that happen around them. Learners train a piece of smart material (Nitinol) to adopt a particular shape. Learners discover that when the Nitinol wire is heated enough, its atoms can move around enough to "reset" its memory. This makes it possible to train the material to have a particular shape. Safety note: Young learners should have adult supervision. Be very careful with the flame and hot wire.

Jordan, Catherine



Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.

Vaidya, Chandan J.



Sacroiliac joint abnormalities in paraplegics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 186 paraplegic patients to clarify the pathogenesis of the sacroiliac (SI) joint abnormalities reported in these patients. Partial or complete fusion of SI joints was noted in 47 patients (25%), and milder degrees of abnormalities of these joints were present in 27 patients (15%). The abnormalities differed from those seen in ankylosing spondylitis and were found more commonly

M A Khan; I Kushner; A A Freehafer



Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis.

Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D



Classification of oesophageal motility abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manometric examination of the oesophagus frequently reveals abnormalities whose cause is unknown and whose physiological importance is not clear. A large body of literature dealing with oesophageal motility abnormalities has evolved over the past few decades but comparisons among studies have been compromised by the lack of a widely accepted system for classifying the abnormal motility patterns, and by the




Invited Article: Autonomic ganglia: target and novel therapeutic tool.  


Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (alpha 3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacologic enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. The patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10-15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome. PMID:18474849

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A



Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences. On the other hand, the activation of CB2 receptors leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB2 receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB2 receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB2 receptor agonists in both disorders. In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB2 receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit

Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodriguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gomez-Canas, Maria; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julian; Guzman, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, Jose A



Cognitive deficits in animal models of basal ganglia disorders.  


The two most common neurological disorders of the basal ganglia are Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). The most overt symptoms of these diseases are motoric, reflecting the loss of the striatal medium spiny neurons in HD and ascending substantia nigra dopaminergic cells in PD. However, both disease processes induce insidious psychiatric and cognitive syndromes that can manifest well in advance of the onset of motor deficits. These early deficits provide an opportunity for prophylactic therapeutic intervention in order to retard disease progression from the earliest possible point. In order to exploit this opportunity, animal models of HD and PD are being probed for the specific cognitive deficits represented in the disease states. At the neuronal level, these deficits are typically, but not exclusively, mediated by disruption of parallel corticostriatal loops that integrate motor information with sensory and higher order, "executive" cognitive functions. Dysfunction in these systems can be probed with sensitive behavioural tests that selectively probe these cognitive functions in mouse models with focal lesions of striatal or cortical regions, or of specific neurotransmitter systems. Typically these tests were designed and validated in rats. With the advent of genetically modified mouse models of disease, validated tests provide an opportunity to screen mouse models of disease for early onset cognitive deficits. This review seeks to draw together the literature on cognitive deficits in HD and PD, to determine the extent to which these deficits are represented in the current animal models of disease, and to evaluate the viability of selecting cognitive deficits as potential therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Animal Models'. PMID:22588013

Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B



Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders.  


Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences. On the other hand, the activation of CB(2) receptors leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB(2) receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB(2) receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB(2) receptor agonists in both disorders. In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB(2) receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation. PMID:21545415

Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A



MRI-identified abnormalities and wrist range of motion in asymptomatic versus symptomatic computer users  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work has shown an association between restricted wrist range of motion (ROM) and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. We compared the prevalence of MRI-identified wrist abnormalities and wrist ROM between asymptomatic and symptomatic computer users. Methods MR images at 1.5 T of both wrists were obtained from 10 asymptomatic controls (8 F, 2 M) and 14 computer users (10 F, 4 M) with chronic wrist pain (10 bilateral; 4 right-side). Maximum wrist range of motion in flexion and radioulnar deviation was measured with an electrogoniometer. Results Extraosseous ganglia were identified in 66.6% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists. Intraosseous ganglia were identified in 45.8% of asymptomatic wrists and in 75% of symptomatic wrists, and were significantly (p < .05) larger in the symptomatic wrists. Distal ECU tendon instability was identified in 58.4% of both asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Dominant wrist flexion was significantly greater in the asymptomatic group (68.8 ± 6.7 deg.) compared to the symptomatic group (60.7 ± 7.3 deg.), p < .01. There was no significant correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden (p = .09) Conclusions This appears to be the first MRI study of wrist abnormalities in computer users. This study demonstrates that a variety of wrist abnormalities are common in computer users and that only intraosseous ganglia prevalence and size differed between asymptomatic and symptomatic wrists. Flexion was restricted in the dominant wrist of the symptomatic group, but the correlation between wrist flexion and intraosseous ganglion burden did not reach significance. Flexion restriction may be an indicator of increased joint loading, and identifying the cause may help to guide preventive and therapeutic interventions.



Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.  


Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph



Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.



Information processing, dimensionality reduction and reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia.  


Modeling of the basal ganglia has played a major role in our understanding of this elusive group of nuclei. Models of the basal ganglia have undergone evolutionary and revolutionary changes over the last 20 years, as new research in the fields of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of these nuclei has yielded new information. Early models dealt with a single pathway through the nuclei and focused on the nature of the processing performed within it, convergence of information versus parallel processing of information. Later, the Albin-DeLong "box-and-arrow" model characterized the inter-nuclei interaction as multiple pathways while maintaining a simplistic scalar representation of the nuclei themselves. This model made a breakthrough by providing key insights into the behavior of these nuclei in hypo- and hyper-kinetic movement disorders. The next generation of models elaborated the intra-nuclei interactions and focused on the role of the basal ganglia in action selection and sequence generation which form the most current consensus regarding basal ganglia function in both normal and pathological conditions. However, new findings challenge these models and point to a different neural network approach to information processing in the basal ganglia. Here, we take an in-depth look at the reinforcement driven dimensionality reduction (RDDR) model which postulates that the basal ganglia compress cortical information according to a reinforcement signal using optimal extraction methods. The model provides new insights and experimental predictions on the computational capacity of the basal ganglia and their role in health and disease. PMID:15013228

Bar-Gad, Izhar; Morris, Genela; Bergman, Hagai



Substrates for normal gait and pathophysiology of gait disturbances with respect to the basal ganglia dysfunction.  


In this review, we have tried to elucidate substrates for the execution of normal gait and to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of gait failure in basal ganglia dysfunctions. In Parkinson's disease, volitional and emotional expressions of movement processes are seriously affected in addition to the disturbance of automatic movement processes, such as adjustment of postural muscle tone before gait initiation and rhythmic limb movements during walking. These patients also suffer from muscle tone rigidity and postural instability, which may also cause reduced walking capabilities in adapting to various environments. Neurophysiological and clinical studies have suggested the importance of basal ganglia connections with the cerebral cortex and limbic system in the expression of volitional and emotional behaviors. Here we hypothesize a crucial role played by the basal ganglia-brainstem system in the integrative control of muscle tone and locomotion. The hypothetical model may provide a rational explanation for the role of the basal ganglia in the control of volitional and automatic aspects of movements. Moreover, it might also be beneficial for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of basal ganglia movement disorders. A part of this hypothesis has been supported by studies utilizing a constructive simulation engineering technique that clearly shows that an appropriate level of postural muscle tone and proper acquisition and utilization of sensory information are essential to maintain adaptable bodily functions for the full execution of bipedal gait. In conclusion, we suggest that the major substrates for supporting bipedal posture and executing bipedal gait are 1) fine neural networks such as the cortico-basal ganglia loop and basal ganglia-brainstem system, 2) fine musculoskeletal structures with adequately developed (postural) muscle tone, and 3) proper sensory processing. It follows that any dysfunction of the above sensorimotor integration processes would result in gait disturbance. PMID:18821082

Takakusaki, Kaoru; Tomita, Nozomi; Yano, Masafumi



Abnormal Menstrual Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The terminology of normal and abnormal menstrual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The causes of menstrual dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Consequences of menstrual dysfunction in young women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Health concerns because of menstrual dysfunction.

Reid Norman


Childhood adversity is associated with left basal ganglia dysfunction during reward anticipation in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychopathology, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this vulnerability are not well-understood. In animal models, early adversity is associated with dysfunction in basal ganglia regions involved in reward processing, but this relationship has not been established in humans. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine basal ganglia responses to (a) cues signaling possible monetary rewards and losses, and (b) delivery of monetary gains and penalties, in 13 young adults who experienced maltreatment before age 14 and 31 non-maltreated controls. Results Relative to controls, individuals exposed to childhood adversity reported elevated symptoms of anhedonia and depression, rated reward cues less positively, and displayed a weaker response to reward cues in the left globus pallidus. There were no group differences in right hemisphere basal ganglia response to reward cues, or in basal ganglia response to loss cues, no-incentive cues, gains, or penalties. Conclusions Results indicate that childhood adversity in humans is associated with blunted subjective responses to reward-predicting cues as well as dysfunction in left basal ganglia regions implicated in reward-related learning and motivation. This dysfunction may serve as a diathesis that contributes to the multiple negative outcomes and psychopathologies associated with childhood adversity. The findings suggest that interventions that target motivation and goal-directed action may be useful for reducing the negative consequences of childhood adversity.

Dillon, Daniel G.; Holmes, Avram J.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Brooks, Nancy; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Pizzagalli, Diego A.



Light and electron microscopic abnormalities in diastrophic dysplasia growth cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light and electron microscopic studies of diastrophic dysplasia iliac crest growth cartilage performed on five occasions in two patients from 1 to 10 years of age reveal extensive cell and matrix abnormalities at each time period. Light microscopy shows atypical chondrocytes with extreme variation in size and shape, and premature cytoplasmic degeneration, and formation of target ghost cells. Promment, densely

Frederic Shapiro



Baryon Shape  

SciTech Connect

Using a model based on the relativistic mean-field approach, we address the problem of baryon shape. The best option for unravelling a deviation from spherical symmetry being the study of the {gamma}N{delta} transition, we have evaluated its form factors at Q{sup 2} = 0. Our approach shows explicitly a quadrupolar distortion due to the pion cloud and quark angular momentum. Without any fits, we have obtained in the flavor SU(3) limit and up to the 5-quark level a nice agreement with experimental indications.

Lorce, C. [Departement d'Astrophysique, de Geophysique et d'Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, B5a, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)



Moving Shapes to Make Larger Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s practice playing with different shapes! Move the shape in Hextris to fit the others, once you make a line it goes away. Don\\'t let the shapes fill up the page or you will loose! Rearrange the smaller shapes in Tangram to create a larger picture. In the Geometry Workshop determine how the shapes are moved. ...

Frederick, Mrs.



The thalamostriatal system: a highly specific network of the basal ganglia circuitry.  


Although the existence of thalamostriatal projections has long been known, the role(s) of this system in the basal ganglia circuitry remains poorly characterized. The intralaminar and ventral motor nuclei are the main sources of thalamic inputs to the striatum. This review emphasizes the high degree of anatomical and functional specificity of basal ganglia-thalamostriatal projections and discusses various aspects of the synaptic connectivity and neurochemical features that differentiate this glutamate system from the corticostriatal network. It also discusses the importance of thalamostriatal projections from the caudal intralaminar nuclei in the process of attentional orientation. A major task of future studies is to characterize the role(s) of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal pathways in regulating basal ganglia activity in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:15331233

Smith, Yoland; Raju, Dinesh V; Pare, Jean-Francois; Sidibe, Mamadou



MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.



Peripheral ganglia supplying the genital smooth musculature in the female pig: an experimental study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to locate the sensory and autonomic ganglia innervating the female genital musculature in pigs. The retrograde neuronal tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or fast blue (FB) were injected into the left retractor clitoridis muscle (RCM), which was treated as a typical model of the genital smooth musculature. Labelled cells were found in ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia Sl–S4, in bilateral sympathetic paravertebral ganglia from L5–L6 or L6–L7 to S3 and in the left and right caudal mesenteric ganglion. In two of the five animals treated, presumably preganglionic parasympathetic cells were labelled in the ipsilateral intermediate grey substance of the segments Sl–S2.




Sonography-Assisted Arthroscopic Resection of Volar Wrist Ganglia: A New Technique  

PubMed Central

Although satisfactory arthroscopic resection of volar wrist ganglia has been reported recently, the risk of damage to arteries, nerves, and tendons remains. Furthermore, ganglia and their stalks cannot be visualized arthroscopically in many cases, and surgeons must perform a blind resection of the joint capsule until ganglion cysts or their stalks appear. Sonography has limited resolution, but recent improvements in hardware and software have made it an excellent noninvasive and dynamic imaging technique for assessing the musculoskeletal system. Ganglia, tendons, nerves, and vessels around the lesion can be clearly observed by sonography. Furthermore, the cyclic motion of the arthroscopic shaver tip makes identification by sonography easy and assists in guiding the surgeon to the lesion.

Yamamoto, Michiro; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Okui, Nobuyuki; Tatebe, Masahiro; Shinohara, Takaaki; Hirata, Hitoshi



Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.  

PubMed Central

The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images

Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R



Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  


Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S



[Age-related development of calbindin-immunopositive neurons of rat sympathetic ganglia].  


Neurons of cranial cervical, stellate and celiac sympathetic ganglia containing calbindin (CALB) were studied in rats (n = 60) aged 3-90 days using immunohistochemical method. The results obtained indicate that the largest population of CALB-immunopositive neurons was located in the stellate ganglion. The proportion of CALB-containing neurons in sympathetic para- and prevertebral ganglia decreased during the development. Final formation of CALB-immunopositive group of neurons was observed by the end of the first month of life. PMID:22724341

Masliukov, P M; Korobkin, A A; Konovalov, V V; Porseva, V V; Emanu?lov, A I



Phenotypic spectrum of probable and genetically-confirmed idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.  


Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is characterized by mineral deposits in the brain, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in most cases and genetic heterogeneity. The first causal genes, SLC20A2 and PDGFRB, have recently been reported. Diagnosing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification necessitates the exclusion of other causes, including calcification related to normal ageing, for which no normative data exist. Our objectives were to diagnose accurately and then describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification. First, calcifications were evaluated using a visual rating scale on the computerized tomography scans of 600 consecutively hospitalized unselected controls. We determined an age-specific threshold in these control computerized tomography scans as the value of the 99th percentile of the total calcification score within three age categories: <40, 40-60, and >60 years. To study the phenotype of the disease, patients with basal ganglia calcification were recruited from several medical centres. Calcifications that rated below the age-specific threshold using the same scale were excluded, as were patients with differential diagnoses of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, after an extensive aetiological assessment. Sanger sequencing of SLC20A2 and PDGFRB was performed. In total, 72 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, 25 of whom bore a mutation in either SLC20A2 (two families, four sporadic cases) or PDGFRB (one family, two sporadic cases). Five mutations were novel. Seventy-one per cent of the patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification were symptomatic (mean age of clinical onset: 39 ± 20 years; mean age at last evaluation: 55 ± 19 years). Among them, the most frequent signs were: cognitive impairment (58.8%), psychiatric symptoms (56.9%) and movement disorders (54.9%). Few clinical differences appeared between SLC20A2 and PDGFRB mutation carriers. Radiological analysis revealed that the total calcification scores correlated positively with age in controls and patients, but increased more rapidly with age in patients. The expected total calcification score was greater in SLC20A2 than PDGFRB mutation carriers, beyond the effect of the age alone. No patient with a PDGFRB mutation exhibited a cortical or a vermis calcification. The total calcification score was more severe in symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. We provide the first phenotypical description of a case series of patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification since the identification of the first causative genes. Clinical and radiological diversity is confirmed, whatever the genetic status. Quantification of calcification is correlated with the symptomatic status, but the location and the severity of the calcifications don't reflect the whole clinical diversity. Other biomarkers may be helpful in better predicting clinical expression. PMID:24065723

Nicolas, Gaël; Pottier, Cyril; Charbonnier, Camille; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Labauge, Pierre; Ayrignac, Xavier; Defebvre, Luc; Maltête, David; Martinaud, Olivier; Lefaucheur, Romain; Guillin, Olivier; Wallon, David; Chaumette, Boris; Rondepierre, Philippe; Derache, Nathalie; Fromager, Guillaume; Schaeffer, Stéphane; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Verny, Christophe; Jurici, Snejana; Sauvée, Mathilde; Vérin, Marc; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Rouaud, Olivier; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rousseau, Stéphane; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier



Teaching NeuroImages: Manganese neurotoxicity of the basal ganglia and thalamus.  


A 27-year-old man with cholestasis presented with 4 weeks of progressive spastic quadriparesis and hypophonia. MRI revealed T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and thalamus (figure 1). He was treated with IV methylprednisolone for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. His condition worsened. MRI 4 weeks later showed larger symmetric hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and thalami (figure 2). Blood manganese was elevated (25.4 µg/L, reference 4.4-15.2). There was no known exposure. He was treated with chelation and levodopa with limited response. PMID:24081969

Lakhan, Shaheen E; Abboud, Hesham



Motor functions of cerebellum and basal ganglia: the cerebellocortical saccadic (ballistic) clock, the cerebellonuclear hold regulator, and the basal ganglia ramp (voluntary speed smooth movement) generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of the motor functions of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia is presented. It is based on the following observations:1.Dysmetria of saccadic eye and rapid arm movements as well as adiadochokinesis as a consequence of cerebellar cortical lesions.2.Holding tremor of the arm and eyes (pendular nystagmus) due to lesions of the cerebellar nuclei.3.The precentral motor cortex is unnecessary

H. H. Kornhuber



Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glial cells have been shown to directly participate to the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain in both the sensory ganglia and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, glial cell activation has been reported in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord following injury or inflammation of the sciatic nerve, but no data are currently available in

Giovanni Villa; Stefania Ceruti; Matteo Zanardelli; Giulia Magni; Luc Jasmin; Peter T Ohara; Maria P Abbracchio



The cerebral ganglia of Milnesium tardigradum Doyère (Apochela, Tardigrada): Three dimensional reconstruction and notes on their ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential interference contrast micrographs from stretched animals, serially sectioned semi-thin and ultrathin sections revealed that the cerebral ganglia (supraoesophageal mass) of the eutardigradeMilnesium tardigradumlie above the buccal tube and adjacent tissue like a saddle. It has an anterior indentation which is penetrated by two muscles that arise from the cuticle of the forehead. The cerebral ganglia consist of lateral outer




Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.



A modular neural-network model of the basal ganglia's role in learning and selecting motor behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a modular neural-network model (based on reinforcement-learning actor-critic methods) that tries to capture some of the most-relevant known aspects of the role that basal ganglia play in learning and selecting motor behavior related to different goals. In particular some simulations with the model show that basal ganglia selects \\

Gianluca Baldassarre



Recurrent Herpes Simplex in the Mouse: Inflammation in the Skin and Activation of Virus in the Ganglia Following Peripheral Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The originally infected ear of mice latently infected in the cervical ganglia with herpes simplex virus (HSV) was treated with one of five stimuli: stripping with cellophane tape, irradiation with u.v. light, or the application of xylene, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or retinoic acid. Each of these stimuli induced the appearance of infectious virus in the ganglia 1 to 5

D. A. Harbour; T. J. Hill; W. A. Blyth



Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust  

PubMed Central

Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables.

Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D



Anisotropic atomic packing model for abnormal grain growth mechanism of WC-25wt.%Co alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During liquid phase sintering, cemented carbide particles grow into either faceted or non-faceted grain shapes depending on ally system. In case of WC-Co alloy, prism-shape faceted grains with (0001) planes and {l_brace}1{bar 1}00{r_brace} planes on each face are observed, and furthermore an abnormal grain growth has been reported to occur. When abnormal grain growth occurs in WC crystals, dimension ratio,

H. S. Ryoo; S. K. Hwang



Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir



Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro



Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William



Radiographic abnormalities in Laron dwarfism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiographic abnormalities in two children with Laron dwarfism are described. In addition to a characteristic bone age, which was retarded for the chronological age but advanced for the height of the patients, there were marked skull changes and minor skeletal abnormalities in the long bones and vertebrae. Such findings on a skeletal survey should lead the radiologist to suspect the

M. Vasil; A. Baxova; K. Kozlowski



Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia in a Population-Based Sample: Relationship to Duration of Illness  

PubMed Central

Biased recruitment and sample selection may cause variability in neuroimaging studies. Epidemiologically principled population-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia are very rare. We gathered structural MRI data on 154 subjects from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, aged 33–35 (100 controls, 54 schizophrenia patients). Regional differences in density of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were identified between groups using nonparametric statistical analysis, and the relationship of the regional differences to duration of illness was explored. Gray matter reductions were found bilaterally in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, insula, superior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, cuneus, and lingual gyrus; in the left posterior cingulate, superior frontal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus; and in the right postcentral gyrus. Gray matter excesses were observed bilaterally in the basal ganglia, anterior cingulate, and medial orbitofrontal cortices. There were white matter deficits in an extensive network including inter- and intrahemispheric tracts bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, subcortical structures, cerebellum, and brain stem. CSF excesses were found bilaterally in the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, interhemispheric, and left Sylvian fissure. We replicated the previous findings of structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia on a general population level. Gray and white matter deficits were associated with duration of illness suggesting either that developmental brain deficits relate to an earlier age of onset or that brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are progressive in nature.

Tanskanen, Paivikki; Ridler, Khanum; Murray, Graham K.; Haapea, Marianne; Veijola, Juha M.; Jaaskelainen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Jones, Peter B.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Isohanni, Matti K.



Spatio-temporal pattern of induction of bradykinin receptors and inflammation in rat dorsal root ganglia after unilateral nerve ligation.  


Expression of bradykinin receptors was analyzed in freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons of the ipsi- and contralateral segments L4/L5, L2/L3, and T12/T13 two to twenty days after unilateral injury of the adult rat sciatic nerve using gold labeled bradykinin. The number of infiltrating leucocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Sciatic nerve injury transiently increased the proportion of neurons expressing bradykinin receptors not only in the ipsilateral ganglia L4/L5, but also in the homonymous contralateral ganglia and also bilaterally in the adjacent ganglia L2/L3. Neurons of the ganglia T12/T13 were not affected. The time course of upregulation was different between neurons of the injured nerve and uninjured ones. Furthermore, the proportion of neurons expressing a high density of receptors increased also bilaterally in ganglia L4/L5 and L2/L3. As on the ipsilateral side, the increase in neurons expressing bradykinin receptors in the contralateral homonymous ganglia was due to an induction of the B1 receptor subtype and an upregulation of the B2 subtype. As a possible source for stimulating factors for induction of bradykinin receptors the number of macrophages and lymphocytes was investigated two to twenty days after nerve ligation. No increase was observed prior to day ten and only in ipsilateral ganglia L4/L5, not contralaterally and not in adjacent ganglia L2/L3 and T12/T13. The experiments show that the induction of bradykinin receptors following a unilateral nerve lesion is not restricted to neurons projecting into the damaged nerve but is (i) bilateral, (ii) different in time course between injured and uninjured neurons, and (iii) locally confined to neurons of the adjacent ganglia. Macrophages and lymphocytes are increased after ten day ligation only in the affected ganglia and are probably not involved in the induction of bradykinin receptors. PMID:10568857

Eckert, A; Segond von Banchet, G; Sopper, S; Petersen, M



Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain  

PubMed Central

We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure.

Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.



Stuttering and the Basal Ganglia Circuits: A Critical Review of Possible Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The possible relation between stuttering and the basal ganglia is discussed. Important clues to the pathophysiology of stuttering are given by conditions known to alleviate dysfluency, like the rhythm effect, chorus speech, and singing. Information regarding pharmacologic trials, lesion studies, brain imaging, genetics, and developmental changes…

Alm, Per A.



Characterization of the host immune response in human Ganglia after herpes zoster.  


Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes latency in ganglia, from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster (shingles), which is often followed by postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), causing severe neuropathic pain that can last for years after the rash. Despite the major impact of herpes zoster and PHN on quality of life, the nature and kinetics of the virus-immune cell interactions that result in ganglion damage have not been defined. We obtained rare material consisting of seven sensory ganglia from three donors who had suffered from herpes zoster between 1 and 4.5 months before death but who had not died from herpes zoster. We performed immunostaining to investigate the site of VZV infection and to phenotype immune cells in these ganglia. VZV antigen was localized almost exclusively to neurons, and in at least one case it persisted long after resolution of the rash. The large immune infiltrate consisted of noncytolytic CD8(+) T cells, with lesser numbers of CD4(+) T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages and no dendritic cells. VZV antigen-positive neurons did not express detectable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, nor did CD8(+) T cells surround infected neurons, suggesting that mechanisms of immune control may not be dependent on direct contact. This is the first report defining the nature of the immune response in ganglia following herpes zoster and provides evidence for persistence of non-latency-associated viral antigen and inflammation beyond rash resolution. PMID:20573825

Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Steain, Megan; Cunningham, Anthony L; Rodriguez, Michael; Blumbergs, Peter; Slobedman, Barry; Abendroth, Allison



Differential Regulation of NADPH Oxidase in Sympathetic and Sensory Ganglia in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated recently that superoxide anion levels are elevated in prevertebral sympathetic ganglia of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats and that this superoxide anion is generated by reduced nicotinamide- adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. In this study we compared the reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme system of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic celiac ganglion (CG) and its regulation in hypertension.

Xian Cao; Xiaoling Dai; Lindsay M. Parker; David L. Kreulen




Microsoft Academic Search

Neural crest cells are the embryonic progenitors of several adult cell types, including some neurons that contain the neuroactive peptide somatostatin. To begin to understand the control of peptide expression during neuronal ontogeny, we have investigated the development of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in embryonic quail paravertebral sympathetic ganglia in uivo. SLI was identified by immunohistochemistry in paraformaldehyde-fixed cryostat sections from



Intranuclear inclusion bodies within neurons of spinal and cranial ganglia in three cyprinid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histological examination of 205 fish representing four cyprinid species from a site 2.5 miles north of Wheeling, West Virginia, on the Ohio River revealed large (2–4 µm) cuboidal intranuclear inclusion bodies (NIB's) within neurons in the cranial and spinal ganglia of three species. Because the minnows had been caught during a yearly sampling of fish, an additional 63 minnows

Karen L. Hoover; John C. Harshbarger; Cecil W. Lee; William Banfield; Sing Chen Chang



Fulminant encephalopathy with basal ganglia hyperintensities in HIV-infected drug users  

PubMed Central

Objective: To define a clinical syndrome associated with active drug abuse in HIV-infected individuals. Methods: We performed a retrospective review to identify individuals treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1993 to 2008 who were HIV-infected and were actively abusing drugs and had bilateral basal ganglia lesions on MRI. They were identified using a key word search in the radiology database, autopsy database, and the Moore HIV clinic database. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings were correlated to define the syndrome. Results: Ten individuals were identified who presented with a change in mental status or seizures, used cocaine or cocaine with heroin, had uncontrolled HIV infection (>190,000 copies/mL of plasma), elevated CSF protein (63–313 mg/dL), and diffuse hyperintense bilateral basal ganglia lesions on imaging. The majority of patients (8/10) had renal failure and despite supportive therapy most (7/9) ultimately died (median survival 21 days). Postmortem examination in one individual showed the presence of overwhelming microglial activation in the basal ganglia. The 2 surviving individuals were started on combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) during hospitalization. Conclusion: We describe a unique clinical syndrome of a fulminant encephalopathy associated with primarily basal ganglia involvement in HIV-infected drug abusers. This syndrome is a rare but serious condition that is associated with a high mortality rate. Early CART institution may be useful and neuroprotective in this disorder, although this requires further investigation.

Newsome, S.D.; Johnson, E.; Pardo, C.; McArthur, J.C.



Fluorescent properties of monoamine neurons following glyoxylic acid treatment of intact leech ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPG modification (de la Torre and Surgeon 1976) of the glyoxylic acid method for amine condensation is a straightforward procedure which can be used upon intact ganglia from the leech. Intense fluorescence of the neurosomata of identified neurons which contain either indoleamine (serotonin, 5-HT) or catecholamine (CA) is obtained in less than 30 min. The fluorescence of the 5-HT

C. M. Lent



Fine structure of the autonomic ganglia of the mouse pulmonary vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to describe the architecture of a ganglionated nerve plexus found in the loose connective tissue surrounding the pulmonary vein of the mouse. The input to this plexus was from the vagus nerves and from the stellate ganglia. A large ganglion containing more than 200 neurons was commonly found near the primary bifurcation of

Peter Ba?uk; Giorgio Gabella



The basal ganglia, the ideal machinery for the cost-benefit analysis of action plans.  


Basal ganglia dysfunction causes profound movement disorders, often attributed to imbalance between direct and indirect pathway activity in the sensorimotor basal ganglia. In the classical view, the direct pathway facilitates movements, whereas the indirect pathway inhibits movements. However, the recent finding of co-activation of the two pathways during movement challenges this view. Reconciling the new finding with the body of evidence supporting the classical view, this perspective proposes that the direct pathway computes the expected benefits of motor plans entering the basal ganglia, while the indirect pathway computes their expected costs. Thus, basal ganglia output combining the two pathway signals in a subtraction manner weighs benefits against costs, and endorses the plan with the best prospective outcome via feedback projections to the cortex. The cost-benefit model, while retaining the antagonistic roles of the two pathways for movements, requires co-activation of the two pathways during movement as both benefit and cost are computed for every movement. The cost-benefit model, though simple, accounts for a number of confounding results, and generates new focus for future research with testable predictions. PMID:23885236

Hwang, Eun Jung



Human basal ganglia and the dynamic control of force during on-line corrections.  


Natural movements are corrected in part by the generation of submovements, occurring early in a movement such that they amend an ongoing action. Submovements are associated with activity of the basal ganglia, implying a role for the structures in error correction. In parallel, the basal ganglia are linked to the generation and control of force amplitude, change, and duration. Here, we tested whether activity in human basal ganglia is associated with submovements generally, or was specific to a condition where the submovements only occurred in the face of unexpected proprioceptive error. Submovements were induced by introducing unexpected and variable viscous loads (augmenting the need for trial-specific grip forces) or by reducing target size (augmenting the need for visually guided on-line control) in a one-dimensional target-capture task. In both cases, subjects compensated for the increased task difficulty by generating corrective submovements, which were closely matched in frequency and type. Activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus correlated strongly with the number of submovements during the viscous challenge but not with the target challenge. The effects could not be explained by kinematic differences, i.e., movement amplitude or average number of submovements. The results support a specific role for the basal ganglia in error correction under conditions of variable load where there is a need for the dynamic control of force within an ongoing movement. PMID:21289168

Grafton, Scott T; Tunik, Eugene



Effects of Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions on Timing and Force Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies of basal ganglia dysfunction in humans have generally involved patients with degenerative disorders, notably Parkinson's disease. In many instances, the performance of these patients is compared to that of patients with focal lesions of other brain structures such as the cerebellum. In the present report, we studied the performance of…

Aparicio, P.; Diedrichsen, J.; Ivry, R.B.



Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.



Activity propagation in an avian basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit essential for vocal learning  

PubMed Central

In mammalian basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits, GABAergic pallidal neurons are thought to ‘gate’ or modulate excitation in thalamus with their strong inhibitory inputs, and thus signal to cortex by pausing and permitting thalamic neurons to fire in response to excitatory drive. In contrast, in a homologous circuit specialized for vocal learning in songbirds, evidence suggests that pallidal neurons signal by eliciting postinhibitory rebound spikes in thalamus, which could occur even without any excitatory drive to thalamic neurons. To test whether songbird pallidal neurons can also communicate with thalamus by gating excitatory drive, as well as by postinhibitory rebound, we examined the activity of thalamic relay neurons in response to acute inactivation of the basal ganglia structure Area X; Area X contains the pallidal neurons that project to thalamus. Although inactivation of Area X should eliminate rebound-mediated spiking in thalamus, this manipulation tonically increases the firing rate of thalamic relay neurons, providing evidence that songbird pallidal neurons can gate tonic thalamic excitatory drive. We also found that the increased thalamic activity was fed forward to its target in the avian equivalent of cortex, which includes neurons that project to the vocal premotor area. These data raise the possibility that basal ganglia circuits can signal to cortex through thalamus both by generating postinhibitory rebound and by gating excitatory drive, and may switch between these modes depending on the statistics of pallidal firing. Moreover, these findings provide insight into the strikingly different disruptive effects of basal ganglia and ‘cortical’ lesions on songbird vocal learning.

Kojima, Satoshi; Doupe, Allison J.



Activity propagation in an avian basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal learning.  


In mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, GABAergic pallidal neurons are thought to "gate" or modulate excitation in thalamus with their strong inhibitory inputs and thus signal to cortex by pausing and permitting thalamic neurons to fire in response to excitatory drive. In contrast, in a homologous circuit specialized for vocal learning in songbirds, evidence suggests that pallidal neurons signal by eliciting postinhibitory rebound spikes in thalamus, which could occur even without any excitatory drive to thalamic neurons. To test whether songbird pallidal neurons can also communicate with thalamus by gating excitatory drive, as well as by postinhibitory rebound, we examined the activity of thalamic relay neurons in response to acute inactivation of the basal ganglia structure Area X; Area X contains the pallidal neurons that project to thalamus. Although inactivation of Area X should eliminate rebound-mediated spiking in thalamus, this manipulation tonically increased the firing rate of thalamic relay neurons, providing evidence that songbird pallidal neurons can gate tonic thalamic excitatory drive. We also found that the increased thalamic activity was fed forward to its target in the avian equivalent of cortex, which includes neurons that project to the vocal premotor area. These data raise the possibility that basal ganglia circuits can signal to cortex through thalamus both by generating postinhibitory rebound and by gating excitatory drive and may switch between these modes depending on the statistics of pallidal firing. Moreover, these findings provide insight into the strikingly different disruptive effects of basal ganglia and cortical lesions on songbird vocal learning. PMID:19369547

Kojima, Satoshi; Doupe, Allison J



The Role of Inhibition in Generating and Controlling Parkinson's Disease Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Movement disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with slow oscillations and increased synchrony of neuronal activity in the basal ganglia. The neural mechanisms underlying this dynamic network dysfunction, however, are only poorly understood. Here, we show that the strength of inhibitory inputs from striatum to globus pallidus external (GPe) is a key parameter controlling oscillations in the basal ganglia. Specifically, the increase in striatal activity observed in PD is sufficient to unleash the oscillations in the basal ganglia. This finding allows us to propose a unified explanation for different phenomena: absence of oscillation in the healthy state of the basal ganglia, oscillations in dopamine-depleted state and quenching of oscillations under deep-brain-stimulation (DBS). These novel insights help us to better understand and optimize the function of DBS protocols. Furthermore, studying the model behavior under transient increase of activity of the striatal neurons projecting to the indirect pathway, we are able to account for both motor impairment in PD patients and for reduced response inhibition in DBS implanted patients.

Kumar, Arvind; Cardanobile, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan; Aertsen, Ad



The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.



Latent Infection of Sensory Ganglia with Herpes Simplex Virus: Efficacy of Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice were used to test the efficacy of active immunization in preventing latent infection of local sensory ganglia that follows inoculation of superficial epithelial surfaces with herpes simplex virus. Substantial but not complete protection was observed in animals immunized and challenged with herpes simplex virus type 1, but no protection was noted in animals immunized and challenged with herpes simplex

Richard W. Price; M. Antoinette Walz; Charles Wohlenberg; Abner Louis Notkins



Basal ganglia–hippocampal interactions support the role of the hippocampal formation in sensorimotor integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to evaluate whether neural activity in the basal ganglia is functionally related to the neural activity underlying mechanisms of theta band oscillation and synchrony in the hippocampal formation. Experiment 1 demonstrated that electrical stimulation administered to the substantia nigra, globus pallidus (GP) and caudate-putamen (CPu) in urethane anesthetized rats elicited theta field activity in the hippocampal

Nicholas E. Hallworth; Brian H. Bland



Basal Ganglia Volume Is Associated with Aerobic Fitness in Preadolescent Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first to explore the association between childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia structure and function. Rodent research has revealed that exercise influences the striatum by increasing dopamine signaling and angiogenesis. In children, higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volumes, superior performance on tasks of attentional and interference control, and elevated event-related brain

Laura Chaddock; Kirk I. Erickson; Ruchika Shaurya Prakash; Matt VanPatter; Michelle W. Voss; Matthew B. Pontifex; Lauren B. Raine; Charles H. Hillman; Arthur F. Kramer



Mytilus edulis pedal ganglia express ? opiate receptor transcripts exhibiting high sequence identity with human neuronal ?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous pharmacological and biochemical evidence suggests that ?-subtype opiate receptors are expressed in the mollusk Mytilus edulis (Bivalve), including the organism's ganglia. In this study, we present molecular evidence of ? opiate receptor expression. Using primers derived from the human neuronal ?1 opiate receptor, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect expression of ? transcripts from Mytilus pedal

Patrick Cadet; George B Stefano



Dopamine Modulates Excitability of Spiny Neurons in the Avian Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural substrate of vocal learning in songbirds is an acces- sible system for studying motor learning and motor control in vertebrates. In the so-called song system, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which is essential for song learning, resembles the mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop in its mac- roscopic organization, neuronal intrinsic properties, and micro- circuitry. Area X, the first station

Long Ding; David J. Perkel



Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose



Peripheral target reinnervation following orthotopic grafting of fetal allogeneic and xenogeneic dorsal root ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory reinnervation of dermal papillae and epidermis of glabrous skin, interosseal Pacinian corpuscles, and muscle spindles of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles has been examined 1, 3, and 8 months (allografts) or 3 and 5 weeks (xenografts) following orthotopic grafting of fetal allogeneic or xenogeneic (mouse) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) into ganglionectomized adult rats. Sensory axons in

C. M. Rosario; P. Dubovy; R. L. Sidman; H. Aldskogius



The corticostriatal projection: from synaptic plasticity to dysfunctions of the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticostriatal transmission has an important function in the regulation of the neuronal activity of the basal ganglia. The firing activity of corticostriatal neurones excites striatal cells via the release of glutamate. Presynaptic receptors that are located on corticostriatal terminals and that regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum have been postulated for dopamine and glutamate. Activation of these receptors

Paolo Calabresi; Antonio Pisani; Nicola B. Mercuri; Giorgio Bernardi



Adenosine–dopamine receptor–receptor interactions as an integrative mechanism in the basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence suggests that antagonistic interactions between specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are involved in the motor depressant effects of adenosine receptor agonists and the motor stimulant effects of adenosine receptor antagonists, such as caffeine. The GABAergic striatopallidal neurons are regulated by interacting adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors. On the other hand, the

Sergi Ferré; Kjell Fuxe; Bertil B. Fredholm; Micaela Morelli; Patrizia Popoli



Identifiable Achatina giant neurones: Their localizations in ganglia, axonal pathways and pharmacological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant neurones were identified in

Hiroshi Takeuchi; Yoko Araki; Muhammad Emaduddin; Wei Zhang; Xiao Yan Han; Thucydides L. Salunga; Shu Min Wong



Taxol impairs anterograde axonal transport of microinjected horseradish peroxidase in dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of taxol on the axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells and their neuronal cytoskeleton. The former were analysed by microinjection of HRP into single DRG cells and the latter was studied by means of immunohistochemistry and cryo-electron microscopy. In cultured and untreated DRG cells, microinjected HRP was typically transported

Carsten Theiss; Karl Meller



Cuprizone effect on myelination, astrogliosis and microglia attraction in the mouse basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults affecting more than two million people worldwide. Although multiple sclerosis is generally considered as white matter disease, distinct pathological alterations are also found in the grey matter. Involvement of basal ganglia seems to be related to a set of symptoms such as fatigue, impaired cognition, and movement disturbance.

Friederike Pott; Stefan Gingele; Tim Clarner; Jon Dang; Werner Baumgartner; Cordian Beyer; Markus Kipp



Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose



Remodelling of the intracardiac ganglia in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: an anatomical study.  


BACKGROUND: Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM. METHODS: Twelve GK rats (276 +/- 17 days of age; mean +/- standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262 +/- 5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area. RESULTS: The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, p < 0.001), but concentration of plasma insulin did not differ significantly between the two groups (84.0 +/- 9.8 vs. 67.4 +/- 10.9 pmol/l, p = 0.17). The GK rats contained significantly fewer intracardiac ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.1 mm2, p < 0.001) and smaller somata of ganglionic neurons. Mean total number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats was 1461 +/- 62, while this number in control rats was higher by 39% and reached 2395 +/- 110 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study demonstrate the decreased number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats compared to metabolically healthy Wistar rats of similar age. It is likely that the observed structural remodelling of intracardiac ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state. PMID:23758627

Batulevicius, Darius; Frese, Thomas; Peschke, Elmar; Pauza, Dainius H; Batuleviciene, Vaida



Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia.  


The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies. PMID:22038326

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold



Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold



Detection of Abnormalities in MANETs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abnormalities in MANETs can be malicious attacks or selfish nodes which can affect network architecture and network operation significantly. Clearly, there are two distinct objectives: 1) To design/examine attacks and develop countermeasures and 2) design...

W. Wang



Abnormal States of Nuclear Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results for abnormal states in nuclear matter are reviewed and compared with pi exp - condensates in the context of chiral invariance and the sigma model. The relative importance of symmetry breaking and conserving interactions is assessed for the two pro...

L. Castillejo



Shapes and Geometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we will learn more about shapes. We will also have a chance to create new shapes out of the shapes we receive! First, click on Sorting. Sort the different shapes by size, color, or shape. You will have to decide which way the shapes are being sorted each time. Sort shapes five times. Next, create some Quadrilaterals. This Quadrilateral can move as you click the vertex with the mouse and move it. ...

Holmgren, Ms.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be working with extending a pattern, making shapes and comparing shapes! MATH IS FUN and lets have some fun with patterns! Click to begin: Making Patterns Now that we have worked with patterns, lets work on our shapes. The world is made up of shapes everywhere! Click to begin:Comparing Shapes to the Real World You have now seen that the world is full of shapes, lets make some shapes of ...

Simpson, Ms.



Denervation of vagal cardiopulmonary receptors by injection of kainic acid into the nodose ganglia in dogs.  


We determined if kainic acid, a neuroexcitotoxin, could be used to denervate the cell bodies of cardiopulmonary vagal sensory neurons. Kainic acid (5 microg) was injected into the nodose ganglion of five dogs. Ten to fourteen days following this procedure, these kainic acid-injected dogs were anesthetized and tested for the extent of the deafferentation. Five additional dogs were used as the control group. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured, and a Swan-Ganz catheter was advanced into a branch of the pulmonary artery to measure pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. We recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity from branches of the left renal nerves. Bilateral carotid occlusion increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure in only the denervated group, but sympathetic nerve activity increased significantly in both groups. This demonstrates that the carotid baroreflex is preserved after kainic acid is injected into the nodose ganglia. Volume expansion by use of warmed saline (15 ml kg(-1)) increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 5 mm Hg in control and 14 mm Hg in denervated dogs. In control dogs, sympathetic nerve activity decreased by 10% per mm Hg increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure while in denervated dogs, it decreased by 2% per mm Hg. This demonstrates that the vagal cardiopulmonary baroreflex is essentially abolished after injection of kainic acid into the nodose ganglia. After opening the chest, acetylstrophanthidin 100 microg was applied directly to the epicardial surface of the left ventricle to activate cardiac vagal afferents. Epicardial acetylstrophanthidin decreased sympathetic nerve activity by 28% in the control group, but resulted in no change in the kainic-acid-injected dogs. This demonstrates that vagal cardiac chemosensitive reflexes are abolished after bilateral injection of kainic acid into the nodose ganglia. At the end of these experiments, we removed the nodose ganglia for histological evaluation. The vast majority of cell bodies in the ganglia from the denervated group appeared injured compared to cell bodies in ganglia that had not been injected, suggesting that the destruction of cell bodies of vagal afferents was responsible for the functional denervation. Our findings are consistent with the interpretation that kainic acid treatment interrupts vagal afferents that meditate reflex responses to epicardial acetylstrophanthidin and to volume expansion. PMID:12492140

Wallick, Don W; Dunlap, Mark E; Stuesse, Sherry S; Thames, Marc D



Expression and localization of NK(1)R, substance P and CGRP are altered in dorsal root ganglia neurons of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).  


The kidneys play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension because of a primary defect in renal hemodynamics and/or tubule hydro-saline handling that results in the retention of fluid and electrolytes. Previous studies have shown that increasing the renal pelvic pressure increased ipsilateral afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA), the ipsilateral renal pelvic release of substance P (SP) and the contralateral urinary sodium excretion in Wistar--Kyoto rats (WKy). However, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) present an impaired renorenal reflex activity associated, partly, with a peripheral defect at the level of the sensory receptors in the renal pelvis. Furthermore, the renal pelvic administration of SP failed to increase ARNA in most of SHR at concentrations that produced marked increases in WKy. Since we have assessed the expression and localization of NK(1) receptor (NK(1)R), SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in different dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cell subtypes and renal pelvis of 7- and 14-week-old SHR. The results of this study show increased SP and CGRP expression in the dorsal ganglia root cells of SHR compared to WKy rats. Additionally, there was a progressive, significant, age-dependent, decrease in NK(1)R expression on the membrane surface in SHR DRG cells and in the renal pelvis. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the impaired activation of renal sensory neurons in SHR may be related to changes in the expression of neuropeptides and/or to a decreased presence of NK(1)R in DRG cells. Such abnormalities could contribute to the enhanced sodium retention and elevation of blood pressure seen in SHR. PMID:15869822

Aline Boer, Patrícia; Ueno, Mirian; Sant'ana, Jenifer S M; Saad, Mário J A; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha



Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities.  


Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p=0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p=0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention. PMID:23787273

Cianfoni, A; Caulo, M; Cerase, A; Della Marca, G; Falcone, C; Di Lella, G M; Gaudino, S; Edwards, J; Colosimo, C



Fifty percent reduced-dose cerebral CT perfusion imaging of Alzheimer's disease: regional blood flow abnormalities.  


To evaluate the value of 50% reduced-dose cerebral computed tomography (CT)perfusion imaging (CTPI) to show the perfusion abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as an attempt to develop a new imaging protocol with lower radiation dose to track the correlation of AD with regional blood flow abnormalities. A total of 52 patients with AD were assigned to the AD group and 28 healthy volunteers served as the control group. All participants were given a 50% reduced-dose cerebral CTPI (current was reduced from 160 to 80 mA) test by a multislice spiral CT scanner. Perfusion parameters of the bilateral frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia were measured, including the cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time to peak (TTP). Both the CBV and CBF values of the measured regions were significantly higher in the healthy control group than in the AD group (P < .05), while the MTT and TTP values of these cerebral areas were significantly lower in the healthy control group than in the AD group (P < .05). Four perfusion parameters, namely the MTT of the left frontal cortex, right temporal cortex, right basal ganglia, and right hippocampus, had the greatest sensitivity and a striking correlation with the incidence of AD. The blood flow per unit of time in the regions of interest was significantly lower in the AD group, which provides new evidence for the existence of microcirculation disturbance and ischemia in AD. The 50% reduced-dose cerebral CTPI scan is valuable to show the regional perfusion abnormalities in the patients with AD. PMID:22615483

Tang, Zhen; Pi, Xiaoling; Chen, Feng; Shi, Linghua; Gong, Haiting; Fu, Hongmei; Qu, Zhengwan



Metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although noted early in the HIV epidemic, metabolic abnormalities came to prominence when potent combination antiretroviral\\u000a therapy was introduced. Complications associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy include cardiovascular disease,\\u000a lipid disorders, glucose metabolism disorders, adipose tissue disorders, bone metabolism disorders, and lactic acidosis. Metabolic\\u000a complications have driven the discovery of new agents and classes of antiretrovirals, and have shaped

Carl J. Fichtenbaum



Detecting Thalamic Abnormalities in Autism Using Cylinder Conformal Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have documented that autism has a neurobiological basis, but the anatomical extent of these neurobiological\\u000a abnormalities is largely unknown. In this paper, we applied advanced computational techniques to extract 3D surface models\\u000a of the thalamus and subsequently analyze highly localized shape variations in a homogeneous group of autism children. In particular,\\u000a a new conformal parameterization for

Qing He; Ye Duan; Xiaotian Yin; Xianfeng Gu; Kevin Karsch; Judith Miles



Sonographic prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Over the past 20 years, the spectrum of neonatal neurological malformations has changed due to the diffusion of ultrasound, performed either routinely or as required by maternal alpha-fetoprotein screening or history.DiscussionWe review and illustrate the potential of ultrasound for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities in size or shape of the skull (macrocephaly, microcephaly, craniostenosis), neural tube defects, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus,

M. C. Aubry; J. P. Aubry; M. Dommergues



Ciliary abnormalities in respiratory disease.  


One hundred and sixty seven children, ranging in age from 5 weeks to 16 years, with chronic upper or lower respiratory tract problems, or both, were investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. Abnormal ciliary function was found in 18 cases all of whom had chronic lower respiratory disease and most of whom also had upper respiratory problems. Fifteen of the 18 cases had reduced ciliary beat frequencies (less than 10 Hz) associated with dyskinesia and the other three showed apparent absence of ciliated cells. Of the 15 cases with reduced ciliary beat frequencies, ciliary ultrastructure was normal in seven cases but abnormal with missing dynein arms and occasional abnormalities of microtubular arrangement in eight. Respiratory symptoms in the perinatal period were more common in children with abnormal ciliary function and present in all those with ultrastructural abnormalities or absence of ciliated cells compared with 34 (26%) of 132 children, in whom symptoms were recorded, with normal ciliary function. This study would suggest that all children with unexplained chronic respiratory disease, in particular those with symptoms starting in the perinatal period, should be investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. PMID:3355203

Buchdahl, R M; Reiser, J; Ingram, D; Rutman, A; Cole, P J; Warner, J O



White matter abnormalities in gene-positive myoclonus-dystonia.  


Myoclonus-dystonia is an autosomal dominantly inherited movement disorder clinically characterized by myoclonic jerks and dystonic movements of the upper body. Functional imaging and structural gray matter imaging studies in M-D suggest defective sensorimotor integration and an association between putaminal volume and severity of dystonia, possibly because of neuronal plasticity. As we expect changes in the connections between the cortical and subcortical regions, we performed a combination of white matter voxel-based morphometry (wVBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect macro- and microstructural white matter changes, respectively, in DYT-11 mutations carriers (M-D). Sixteen clinically affected DYT-11 mutation carriers and 18 control subjects were scanned with 3-Tesla MRI to compare white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity between groups. In DYT11 mutation carriers, increased white matter volume and FA and decreased mean diffusivity were found in the subthalamic area of the brain stem, including the red nucleus. Furthermore, decreased mean diffusivity was found in the subgyral cortical sensorimotor areas. The white matter changes found in the subthalamic area of the brain stem, connecting the cerebellum with the thalamus, are compatible with the hypothesis that abnormal function in M-D involves a network that includes the cerebellum, brain stem, and basal ganglia. Whether these changes are causative or an effect of M-D requires further study. PMID:23114862

van der Meer, Johan N; Beukers, Richard J; van der Salm, S M A; Caan, Matthan W A; Tijssen, Marina A J; Nederveen, Aart J



Abnormal temporal dynamics of visual attention in spatial neglect patients.  


When we identify a visual object such as a word or letter, our ability to detect a second object is impaired if it appears within 400ms of the first. This phenomenon has been termed the attentional blink or dwell time and is a measure of our ability to allocate attention over time (temporal attention). Patients with unilateral visual neglect are unaware of people or objects contralateral to their lesion. They are considered to have a disorder of attending to a particular location in space (spatial attention). Here we examined the non-spatial temporal dynamics of attention in patients, using a protocol for assessing the attentional blink. Neglect patients with right parietal, frontal or basal ganglia strokes had an abnormally severe and protracted attentional blink When they identified a letter, their awareness of a subsequent letter was significantly diminished for a length of time that was three times as long as for individuals without neglect. Our results demonstrate for the first time that visual neglect is a disorder of directing attention in time, as well as space. PMID:8990117

Husain, M; Shapiro, K; Martin, J; Kennard, C



Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George



Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis with bilateral basal ganglia necrosis: an unusual complication due to vasculitis.  


Streptococcus pneumoniae (S pneumoniae) is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, frequently leading to death or severe neurological impairment. We report an exceptional case of a 4-month-old boy with meningitis caused by S pneumoniae. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain showed bilateral symmetrical necrosis involving the lentiform and caudate nuclei, as well as the thalamus. T1-weighted MR images showed patchy areas of increased signal intensity, consistent with hemorrhagic transformation of the lesions. Autopsy revealed widespread necrosis of the basal ganglia with clear signs of vasculitis. Severe complications of S pneumoniae meningoencephalitis are known in infants but to our knowledge, such lesions in the basal ganglia have only been reported thrice in adults and never in children. PMID:21677202

Magnus, Jessy; Parizel, Paul M; Ceulemans, Berten; Cras, Patrick; Luijks, Marloes; Jorens, Philippe G



Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease  

SciTech Connect

We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis.

Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.



Satellite glial cell proliferation in the trigeminal ganglia after chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve.  


We have examined satellite glial cell (SGC) proliferation in trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve. Using BrdU labeling combined with immunohistochemistry for SGC specific proteins we positively confirmed proliferating cells to be SGCs. Proliferation peaks at approximately 4 days after injury and dividing SGCs are preferentially located around neurons that are immunopositive for ATF-3, a marker of nerve injury. After nerve injury there is an increase GFAP expression in SGCs associated with both ATF-3 immunopositive and immunonegative neurons throughout the ganglia. SGCs also express the non-glial proteins, CD45 and CD163, which label resident macrophages and circulating leukocytes, respectively. In addition to SGCs, we found some Schwann cells, endothelial cells, resident macrophages, and circulating leukocytes were BrdU immunopositive. GLIA 2013;61:2000-2008. PMID:24123473

Donegan, Macayla; Kernisant, Melanie; Cua, Criselda; Jasmin, Luc; Ohara, Peter T



Chronic 5-HT Transporter Blockade Reduces DA Signaling to Elicit Basal Ganglia Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-HT)-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely administered for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but response rates are low, and side effects often lead to discontinuation. Side effect profiles suggest that SSRIs inhibit dopaminergic activity, but mechanistic insight remains scarce. Here we show that in mice, chronic 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade during adulthood but not during development impairs basal ganglia-dependent behaviors in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. Furthermore, chronic 5-HTT blockade reduces striatal dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. A causal relationship between reduced DA signaling and impaired basal ganglia-dependent behavior is indicated by the reversal of behavioral deficits through l-DOPA administration. Our data suggest that augmentation of DA signaling would reduce side effects and increase efficacies of SSRI-based therapy.

Morelli, Emanuela; Moore, Holly; Rebello, Tahilia J.; Gray, Neil; Steele, Kelly; Esposito, Ennio; Ansorge, Mark S.



Latency of Varicella Zoster Virus in Dorsal Root, Cranial, and Enteric Ganglia in Vaccinated Children  

PubMed Central

Despite vaccination, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) remains an important pathogen. We investigated VZV latency in autopsy specimens from vaccinees, in gastrointestinal tissue removed surgically, and in a guinea pig model. We propose that retrograde transport from infected skin and viremia deliver VZV to neurons in which it becomes latent. Wild type (WT) VZV was found to be latent in many ganglia of vaccinated children with no history of varicella, suggesting that subclinical infection with WT-VZV occurs with subsequent viremic dissemination. The 30% to 40% rate of WT-VZV zoster reported in vaccinees and occasional trigeminal zoster due to vaccine type VZV (vOka) are consistent with viremic delivery of VZV to multiple ganglia. Most human intestinal specimens contained latent VZV within neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Induction of viremia in guinea pigs led to VZV latency throughout the ENS. The possibility VZV reactivation in the ENS is an unsuspected cause of gastrointestinal disease requires future investigation.

Gershon, Anne A.; Chen, Jason; Davis, Larry; Krinsky, Clarissa; Cowles, Robert; Reichard, Ross; Gershon, Michael



Kearns-Sayre syndrome. A case of the complete syndrome with encephalic leukodystrophy and calcification of basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of a complete Kearns-Sayre syndrome, of early onset, associated with cerebral and cerebellar leukodystrophy and basal ganglia calcification is reported. The clinical, neurophysiological and morphological findings suggest multisystem involvement.

P. Carboni; M. Giacanelli; G. Porro; G. Sideri; A. Paolella



Basal Ganglia – Cortex Interactions: Regulation of Cortical Function by D1 Dopamine Receptors in the Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent findings of molecular imaging studies that investigated the role of striatal dopamine in the regulation\\u000a of basal ganglia output and cortical function. These studies employed immediate-early genes such as c-fos and zif 268 as functional markers to determine the effects of dopamine depletion and local dopamine receptor stimulation in the striatum\\u000a on cortical function. The results

Heinz Steiner


Substrates for normal gait and pathophysiology of gait disturbances with respect to the basal ganglia dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   In this review, we have tried to elucidate substrates for the execution of normal gait and to understand pathophysiological\\u000a mechanisms of gait failure in basal ganglia dysfunctions. In Parkinson’s disease, volitional and emotional expressions of\\u000a movement processes are seriously affected in addition to the disturbance of automatic movement processes, such as adjustment\\u000a of postural muscle tone before gait initiation

Kaoru Takakusaki; Nozomi Tomita; Masafumi Yano



Distribution of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Cranial and Spinal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study we have shown that a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons contain brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity. In the present study we investigated the distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its mRNA in cranial and spinal ganglia at different segmental levels, using immunohistochemical and quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction techniques. Our results show that there is no significant

X.-F. Zhou; E. T. Chie; R. A. Rush



Varicella-Zoster Virus Neurotropism in SCID Mouse–Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of varicella and herpes zoster.\\u000a VZV reactivation from latency in sensory nerve ganglia is a direct consequence of VZV neurotropism. Investigation of VZV neuropathogenesis\\u000a by infection of human dorsal root ganglion xenografts in immunocompromised (SCID) mice has provided a novel system in which\\u000a to examine VZV neurotropism. Experimental

L. Zerboni; M. Reichelt; A. Arvin


Tachykinins produce fast and slow depolarizations in sympathetic neurons of rat coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglia.  


The actions of mammalian tachykinins on neurons of rat coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglia (C-SMG) were examined using intracellular recording in isolated preparations. Application of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B produced fast and slow depolarizations in the ganglion cells. The two responses were clearly distinguishable in their electrophysiological characteristics. The results suggest that different receptor mechanisms are involved in fast and slow depolarizing actions of tachykinins in rat C-SMG cells. PMID:2474359

Konishi, S; Song, S Y; Ogawa, T; Kanazawa, I



Pre and postsynaptic actions of ATP on neurotransmission in rat submandibular ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre- and postsynaptic actions of exogenously applied ATP were investigated in intact and dissociated parasympathetic neurones of rat submandibular ganglia. Nerve-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were not inhibited by the purinergic receptor antagonists, suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS), or the desensitising agonist, ?,?-methylene ATP. In contrast, EPSPs were abolished by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, hexamethonium and mecamylamine. Focal

A. B. Smith; M. A. Hansen; D.-M. Liu; D. J. Adams



Preservation of the hyperdirect pathway of basal ganglia in a rodent brain slice.  


Basal ganglia are a network of interconnected nuclei, involved in motor control, goal-directed behaviors and procedural learning. Basal ganglia process information from the cerebral cortex through three main pathways. The striatum is the input nucleus of the direct (cortico-striato-nigral) and indirect (cortico-striato-pallido-subthalamo-nigral) pathways while the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the input structure of the hyperdirect (cortico-subthalamo-nigral) pathway. Despite the fact that the hyperdirect pathway constitutes a central part of most of basal ganglia models, experimental studies concerning its synaptic transmission and plasticity are still lacking. This is mainly because in vitro brain slices do not preserve the hyperdirect pathway. Here, we address this by developing a hyperdirect pathway brain slice where cortico-subthalamo-nigral connections were preserved. We characterized the transmission properties and its monosynaptic features between the frontal cortex and the STN, and between the STN and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the output nucleus of the hyperdirect pathway. Cortical stimulation evoked monosynaptic glutamatergic events in STN neurons with a mean latency of 11.3 ms and a mean amplitude of 21 pA. STN stimulations evoked monosynaptic glutamatergic events in SNr neurons with a mean latency of 2.5 ms and a mean amplitude of 116 pA. This brain slice also preserved a part of the direct and indirect pathways such as the cortico-striatal connection. This novel slice configuration containing the hyperdirect pathway is a useful tool to better understand the transmission and plasticity in this pathway and hence the physiology and the pathophysiology of basal ganglia. PMID:22537846

Bosch, C; Mailly, P; Degos, B; Deniau, J-M; Venance, L



Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus: MR and CT evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: to describe MR and CT features of germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus and to discuss the roles of each modality for its diagnosis. Methods: MR and CT studies of six cases of germinomas, five of which were histologically proved, were retrospectively reviewed. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted conventional spin-echo images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images

Shuichi Higano; Shoki Takahashi; Kiyoshi Ishii



Acute effects of the neurotoxin kainic acid on neurons of the pigeon basal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kainic acid (KA) is a powerful excitant and neurotoxin of the large nerve cells of the pigeon basal ganglia, and birds treated with KA developed pronounced movement disorders. Sensitive neurons responded to the intracerebrally injected toxin with elevated extracellular unit discharge rates. The rates increased from 3–12 times the base line frequency and remained elevated for 1–2h, followed by a

G. K. Rieke; D. E. Bowers



Basal ganglia modulation of thalamocortical relay in Parkinson's disease and dystonia  

PubMed Central

Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC) cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson's disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson's disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia may involve improvement of TC relay fidelity.

Guo, Yixin; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M.; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.



Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats  

PubMed Central

During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

Moran, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Moran, Jose Luis; Handal, Anabella; Dominguez, Roberto



Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to investigate neuronal activity in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex in relation to the internal generation of goal-directed movements. Monkeys performed goal-directed arm movements at a self-chosen moment in the absence of phasic stimuli providing external temporal reference. They were rewarded with a small morsel of food for each movement, although automatic or

Wolfram Schultz; Ranulfo Romo



Lipidosis of the dorsal root ganglia in rats treated with an almitrine metabolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic effects of a detriazinyl metabolite of almitrine (DTMA) were evaluated in rats and on cultured rat macrophages. In rats\\u000a daily treated with DTMA for 16 weeks, spastic gaits with heel-lifting appeared, and lamellated and\\/or crystalloid bodies formed\\u000a in sensory neurons, satellite cells, Schwann cells, and vascular endothelial cells of the dorsal root ganglia. The lysosomal\\u000a lamellated bodies, which were

Yoshihiro Yamanaka; Emiko Sakamoto; Yasuji Sakuma; Hiroshi Uno; Tamotsu Koyama; Yoshihiro Izawa; Kosaku Fujiwara



Self-Organization in the Basal Ganglia with Modulation of Reinforcement Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organization is one of fundamental brain computations for forming efficient representations of information. Experimental support for this idea has been largely limited to the developmental and reorganizational formation of neural circuits in the sensory cortices. We now propose that self-organization may also play an important role in short-term synaptic changesinreward-drivenvoluntarybehaviors.Ithasrecentlybeenshown that many neurons in the basal ganglia change their sensory

Hiroyuki Nakahara; Shun-ichi Amari; Okihide Hikosaka



Increased TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV2 expression in dorsal root ganglia by nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermosensitive TRP channels display unique thermal responses, suggesting distinct roles mediating sensory transmission of temperature. However, whether relative expression of these channels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is altered in nerve injury is unknown. We developed a multiplex ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) to quantify rat TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 RNA levels in DRG. We used the multiplex

J. Frederick; M. E. Buck; D. J. Matson; D. N. Cortright




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Three different responses were evoked by pressure micro-application of serotonin onto freshly dissociated, current- and voltage-clamped neuronal somata from the thoracic ganglia of the locust Locusta mlgratoria. 2. In some neurones, an inward current, I(5HT)K, resulting from a decrease in potassium conductance, with slow kinetics and maximum activation at membrane potentials of —60 to — 70 mV, was




Ketamine-Induced Oscillations in the Motor Circuit of the Rat Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Oscillatory activity can be widely recorded in the cortex and basal ganglia. This activity may play a role not only in the physiology of movement, perception and cognition, but also in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological diseases like schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Ketamine administration has been shown to cause an increase in gamma activity in cortical and subcortical structures, and an increase in 150 Hz oscillations in the nucleus accumbens in healthy rats, together with hyperlocomotion. We recorded local field potentials from motor cortex, caudate-putamen (CPU), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 20 awake rats before and after the administration of ketamine at three different subanesthetic doses (10, 25 and 50 mg/Kg), and saline as control condition. Motor behavior was semiautomatically quantified by custom-made software specifically developed for this setting. Ketamine induced coherent oscillations in low gamma (50 Hz), high gamma (80 Hz) and high frequency (HFO, 150 Hz) bands, with different behavior in the four structures studied. While oscillatory activity at these three peaks was widespread across all structures, interactions showed a different pattern for each frequency band. Imaginary coherence at 150 Hz was maximum between motor cortex and the different basal ganglia nuclei, while low gamma coherence connected motor cortex with CPU and high gamma coherence was more constrained to the basal ganglia nuclei. Power at three bands correlated with the motor activity of the animal, but only coherence values in the HFO and high gamma range correlated with movement. Interactions in the low gamma band did not show a direct relationship to movement. These results suggest that the motor effects of ketamine administration may be primarily mediated by the induction of coherent widespread high-frequency activity in the motor circuit of the basal ganglia, together with a frequency-specific pattern of connectivity among the structures analyzed.

Alegre, Manuel; Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Iriarte, Jorge; Artieda, Julio



Ketamine-induced oscillations in the motor circuit of the rat basal ganglia.  


Oscillatory activity can be widely recorded in the cortex and basal ganglia. This activity may play a role not only in the physiology of movement, perception and cognition, but also in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological diseases like schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Ketamine administration has been shown to cause an increase in gamma activity in cortical and subcortical structures, and an increase in 150 Hz oscillations in the nucleus accumbens in healthy rats, together with hyperlocomotion.We recorded local field potentials from motor cortex, caudate-putamen (CPU), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 20 awake rats before and after the administration of ketamine at three different subanesthetic doses (10, 25 and 50 mg/Kg), and saline as control condition. Motor behavior was semiautomatically quantified by custom-made software specifically developed for this setting.Ketamine induced coherent oscillations in low gamma (~ 50 Hz), high gamma (~ 80 Hz) and high frequency (HFO, ~ 150 Hz) bands, with different behavior in the four structures studied. While oscillatory activity at these three peaks was widespread across all structures, interactions showed a different pattern for each frequency band. Imaginary coherence at 150 Hz was maximum between motor cortex and the different basal ganglia nuclei, while low gamma coherence connected motor cortex with CPU and high gamma coherence was more constrained to the basal ganglia nuclei. Power at three bands correlated with the motor activity of the animal, but only coherence values in the HFO and high gamma range correlated with movement. Interactions in the low gamma band did not show a direct relationship to movement.These results suggest that the motor effects of ketamine administration may be primarily mediated by the induction of coherent widespread high-frequency activity in the motor circuit of the basal ganglia, together with a frequency-specific pattern of connectivity among the structures analyzed. PMID:21829443

Nicolás, María Jesús; López-Azcárate, Jon; Valencia, Miguel; Alegre, Manuel; Pérez-Alcázar, Marta; Iriarte, Jorge; Artieda, Julio



Lymphocyte abnormalities in Behçet's syndrome.  


In order to test indirectly the hypothesis that Behçet's syndrome is caused by a virus, lymphocytes from eighty-six patients were evaluated for two parameters consistent with persistent virus infection: chromosomal abnormalities and decreased ability to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV) to grow in lymphocyte cultures stimulated by PHA. Whereas HSV grew in lymphocytes cultured from all normal donors, replication was impaired in lymphocytes from 37% of the patients with Behçet's syndrome. This figure is increased to 57% if patients receiving steroids or cytotoxic drugs were excluded. Lymphocytes were scored as chromosomally abnormal from sixteen of the thirty-eight patients examined, compared with only one of seventeen normal controls. There was damage to specific chromosomes in four patients. The frequency with which chromosomal abnormalities were detected was significantly related to failure to replicate HSV and inversely related to concomitant steroid treatment. The findings are consistent with a viral aetiology for Behçet's syndrome but other explanations are not excluded. PMID:6161726

Denman, A M; Fialkow, P J; Pelton, B K; Salo, A C; Appleford, D J; Gilchrist, C



TNF? Levels and Macrophages Expression Reflect an Inflammatory Potential of Trigeminal Ganglia in a Mouse Model of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine  

PubMed Central

Latent changes in trigeminal ganglion structure and function resembling inflammatory conditions may predispose to acute attacks of migraine pain. Here, we investigated whether, in trigeminal sensory ganglia, cytokines such as TNF? might contribute to a local inflammatory phenotype of a transgenic knock-in (KI) mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1). To this end, macrophage occurrence and cytokine expression in trigeminal ganglia were compared between wild type (WT) and R192Q mutant CaV2.1 Ca2+ channel (R192Q KI) mice, a genetic model of FHM-1. Cellular and molecular characterization was performed using a combination of confocal immunohistochemistry and cytokine assays. With respect to WT, R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia were enriched in activated macrophages as suggested by their morphology and immunoreactivity to the markers Iba1, CD11b, and ED1. R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia constitutively expressed higher mRNA levels of IL1?, IL6, IL10 and TNF? cytokines and the MCP-1 chemokine. Consistent with the report that TNF? is a major factor to sensitize trigeminal ganglia, we observed that, following an inflammatory reaction evoked by LPS injection, TNF? expression and macrophage occurrence were significantly higher in R192Q KI ganglia with respect to WT ganglia. Our data suggest that, in KI trigeminal ganglia, the complex cellular and molecular environment could support a new tissue phenotype compatible with a neuroinflammatory profile. We propose that, in FHM patients, this condition might contribute to trigeminal pain pathophysiology through release of soluble mediators, including TNF?, that may modulate the crosstalk between sensory neurons and resident glia, underlying the process of neuronal sensitisation.

Franceschini, Alessia; Vilotti, Sandra; Ferrari, Michel D.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Nistri, Andrea; Fabbretti, Elsa



Sciatic cross-over in patients with peroneal and tibial intraneural ganglia confirmed by knee MR arthrography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A predictable mechanism and stereotypic patterns of peroneal intraneural ganglia are being defined based on careful analysis\\u000a of MRIs. Peroneal and tibial intraneural ganglia extending from the superior tibiofibular joint which extend to the level\\u000a of the sciatic nerve have been observed leading to the hypothesis that sciatic cross-over could exist. Such a cross-over phenomenon\\u000a would allow intraneural cyst from

Robert J. Spinner; Huan Wang; Marie-Noëlle Hébert-Blouin; John A. Skinner; Kimberly K. Amrami



TNF? levels and macrophages expression reflect an inflammatory potential of trigeminal ganglia in a mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine.  


Latent changes in trigeminal ganglion structure and function resembling inflammatory conditions may predispose to acute attacks of migraine pain. Here, we investigated whether, in trigeminal sensory ganglia, cytokines such as TNF? might contribute to a local inflammatory phenotype of a transgenic knock-in (KI) mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1). To this end, macrophage occurrence and cytokine expression in trigeminal ganglia were compared between wild type (WT) and R192Q mutant Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channel (R192Q KI) mice, a genetic model of FHM-1. Cellular and molecular characterization was performed using a combination of confocal immunohistochemistry and cytokine assays. With respect to WT, R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia were enriched in activated macrophages as suggested by their morphology and immunoreactivity to the markers Iba1, CD11b, and ED1. R192Q KI trigeminal ganglia constitutively expressed higher mRNA levels of IL1?, IL6, IL10 and TNF? cytokines and the MCP-1 chemokine. Consistent with the report that TNF? is a major factor to sensitize trigeminal ganglia, we observed that, following an inflammatory reaction evoked by LPS injection, TNF? expression and macrophage occurrence were significantly higher in R192Q KI ganglia with respect to WT ganglia. Our data suggest that, in KI trigeminal ganglia, the complex cellular and molecular environment could support a new tissue phenotype compatible with a neuroinflammatory profile. We propose that, in FHM patients, this condition might contribute to trigeminal pain pathophysiology through release of soluble mediators, including TNF?, that may modulate the crosstalk between sensory neurons and resident glia, underlying the process of neuronal sensitisation. PMID:23326332

Franceschini, Alessia; Vilotti, Sandra; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Nistri, Andrea; Fabbretti, Elsa



Connections of the basal ganglia with the limbic system: implications for neuromodulation therapies of anxiety and affective disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal ganglia are best known for their role in motor planning and execution. However, it is currently widely accepted\\u000a that they are also involved in cognitive and emotional behaviors. Parts of the basal ganglia play a key role in reward and\\u000a reinforcement, addictive behaviors and habit formation. Pathophysiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders such\\u000a as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and

P. Stathis; I. G. Panourias; M. S. Themistocleous; Damianos E. Sakas



Microsoft Academic Search

Dorsal root ganglia from fetal rats were explanted on collagen-coated coverslips and carried in Maximow double-coverslip assemblies for periods up to 3 months. These cultured ganglia were studied in the living state, in stained whole mounts, and in sections after OsO4 fixation and Epon embedment. From the central cluster of nerve cell bodies, neurites emerge to form a rich network




Evidence for Altered Basal Ganglia-Brainstem Connections in Cervical Dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients. Conclusions/Significance These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

Blood, Anne J.; Kuster, John K.; Woodman, Sandra C.; Kirlic, Namik; Makhlouf, Miriam L.; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Makris, Nikos; Parent, Martin; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Sjalander, Greta; Breiter, Henry



Simulation of cortico-basal ganglia oscillations and their suppression by closed loop deep brain stimulation.  


A new model of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presented that integrates volume conduction effects with a neural model of pathological beta-band oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia network. The model is used to test the clinical hypothesis that closed-loop control of the amplitude of DBS may be possible, based on the average rectified value of beta-band oscillations in the local field potential. Simulation of closed-loop high-frequency DBS was shown to yield energy savings, with the magnitude of the energy saved dependent on the strength of coupling between the subthalamic nucleus and the remainder of the cortico-basal ganglia network. When closed-loop DBS was applied to a strongly coupled cortico-basal ganglia network, the stimulation energy delivered over a 480 s period was reduced by up to 42%. Greater energy reductions were observed for weakly coupled networks, as the stimulation amplitude reduced to zero once the initial desynchronization had occurred. The results provide support for the application of closed-loop high-frequency DBS based on electrophysiological biomarkers. PMID:22695362

Grant, Peadar F; Lowery, Madeleine M



The Development of the Basal Ganglia in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)  

PubMed Central

The basal ganglia are subcortical structures involved in the planning, initiation and regulation of movement as well as a variety of non-motor, cognitive and affective functions. Capuchin monkeys share several important characteristics of development with humans, including a prolonged infancy and juvenile period, a long lifespan, and complex manipulative abilities. This makes capuchins important comparative models for understanding age-related neuroanatomical changes in these structures. Here we report developmental volumetric data on the three subdivisions of the basal ganglia, the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Based on a cross-sectional sample, we describe brain development in 28 brown capuchin monkeys (male n = 17, female n = 11; age range = 2 months – 20 years) using high-resolution structural MRI. We found that the raw volumes of the putamen and caudate varied significantly with age, decreasing in volume from birth through early adulthood. Notably, developmental changes did not differ between sexes. Because these observed developmental patterns are similar to humans, our results suggest that capuchin monkeys may be useful animal models for investigating neurodevelopmental disorders of the basal ganglia.

Phillips, Kimberley A.; Sobieski, Courtney A.; Gilbert, Valerie R.; Chiappini-Williamson, Christine; Sherwood, Chet C.; Strick, Peter L.



Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birdsong, like speech, is a learned vocal behaviour that relies greatly on hearing; in both songbirds and humans the removal of auditory feedback by deafening leads to a gradual deterioration of adult vocal production. Here we investigate the neural mechanisms that contribute to the processing of auditory feedback during the maintenance of song in adult zebra finches. We show that the deleterious effects on song production that normally follow deafening can be prevented by a second insult to the nervous system-the lesion of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit. The results suggest that the removal of auditory feedback leads to the generation of an instructive signal that actively drives non-adaptive changes in song; they also suggest that this instructive signal is generated within (or conveyed through) the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway. Our findings provide evidence that cortical-basal ganglia circuits may participate in the evaluation of sensory feedback during calibration of motor performance, and demonstrate that damage to such circuits can have little effect on previously learned behaviour while conspicuously disrupting the capacity to adaptively modify that behaviour.

Brainard, Michael S.; Doupe, Allison J.



?1-Adrenoceptor-activated cation currents in neurones acutely isolated from rat cardiac parasympathetic ganglia  

PubMed Central

The noradrenaline (NA)-induced cation current was investigated in neurones freshly isolated from rat cardiac parasympathetic ganglia using the nystatin-perforated patch recording configuration. Under current-clamp conditions, NA depolarized the membrane, eliciting repetitive action potentials. NA evoked an inward cation current under voltage-clamp conditions at a holding potential of ?60 mV. The NA-induced current was inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ or Mg2+, with a half-maximal concentration of 13 ?m for Ca2+ and 1.2 mm for Mg2+. Cirazoline mimicked the NA response, and prazosin and WB-4101 inhibited the NA-induced current, suggesting the contribution of an ?1-adrenoceptor. The NA-induced current was inhibited by U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. The membrane-permeable IP3 receptor blocker xestospongin-C also blocked the NA-induced current. Furthermore, pretreatment with thapsigargin and BAPTA-AM could inhibit the NA response while KN-62, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and staurosporine had no effect. These results suggest that NA activates the extracellular Ca2+- and Mg2+-sensitive cation channels via ?1-adrenoceptors in neurones freshly isolated from rat cardiac parasympathetic ganglia. This activation mechanism also involves phosphoinositide breakdown, release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores and calmodulin. The cation channels activated by NA may play an important role in neuronal membrane depolarization in rat cardiac ganglia.

Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Umezu, Mari; Jang, Il-Sung; Ito, Yushi; Akaike, Norio



Catechol-O-methyltransferase in rat sensory ganglia and spinal cord.  


The localization of catechol-O-methyltransferase immunoreactivity in rat dorsal root ganglia and in the spinal cord and its co-existence with substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase in dorsal root ganglion cells was examined with immunohistochemical and histochemical double-staining methods. Analysis of dorsal of dorsal root ganglia at both cervical and lumbar levels revealed catechol-O-methyltransferase immunoreactivity in numerous dorsal root ganglion cells. Double-staining studies showed that catechol-O-methyltransferase and substance P immunoreactivities were located in different cells with a few exceptions, whereas both catechol-O-methyltransferase and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities were detected in about 10% of all labeled cells positive for one of the two markers at both levels studied. The great majority of fluoride-resistant alkaline phosphatase-positive cells were also immunoreactive for catechol-O-methyltransferase. Again, no difference was found between cervical and lumbar levels. Catechol-O-methyltransferase immunoreactivity was also found in the neuropil of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The staining was most intense in the superficial laminae (I-III) and overlapped partly with substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity. Western blotting analysis revealed that soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase was the clearly dominating form of the enzyme in dorsal root ganglia. The distribution pattern of catechol-O-methyltransferase in dorsal horn and sensory neurons suggests that the enzyme may modulate sensory neurotransmission. PMID:8783248

Karhunen, T; Ulmanen, I; Panula, P



Reinforcement-driven dimensionality reduction--a model for information processing in the basal ganglia.  


Although anatomical studies of the basal ganglia show the existence of extensive convergence and lateral inhibitory connections, physiological studies failed to show correlated neural activity or lateral interaction in these nuclei. These seemingly contradictory results could be explained with a model in which the basal ganglia reduce the dimensionality of cortical information using optimal extraction methods. Simulations of this model predict a transient change in the efficacy of the feed-forward and lateral synapses following changes in reinforcement signal, causing an increase in correlated firing rates. This process ultimately restores the steady-state situation with diminished efficacy of lateral inhibition and no correlation of firing. Our experimental results confirm the model's predictions: rate correlations show a drastic decrease between the input stage (cortex) and output stage (pallidum). Moreover, preliminary analysis revealed that pallidal correlations show a transient increase following discrepancies between the animal's predictions and reality. We therefore propose that by using a reinforcement-driven dimensionality reduction process the basal ganglia achieve efficient extraction of cortical salient information that may then be used by the frontal cortex for execution and planning of forthcoming actions. PMID:11248944

Bar-Gad, I; Havazelet-Heimer, G; Goldberg, J A; Ruppin, E; Bergman, H



[Comparative study of substrate and inhibitory specificity of monoamine oxidase in the optic ganglia of squids].  


Comparative study of substrate specificity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) of optic ganglia of the Pacific squid Todarodes pacificus and the Commander squid Berryteuthis magister has been carried out. The enzyme of the Pacific squid, unlike that of the Commander squid, has been established to be able to deaminate not only tyramine, tryptamine, serotonin, benzylamine, and beta-phenylethylamine, but also histamine--substrate of diamine oxidase (DAO). In relation to all studied substrates, the MAO activity of optic ganglia of T. pacificus is several times higher as compared with B. magister. In the case of deamination of serotonin this difference was the greatest and amounted to 5 times. Semicarbazide, the classic DAO inhibitor, at a concentration of 10 mM did not inhibit catalytic activity of both studied enzymes. The substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of deprenyl and chlorogiline, specific inhibitors of different MAO forms, indicates homogeneity of the enzyme of the Pacific squid and heterogeneity of the Commander squid enzyme whose composition seems probably to contain at least two MAO forms. There are obtained quantitative differences in substrate specificity and reaction capability with respect to the inhibitors chlorgiline and deprenyl for MAO of optic ganglia of the studied squid species. These differences probably can be explained by significant differences in the evolutionary level of these biological species. PMID:20583578

Iagodina, O V


Contributions of an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song.  


Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have a critical role in motor control and motor learning. In songbirds, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) is a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit required for song learning and adult vocal plasticity but not for production of learned song. Here, we investigate functional contributions of this circuit to the control of song, a complex, learned motor skill. We test the hypothesis that neural activity in the AFP of adult birds can direct moment-by-moment changes in the primary motor areas responsible for generating song. We show that song-triggered microstimulation in the output nucleus of the AFP induces acute and specific changes in learned parameters of song. Moreover, under both natural and experimental conditions, variability in the pattern of AFP activity is associated with variability in song structure. Finally, lesions of the output nucleus of the AFP prevent naturally occurring modulation of song variability. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated capacity of the AFP to direct real-time changes in song. More generally, they suggest that frontal cortical and basal ganglia areas may contribute to motor learning by biasing motor output towards desired targets or by introducing stochastic variability required for reinforcement learning. PMID:15703748

Kao, Mimi H; Doupe, Allison J; Brainard, Michael S



The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Insight from Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

It has long been known that memory is not a single process. Rather, there are different kinds of memory that are supported by distinct neural systems. This idea stemmed from early findings of dissociable patterns of memory impairments in patients with selective damage to different brain regions. These studies highlighted the role of the basal ganglia in non-declarative memory, such as procedural or habit learning, contrasting it with the known role of the medial temporal lobes in declarative memory. In recent years, major advances across multiple areas of neuroscience have revealed an important role for the basal ganglia in motivation and decision making. These findings have led to new discoveries about the role of the basal ganglia in learning and highlighted the essential role of dopamine in specific forms of learning. Here we review these recent advances with an emphasis on novel discoveries from studies of learning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We discuss how these findings promote the development of current theories away from accounts that emphasize the verbalizability of the contents of memory and towards a focus on the specific computations carried out by distinct brain regions. Finally, we discuss new challenges that arise in the face of accumulating evidence for dynamic and interconnected memory systems that jointly contribute to learning.



Electrophysiological properties of sodium current subtypes in small cells from adult rat dorsal root ganglia  

PubMed Central

Whole-cell and single-channel Na+ currents were recorded from small (ca. 20 ?m diameter) cells isolated from adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Currents were classified by their sensitivity to 0.3 ?m tetrodotoxin (TTX), electrophysiological properties and single-channel amplitude. Cells were classified according to the types of current recorded from them. Type A cells expressed essentially pure TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) currents. Availability experiments with prepulse durations between 50 ms and 1 s gave a half-available voltage (Vh) of around -65 mV but the availability curves often had a complex shape, consistent with multiple inactivation processes. Measured inactivation time constants ranged from less than 1 ms to over 100 s, depending on the protocol used. Cell types B and C each had, in addition to TTX-S currents, substantial and different TTX-resistant (TTX-R) currents that we have designated TTX-R1 and TTX-R2, respectively. TTX-R1 currents had a 1 s Vh of -29 mV, showed little 1 Hz use dependence at -67 mV and recovered from the inactivation induced by a 60 ms depolarizing pulse with time constants of 1.6 ms (91 %) and 908 ms. They also exhibited slow inactivation processes with component time constants around 10 and 100 s. TTX-R2 currents activated and inactivated at more negative potentials (1 s Vh= -46 mV), showed substantial 1 Hz use dependence and had inactivation (60 ms pulse) recovery time constants at -67 mV of 3.3 ms (58 %) and 902 ms. Type D cells had little or no current in 0.3 ?m TTX at a holding potential of -67 mV. Current amplitude increased on changing the holding potential to -107 mV. Type D cell currents had more hyperpolarized availability and I-V curves than even TTX-R2 currents and suggest the existence of TTX-R3 channels. In outside-out patches with 250 mM external NaCl, the single-channel conductance (?) of TTX-S channels was 19.5 pS and the potential for half-maximal activation (Va) was -45 mV. One population of TTX-R channels had a ? of 9.2 pS and a Va of -27 mV. A second population had a ? of 16.5 pS and a more negative Va of -42 mV. The latter population may underlie the type D cell current. Small DRG cells express multiple Na+ currents with varied time constants and voltage dependences of activation and inactivation. Nociceptive cells still fire when chronically depolarized by an increased external K+ concentration. TTX-R1 and TTX-R2 Na+ channels may support that firing, while the range of inactivation time constants described here would increase the repertoire of DRG cell burst firing behaviour generally.

Rush, A M; Brau, M E; Elliott, A A; Elliott, J R



Subpopulations of primary sensory neurons show coexistence of neuropeptides and glucocorticoid receptors in the rat spinal and trigeminal ganglia.  


The coexistence of the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, somatostatin and neuropeptide Y with glucocorticoid receptors was studied in neurons of the rat lumbar dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia by means of the double immunofluorescence technique. Based on analysis of microphotographs, about one-third of the populations of nerve cells (small and large) containing substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity (IR) showed nuclear glucocorticoid receptor IR. A similar pattern was observed within the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Furthermore, within the lumbar dorsal root ganglia 50% of the small neurons, containing galanin IR, possessed nuclear glucocorticoid receptor IR of moderate intensity. Glucocorticoid receptor IR was not observed in the galanin immunoreactive neurons of the trigeminal ganglion neither in the somatostatin and NPY immunoreactive neurons of both the dorsal root and the trigeminal ganglia. The results provide a chemical anatomical basis for a direct regulation by glucocorticoids of distinct populations of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive nerve cells in the lumbar spinal and trigeminal ganglia and of galanin immunoreactive nerve cells of the spinal but not of the trigeminal ganglia. PMID:8012818

DeLeón, M; Coveñas, R; Chadi, G; Narváez, J A; Fuxe, K; Cintra, A



Phase Relationships Support a Role for Coordinated Activity in the Indirect Pathway in Organizing Slow Oscillations in Basal Ganglia Output after Loss of Dopamine  

PubMed Central

The goal of the present study was to determine the phase relationships of the slow oscillatory activity that emerges in basal ganglia nuclei in anesthetized rats after dopamine cell lesion in order to gain insight into the passage of this oscillatory activity through the basal ganglia network. Spike train recordings from striatum, subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus (GP), and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) were paired with simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings from SNpr or motor cortex ipsilateral to a unilateral lesion of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in urethane anesthetized rats. Dopamine cell lesion induced a striking increase in incidence of slow oscillations (0.3-2.5 Hz) in firing rate in all nuclei. Phase relationships assessed through paired recordings using SNpr LFP as a temporal reference showed that slow oscillatory activity in GP spike trains is predominantly antiphase with oscillations in striatum, and slow oscillatory activity in STN spike trains is in-phase with oscillatory activity in cortex but predominantly antiphase with GP oscillatory activity. Taken together, these results imply that after dopamine cell lesion in urethane anesthetized rats, increased oscillatory activity in GP spike trains is shaped more by increased phasic inhibitory input from the striatum than by phasic excitatory input from STN. In addition, results show that oscillatory activity in SNpr spike trains is typically antiphase with GP oscillatory activity and in-phase with STN oscillatory activity. While these observations do not rule out additional mechanisms contributing to the emergence of slow oscillations in the basal ganglia after dopamine cell lesion in the anesthetized preparation, they are compatible with 1) increased oscillatory activity in the GP facilitated by an effect of dopamine loss on striatal ‘filtering’ of slow components of oscillatory cortical input, 2) increased oscillatory activity in STN spike trains supported by convergent antiphase inhibitory and excitatory oscillatory input from GP and cortex, respectively, and 3) increased oscillatory activity in SNpr spike trains organized by convergent antiphase inhibitory and excitatory oscillatory input from GP and STN, respectively.

Walters, Judith R.; Hu, Dan; Itoga, Christy A.; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Bergstrom, Debra A.



Fos expression following activation of the ventral pallidum in normal rats and in a model of Parkinson's Disease: implications for limbic system and basal ganglia interactions.  


The circuit-related consequences of activating the ventral pallidum (VP) are not well known, and lacking in particular is how these effects are altered in various neuropathological states. To help to address these paucities, this study investigated the brain regions affected by VP activation by quantifying neurons that stain for Fos-like immunoreactivity (ir). Fos-ir was assessed after intra-pallidal injections of the excitatory amino acid agonist, NMDA, or the GABA(A) antagonist, bicuculline in normal rats and in those rendered Parkinsonian-like by lesioning dopaminergic neurons with the neurotoxin, 6-OHDA. We hypothesized that activation of the VP will alter the activity state of brain regions associated with both the basal ganglia and limbic system, and that this influence would be modified in the Parkinsonian state. Blocking tonically activated GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (50 ng/0.5 microl) elevated Fos-ir in the VP to 423% above the contralateral, vehicle-injected side. Likewise, intra-VP NMDA (0.23 microg or 0.45 microg/0.5 microl), dose-dependently increased the number of pallidal neurons expressing Fos-ir by 224 and 526%, respectively. At higher NMDA doses, the density of Fos-ir neurons was not elevated above control levels. This inverted U-shaped profile was mirrored by a VP output structure, the medial subthalamic nucleus (mSTN). The mSTN showed a 289% increase in Fos-ir neurons with intra-VP injections of 0.45 microg NMDA, and this response was halved following intra-VP injections of 0.9 microg NMDA. Of the 12 other brain regions measured, three showed VP NMDA-induced enhancements in Fos-ir: the frontal cortex, entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, all regions associated with the basal ganglia. In a second study, we evaluated the NMDA activation profile in a rat model of Parkinson's Disease (PD) which was created by a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the rostral substantia nigra pars compacta. Comparisons of responses to intra-VP NMDA between the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion revealed that Fos-ir cells in the pedunculopontine nucleus was reduced by 62%, whereas Fos-ir for the basolateral amygdala and STN was reduced by 32 and 42%, respectively. These findings support the concept that the VP can influence both the basal ganglia and the limbic system, and that that the nature of this influence is modified in an animal model of PD. As the VP regulates motivation and cognition, adaptations in this system may contribute to the mood and mnemonic disorders that can accompany PD. PMID:18663473

Turner, Michael S; Gray, Thackery S; Mickiewicz, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste



Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Berretta, Sabina



Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein



Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest

C. Guedes Soares; Z. Cherneva; E. M. Antão



Journal of Abnormal Psychology: Editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In keeping with tradition, the editor of the current issue of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1980, Vol. 89, No. 4) presents an account of his policies and goals for the benefit of readers and potential authors. The author discusses the Journal's coverage, criteria for acceptance, types of articles, evaluation procedures, and the blind review process.

Alexander M. Buchwald



Anxiety, pregnancy, and childbirth abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who later experienced complications or had abnormal children show higher manifest anxiety scores in the 7th month of pregnancy. For those retested, differences were not significant 6 weeks later. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3HK74D.

Anthony Davids; Spencer Devault; Max Talmadge



Bag of Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given a bag containing two different shapes and asked to find the shape in the bag with certain attributes, to trace the shape on a piece of paper, and to write the name of the shape and a description of its attributes.

Sherdan, Danielle



Shape & Solid Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners use clues to identify mystery shapes. Use everyday objects (like from the pantry) as the shapes. It is important for learners to be able to describe a shape with correct math vocabulary and to be able to visualize a shape in their head.

Houston, Children'S M.



Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.  


Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review. PMID:18542109

Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne



Coagulation Abnormalities in Critical Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In critically ill patients coagulation abnormalities often occur. The most pronounced manifestation of these, caused by overwhelming\\u000a activation of the coagulation system, is disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) which is also considered to be a component\\u000a of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). There is no generally accepted definition of DIC but recently a working\\u000a definition has been proposed [1]: “DIC

L. G. Thijs


Mastoid abnormalities in down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important

R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen



Liver abnormalities in Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated whether hepatic abnormalities represent a specific feature in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) or whether they\\u000a are related to an increased susceptibility to hormonal therapies and\\/or other factors. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate\\u000a aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase were monitored in 70 patients with TS for a mean period of 7.6?±?4.2 years. An\\u000a increase in serum liver enzymes was observed in

M. Salerno; S. Di Maio; N. Gasparini; M. Rizzo; P. Ferri; P. Vajro



Maternal flu and congenital abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionRecent case studies following swine flu pandemic show that pregnant woman are more susceptible to flu infection. Various studies have sought to find an association between fetal congenital abnormalities (CAs) and maternal flu infection.MethodologyThe authors performed a review of literature since 1950 in Medline and on the web using keywords ‘Flu’ and ‘CAs’ and collated the results.ResultsIn 2005, Acs et

S Pandey; K Singh



Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.  


Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ?BP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ?BP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ?BP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ?BP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark



Machine learning classifier using abnormal brain network topological metrics in major depressive disorder.  


Resting state functional brain networks have been widely studied in brain disease research. However, it is currently unclear whether abnormal resting state functional brain network metrics can be used with machine learning for the classification of brain diseases. Resting state functional brain networks were constructed for 28 healthy controls and 38 major depressive disorder patients by thresholding partial correlation matrices of 90 regions. Three nodal metrics were calculated using graph theory-based approaches. Nonparametric permutation tests were then used for group comparisons of topological metrics, which were used as classified features in six different algorithms. We used statistical significance as the threshold for selecting features and measured the accuracies of six classifiers with different number of features. A sensitivity analysis method was used to evaluate the importance of different features. The result indicated that some of the regions exhibited significantly abnormal nodal centralities, including the limbic system, basal ganglia, medial temporal, and prefrontal regions. Support vector machine with radial basis kernel function algorithm and neural network algorithm exhibited the highest average accuracy (79.27 and 78.22%, respectively) with 28 features (P<0.05). Correlation analysis between feature importance and the statistical significance of metrics was investigated, and the results revealed a strong positive correlation between them. Overall, the current study demonstrated that major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal functional brain network topological metrics and statistically significant nodal metrics can be successfully used for feature selection in classification algorithms. PMID:23044496

Guo, Hao; Cao, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Haifang; Chen, Junjie; Zhang, Kerang



Abnormal low frequency drive in myoclonus-dystonia patients correlates with presence of dystonia.  


The pathophysiology of Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), an autosomal dominantly inherited movement disorder is largely unknown. In different forms of dystonia abnormal intermuscular coherence is present. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the myoclonic and dystonic features are the result of an abnormal common drive to the muscles in M-D. Coherence analysis was performed in 20 DYT11 mutation carriers (MC) and 13 healthy controls during resting condition and during weak isometric contraction of the arm and neck. The EMG-EMG coherence analysis showed significantly increased intermuscular 3 to 10 Hz coherence in 4 DYT11 MC with clinical pronounced (mobile and static) dystonia. This coherence was not present in DYT11 MC with mild (static) dystonia and/or predominating myoclonus. The EEG-EMG analysis showed significant 15 to 30 Hz coherence during weak isometric contraction of the arm in five healthy controls, but in none of the DYT11 MC. The intermuscular coherence in the low frequency band in DYT11 MC with predominant dystonia is concordant with the previously described coherence in dystonia and suggests that the pathophysiology of M-D shares common pathophysiological features with dystonia. The absence of 15 to 30 Hz EEG-EMG coherence in DYT11 MC may reflect abnormal motor activation caused by an altered cortical drive because of the basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:17486590

Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Bour, Lo J; van der Meer, Johan N; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Tijssen, Marina A J



Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Reduced Basal Ganglia Responses to Hedonic Reward During Interferon Alfa Administration  

PubMed Central

Context Inflammatory cytokines or cytokine inducers can alter basal ganglia activity, including reducing responsiveness to rewarding stimuli that may be mediated by cytokine effects on dopamine function. Objectives To determine whether long-term administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon alfa reduces the basal ganglia response to reward and whether such changes are associated with decreased presynaptic striatal dopamine function and altered behavior. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Setting Outpatient research unit and neuroimaging facilities at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Patients Medically stable adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection eligible for interferon alfa treatment. Main Outcome Measures Neural activity in the ventral striatum during a hedonic reward task as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging, uptake and turnover of radiolabeled fluorodopa F 18 (18F-dopa) in caudate and putamen using positron emission tomography, and interferon alfa–induced depression, anhedonia, fatigue, and neurotoxicity. Results Patients with HCV receiving interferon alfa for 4 to 6 weeks (n=14) exhibited significantly reduced bilateral activation of the ventral striatum in the win vs lose condition of a gambling task compared with patients with HCV awaiting interferon alfa treatment (n=14). Reduced activation of the ventral striatum was, in turn, significantly correlated with anhedonia, depression, and fatigue. In a separate longitudinal study, patients with HCV treated with interferon alfa for 4 to 6 weeks (n=12) exhibited significantly increased 18F-dopa uptake and decreased 18F-dopa turnover in caudate and putamen and in the same ventral striatal regions identified in the functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Baseline and percentage change in 18F-dopa uptake and turnover were correlated with behavioral alterations, including depression, fatigue, and neurotoxicity, during interferon alfa administration. Conclusions These data replicate and extend findings that inflammatory stimuli, including inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon alfa, alter basal ganglia activity and behavior in association with significant changes in presynaptic striatal dopamine function consistent with decreased dopamine synthesis or release.

Capuron, Lucile; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Drake, Daniel F.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Spivey, James R.; Crowe, Ronald J.; Votaw, John R.; Goodman, Mark M.; Miller, Andrew H.



Expression of estrogen receptor GPR30 in the rat spinal cord, autonomic and sensory ganglia  

PubMed Central

The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 has recently been identified as a non nuclear estrogen receptor. RT-PCR revealed expression of GPR30 mRNA in varying quantities in the rat spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, nodose ganglia, trigeminal ganglia, hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus. Immunohistochemical studies using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against the human GPR30 C-terminus revealed a fine network of GPR30-immunoreactive (irGPR30) cell processes in the superficial layers of the spinal cord; some of which extended into deeper laminae. A population of neurons in the dorsal horn and ventral horn were irGPR30. Dorsal root, nodose and trigeminal ganglionic neurons displayed varying intensities of irGPR30. Positively labeled neurons were detected in the major pelvic ganglion, but not in the superior cervical ganglion. A population of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla was irGPR30, so were cells of the zona glomerulosa. Double-labeling the adrenal medulla with GPR30 antiserum and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody or phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) antiserum revealed that irGPR30 is expressed in the majority of TH-positive chromaffin cells. Lastly, some of the myenteric ganglion cells were irGPR30. Tissues processed with pre-immune serum resulted in no staining. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging studies showed that the selective GPR30 agonist G-1 (1, 10 and 100 nM) depolarized cultured spinal neurons in a concentration dependent manner. Collectively, our result provides the first evidence that GPR30 is expressed in neurons of the dorsal and ventral horn as well as in sensory and autonomic neurons, and activation of GPR30 by the selective agonist G-1 depolarizes cultured spinal neurons.

Dun, Siok L.; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Gao, Xin; Brailoiu, Eugen; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Prossnitz, Eric R.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Dun, Nae J.



Redefining functional models of basal ganglia organization: role for the posteroventral pallidum in linguistic processing?  


Traditionally the basal ganglia have been implicated in motor behavior, as they are involved in both the execution of automatic actions and the modification of ongoing actions in novel contexts. Corresponding to cognition, the role of the basal ganglia has not been defined as explicitly. Relative to linguistic processes, contemporary theories of subcortical participation in language have endorsed a role for the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in the control of lexical-semantic operations. However, attempts to empirically validate these postulates have been largely limited to neuropsychological investigations of verbal fluency abilities subsequent to pallidotomy. We evaluated the impact of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (BPVP) on language function across a range of general and high-level linguistic abilities, and validated/extended working theories of pallidal participation in language. Comprehensive linguistic profiles were compiled up to 1 month before and 3 months after BPVP in 6 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Commensurate linguistic profiles were also gathered over a 3-month period for a nonsurgical control cohort of 16 subjects with PD and a group of 16 non-neurologically impaired controls (NC). Nonparametric between-groups comparisons were conducted and reliable change indices calculated, relative to baseline/3-month follow-up difference scores. Group-wise statistical comparisons between the three groups failed to reveal significant postoperative changes in language performance. Case-by-case data analysis relative to clinically consequential change indices revealed reliable alterations in performance across several language variables as a consequence of BPVP. These findings lend support to models of subcortical participation in language, which promote a role for the GPi in lexical-semantic manipulation mechanisms. Concomitant improvements and decrements in postoperative performance were interpreted within the context of additive and subtractive postlesional effects. Relative to parkinsonian cohorts, clinically reliable versus statistically significant changes on a case by case basis may provide the most accurate method of characterizing the way in which pathophysiologically divergent basal ganglia linguistic circuits respond to BPVP. PMID:15390054

Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Murdoch, Bruce E; Theodoros, Deborah G; Darnell, Ross; Silburn, Peter; Hall, Bruce



Models of basal ganglia and cerebellum for sensorimotor integration and predictive control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a sensorimotor architecture integrating computational models of a cerebellum and a basal ganglia and operating on a microrobot. The computational models enable a microrobot to learn to track a moving object and anticipate future positions using a CCD camera. The architecture features pre-processing modules for coordinate transformation and instantaneous orientation extraction. Learning of motor control is implemented using predictive Hebbian reinforcement-learning algorithm in the basal ganglia model. Learning of sensory predictions makes use of a combination of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) adaptation rules within the cerebellum model. The basal ganglia model uses the visual inputs to develop sensorimotor mapping for motor control, while the cerebellum module uses robot orientation and world- coordinate transformed inputs to predict the location of the moving object in a robot centered coordinate system. We propose several hypotheses about the functional role of cell populations in the cerebellum and argue that mossy fiber projections to the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) could play a coordinate transformation role and act as gain fields. We propose that such transformation could be learnt early in the brain development stages and could be guided by the activity of the climbing fibers. Proprioceptor mossy fibers projecting to the DCN and providing robot orientation with respect to a reference system could be involved in this case. Other mossy fibers carrying visual sensory input provide visual patterns to the granule cells. The combined activities of the granule and the Purkinje cells store spatial representations of the target patterns. The combinations of mossy and Purkinje projections to the DCN provide a prediction of the location of the moving target taking into consideration the robot orientation. Results of lesion simulations based on our model show degradations similar to those reported in cerebellar lesion studies on monkeys.

Jabri, Marwan A.; Huang, Jerry; Coenen, Olivier J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.



Association between a Novel Mutation in SLC20A2 and Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification  

PubMed Central

Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder involving bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. To identify gene mutations related to a Chinese FIBGC lineage, we evaluated available individuals in the family using CT scans. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of available family members, and both exonic and flanking intronic sequences of the SLC20A2 gene were amplified by PCR and then sequenced. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to confirm the presence of mutations. Allele imbalances of the SLC20A2 gene or relative quantity of SLC20A2 transcripts were evaluated using qRT-PCR. A novel heterozygous single base-pair deletion (c.510delA) within the SLC20A2 gene was identified. This deletion mutation was found to co-segregate with basal ganglia calcification in all of the affected family members but was not detected in unaffected individuals or in 167 unrelated Han Chinese controls. The mutation will cause a frameshift, producing a truncated SLC20A2 protein with a premature termination codon, most likely leading to the complete loss of function of the SLC20A2 protein. This mutation may also lead to a reduction in SLC20A2 mRNA expression by approximately 30% in cells from affected individuals. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in SLC20A2 that is linked to FIBGC. In addition to the loss of function at the protein level, decreasing the expression of SLC20A2 mRNA may be another mechanism that can regulate SLC20A2 function in IBGC individuals. We propose that the regional expression pattern of SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 might explain the unique calcification pattern observed in FIBGC patients.

Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xianan; Wu, Anhua



Prediction of the Location of the Pyramidal Tract in Patients with Thalamic or Basal Ganglia Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Locating the pyramidal tract (PT) is difficult in patients with thalamic or basal ganglia tumors, especially when the surrounding anatomical structures cannot be identified using computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. Hence, we objected to find a way to predict the location of the PT in patients with thalamic and basal ganglia tumors Methodology/Principal Findings In 59 patents with thalamic or basal ganglia tumors, the PTs were constructed by with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tracking (FT). In axial slices crossing the foramen of Monro, the tumor position was classified according to three lines. Line 1 was vertical and crossed the vertex point of the anterior limbs of the internal capsule. Lines 2 and line 3 were horizontal and crossed the foramen of Monro and joint of the middle and lateral thirds of the posterior limbs, respectively. Six (10.17%) patients were diagnosed with type 1 tumor, six (10.17%) with type 2, seven (11.86%) with type 3a, five (8.47%) with type 3b, 17 (28.81%) with type 4a, six (10.17%) with type 4b, three (5.08%) with type 5, and nine (15.25%) with type 6. In type 1 tumors, the PTs were located at the 12 o'clock position of the tumor, type 2 at six o'clock, type 3a between nine and 12 o'clock, type 3 between six and nine o'clock, type 4a between 12 and three o'clock, type 4b at three o'clock, type 5 between six and nine o'clock, and type 6 between three and six o'clock. Conclusions/Significance The position of the PT relative to the tumor could be determined according to the tumor location. These results could prove helpful in determining the location of the PT preoperatively.

Xu, BaiNan



Neural representation of a target auditory memory in a cortico-Basal Ganglia pathway.  


Vocal learning in songbirds, like speech acquisition in humans, entails a period of sensorimotor integration during which vocalizations are evaluated via auditory feedback and progressively refined to achieve an imitation of memorized vocal sounds. This process requires the brain to compare feedback of current vocal behavior to a memory of target vocal sounds. We report the discovery of two distinct populations of neurons in a cortico-basal ganglia circuit of juvenile songbirds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) during vocal learning: (1) one in which neurons are selectively tuned to memorized sounds and (2) another in which neurons are selectively tuned to self-produced vocalizations. These results suggest that neurons tuned to learned vocal sounds encode a memory of those target sounds, whereas neurons tuned to self-produced vocalizations encode a representation of current vocal sounds. The presence of neurons tuned to memorized sounds is limited to early stages of sensorimotor integration: after learning, the incidence of neurons encoding memorized vocal sounds was greatly diminished. In contrast to this circuit, neurons known to drive vocal behavior through a parallel cortico-basal ganglia pathway show little selective tuning until late in learning. One interpretation of these data is that representations of current and target vocal sounds in the shell circuit are used to compare ongoing patterns of vocal feedback to memorized sounds, whereas the parallel core circuit has a motor-related role in learning. Such a functional subdivision is similar to mammalian cortico-basal ganglia pathways in which associative-limbic circuits mediate goal-directed responses, whereas sensorimotor circuits support motor aspects of learning. PMID:24005299

Achiro, Jennifer M; Bottjer, Sarah W



Basal ganglia morphometry and repetitive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorder.  


We investigated repetitive and stereotyped behavior (RSB) and its relationship to morphometric measures of the basal ganglia and thalami in 3- to 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 77) and developmental delay without autism (DD; n = 34). Children were assessed through clinical evaluation and parent report using RSB-specific scales extracted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Autism Diagnostic Interview, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. A subset of children with ASD (n = 45), DD (n = 14), and a group of children with typical development (TD; n = 25) were also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Children with ASD demonstrated elevated RSB across all measures compared to children with DD. Enlargement of the left and right striatum, more specifically the left and right putamen, and left caudate, was observed in the ASD compared to the TD group. However, nuclei were not significantly enlarged after controlling for cerebral volume. The DD group, in comparison to the ASD group, demonstrated smaller thalami and basal ganglia regions even when scaled for cerebral volume, with the exception of the left striatum, left putamen, and right putamen. Elevated RSB, as measured by the ADOS, was associated with decreased volumes in several brain regions: left thalamus, right globus pallidus, left and right putamen, right striatum and a trend for left globus pallidus and left striatum within the ASD group. These results confirm earlier reports that RSB is common early in the clinical course of ASD and, furthermore, demonstrate that such behaviors may be associated with decreased volumes of the basal ganglia and thalamus. PMID:21480545

Estes, Annette; Shaw, Dennis W W; Sparks, Bobbi F; Friedman, Seth; Giedd, Jay N; Dawson, Geraldine; Bryan, Matthew; Dager, Stephen R



Uptake of nicotine and extracellular space markers by isolated rat ganglia in relation to receptor activation  

PubMed Central

1. Uptake of 3H-nicotine by isolated rat superior cervical sympathetic (SCG) and nodose (NG) ganglia was measured in vitro. Depolarization of the ganglia by nicotine was measured electrically. 2. Nicotine depolarized the SCG but not the NG. The mean ED50 for depolarization was 5·3 × 10-6M. 3. Both ganglia accumulated nicotine when incubated in 3·1 × 10-5M 3H-nicotine: after 30 min incubation the ratios of tissue to medium concentrations were (mean ± S.E. of mean): SCG, 3·49 ± 0·13; NG, 2·50 ± 0·09. 4. Total water contents, estimated by drying to constant weight, were: SCG, 83·8 ± 0·12%; NG, 80·1 ± 0·21%. Extracellular spaces, measured as 3H-mannitol space, were: SCG, 38·8 ± 1·3; NG, 40·3 ± 0·8% wet weight. These values were not significantly altered by nicotine. 5. Correction for tissue fluid spaces indicated that the ratio of the mean intracellular fluid concentration to the extracellular fluid concentration for 3H-nicotine at 3·1 × 10-5M were: SCG, 7·4; NG, 5·6. The ratios were not altered in any consistent manner on varying the nicotine concentration between 3·1 × 10-7 and 1·6 × 10-4M. 6. When the nicotine concentration was sufficiently great (6·2 × 10-6M or more) to evoke large SCG depolarizations, hexamethonium (2·5 × 10-3M) reduced 3H-nicotine uptake by the SCG by up to 19% without affecting uptake by the NG, and thereby reduced the uptake difference between the two ganglia. With nicotine concentrations <6·2 × 10-6M, hexamethonium did not modify uptake by either ganglion. 7. It was concluded that nicotine may be concentrated within neurones, and that such intracellular accumulation may be augmented during depolarization induced by nicotine.

Brown, D. A.; Halliwell, J. V.; Scholfield, C. N.



[Participation of the basal ganglia in the mechanism of visual memory in the rat].  


Studies have been made of the effect of bilateral injury of paleo-, archi- and neostriatum, as well as that of the nucleus ruber on adaptive behaviour in albino rats. It was shown that injury of the basal structures of the brain results in disturbances of optimal visual choice of a food signal. The data obtained are discussed from a standpoint of disturbances in operative memory of visual signals. It is suggested that during evolutionary development, when the higher brain functions pass to neocortex, the basal ganglia do not loose their initial role in the higher analytical-synthetic activity. PMID:7102174

Gambarian, L S; Garibian, A A; Kazarian, G M; Sarkisian, Zh S; Kazarian, A G


Localization of P2X 7 receptor immunoreactivity in the dorsal root ganglia of guinea pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The P2X7 receptor mRNA and proteins in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.\\u000a The co-localization of P2X7 receptor with four cytochemical markers, the neurofilament protein NF200, S100, substance P and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding\\u000a glyco-conjugates, were also examined. It was found that P2X7 receptor immunoreactivity (P2X7R-IR) was present mostly in large- and medium-sized DRG

Bai Xuegong; Jiang Ling; Xiang Zhenghua



Role of the basal ganglia in the control of sleep and wakefulness.  


The basal ganglia (BG) act as a cohesive functional unit that regulates motor function, habit formation, and reward/addictive behaviors, but the debate has only recently started on how the BG maintain wakefulness and suppress sleep to achieve all these fundamental functions of the BG. Neurotoxic lesioning, pharmacological approaches, and the behavioral analyses of genetically modified animals revealed that the striatum and globus pallidus are important for the control of sleep and wakefulness. Here, we discuss anatomical and molecular mechanisms for sleep-wake regulation in the BG and propose a plausible model in which the nucleus accumbens integrates behavioral processes with wakefulness through adenosine and dopamine receptors. PMID:23465424

Lazarus, Michael; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li



Identifiable Achatina giant neurones: their localizations in ganglia, axonal pathways and pharmacological features.  


1. An African giant snail (Achatina fulica Férussac), originally from East Africa, is now found abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, including Okinawa in Japan. This is one of the largest land snail species in the world. The Achatina central nervous system is composed of the buccal, cerebral and suboesophageal ganglia. The 37 giant neurones were identified in these ganglia by the series of studies conducted over about 20 years. The identifications were made by the localization of these neurones in the ganglia, their axonal pathways and their pharmacological features. 2. In the left buccal ganglion, the four giant neurones, d-LBAN, d-LBMB, d-LBCN and d-LBPN, were identified. In the left and right cerebral ganglia, d-LCDN, d-RCDN, v-LCDN and v-RCDN were identified. The suboesophageal ganglia are further composed of the left and right parietal, the visceral, the left and right pleural, and the left and right pedal ganglia. In the right parietal ganglion, PON, TAN, TAN-2, TAN-3, RAPN, d-RPLN, BAPN, LPPN, LBPN, LAPN and v-RPLN were identified. In the visceral ganglion, VIN, FAN, INN, d-VLN, v-VLN, v-VAN, LVMN, RVMN and v-VNAN were identified. In the left parietal ganglion, v-LPSN was identified. In the left and right pedal ganglia, LPeNLN, RPeNLN, d-LPeLN, d-LPeCN, d-RPeAN, d-LPeDN, d-LPeMN and d-LPeEN were identified. 3. Of the small molecule compounds tested, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, GABA, L-glutamic acid, threo- or erythro-beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid were effective on the Achatina giant neurones. We suppose that these compounds act as the neurotransmitters for these neurones. 4. Of the neuroactive peptides, achatin-I(Gly-D-Phe-Ala-Asp). APGW-amide(Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Achatina cardioexcitatory peptide (ACEP-1)(Ser-Gly-Gln-Ser-Trp-Arg-Pro-Gln-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2) were proposed as neurotransmitters, because these were effective on the Achatina giant neurones and their presence was demonstrated in the Achatina ganglia. Further, myomodulin (Pro-Met-Ser-Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-NH2), buccalin (Gly-Met-Asp-Ser-Leu-Ala-Phe-Ser-Gly-Gly-Leu-NH2), FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2). [Ser2]-Mytilus inhibitory peptide ([Ser2]-MIP) (Gly-Ser-Pro-Met-Phe-Val-NH2), catch-relaxing peptide (CARP) (Ala-Met-Pro-Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-NH2), oxytocin (Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) and small cardioactive peptideB (SCPB) (Met-Asn-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Arg-Met-NH2) could also be neurotransmitters because these peptides were also effective on the Achatina giant neurones, though their presence in the ganglia of this animal has not yet been demonstrated. 5. Calcium current (ICa) was recorded from Achatina giant neurones in the Na(+)-free solution containing K(+)-channel blockers under voltage clamp. The Ca2+ antagonistic effects of brovincamine, verapamil, eperisone, diltiazem, monatepil, etc., were compared using the ICa of the Achatina neurones. 6. Almost all of the mammalian small molecule neurotransmitters were effective on the Achatina giant neurones, suggesting that these compounds are acting on the neurones of a wide variety of animal species. However, the pharmacological features of the Achatina neurone receptors to these compounds were not fully comparable to those of the mammalian receptors. For example, we proposed that beta-hydroxy-L-glutamic acid (either threo- or erythro-) could be an inhibitory neurotransmitter for an Achatina neurone. 7. In contrast, the Achatina giant neurones appear to have no receptor for the mammalian neuroactive peptides, except for oxytocin and Arg-vasotocin. On the other hand, many neuroactive peptides were isolated from invertebrate nervous tissues, including achatin-I, a neuroexcitatory tetrapeptide having a D-phenylalanine residue. PMID:8742492

Takeuchi, H; Araki, Y; Emaduddin, M; Zhang, W; Han, X Y; Salunga, T L; Wong, S M



Enhancing neuroplasticity in the basal ganglia: the role of exercise in Parkinson's disease.  


Epidemiological and clinical trials have suggested that exercise is beneficial for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanisms and potential for disease modification are currently unknown. This review presents current findings from our laboratories in patients with PD and animal models. The data indicate that alterations in both dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, induced by activity-dependent (exercise) processes, may mitigate the cortically driven hyper-excitability in the basal ganglia normally observed in the parkinsonian state. These insights have potential to identify novel therapeutic treatments capable of reversing or delaying disease progression in PD. PMID:20187247

Petzinger, Giselle M; Fisher, Beth E; Van Leeuwen, Jon-Eric; Vukovic, Marta; Akopian, Garnik; Meshul, Charlie K; Holschneider, Daniel P; Nacca, Angelo; Walsh, John P; Jakowec, Michael W



Neuronal expression of copper transporter 1 in rat dorsal root ganglia: association with platinum neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We report the neuronal expression of copper transporter 1 (CTR1) in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and its association with\\u000a the neurotoxicity of platinum-based drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  CTR1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The toxicity of platinum drugs to CTR1-positive and CTR1-negative\\u000a neurons was compared in DRG from animals treated with maximum tolerated doses of oxaliplatin (1.85 mg\\/kg), cisplatin (1 mg\\/kg)\\u000a or

Johnson J. Liu; Stephen M. F. Jamieson; Joshuan Subramaniam; Virginia Ip; Nancy N. Jong; Julian F. B. Mercer; Mark J. McKeage



3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen



Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes.  


fMRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During fMRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation of words given a rhyming word, generation of words given a semantic category at a fast rate (matched to the rate of nonsense syllable generation), and generation of words given a semantic category at a slow rate (matched to the rate of generating of rhyming words). Components of a left pre-SMA-dorsal caudate nucleus-ventral anterior thalamic loop were active during word generation from rhyming or category cues but not during nonsense syllable generation. Findings indicate that this loop is involved in retrieving words from pre-existing lexical stores. Relatively diffuse activity in the right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) also was found during word-generation tasks but not during nonsense syllable generation. Given the relative absence of right frontal activity during the word generation tasks, we suggest that the right basal ganglia activity serves to suppress right frontal activity, preventing right frontal structures from interfering with language production. Current findings establish roles for the left and the right basal ganglia in word generation. Hypotheses are discussed for future research to help refine our understanding of basal ganglia functions in language generation. PMID:14738287

Crosson, Bruce; Benefield, Hope; Cato, M Allison; Sadek, Joseph R; Moore, Anna Bacon; Wierenga, Christina E; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Soltysik, David; Bauer, Russell M; Auerbach, Edward J; Gökçay, Didem; Leonard, Christiana M; Briggs, Richard W



IP3R1 deficiency in the cerebellum/brainstem causes basal ganglia-independent dystonia by triggering tonic Purkinje cell firings in mice  

PubMed Central

The type 1 inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) is a Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum and is a predominant isoform in the brain among the three types of IP3Rs. Mice lacking IP3R1 show seizure-like behavior; however the cellular and neural circuit mechanism by which IP3R1 deletion causes the abnormal movements is unknown. Here, we found that the conditional knockout mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in the cerebellum and brainstem experience dystonia and show that cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) firing patterns were coupled to specific dystonic movements. Recordings in freely behaving mice revealed epochs of low and high frequency PC complex spikes linked to body extension and rigidity, respectively. Remarkably, dystonic symptoms were independent of the basal ganglia, and could be rescued by inactivation of the cerebellum, inferior olive or in the absence of PCs. These findings implicate IP3R1-dependent PC firing patterns in cerebellum in motor coordination and the expression of dystonia through the olivo-cerebellar pathway.

Hisatsune, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Hirono, Moritoshi; Yamaguchi, Naohide; Sugawara, Takeyuki; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Ohshima, Toshio; Yamada, Masahisa; Hensch, Takao K.; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko



Posterior shape models.  


We present a method to compute the conditional distribution of a statistical shape model given partial data. The result is a "posterior shape model", which is again a statistical shape model of the same form as the original model. This allows its direct use in the variety of algorithms that include prior knowledge about the variability of a class of shapes with a statistical shape model. Posterior shape models then provide a statistically sound yet easy method to integrate partial data into these algorithms. Usually, shape models represent a complete organ, for instance in our experiments the femur bone, modeled by a multivariate normal distribution. But because in many application certain parts of the shape are known a priori, it is of great interest to model the posterior distribution of the whole shape given the known parts. These could be isolated landmark points or larger portions of the shape, like the healthy part of a pathological or damaged organ. However, because for most shape models the dimensionality of the data is much higher than the number of examples, the normal distribution is singular, and the conditional distribution not readily available. In this paper, we present two main contributions: First, we show how the posterior model can be efficiently computed as a statistical shape model in standard form and used in any shape model algorithm. We complement this paper with a freely available implementation of our algorithms. Second, we show that most common approaches put forth in the literature to overcome this are equivalent to probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA), and Gaussian Process regression. To illustrate the use of posterior shape models, we apply them on two problems from medical image analysis: model-based image segmentation incorporating prior knowledge from landmarks, and the prediction of anatomically correct knee shapes for trochlear dysplasia patients, which constitutes a novel medical application. Our experiments confirm that the use of conditional shape models for image segmentation improves the overall segmentation accuracy and robustness. PMID:23837968

Albrecht, Thomas; Lüthi, Marcel; Gerig, Thomas; Vetter, Thomas



Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.



Glutamate and GABA receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia: What does their subsynaptic localization reveal about their function?  

PubMed Central

GABA and glutamate, the main transmitters in the basal ganglia, exert their effects through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. The dynamic activation of these receptors in response to released neurotransmitter depends, among other factors, on their precise localization in relation to corresponding synapses. The use of high resolution quantitative electron microscope immunocytochemical techniques has provided in-depth description of the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of these receptors in the CNS. In this article, we review recent findings on the ultrastructural localization of GABA and glutamate receptors and transporters in the basal ganglia, at synaptic, extrasynaptic and presynaptic sites. The anatomical evidence supports numerous potential locations for receptor-neurotransmitter interactions, and raises important questions regarding mechanisms of activation and function of synaptic versus extrasynaptic receptors in the basal ganglia.

Galvan, Adriana; Kuwajima, Masaaki; Smith, Yoland



Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide1 receptor mRNA in human trigeminal ganglia and cerebral arteries.  


Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers for the recently cloned human CGRP1 receptor detected mRNA expression of CGRP1 receptors in trigeminal ganglia and cerebral vessels, obtained at autopsy or during neurosurgical tumor resections. An RT-PCR product of the expected size (339 bp) was seen in cerebral arteries, both in the presence and in the absence of endothelium and in trigeminal ganglia. Sequence analysis of the RT-PCR product of the published sequence showed 100% homology with the human CGRP1 receptor. The presence of the CGRP1 receptor mRNA in human trigeminal ganglia and cerebral blood vessels, indicates the occurrence of both prejunctional (trigeminal) and postjunctional location (blood vessels) of the CGRP1 receptor. PMID:9237495

Edvinsson, L; Cantera, L; Jansen-Olesen, I; Uddman, R



Laser beam shaping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the design and fabrication of laser beam shapers. Laser beam shaping methods are categorized as: (i) external shaping which is applied to an existing laser beam; and (ii) internal cavity shaping which is an integral part of the laser cavity. An exact diffraction-based algorithm is developed for the design of

L. N. Hazra



The Shape of Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When children learn the name of a novel object, they tend to extend that name to other objects similar in shape--a phenomenon referred to as the shape bias. Does the shape bias stem from learned associations between names and categories of objects, or does it derive from more general properties of children's understanding of language and the…

Markson, Lori; Diesendruck, Gil; Bloom, Paul



The Princeton Shape Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many shape representations and geomet- ric algorithms have been proposed for matching 3D shapes. Usually, each algorithm is tested on a different (small) database of 3D models, and thus no direct comparison is available for competing methods. In this paper, we describe the Princeton Shape Bench- mark (PSB), a publicly available database of polygonal models collected from

Philip Shilane; Patrick Min; Michael M. Kazhdan; Thomas A. Funkhouser



Bacterial cell shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain largely unresolved. The field has recently taken an important step forward with the discovery that eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologues in bacteria that affect cell shape. Here, we discuss how

Matthew T. Cabeen; Christine Jacobs-Wagner



Molecular microcircuitry underlies functional specification in a basal ganglia circuit dedicated to vocal learning.  


Similarities between speech and birdsong make songbirds advantageous for investigating the neurogenetics of learned vocal communication--a complex phenotype probably supported by ensembles of interacting genes in cortico-basal ganglia pathways of both species. To date, only FoxP2 has been identified as critical to both speech and birdsong. We performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis on microarray data from singing zebra finches to discover gene ensembles regulated during vocal behavior. We found ?2,000 singing-regulated genes comprising three coexpression groups unique to area X, the basal ganglia subregion dedicated to learned vocalizations. These contained known targets of human FOXP2 and potential avian targets. We validated biological pathways not previously implicated in vocalization. Higher-order gene coexpression patterns, rather than expression levels, molecularly distinguish area X from the ventral striato-pallidum during singing. The previously unknown structure of singing-driven networks enables prioritization of molecular interactors that probably bear on human motor disorders, especially those affecting speech. PMID:22325205

Hilliard, Austin T; Miller, Julie E; Fraley, Elizabeth R; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A



Nicotine washout rates from isolated rat ganglia in relation to recovery from nicotine depolarization  

PubMed Central

1. Isolated rat superior cervical ganglia recovered more slowly from the depolarizing action of nicotine than from that of carbachol or acetylcholine. This was due to sustained high nicotine concentrations in the vicinity of the receptors, since recovery was hastened by adding hexamethonium to the washout fluid. 2. Ganglia incubated for 4 min in 80 ?M 3H-nicotine accumulated nicotine to a level exceeding the extracellular space, as judged from the uptake of 3H-mannitol. 3. The subsequent efflux of 3H-nicotine into non-radioactive solution could be largely resolved into two exponential components, with rate constants of 0·55±0·04 and 0·094±0·007 min-1. The former was similar to that for total mannitol efflux, and so might be largely ascribed to clearance of extracellular nicotine. The slower efflux might be due to clearance from intracellular compartments. Nicotine efflux rates were not affected by hexamethonium indicating that receptor-activation did not modify the slow efflux. 4. Efflux of choline compounds (3H-acetylcholine, 3H-choline and 3H-carbachol) showed an additional, very slow component (rate constant 0·001 to 0·002 min-1). 5. It was suggested that slow efflux of intracellular nicotine might sustain depolarization on washing by maintaining high perineuronal concentrations of nicotine. With choline compounds the efflux rate from such sources may be too slow to affect perineuronal concentrations.

Brown, D. A.; Scholfield, C. N.



Depolarization of rat isolated superior cervical ganglia mediated by beta 2-adrenoceptors.  

PubMed Central

Depolarizations of freshly-dissected isolated superior cervical ganglia of the rat were recorded extracellularly. The following sympathomimetic amines (in order of decreasing potency) produced depolarizations of up to 0.4 mV: isoprenaline, salbutamol, adrenaline, noradrenaline. Depolarizations were lost after overnight storage, leaving only hyperpolarizing responses. Depolarizations by isoprenaline were antagonized by (-)-propranolol (pA2 8.94 +/- 0.15), (+/-)-butoxamine (pA2 7.36 +/- 0.12) and (+/-)-practolol (pA2 5.14 +/- 0.13). They were not blocked by phentolamine (1 microM) or phenoxybenzamine (1 microM). Isoprenaline and salbutamol were antagonized with equal facility by practolol or butoxamine. In concentrations producing ganglionic depolarization, these compounds also produced a smaller depolarization of presynaptic elements in the ganglion, but not preganglionic trunk fibres. Presynaptic depolarization was blocked by 100 nM propranolol but not by 1 microM phentolamine. Isoprenaline and salbutamol increased the amplitude of the compound ganglionic action potential recorded following single preganglionic nerve stimuli when transmission had been rendered submaximal by adjusting the Ca/Mg ratio, but not in normal solution. Isoprenaline (0.1 microM) also increased the amount of [3H]-acetylcholine released by preganglionic stimulation in low Ca/high Mg solution. It is concluded that facilitatory adrenoceptors are present on pre- and postsynaptic elements in rat superior cervical ganglia, which resembles the 'beta 2' subclass of beta-receptors.

Brown, D. A.; Dunn, P. M.



Retinoic Acid Functions as a Key GABAergic Differentiation Signal in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Although retinoic acid (RA) has been implicated as an extrinsic signal regulating forebrain neurogenesis, the processes regulated by RA signaling remain unclear. Here, analysis of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase mutant mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis demonstrates that RA generated by Raldh3 in the subventricular zone of the basal ganglia is required for GABAergic differentiation, whereas RA generated by Raldh2 in the meninges is unnecessary for development of the adjacent cortex. Neurospheres generated from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), where Raldh3 is highly expressed, produce endogenous RA, which is required for differentiation to GABAergic neurons. In Raldh3?/? embryos, LGE progenitors fail to differentiate into either GABAergic striatal projection neurons or GABAergic interneurons migrating to the olfactory bulb and cortex. We describe conditions for RA treatment of human embryonic stem cells that result in efficient differentiation to a heterogeneous population of GABAergic interneurons without the appearance of GABAergic striatal projection neurons, thus providing an in vitro method for generation of GABAergic interneurons for further study. Our observation that endogenous RA is required for generation of LGE-derived GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia establishes a key role for RA signaling in development of the forebrain.

Chatzi, Christina; Brade, Thomas; Duester, Gregg



A population level computational model of the basal ganglia that generates parkinsonian Local Field Potential activity.  


Recordings from the basal ganglia's subthalamic nucleus are acquired via microelectrodes immediately prior to the application of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment for Parkinson's Disease (PD) to assist in the selection of the final point for the implantation of the DBS electrode. The acquired recordings reveal a persistent characteristic beta band peak in the power spectral density function of the Local Field Potential (LFP) signals. This peak is considered to lie at the core of the causality-effect relationships of the parkinsonian pathophysiology. Based on LFPs acquired from human subjects during DBS for PD, we constructed a computational model of the basal ganglia on the population level that generates LFPs to identify the critical pathophysiological alterations that lead to the expression of the beta band peak. To this end, we used experimental data reporting that the strengths of the synaptic connections are modified under dopamine depletion. The hypothesis that the altered dopaminergic modulation may affect both the amplitude and the time course of the postsynaptic potentials is validated by the model. The results suggest a pivotal role of both of these parameters to the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:20041261

Tsirogiannis, George L; Tagaris, George A; Sakas, Damianos; Nikita, Konstantina S



Immunohistochemical characterisation of dorsal root ganglia neurons supplying the porcine mammary gland.  


The present study investigated the chemical coding of mammary gland-projecting dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Earlier investigations revealed the presence of Fast blue - positive (FB+) neurons in Th9-Th12 DRG after injection of the tracer into the second, right thoracic mamma. Neurons projecting to the last right abdominal mamma were found in L1-L3 DRG. In the present study, the cryostat sections from these ganglia were stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), galanin (GAL) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP). Immunohistochemistry revealed that the vast majority of FB+ mammary gland-projecting neurons contained immunoreactivity to CGRP (68.87±0.7%), SP (63.4±0.9%), NOS (32.47±0.9%), GAL (16.28±0.8%) and less numerous nerve cells stained for PACAP (5.87±0.5%). The present results largely correspond with findings dealing with immunohistochemical characterization of nerve fibres supplying porcine mammary gland structures described earlier. PMID:21972090

Franke-Radowiecka, Amelia



Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus: MR and CT evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: to describe MR and CT features of germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus and to discuss the roles of each modality for its diagnosis. Methods: MR and CT studies of six cases of germinomas, five of which were histologically proved, were retrospectively reviewed. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted conventional spin-echo images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were evaluated. Results: Typically, the tumor consisted of an irregular solid area with contrast enhancement and various-size cysts. Cystic components were found in five cases and calcification in four. Intratumoral hemorrhage was noted in one. Ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and brain stem hemiatrophy were noted in three cases each. MR was superior to CT in evaluating precise tumor extension, cystic components, and intratumoral hemorrhage, although in one case, extension of the tumor was better defined on CT in its early stage. Calcification was difficult to identify by MR alone. The solid components of the tumors generally showed slightly high density on CT, which seemed to be characteristic compared with nonspecific intensity pattern on MR. Conclusion: The combination of CT and MR findings allows early detection and appropriate diagnosis of the mass in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Shuichi Higano; Shoki Takahashi; Kiyoshi Ishii [Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)



Modulation by dopamine of human basal ganglia involvement in feedback control of movement.  


We learn new motor tasks by trial and error, repeating what works best and avoiding past mistakes. To repeat what works best we must register a satisfactory outcome, and in a study [1] we showed the existence of an evoked activity in the basal ganglia that correlates with accuracy of task performance and is associated with reiteration of successful motor parameters in subsequent movements. Here we report evidence that the signaling of positive trial outcome relies on dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia, by recording from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with nigrostriatal denervation due to Parkinson's Disease (PD) who have undergone functional neurosurgery. Correlations between subthalamic evoked activities and trial accuracy were weak and behavioral performance remained poor while patients were untreated; however, both improved after the dopamine prodrug levodopa was re-introduced. The results suggest that the midbrain dopaminergic system may be important, not only in signaling explicit positive outcomes or rewards in tasks requiring choices between options [2,3], but also in trial-to-trial learning and in reinforcing the selection of optimal parameters in more automatic motor control. PMID:17686426

Kempf, Florian; Brücke, Christof; Kühn, Andrea A; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kupsch, Andreas; Chen, Chiung Chu; Androulidakis, Alexandros G; Wang, Shouyan; Vandenberghe, Wim; Nuttin, Bart; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter



A volumetric study of basal ganglia structures in individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria.  


Whereas the impact of early-treated phenylketonuria (ETPKU) on cortical white matter is well documented, relatively little is known regarding the potential impact of this metabolic disorder on deep gray matter structures such as the basal ganglia. The current study used high-resolution (1mm(3)) magnetic resonance imaging to investigate bilateral basal ganglia structures (i.e., putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens) in a sample of 13 individuals with ETPKU and a demographically-matched sample of 13 neurologically intact individuals without PKU. Consistent with previous research, we found smaller whole brain volumes in the ETPKU group compared with the non-PKU group. Individuals with ETPKU also had significantly larger putamen volumes than non-PKU individuals. In addition, the degree of putamen enlargement was correlated with blood phenylalanine levels and full scale IQ in the ETPKU group. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ETPKU-related increases in phenylalanine lead to decreased central dopamine levels thus impacting dopamine-dependent brain regions such as the putamen that play an important role in cognition. PMID:23006929

Bodner, Kimberly E; Aldridge, Kristina; Moffitt, Amanda J; Peck, Dawn; White, Desirée A; Christ, Shawn E



Molecular microcircuitry underlies functional specification in a basal ganglia circuit dedicated to vocal learning  

PubMed Central

Summary Similarities between speech and birdsong make songbirds advantageous for investigating the neurogenetics of learned vocal communication; a complex phenotype likely supported by ensembles of interacting genes in cortico-basal ganglia pathways of both species. To date, only FoxP2 has been identified as critical to both speech and birdsong. We performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis on microarray data from singing zebra finches to discover gene ensembles regulated during vocal behavior. We found ~2,000 singing-regulated genes comprising 3 co-expression groups unique to area X, the basal ganglia subregion dedicated to learned vocalizations. These contained known targets of human FOXP2 and potential avian targets. We validated novel biological pathways for vocalization. Higher order gene co-expression patterns, rather than expression levels, molecularly distinguish area X from the ventral striato-pallidum during singing. The previously unknown structure of singing-driven networks enables prioritization of molecular interactors that likely bear on human motor disorders, especially those affecting speech.

Hilliard, Austin T.; Miller, Julie E.; Fraley, Elizabeth; Horvath, Steve; White, Stephanie A.



Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis  

SciTech Connect

The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M. [Univ. of Milan (Italy)] [and others



Satellite glia cells in dorsal root ganglia express functional NMDA receptors.  


Satellite glia cells (SGCs), within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), surround the somata of most sensory neurons. SGCs have been shown to interact with sensory neurons and appear to be involved in the processing of afferent information. We found that in rat DRG various N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) subunits were expressed in SGCs in intact ganglia and in vitro. In culture, when SGCs were exposed to brief pulses of NMDA they evoked transient increases in cytoplasmic calcium that were inhibited by specific NMDA blockers (MK-801, AP5) while they were Mg²? insensitive indicating that SGCs express functional NMDAr. The percentage of NMDA responsive SGCs was similar in mixed- (SGCs plus neurons) and SGC-enriched cultures. The pattern of the magnitude changes of the NMDA-evoked response was similar in SGCs and DRG neurons when they were in close proximity, suggesting that the NMDA response of SGCs and DRG neurons is modulated by their interactions. Treating the cultures with nerve growth factor, and/or prostaglandin E? did not alter the percentage of SGCs that responded to NMDA. Since glutamate appears to be released within the DRG, the detection of functional NMDAr in SGCs suggests that their NMDAr activity could contribute to the interactions between neurons and SGCs. In summary we demonstrated for the first time that SGCs express functional NMDAr. PMID:23485802

Castillo, C; Norcini, M; Martin Hernandez, L A; Correa, G; Blanck, T J J; Recio-Pinto, E



fMRI of Cocaine Self-Administration in Macaques Reveals Functional Inhibition of Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Disparities in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal ganglia and motor/pre-motor cortex and produced subtle functional inhibition of prefrontal cortex. No brain regions exhibited significant elevation of CBV in response to cocaine challenge. Theses effects in NHP brain are opposite in sign to the cocaine-induced fMRI response in rats, but consistent with previous measurements in NHP based on glucose metabolism. Because the striatal ratio of D2 to D1 receptors is larger in human beings and NHP than rats, we hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of D2 receptor binding dominate the functional response in primates, whereas excitatory D1 receptor stimulation predominates in the rat. If the NHP accurately models the human response to cocaine, downregulation of D2 receptors in human cocaine-abusing populations can be expected to blunt cocaine-induced functional responses, contributing to the weak and variable fMRI responses reported in human basal ganglia following cocaine infusion.

Mandeville, Joseph B; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jarraya, Bechir; Rosen, Bruce R; Jenkins, Bruce G; Vanduffel, Wim



Selective retention of herpes simplex virus-specific T cells in latently infected human trigeminal ganglia  

PubMed Central

Primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in lifelong latent infections of neurons in sensory ganglia such as the trigeminal ganglia (TG). It has been postulated that T cells retained in TG inhibit reactivation of latent virus. The acquisition of TG specimens of individuals within hours after death offered the unique opportunity to characterize the phenotype and specificity of TG-resident T cells in humans. High numbers of activated CD8+ T cells expressing a late effector memory phenotype were found to reside in latently infected TG. The T cell infiltrate was oligoclonal, and T cells selectively clustered around HSV-1 but not VZV latently infected neurons. Neuronal damage was not observed despite granzyme B expression by the neuron-interacting CD8+ T cells. The TG-resident T cells, mainly CD8+ T cells, were directed against HSV-1 and not to VZV, despite neuronal expression of VZV proteins. The results implicate that herpesvirus latency in human TG is associated with a local, persistent T cell response, comprising activated late effector memory CD8+ T cells that appear to control HSV-1 latency by noncytolytic pathways. In contrast, T cells do not seem to be directly involved in controlling VZV latency in human TG.

Verjans, Georges M. G. M.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; van Dun, Jessica M.; Poot, Angelique; Milikan, Johannes C.; Laman, Jon D.; Langerak, Anton W.; Kinchington, Paul R.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.



Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review.

Limdi, J; Hyde, G



Neurobiological trait abnormalities in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissecting trait neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) from those characterizing episodes of mood disturbance will help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of the illness. This selective review highlights the immunological, neuroendocrinological, molecular biological and neuroimaging abnormalities characteristic of BD, with a focus on those likely to reflect trait abnormalities by virtue of their presence in euthymic patients or in unaffected relatives

C Langan; C McDonald



Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes.

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G



[Peculiarities of age changes of NF200(+)-neurons in the sensory ganglia of different segmental levels after chemical deafferentation].  


Morphological features of the neurons containing neurofilaments with molecular mass of 200 kD (NF200+), were studied in the sensory ganglia of thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves in rats (n = 80) during the first year of their life. Capsaicin treatment (150 mg/kg) of the newborn animals resulted in the change of age dynamics of NF200+ neurons. This was reflected by a reduction of NF200+ neuron numbers and their cross-sectional areas in both ganglia. Segmental differences included greater reduction of NF200+ neuron number in the sensory ganglion of lumbar spinal nerve in both early and late developmental periods. PMID:23236889

Porseva, V V; Shilkin, V V; Korzina, M B; Smirnova, V P; Masliukov, P M



Abnormal Dentition in a Boy with Incontinentia Pigmenti: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked dominant genodermatosis characterized by typical skin lesions along Blaschko’s lines and associated with ocular, dental, nails, hair, skeletal, central nervous system and cardiovascular anomalies. We report a 5-year-old boy with cutaneous hyperpigmentation along Blaschko’s lines, atrophic streaks, strabismus and mental retardation. He showed the characteristic abnormal dentition seen in IP as partial hypodontia, peg-shaped anterior teeth and un-erupted teeth. The expression of IP in boys is exceptional as the disease is lethal in males.

Afshar, H.; Daneshpazhooh, M.; Kiani, A.; Aref, P.; Baniameri, Z.



Investigating the effect of different targets in deep brain stimulation on symptoms of Parkinson's disease using a mean-field model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigated effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on Parkinson's disease (PD) when different target sites in the basal ganglia are stimulated. The targets which are investigated are subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi), and globus pallidus externa (GPe). For this purpose we used a computational model of the basal ganglia- thalamocortical system (BGTCS) with parameters

Alireza Nahvi; Fariba Bahrami



Immunocytochemical localization of D 1 and D 2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of the rat: Light and electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory actions of dopamine on the flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia are mediated mainly through two subtypes of receptors, the D1 and D2 receptors. In order to examine the precise cellular and subcellular location of these receptors, immunocytochemistry using subtype specific antibodies was performed on sections of rat basal ganglia at both the light and electron

K. K. L. Yung; J. P. Bolam; A. D. Smith; S. M. Hersch; B. J. Ciliax; A. I. Levey



Abnormal grain growth induced by cyclic heat treatment.  


In polycrystalline materials, grain growth occurs at elevated temperatures to reduce the total area of grain boundaries with high energy. The grain growth rate usually slows down with annealing time, making it hard to obtain grains larger than a millimeter in size. We report a crystal growth method that employs only a cyclic heat treatment to obtain a single crystal of more than several centimeters in a copper-based shape-memory alloy. This abnormal grain growth phenomenon results from the formation of a subgrain structure introduced through phase transformation. These findings provide a method of fabricating a single-crystal or large-grain structure important for shape-memory properties, magnetic properties, and creep properties, among others. PMID:24072918

Omori, Toshihiro; Kusama, Tomoe; Kawata, Shingo; Ohnuma, Ikuo; Sutou, Yuji; Araki, Yoshikazu; Ishida, Kiyohito; Kainuma, Ryosuke



Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary.



Cerebellothalamocortical pathway abnormalities in torsinA DYT1 knock-in mice.  


The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ?E) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ?E mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans. PMID:21464304

Ulu?, Aziz M; Vo, An; Argyelan, Miklos; Tanabe, Lauren; Schiffer, Wynne K; Dewey, Stephen; Dauer, William T; Eidelberg, David



Learning Deformable Shape Manifolds  

PubMed Central

We propose an approach to shape detection of highly deformable shapes in images via manifold learning with regression. Our method does not require shape key points be defined at high contrast image regions, nor do we need an initial estimate of the shape. We only require sufficient representative training data and a rough initial estimate of the object position and scale. We demonstrate the method for face shape learning, and provide a comparison to nonlinear Active Appearance Model. Our method is extremely accurate, to nearly pixel precision and is capable of accurately detecting the shape of faces undergoing extreme expression changes. The technique is robust to occlusions such as glasses and gives reasonable results for extremely degraded image resolutions.

Rivera, Samuel; Martinez, Aleix



Bortezomib induces the formation of nuclear poly(A) RNA granules enriched in Sam68 and PABPN1 in sensory ganglia neurons.  


The ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system (UPS) is the major pathway responsible for selective nuclear and cytoplasmic protein degradation. Bortezomib, a boronic acid dipeptide, is a reversible 20S proteasome inhibitor used as novel anticancer drug, particularly in the treatment of multiple myeloma and certain lymphomas. Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN) is a widely recognized dose-limiting neurotoxicity of this proteasome inhibitor, which causes a significant negative impact on the quality of life. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying bortezomib neurotoxicity are little known. In this study a rat was used as our animal model to investigate the bortezomib-induced nuclear changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Our results indicate that this neuronal population is an important target of bortezomib neurotoxicity. Nuclear changes include accumulation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, reduction of transcriptional activity, and nuclear retention of poly(A) RNAs in numerous spherical or ring-shaped dense granules. They also contained the RNA-binding proteins PABPN1 (poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1) and Sam68, but lacked the mRNA nuclear export factors REF and Y14. At the cytoplasmic level, most neurons exhibited chromatolysis, supporting the inhibition of mRNA translation. Our results indicate that bortezomib interferes with transcription, nuclear processing and transport, and cytoplasmic translation of mRNAs in DRG neurons. They also support that this neuronal dysfunction is an essential pathogenic mechanism in the BIPN, which is characterized by sensory impairment including sensory ataxia. PMID:19609631

Casafont, Iñigo; Berciano, Maria T; Lafarga, Miguel



Shape-Memory Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material scientists predict a prominent role in the future for self-repairing and intelligent materials. Throughout the last few years, this concept has found growing interest as a result of the rise of a new class of polymers. These so- called shape-memory polymers by far surpass well-known metallic shape- memory alloys in their shape-memory properties. As a consequence of the relatively

Andreas Lendlein; Steffen Kelch




Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociated cell cultures prepared from fetal mouse spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia were stained for endogenous substance P using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique. Substance P- like immunoreactivity was localized within a small percentage of rounded or multipolar neuronal somata and in varicose processes. The substance P-positive multipolar neurons were derived from spinal cord, while the small rounded neurons were possibly



A study of the switching function of the Subthalamic Nucleus in saccade generation using a computational model of Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccades are rapid, frequent eye movements that shift the fovea onto objects of interest. Several areas of the brain, including the frontal cortical areas, Lateral Intraparietal (LIP) cortex, Basal Ganglia (BG), Superior Colliculus (SC) and the brainstem reticular formation are believed to be involved in saccade generation. Models of saccade generation, however, tend to focus heavily on the determination of

Maithreye Rengaswamy; V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy



Basal Ganglia, Dopamine and Temporal Processing: Performance on Three Timing Tasks on and off Medication in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A pervasive hypothesis in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine. This hypothesis was investigated by testing 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication, and 20 healthy controls on three timing tasks.…

Jones, Catherine R. G.; Malone, Tim J. L.; Dirnberger, Georg; Edwards, Mark; Jahanshahi, Marjan



Adrenocorticotropic hormone (MC2) receptor mRNA is expressed in rat sympathetic ganglia and up-regulated by stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress triggered cardiovascular disorders are associated with elevated activity of the sympathetic nervous system, the major source of elevated plasma norepinephrine levels. Our previous studies revealed that administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increases the gene expression of norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes and several neuropeptides in rat sympathetic ganglia as much as stress. Here, we examine whether an ACTH-responsive receptor is expressed

B. B. Nankova; R. Kvetnansky; E. L. Sabban



Phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes in neuronal perikarya in the septum, mesencephalon and dorsal root ganglia of mammals and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We and other researchers have previously described the presence of axon-specific phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes in the cell bodies of three neuronal types in the rat: bipolar septofimbrial neurons and the large light A-type cells in the dorsal root ganglia and the mesencephalic nucleus of the Vth nerve. This spontaneous presence of phosphorylated neurofilaments at the level of the perikaryon

P. Klosen; P. Van Den Bosch De Aguilar



Recording capabilities of a penetrating microelectrode array in dorsal root ganglia and its usefulness for coding of limb position  

Microsoft Academic Search

We were able to simultaneously record from over 100 sensory neurons using silicon microelectrode arrays implanted in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of cats. The activity of many neurons was correlated with the position of the foot and the ensemble activity was used to predict this position accurately. We successfully recorded stable, phase dependent multiple sensory units with very little

Yoichiro Aoyagi; Richard B. Stein; D. J. Weber; Danny McDonnall; Almut Branner; Richard A. Normann


Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.



How preparation changes the need for top-down control of the basal ganglia when inhibiting premature actions.  


Goal-oriented signals from the prefrontal cortex gate the selection of appropriate actions in the basal ganglia. Key nodes within this fronto-basal ganglia action regulation network are increasingly engaged when one anticipates the need to inhibit and override planned actions. Here, we ask how the advance preparation of action plans modulates the need for fronto-subcortical control when a planned action needs to be withdrawn. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while human participants performed a stop task with cues indicating the likelihood of a stop signal being sounded. Mathematical modeling of go trial responses suggested that participants attained a more cautious response strategy when the probability of a stop signal increased. Effective connectivity analysis indicated that, even in the absence of stop signals, the proactive engagement of the full control network is tailored to the likelihood of stop trial occurrence. Importantly, during actual stop trials, the strength of fronto-subcortical projections was stronger when stopping had to be engaged reactively compared with when it was proactively prepared in advance. These findings suggest that fronto-basal ganglia control is strongest in an unpredictable environment, where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the optimization of reactive control. Importantly, these results further indicate that the advance preparation of action plans reduces the need for reactive fronto-basal ganglia communication to gate voluntary actions. PMID:22875921

Jahfari, Sara; Verbruggen, Frederick; Frank, Michael J; Waldorp, Lourens J; Colzato, Lorenza; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Forstmann, Birte U



Compartmentalization of the precheliceral neuroectoderm in the spider Cupiennius salei: development of the arcuate body, optic ganglia, and mushroom body.  


Similarly to vertebrates, arthropod brains are compartmentalized into centers with specific neurological functions such as cognition, behavior, and memory. The centers can be further subdivided into smaller functional units. This raises the question of how these compartments are formed during development and how they are integrated into brain centers. We show here for the first time how the precheliceral neuroectoderm of the spider Cupiennius salei is compartmentalized to form the distinct brain centers of the visual system: the optic ganglia, the mushroom bodies, and the arcuate body. The areas of the visual brain centers are defined by the formation of grooves and vesicles and express the proneural gene CsASH1, followed by expression of the neural differentiation marker Prospero. Furthermore, the transcription factor dachshund, which is strongly enriched in the mushroom bodies and the outer optic ganglion of Drosophila, is expressed in the optic anlagen and the mushroom bodies of the spider. The developing brain centers are further subdivided into single neural precursor groups, which become incorporated into the grooves and vesicles but remain distinguishable throughout development, suggesting that they encode spatial information for neural subtype identity. Several molecular and morphological aspects of the development of the optic ganglia and the mushroom bodies are similar in the spider and in insects. Furthermore, we show that the primary engrailed head spot contributes neurons to the optic ganglia of the median eyes, whereas the secondary head spot, which has been associated with the optic ganglia in insects and crustaceans, is absent. PMID:20503430

Doeffinger, Carola; Hartenstein, Volker; Stollewerk, Angelika



Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.



Presynaptic Depression of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by D1Like Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Avian Basal Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocal behavior in songbirds exemplifies a rich integration of motor, cognitive, and social functions that are shared among vertebrates. As a part of the underlying neural substrate, the song system, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) is required for song learning and maintenance. The AFP resembles the mammalian basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop in its macroscopic organization, neuronal intrinsic properties, and microcircuitry. Area

Long Ding; David J. Perkel; Michael A. Farries



Immunocytochemical localization of neuropeptide Y, serotonin, substance P and ?-endorphin in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using immunocytochemistry method of Strept Avidin-Biotin-Complex, four kinds of antisera raised against rabbits were applied to observe the immunoreactive neurons and neuropils of serotonin (5-HT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and ?-Endorphin (?-Ep) in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that, the 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were located in all the four neuropils of optic ganglia. Immunoreactivity of 5-HT was detected in anterior medial protocerebrum neuropils (AMPN), and the inner and outer lateral beside olfactory lobe (OL) of deutocerebrum. The presence of NPY-immunoreactive cells was found in all the four neuropils of the optic ganglia. NPY-immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior median cell cluster, lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum, and cell cluster beside OL and AMPN. SP-immunoreactivity was found in medulla terminalis (MT) of optic ganglia, and lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum and posterior lateral cell cluster of tritocerebrum. ?-Ep-immunoreactive cells were in MT only. In conclusion, these specific distribution patterns of the four immunoreactive substances can be used as morphological clues for understanding their different neurophysiological functions.

Ye, Haihui; Wang, Guizhong; Jin, Zhuxing; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing



Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging of dorsal root ganglia for the objective quantitative assessment of neuron death after peripheral nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of neuron death after peripheral nerve injury is vital to regaining adequate cutaneous innervation density and quality of sensation, and while experimentally proven neuroprotective therapies exist, there lacks suitable clinical outcome measures for translational research. Axotomized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) histologically exhibit volume reduction in proportion to the amount of neuronal death within them. Hence, this study evaluated the

Christian A. West; Karen A. Davies; Andrew M. Hart; Mikael Wiberg; Steve R. Williams; Giorgio Terenghi



Abnormal optical properties in doped H3BO3 KDP crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different concentrations of H3BO3 in solution were grown. Light scatter was detected with ultramicroscopic method. The distinct characteristics of biaxial crystals caused by inherent stress can be found by using cone-shaped interference in the samples. In this paper, abnormal transmittance ratio properties are reported in doped H3BO3 KDP crystals.

Xu, X.-G.; Sun, X.; Wang, Z.-p.; Shao, Z.-s.; Gao, Z.-s.



Abnormal optical properties in doped H3BO3 KDP crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different concentrations of H3BO3 in solution were grown. Light scatter was detected with ultramicroscopic method. The distinct characteristics of biaxial crystals caused by inherent stress can be found by using cone-shaped interference in the samples. In this paper, abnormal transmittance ratio properties are reported in doped H3BO3 KDP crystals.

X.-G. Xu; X. Sun; Z.-p. Wang; Z.-s. Shao; Z.-s. Gao



Auditory Brainstem Response Abnormalities and Hearing Loss in Children With Craniosynostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.Craniosynostosis is a devastating disorder characterized by premature closure of the cranial plates before or shortly after birth. This results in an abnormally shaped skull, face, and brain. Little is known about hearing disorders in such patients, and nothing has been published about their auditory brainstem responses. Our objective was to evaluate such patients for auditory brainstem response and hearing

Michael W. Church; Leslie Parent-Jenkins; Arlene A. Rozzelle; Frances E. Eldis; S. Nadya; J. Kazzi



Robust Representation of Stable Object Values in the Oculomotor Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Our gaze tends to be directed to objects previously associated with rewards. Such object values change flexibly or remain stable. Here we present evidence that the monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the basal ganglia represents stable, rather than flexible, object values. After across-day learning of object–reward association, SNr neurons gradually showed a response bias to surprisingly many visual objects: inhibition to high-valued objects and excitation to low-valued objects. Many of these neurons were shown to project to the ipsilateral superior colliculus. This neuronal bias remained intact even after >100 d without further learning. In parallel with the neuronal bias, the monkeys tended to look at high-valued objects. The neuronal and behavioral biases were present even if no value was associated during testing. These results suggest that SNr neurons bias the gaze toward objects that were consistently associated with high values in one’s history.

Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya; Hikosaka, Okihide



The Basal Ganglia is necessary for learning spectral, but not temporal, features of birdsong.  


Executing a motor skill requires the brain to control which muscles to activate at what times. How these aspects of control-motor implementation and timing-are acquired, and whether the learning processes underlying them differ, is not well understood. To address this, we used a reinforcement learning paradigm to independently manipulate both spectral and temporal features of birdsong, a complex learned motor sequence, while recording and perturbing activity in underlying circuits. Our results uncovered a striking dissociation in how neural circuits underlie learning in the two domains. The basal ganglia was required for modifying spectral, but not temporal, structure. This functional dissociation extended to the descending motor pathway, where recordings from a premotor cortex analog nucleus reflected changes to temporal, but not spectral, structure. Our results reveal a strategy in which the nervous system employs different and largely independent circuits to learn distinct aspects of a motor skill. PMID:24075977

Ali, Farhan; Otchy, Timothy M; Pehlevan, Cengiz; Fantana, Antoniu L; Burak, Yoram; Olveczky, Bence P



Isolation and identification of enkephalins in pedal ganglia of Mytilus edulis (Mollusca).  

PubMed Central

An acid extract of pedal ganglia of the mollusc Mytilus edulis was fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase column. Peak fractions with retention times of those of [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin were subjected to binding assays in both invertebrate and vertebrate tissues. The results showed that these fractions have the same binding activities as authentic enkephalins. Peptides from these fractions were purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography under isocratic conditions. Sequential amino acid analyses showed that these peptides have the same primary structures as [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin. These results with M. edulis suggest that invertebrates possess an enkephalinergic system similar to that of higher organisms.

Leung, M K; Stefano, G B



Multi-walled carbon nanotubes inhibit regenerative axon growth of dorsal root ganglia neurons of mice  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have demonstrated that nanomaterials may be toxic to human tissue. While the ability of nano-scaled particulate matter is known to cause a range of problems in respiratory system, recent observations suggest that the nervous system may be vulnerable as well. In the current paper we asked whether exposure of primary neuronal cell cultures to nanoparticles might compromise regenerative axon growth. Regenerative response was triggered by performing a conditioning lesion of sciatic nerve five days prior to collection of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). DRG neurons were plated at a low density and incubated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (0.1 – 10 ?g/ml in 10% of surfactant in saline) overnight. The experiments showed that exposure of DRG cultures to MWCNT significantly impaired regenerative axonogenesis without concomitant cell death. These results indicate that MWNCTs may have detrimental effect on nerve regeneration and may potentially trigger axonal pathology.

Wu, Di; Pak, Elena S.; Wingard, Christopher J.; Murashov, Alexander K.



Extrapyramidal symptoms in a BMT recipient with hyperintense basal ganglia and elevated manganese.  


Neurologic syndromes attributed to conditioning or medications have been reported in BMT recipients. A patient is presented who developed extrapyramidal symptoms on day +56 after allogeneic BMT. Brain magnetic resonance images of this patient demonstrated hyperintense basal ganglia, which has been associated with manganese (Mn) toxicity. The patient had received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with standard trace element supplementation and had been cholestatic. Serum Mn was elevated, and continued to be so 5 months after BMT, long after discontinuation of TPN. Cholestatic patients and those on long-term TPN have been found to have high blood or serum levels of Mn, but generally are asymptomatic. When other cholestatic BMT patients were reviewed, all had elevated serum Mn. Manganese supplementation in TPN requires evaluation for BMT recipients. PMID:7581103

Fredstrom, S; Rogosheske, J; Gupta, P; Burns, L J



Learning to Select Actions with Spiking Neurons in the Basal Ganglia  

PubMed Central

We expand our existing spiking neuron model of decision making in the cortex and basal ganglia to include local learning on the synaptic connections between the cortex and striatum, modulated by a dopaminergic reward signal. We then compare this model to animal data in the bandit task, which is used to test rodent learning in conditions involving forced choice under rewards. Our results indicate a good match in terms of both behavioral learning results and spike patterns in the ventral striatum. The model successfully generalizes to learning the utilities of multiple actions, and can learn to choose different actions in different states. The purpose of our model is to provide both high-level behavioral predictions and low-level spike timing predictions while respecting known neurophysiology and neuroanatomy.

Stewart, Terrence C.; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris



Functional expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat vestibular ganglia.  


Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are non-selective cation channels. They are co-expressed, and interact in sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), and are involved in nociception, being activated by nociceptive stimuli. Immunohistological localization of TRPV1 in vestibular ganglion (VG) neurons has been reported. Although TRPA1 is co-expressed with TRPV1 in DRG and TG neurons, it is unclear whether TRPA1 channels are expressed in VG neurons. Moreover, it is unknown whether TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are functional in VG neurons. We investigated the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat VG neurons by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemist