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Sample records for ganjam district orissa

  1. Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Anna

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

  2. Malaria during pregnancy and its effects on foetus in a tribal area of Koraput District, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Das, L K

    2000-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy and its maternal and foetal complications was studied in Koraput district of Orissa--a tribal area, endemic for malaria. A total of 209 pregnant women with 738 pregnancy months were studied. The parasitic index among the pregnant women ranged between 10.8 and 25.6 per cent with peak incidence during post-monsoon months. There was a significant difference in parasite incidence between the primi- and multigravidae (p < 0.05) but difference was not observed between the trimesters. The mean haemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined to 8.4 g/dl (range 7.2-10.2 g/dl) at full-term and parturition from its initial level of 9.6 g/dl (range 7.2-12.8 g/dl). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in Hb concentration among the trimesters of pregnancy. There was no significant difference in the outcome of pregnancies in women with or without malaria prarasites in their peripheral blood. There was no significant difference in Hb concentrations between malaria parasite positive and negative pregnant women (p > 0.05). Significant difference was observed in the proportion of newborn positives from mothers with or without malaria parasites indicating a high degree of transplacental transmission. The overall foetal mortality rate was 21.5 per cent. The miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery leading to foetal and neonatal along with perinatal mortality constituted for 24.4, 13.3, 20 and 17.7 per cent of all mortalities respectively. PMID:11820077

  3. Elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by 2000 and its bearing on the people in a district of Orissa, India: a knowledge-attitude-practices study.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S S; Bulliyya, G; Kerketta, A S; Geddam, J J; Acharya, A S

    2001-01-01

    A knowledge-attitude-practices (KAP) study was conducted along with a prevalence study of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) between 1998-99 in the district of Bargarh, Orissa state, India. A total of 635 people were interviewed by a pretested structured questionnaire, adopting the probability proportional to size cluster sampling method. The aim was to assess the baseline information on the KAP of the people regarding IDD. Only 37% of the males and 29.3% of the females perceived goitre as a disease. Less than 5% of both sexes knew how goitre is caused. Only 16.4% used iodised salt regularly. The awareness and perception of IDD does not correspond with the time and effort we have spent in education of this disease. The implications of this poor knowledge about IDD and consequent poor use of iodised salt is contrasted to the optimistic target of elimination of IDD. This aspect is discussed in this paper, at a time when we are at the beginning of the new millennium. PMID:11708610

  4. Emergence of chikungunya virus infection in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Mohapatra, Namita; Beuria, Mihir K; Kerketta, Anna S; Sabat, Jyotsna; Kar, Shantanu K; Rao, Epari V; Hazra, Rupensu K; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Nitisheel

    2010-05-01

    From September through October 2006, an unknown disease characterized by acute onset of fever, joint pain with or without swelling, and maculopapular rash along with fatigue was reported from three villages of Cuttack and one village of Kendrapara district of Orissa, India, by the State Health Department. Upon learning this, a team from Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Bhubaneswar, Orissa, conducted an epidemiological investigation in the area. Household survey was carried out and clinical examination of the symptomatic individuals (n = 1289: Kendrapara, 752; Cuttack, 537) undertaken. Based on the recorded chikungunya (CHIK) fever symptoms, a vector-borne viral disease was considered for provisional diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 217 symptomatic individuals; to confirm the diagnosis, sera were tested for anti-CHIK antibody (immunoglobulin M), which revealed 63% (64/101) and 40% (47/116) seropositivity in the samples from Kendrapara and Cuttack district, respectively. The illness was managed with analgesics like paracetamol. No death was recorded due to the illness. Entomological survey in the areas revealed the presence of Aedes mosquitoes: aegypti, albopictus, and vittatus. The per-man-hour density of Aedes vectors ranged from 0.8 to 7.6. High larval indices, house index >17% and Breteau index >70%, also indicated Aedes breeding in the area. The investigation documented circulation of CHIK in Orissa, India, and helped to take preventive steps in the outbreak area, with the suggested vector control measures. PMID:19874187

  5. Orissa women want small families - but the system fails them.

    PubMed

    Jena, M

    1998-01-01

    A 1996 survey conducted in Orissa by the British Council for the British Overseas Development Administration (ODA) on opportunities and barriers to contraceptive uptake found that while women are aware of the health and financial benefits of child spacing, attitudinal and economic obstacles interfere with their ability to act upon that awareness. 3360 women and 840 men from 28 urban and periurban neighborhoods of 14 towns in 8 districts were sampled in the survey. The survey also found that men and women held similar desires with regard to birth spacing patterns; more than 50% wanted to have no additional children and 63% wanted to wait at least 2 years between births. However, despite the considerable observed interest in birth spacing and birth limiting, 78.4% of the women who expressed the desire to use modern methods of contraception were not doing so. While some couples in Orissa practice traditional methods of family planning, the current extent of such use is inadequate. Furthermore, while women in Orissa are overwhelmingly relegated the responsibility for contracepting, and the age at marriage remains approximately 22 years, most women are ignorant about contraceptive methods and their side effects. PMID:12293802

  6. Rapid spread of Chikungunya virus infection in Orissa: India

    PubMed Central

    Dwibedi, B.; Sabat, J.; Mahapatra, N.; Kar, S.K.; Kerketta, A.S.; Hazra, R.K.; Parida, S.K.; Marai, N.S.; Beuria, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives : A large number of cases of undiagnosed fever and joint pain were reported from different parts of the State of Orissa since February 2006. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation were carried out to confirm the cause of emerging illness, which was provisionally suspected as Chikungunya (CHIK) fever. Methods: Upon getting the reports of suspected CHIK like illness in different parts of the State, epidemic investigations were carried out in the outbreak affected villages. Case history was recorded, clinical examination undertaken and blood samples collected for seroconfirmation for CHIK IgM antibody using ELISA based kit. Simultaneously vector survey was also carried out. Results: With no previous record of CHIK infection in the State, the first outbreak was confirmed during February 2006. Subsequently, the infection spread to 13 of 30 districts in different episodes covering 79 villages till November 2007. Attack rate was 9-43 per cent in the different outbreaks with average seropositivity of 24 per cent to CHIK specific IgM. Morbidity was high though no deaths were recorded. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified as the possible vectors for transmission. Interpretation & conclusions : The report confirmed emergence of CHIK infection in the State of Orissa, India, and its spread to a larger geographic zone in a short period which warrants public health measures to control further spread. PMID:21441687

  7. Sickle cell disease in Orissa State, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, B C; Satapathy, R K; Kulozik, A E; Kulozik, M; Sirr, S; Serjeant, B E; Serjeant, G R

    1986-11-22

    A study of 131 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in Orissa State, India, indicated that, compared with Jamaican patients, Indian patients have higher frequencies of alpha thalassaemia, higher fetal haemoglobin, total haemoglobin, and red cell counts, and lower mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte counts. Indian patients have a greater frequency and later peak incidence of splenomegaly, and hypersplenism is common. Painful crises and dactylitis are not uncommon in Indian patients but chronic leg ulceration is rare. Homozygous sickle cell disease in Orissa is similar to that in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and is very different from that in populations of West African origin. PMID:2430154

  8. Genetic Structure and Wolbachia Genotyping in Naturally Occurring Populations of Aedes albopictus across Contiguous Landscapes of Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Biswadeep; Satapathy, Truptimayee; Kar, Santanu K.; Hazra, Rupenangshu K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus has recently been implicated as a major vector in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya in several parts of India, like Orissa, which is gradually gaining endemicity for arboviral diseases. Ae. albopictus is further known to be naturally infected with Wolbachia (maternally inherited bacterium), which causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in mosquitoes leading to sperm-egg incompatibility inducing the death of embryo. Knowledge of genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus, along with revealing the type of Wolbachia infection in Ae. albopictus is important to explore the genetic and biological characteristics of Ae. albopictus, prior to exploring the uses of CI-based vector control strategies. In this study, we assessed the population genetic structure and the pattern of Wolbachia infection in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes of Orissa. Methods and Results Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from 15 districts representing the four physiographical regions of Orissa from 2010–2012, analyzed for genetic variability at seven microsatellite loci and genotyped for Wolbachia strain detection using wsp gene primers. Most microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structure among all geographic populations (FST = 0.088). Genetic diversity was high (FST = 0.168) in Coastal Plains populations when compared with other populations, which was also evident from cluster analyses that showed most Coastal Plains populations consisted of a separate genetic cluster. Genotyping analyses revealed that Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus field populations of Orissa were mostly superinfected with wAlbA and wAlbB strains. Wolbachia superinfection was more pronounced in the Coastal Plain populations. Conclusion High genetic structure and Wolbachia superinfection, observed in the Coastal Plain populations of Orissa suggested it to be genetically and biologically more unique than other populations, and hence

  9. A monozygotic twin pair with β-thalassemia carrier status in a Dudh Kharia tribal family of Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The β-thalassemia syndrome is a genetically inherited commonly encountered hematological disorder in the state of Orissa. It causes high degree of morbidity, mortality and fetal wastage in the poor vulnerable people. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: There is an equal probability (50% chance) in every singleton pregnancy that a carrier parent of β-thalassemia major would either bear normal or carrier offspring, but not two offspring with carrier of β-thalassemia major genotype together. For the first time, a carrier parent of β-thalassemia major gene has born progeny (three daughters and a twin male offspring) with a carrier status of β-thalassemia major in Dudh Kharia tribal family studied from Sundargarh district of Orissa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened randomly selected population of Dudh Kharia tribe from Sundargarh district of Orissa for hemoglobinopathies to assess the extent of the problem, design possible interventions and provide genetic counseling to them. A family with twin children was identified during screening in Lata Gaon in Bargaon block of Sundargarh district of Orissa for the above-mentioned study. Background information for this family such as name, age, sex, tribe, native place, reproductive history, family pedigree and clinical signs and symptoms were also recorded. Standardized genetic and hematological procedures and techniques were followed for analysis. RESULTS: Laboratory investigations for alkaline electrophoresis of blood lysate on cellulose acetate membrane showed raised hemoglobin A2 level in mother (Hb A2 = 5.3%), in three daughters (Hb A2 =6.5, 5.9, 5.5% in chronological and birth order), in two twin sons (Hb A2 =5.9% and 6.0%) and normal (Hb A2 = 3.3%) for father. Hence, all the children i.e., three daughters and two twin sons, including the mother were β-thalassemia carriers. Since all the hematological parameters i.e., red cell indices, G-6-PD enzyme activity, ABO and Rhesus blood groups and identical

  10. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  11. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  12. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant. PMID:1536599

  13. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Methods Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Results Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost) reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing. Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets) or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses). The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Conclusions Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing. PMID:22284934

  14. Perceived Gender Role that Shape Youth Sexual Behaviour: Evidence from Rural Orissa, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradhan, Manas Ranjan; Ram, Usha

    2010-01-01

    The study attempts to understand the association of perceived gender role with youth sexual behavior using qualitative data such as focus group discussions (N = 8), in-depth interviews (N = 42), and free listing (N = 50) of rural married youths from Orissa, India. Data collection was conducted during July 2006-April 2007. Atlas. ti and ANTHROPAC…

  15. Optical remote sensing a potential tool for forecasting malaria in Orissa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2013-05-01

    Information on current and anticipated moisture and thermal condition from satellite data represents a source of affordable yet careful information for malaria forecasters to implement and control of epidemic. During the last decades Orissa state in India suffered from highest level of malaria incidence. This situation requires frequent monitoring of environmental conditions and dynamics of malaria occurrence. During 1985 to 2004 the NOAA AVHRR global vegetation index (GVI) dataset and its vegetation health (VH) have been studied and used as proxy for malaria fluctuation. This paper discusses applications of VH for early detecting and monitoring malaria incidence in Orissa. A significant relationship between satellite data and annual malaria incidences is found at least three months before the major malaria transmission period.

  16. Molecular investigations of chikungunya virus during outbreaks in Orissa, Eastern India in 2010.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswadeep; Sahu, Abhipsa; Das, Mumani; Patra, Aparna; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2012-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of genus Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The resurgence of CHIKV in different parts of India is a point of major public health concern. In 2010, chikungunya outbreaks with high epidemic magnitude were recorded in coastal areas of Orissa, Eastern India, affecting more than 15,000 people coupled with severe arthralgia and prolonged morbidites. Detailed entomological, serological and molecular investigation of this unprecendented outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 1359 mosquito samples belonging to A. albopictus, A. aegypti, A. vittatus, A. edwardsii and Culex species and 220 patients serum from the affected areas. In this study, CHIKV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were done to detect recent infection of CHIKV in serum samples and adult mosquitoes collected from the affected areas. The high maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) (15.2) in A. albopictus mosquitoes indicated that it was the principal vector involved in transmission of CHIKV in Orissa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak belonged to the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype. Genetic characterization of envelope glycoprotein (E1 and E2) genes revealed that all the CHIKV isolates from Orissa had the E1-A226V mutation that enhances viral dissemination and transmissibility by A. albopictus mosquitoes along with E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations, which play an epistatic role with E1-A226V mutation in adaptation of CHIKV to A. albopictus by increasing its midgut infectivity, thereby favoring its vectorial capacity. Our results showed the involvement of A. albopictus vector in the recent outbreaks in Orissa and circulation of IOL strains of ECSA genotype of CHIKV with E1-A226V, E2-L210Q and E2-I211T mutations in vectors and patients serum. PMID:22484761

  17. Molecular investigations of dengue virus during outbreaks in Orissa state, Eastern India from 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswadeep; Das, Mumani; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2013-06-01

    Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases in India. Orissa state in Eastern India reported the first dengue outbreak in 2010, followed by extensive outbreaks in 2011, affecting large number of people. Detailed entomological, serological and phylogenetic investigations were performed in mosquitoes and patients serum collected from dengue virus (DENV) affected areas of Orissa. The combination of DENV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) detected high DENV positivity in serum samples. DENV was detected in mosquitoes reared from field caught pupae by RT-PCR, which confirmed the vertical transmission of DENV that may have an important role in the recurrence of dengue outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the circulation of Indian lineage of DENV-2 (genotype-IV) and DENV-3 (genotype-III) in vectors and patients serum in Orissa from 2010 to 2011, DENV-2 being the prevailing serotype. Selection analyses within the C-prM region showed that the emergence of DENV-2 and DENV-3 in Orissa was constrained by purifying selection which suggested the role of ecological factors like mosquito density and behavior in the recurrent outbreaks. Aedes albopictus was found to be the most abundant vector in the areas surveyed, followed by Aedes aegypti. Indoor breeding spots (earthen pots) were most abundant, with high pupal productivity (38.50) and contributed maximum Aedes species in the affected areas. The DENV infection rate estimated by maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) was high for indoor breeding Aedes (4.87; 95% CI: 1.82, 10.78) in comparison to outdoor breeding Aedes (1.55; 95% CI: 0.09, 7.55). The high MLE in Ae. albopictus (4.72; 95% CI: 1.94, 9.80) in comparison to Ae. aegypti (1.55; 95% CI: 0.09, 7.54) indicated that Ae. albopictus was the main DENV vector responsible for the outbreaks. The results indicated the circulation of two virulent serotypes of DENV in Orissa, mainly by Ae. albopictus with the implication for implementation

  18. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati; Dash, Shisir R.; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Marx, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. Methods An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units) of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA® 10. Results Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. Conclusion The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness planning. Additionally each

  19. Negotiating with Dharma Pinnu: towards a social history of smallpox in colonial Orissa.

    PubMed

    Pati, Biswamoy

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the social complexities associated with the history of smallpox in colonial Orissa in Eastern India. It focuses on tribal communities while taking into account their interactions with non-tribal communities and colonialism. This research grapples with the phenomenon of of the Hinduisation of tribes and the way this implies an acceptance as well as a rejection of the various aspects of non-tribal, Hindu society. Thus, I examine the specific elements of non-tribal groups inoculation, black magic, and subversive cults, demonstrating the close affinities some of these features have with tribal communities. PMID:12776728

  20. Drop-Out in Schools in India: Minor Field Studies in Orissa 1990. Educational and Psychological Interactions. No. 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Gudrun, Ed.

    This document consists of a report on the Minor Field Studies (MFS) program of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) and contains two MFS papers by teacher trainees at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden. The papers presented are "Drop-outs in Orissa," by Elisabeth Rosen, and "Education in India: A Study of Drop-Out Children…

  1. The delivery of veterinary services to poorer communities: the case of rural Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Morrenhof, J; Sen, A

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a field survey on use patterns and demand for clinical veterinary services in one of the poorest states of India, namely, Orissa. A demand function was estimated using Poisson regression and demand elasticities were obtained for various income groups. The survey shows that large numbers of households, including the poor, pay prices that are significantly higher than those prescribed. There is no targeting of cheaper services towards the poor. The analysis also suggests that for a given service and place of service, the poor actually paid more on a per veterinary visit basis. As a result, the rate of service utilisation was significantly lower for poor households. Demand analysis confirmed that the demand for veterinary services is not determined by subsidised service delivery, but by access to output markets and general awareness levels. In the light of these findings, the paper makes a number of recommendations for redefining the role of the Government in veterinary service delivery in Orissa. PMID:15005551

  2. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Pathak, K B; Pandey, A

    1989-07-01

    A life table analysis is made of the duration of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa, India, taking one variable at a time using data from a baseline survey of fertility and mortality (BSFM) conducted on the lines of the World Fertility Survey. Then a multivariate (proportional hazard) analysis showed that socioeconomic factors including residence, caste status and education influence the breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea periods. There was no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, but mean length of post-partum amenorrhoea varied with age. The durations of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea are strongly related. PMID:2768294

  3. Perceived gender role that shape youth sexual behaviour: Evidence from rural Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Manas Ranjan; Ram, Usha

    2010-08-01

    The study attempts to understand the association of perceived gender role with youth sexual behavior using qualitative data such as focus group discussions (N=8), in-depth interviews (N=42), and free listing (N=50) of rural married youths from Orissa, India. Data collection was conducted during July 2006-April 2007. Atlas. ti and ANTHROPAC packages have been used for the analysis. Youths in general are expected to adhere to the roles ascribed for them based on their biological construct and any deviation is not warranted for, more so for young women. Moreover, for many young men perceived gender role coupled with poor self risk perception result into unsafe sexual activities, putting them as well as their partners at the risk of STI/HIV and unintended parenthood. PMID:19944457

  4. Improving maternal health through social accountability: a case study from Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Papp, Susan A; Gogoi, Aparajita; Campbell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    As maternal health specialists accelerate efforts towards Millennium Development Goal Five, attention is focusing on how to best improve service accountability to target communities as a strategy for more effective policy implementation. We present a case study of efforts to improve accountability in Orissa, India, focusing on the role of local women, intermediary groups, health providers and elected politicians. We highlight three drivers of success: (1) the generation of demand for rights and better services, (2) the leverage of intermediaries to legitimise the demands of poor and marginalised women and (3) the sensitisation of leaders and health providers to women's needs. We use the concepts of critical consciousness, social capital and 'receptive social spaces' to outline a social-psychological account of the pathways between accountability and service effectiveness. PMID:23230827

  5. Dust accumulation and leaf pigment content in vegetation near the national highway at Sambalpur, Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Prusty, B A K; Mishra, P C; Azeez, P A

    2005-02-01

    An investigation on the seasonal variation in dust accumulation on leaves and leaf pigment content of six plant species of mixed habits was carried out at the side of the National Highway (NH 6) at Sambalpur, Orissa, India. The plants selected for study were Pongamia pinnata, Tabernaemontana divaricata, Ipomea carnea, Ficus relogiosa, Ficus benghalensis, and Quisqualis indica. The observed trend of dust accumulation was in the order T. divaricata>I. carnea>P. pinnata>F. religiosa>F. benghalensis>Q. indica. One-way analysis of variance showed significant difference in dust accumulation among plant species (F1 = 4.674, P < 0.01) and between seasons (F2 = 9.240, P < 0.01). It was seen that dust load increases with increasing number of vehicles using the highway (major emission source). The result shows significant correlation (negative) between dust load and pigment content in summer and rainy season. PMID:15546639

  6. Characterization of the Sukinda and Nausahi ultramafic complexes, Orissa, India by platinum-group element geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Banerji, P.K.; Haffty, J.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of 20 chromitite, 14 ultramafic and mafic rock, and 9 laterite and soil samples from the Precambrian Sukinda and Nausahi ultramafic complexes, Orissa, India were analyzed for platinum-group elements (PGE). The maximum concentrations are: palladium, 13 parts per billion (ppb); platinum, 120 ppb; rhodium, 21 ppb; iridium, 210 ppb; and ruthenium, 630 ppb. Comparison of chondrite-normalized ratios of PGE for the chromitite samples of lower Proterozoic to Archean age with similar data from Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolite complexes strongly implies that these complexes represent Precambrian analogs of ophiolite complexes. This finding is consistent with the geology and petrology of the Indian complexes and suggests that plate-tectonic and ocean basin developement models probably apply to some parts of Precambrian shield areas. ?? 1985.

  7. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care

  8. ‘First we go to the small doctor’: First contact for curative health care sought by rural communities in Andhra Pradesh & Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Binnendijk, Erika; Koren, Ruth; Dror, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Against the backdrop of insufficient public supply of primary care and reports of informal providers, the present study sought to collect descriptive evidence on 1st contact curative health care seeking choices among rural communities in two States of India - Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Orissa. Methods: The cross-sectional study design combined a Household Survey (1,810 households in AP; 5,342 in Orissa), 48 Focus Group Discussions (19 in AP; 29 in Orissa), and 61 Key Informant Interviews with healthcare providers (22 in AP; 39 in Orissa). Results: In AP, 69.5 per cent of respondents accessed non-degree allopathic practitioners (NDAPs) practicing in or near their village; in Orissa, 40.2 per cent chose first curative contact with NDAPs and 36.2 per cent with traditional healers. In AP, all NDAPs were private practitioners, in Orissa some pharmacists and nurses employed in health facilities, also practiced privately. Respondents explained their choice by proximity and providers’ readiness to make house-calls when needed. Less than a quarter of respondents chose qualified doctors as their first point of call: mostly private practitioners in AP, and public practitioners in Orissa. Amongst those who chose a qualified practitioner, the most frequent reason was doctors’ quality rather than proximity. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of this study show that most rural persons seek first level of curative healthcare close to home, and pay for a composite convenient service of consulting-cum-dispensing of medicines. NDAPs fill a huge demand for primary curative care which the public system does not satisfy, and are the de facto first level access in most cases. PMID:22199101

  9. Important Ayurvĕda literatures from the manuscripts available from Orissa (Cikitsărnava).

    PubMed

    Padhi, M M; Das, B; Audichya, K C; Rao, M M

    2005-01-01

    In the treasure of Ayurvĕdic literature, many texts are missing or partially available. Only references or few verses from many such texts are mentioned in later texts. Unfortunately, a large number of Ayurvĕdic texts are unexplored till today are likely to exist in palm-leaf manuscripts, which are decaying or undergoing permanent annihilation. As such many unique and valuable information contained in these texts are being lost. Though several Institutions have taken up work on literary Research, only few texts have been published during past decades. The present paper highlights the salient features of the text 'Cikitsărnava' authored by Viśvanăth Sena of 16th century of Orissa. Though his text on Pathyăpathya has already been published, which has got a place in the pages of history of Ayurvĕda, a very little is known about this important text on therapeutics. Various aspects of this text and its author have been discussed to bring it in to the knowledge of fraternity of Ayurvedic physicians and Sanskrit scholars. PMID:17333660

  10. Role of health sector contingency plan in emergency preparedness and response: Orissa experiences.

    PubMed

    Biswas, R; Dasgupta, A

    2009-01-01

    A study was organized to orient the district level health sector disaster managers to review, revise and update the health sector contingency plan (HSCP) against common natural calamities, followed by its execution and evaluation. An inter-state 3 days workshop was organized at Kolkata during the month of October 2004 to review the district level HSCP and its execution in 5 (five) worst affected districts. The District Health Officers, in consultation with the investigators, revised and updated the HSCP. Thereafter, status survey was conducted to examine the implementation of the contingency plan. During flood, the HSCP was found to be followed in the districts. Control room, construction/identification of flood shelter, sanitation and other preventive measures were taken care of, with an exception of Kendra Para, where lack of man power was noted. Technical support, trained manpower, relief materials, ambulance, Communication and information system were present in all the 5 (five) districts. PMID:20108889

  11. Petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Chilka Lake igneous complex, Orissa state, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Amitabha; Bhanumathi, L.; Balasubrahmanyan, M. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Chilka Lake igneous complex of Orissa, the largest known anortosite massif of the Indian Shield, occurs in a catazonal environment of high-grade metamorphics of the Eastern Ghats Precambrian Orogenic Province. The syntectonic massif consists of the anorthositic Balugaon dome, leuconoritic Rambha lobe and quartz-mangeritic Kallikota cover. A completely gradational suite comprising anorthosite-leuconorite-norite-minor jotunite (the anorthositic suite) constitutes most of the complex. The subordinate of suite of acid rocks spatially associated with this is of a broad quartz-mangeritic lithology with minor granitic rocks (the acidic suite). Geochemical evolution of the complex in the sequence anorthosite-leuconorite-norite-jotunite-acidic rocks shows moderate iron enrichment in the noritic-jotunitic stage and is marked by an overall decrease in Al 2O 3, CaO, MgO, Ni/Co, Sr/Ba, K/Rb and increase in SiO 2, K 2O, V/Ni, K/Ba and Rb/Sr. Such progressive variation in geochemical parameters appears (i) essentially gradual and frequently overlapping in rock members of the intergradational anorthositic suite and (ii) rather abrupt across transition zones between the anorthositic suite and the acidic suite due to near absence of intervening intermediate lithologies. RbSr whole rock isochron studies indicate that the complex was emplaced ca. 1400 Ma ago. The initial 87Sr/ 68Sr (0.70661) implies limited hybridisation of the parent magma prior to emplacement. A critical appraisal of all the available evidence suggests that (i) the anorthositic suite of rocks form a perfectly consanguinous and comagmatic assemblage and (ii) the spatially associated acidic suite emerged through a convergence of magmatic and metasomatic processes (the latter brought about by contact anatexis of the host rocks). The complex as well as the host metamorphics are intruded by an atectonic suite of noritic dykes emplaced ca 850 Ma ago.

  12. Profile of risk factors associated with suicide attempts: A study from Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Nilamadhab

    2010-01-01

    Context: Periodic systematic profiling of suicidal risk factors in developing countries is an established need. Aims: It was intended to study the risk factors associated with suicide attempts in Orissa, one of the most economically compromised states of India. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in a general hospital. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 149 suicide attempters were evaluated for psychosocial, situational, and clinical risk factors using the Risk Rescue Rating scale, Suicide Prevention Center scale, Lethality of Suicide Rating scale, and Presumptive Stressful Life Event scale. They were compared with healthy and psychiatric controls who had never attempted suicide. Statistical analysis: Chi-square for comparison of categorical variables, t-tests for comparison of means. Results: The male-to-female ratio was closer to one in adults and around 1:3 in adolescents. Younger age, lower-middle economic group, rural background, unemployed, school educated were more represented in this study. Compared to the controls, significantly more number of attempters had a family history of psychiatric illness and suicide, childhood trauma, medical consultation within one month, had experienced stressful life events and had expressed suicidal ideas. In a considerable proportion of attempts, risk was high and rescuability least; 59.1% had more than 50% chance of death. Suicide potential was high in almost half the cases. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder; however, only 31.5% had had treatment. Factors like middle age, family history of psychiatric disorders, past psychiatric history, current psychiatric illness, communication of suicidal ideas, the use of physical methods, and high potential attempts, differentiated repeaters significantly from the first-timers. Major physical illness, family and marital conflicts, financial problems, and failure in examinations were more frequent life events. Childhood trauma, noted in around 40% of the

  13. Quantification of groundwater recharge in a hard rock terrain of Orissa: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ranu Rani; Kumar, A; Sharma, S P

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to select the best method to estimate groundwater recharge in a hard rock terrain. Various standard empirical methods, soil-moisture balance method, water table fluctuation (WTF) method and commonly adopted norms set by Groundwater Estimation Committee (GEC), Govt of India were used to estimate recharge for the Munijhara watershed in the Nayagarh block of Orissa (India). The empirical formulae gave recharge rates ranging from 13 cm to 32 cm/year with average of 22.4 cm and standard deviation of 5.34, independent of other influencing factors like soil, topography and geology. The soil-moisture balance study indicated that recharge is more dependent on the continuous heavy rainfall total annual volume of rainfall. Recharge was limited at up to 10 mm per day, possibly due to presence of hard rock below the soil surface. The rise in water table depth was 3.45 m to 5.35 m with a mean rise of 4.5 m during the year 2006-2007. Annual groundwater recharge based on the WTF approach varied from 10.3 to 16.85 cm with a mean of 13.5 cm, standard deviation of 1.57 cm and coefficient of variation 11.57%. This recharge accounted for 8 to 14% of rainfall received. With a water budget approach based on GEC norms, recharge was calculated as 17 cm per year. The study showed that the magnitudes of annual groundwater recharge as estimated by the WST method and GEC norms are in conformity with other recent findings in India under the same climate conditions. Based on the results recharge structures could be planned in suitable locations to reduce fallow areas under the watershed. PMID:19717920

  14. Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with superintendents of eight charter-school districts in four states: California, Florida, Georgia, and New Mexico. Describes advantages and disadvantages. Includes a list (with website addresses) of all current charter-school districts. (PKP)

  15. Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rate in Sand Samples from Gopalpur and Rushikulya Beach Orissa, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahur, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Anil; Sonkawade, R. G.; Sengupta, D.; Sharma, A. C.; Prasad, Rajendra

    Natural radioactivity is wide spread in the earth's environment and exists in various geological formations like soils, rocks, water and sand etc. The measurement of activities of naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K is important for the estimation of radiation risk and has been the subject of interest of research scientists all over the world. Building construction materials and soil beneath the house are the main sources of radon inside the dwellings. Radon exhalation rate from building materials like, cement, sand and concrete etc. is a major source of radiation to the habitants. In the present studies radon exhalation rates in sand samples collected from Gopalpur and Rushikulya beach placer deposit in Orissa are measured by using "Sealed Can technique" with LR-115 type II nuclear track detectors. In Samples from Rushikulya beach show radon activities varying from 389 ± 24 to 997 ± 38 Bq m-3 with an average value of 549 ±28 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates in these samples are found to vary from 140 ± 9 to 359 ± 14 mBq m-2 h-1with an average value of 197 ±10 mBq m-2 h-1, whereas, mass exhalation rates vary from 5 ± 0.3 to 14 ± 0.5 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 8 ± 0.4 mBq kg-1 h-1. Samples from Gopalpur radon activities are found to vary from 371 ± 23 to 800 ± 34 Bq m-3 with an average value of 549 ± 28 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates in these samples are found to vary from 133 ± 8 to 288 ± 12 mBq m-2h-1 with an average value of 197 ± 10 mBq m-2 h-1, whereas, mass exhalation rates vary from 5 ± 0.3 to 11 ± 1 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 8 ± 0.4 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  16. Processing and Analysis of Hyperspectral Fingerprints to Characterise Haematite of Singbhum Iron Ore Belt, Orissa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magendran, T.; Sanjeevi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The demand for iron ore has been increasing in the recent years, thereby requiring the adoption of fast and accurate approaches to iron ore exploration and its grade-assessment. It is in this context that hyperspectral sensing is deemed as a potential tool. This paper examines the potential of hyperspectral fingerprints in the visible, NIR and SWIR regions of the EMR to assess the grades of haematite of the western Singhbhum iron ore belt of Orissa, eastern India, in a rapid manner. Certain spectro-radiometric measurements and geochemical analysis were carried out and the results have been presented. From the spectral measurements, it is seen that the strength of reflectance and absorption at definite wavelength regions is controlled by the chemical composit ion of the iron ores. It is observed that the primary spectral characteristics of these haematites lie in the 650-750 nm, 850 to 900 nm and 2130-2230 nm regions. The laboratory based hyperspectral fingerprints and multiple regression analysis of spectral parameters and geochemical parameters (Fe% and Al2O3%) predicted the concentration of iron and alumina content in the haematite. A very strong correlation (R2 = 0.96) between the spectral parameters and Fe% in the haematite with a minimum error of 0.1%, maximum error of 7.4% and average error of 2.6% is observed. Similarly, a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.94) between the spectral parameters and Al2O3% in the iron ores with a minimum error of 0.04%, maximum error of 7.49% and average error of 2.5% is observed. This error is perhaps due to the presence of other components (SiO2, TiO2, P2O etc.) in the samples which can alter the degree of reflectance and hence the spectral parameters. Neural network based multi-layer perception (MLP) analysis of various spectral parameters and geochemical parameters helped to understand the relative importance of the spectral parameters for predictive models. The strong correlations (Iron: R2 = 0.96; Alumina: R2 = 0

  17. Impact of 1999 Orissa Cyclone on Dynamics and Heat Budget of the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Han, W.

    2011-12-01

    The impacts of two consecutive strong tropical cyclones (TCs) - 04B and 05B in 1999 - on dynamics, thermodynamics and mixed-layer processes of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are examined using Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). This research is composed of three unique features: a) testing the influence of strong stratification and salinity gradient of the BoB, b) examining the ocean response to a sequence of two TCs and season change, and c) examining the effect of individual TC-associated forcings by adopting Lanczos filtering method. HYCOM is driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis data, CCMP wind and TRMM 3B42 rain rate. A series of experiments are performed in order to isolate the effects of each cyclone and their individual forcings. Due to the slow translation velocity and rapid intensification as both the cyclones approach the seashore of Orissa, India, sea surface temperature (SST) decreases the most on the cyclone track, instead of to the right of the track. Mixed layer thickness is largely deepened along the TC tracks except near Ganges river mouth, where fresh river water discharge results in strong stratification. The land-sea contrast introduces evident temperature and humidity diurnal cycle to the BoB, and increases surface turbulent heat flux (sensible and latent flux) variations. On the other hand, intraseasonal variability and upcoming cold season after the TC events hamper the recovery of SST to its pre-storm values. The impact of the TCs on turbulent heat flux in the BoB accounts for substantial proportion of its monthly climatologic value. The results from the experiment run that adopts modified Rankine Vortex for the wind of 04B and 05B, which are significantly underestimated by ERA-Interim reanalysis data, exhibits much stronger SST response. TMI observations show that the SST decreases by more than 2.5 K in the eastern, northwestern and western BoB after 05B diminishes, and in the meantime increases slightly at the center. Our model SST resembles the

  18. Efficacy of permethrin treated long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria transmission and observations on the perceived side effects, collateral benefits and human safety in a hyperendemic tribal area of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surya K; Tyagi, Prajesh K; Upadhyay, Ashok K; Haque, Mohammed A; Mohanty, Suman S; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Dash, Aditya P

    2009-11-01

    Studies were conducted on the efficacy of Olyset nets-a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) factory treated with 2% (w/w) permethrin on malaria transmission in an area under the influence of pyrethroid susceptible vector species Anopheles culicifacies and A. fluviatilis in Sundargarh District, Orissa, India. The study area comprised 22 villages that were randomized into three clusters and designated as Olyset net, untreated net, and no net area. Malaria incidence in the study population was measured through longitudinal active surveillance at fortnightly intervals. There was a reduction of 65-70% in malaria incidence in Olyset net area as compared to the control areas. The attack rate of Plasmodium falciparum or number of episodes per person per year in different age groups also showed significant reduction in Olyset net area as compared to untreated net and no net areas. Cross-sectional point prevalence surveys showed 45.7% reduction of malaria prevalence in Olyset net users, whereas there was an increase of 33.3% and 51% in untreated net and no net villages respectively. The compliance rate of Olyset net usage in the study population was 80-98% during different months, whereas it was between 70% and 90% for untreated nets. There were minimal complains of skin irritation (4%), itching (8%) and eye irritation (1.2%). However, these effects were only transitory in nature lasting for few hours of the first usage. Olyset nets also provided collateral benefits in terms of relief not only from mosquitoes and malaria but also from other household pests such as head lice, bed bugs, cockroaches, ants and houseflies. The Olyset nets were found to be safe to humans as no adverse event was recorded in the net users that can be attributed to the use of net. The study showed that Olyset nets are effective personal protection tool that can be used in a community based intervention programme. PMID:19647715

  19. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  20. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  1. Challenges and opportunities for policy decisions to address health equity in developing health systems: case study of the policy processes in the Indian state of Orissa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Achieving health equity is a pertinent need of the developing health systems. Though policy process is crucial for planning and attaining health equity, the existing evidences on policy processes are scanty in this regard. This article explores the magnitude, determinants, challenges and prospects of 'health equity approach' in various health policy processes in the Indian State of Orissa - a setting comparable with many other developing health systems. Methods A case-study involving 'Walt-Gilson Policy Triangle' employed key-informant interviews and documentary reviews. Key informants (n = 34) were selected from the departments of Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, and Women and Child Welfare, and civil societies. The documentary reviews involved various published and unpublished reports, policy pronouncements and articles on health equity in Orissa and similar settings. Results The 'health policy agenda' of Orissa was centered on 'health equity' envisaging affordable and equitable healthcare to all, integrated with public health interventions. However, the subsequent stages of policy process such as 'development, implementation and evaluation' experienced leakage in the equity approach. The impediment for a comprehensive approach towards health equity was the nexus among the national and state health priorities; role, agenda and capacity of actors involved; and existing constraints of the healthcare delivery system. Conclusion The health equity approach of policy processes was incomprehensive, often inadequately coordinated, and largely ignored the right blend of socio-medical determinants. A multi-sectoral, unified and integrated approach is required with technical, financial and managerial resources from different actors for a comprehensive 'health equity approach'. If carefully geared, the ongoing health sector reforms centered on sector-wide approaches, decentralization, communitization and involvement of non-state actors can

  2. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  3. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  4. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: a study of prevalence in coal mines of eastern Madhya Pradesh and Orissa states of India.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Y S; Patnaik, J P; Nema, B K; Sahoo, G B; Misra, I B; Adhikary, S

    1997-10-01

    With objective to find out prevalence of Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis and variation among readers in reading x-ray plates for pneumoconiosis, a retrospective epidemiological survey of Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis was undertaken in 72 collieries of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa by re-reading of x-ray plates taken during the Periodical Medical Examination at the Occupational Health Units over a period of 5 years. Six readers, trained abroad in reading pneumoconiosis x-ray plates, were involved for the study. Each reader reported approximately one sixth of the available x-ray plates of all the collieries and classified on the 12 point scale of I.L.O. (International Labour Organisation) 1980 in special format. Total 43,504 chest x-rays were reviewed. The overall prevalence was found to be 3.03%, ranging from 1.52% to 4.76% between 10 areas (group of mines). Major category of profusion was category-I (81.09%), followed by category-II (17.84%). Only 3 cases of Progressive Massive Fibrosis (PMF) were detected. Round shaped opacities are predominant (89.59%) in Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis. Among the opacities, 'p' type is more prevalent (48.29%) followed by 'q' type (40.62%). There was variation amongst the different readers and ranged from 1.14% to 6.76% for reporting the prevalence of Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis. However, when analysis of six readers for inter reader variation was conducted, that shows no abnormal deviation in the reading of any of the readers. PMID:9348718

  5. Bio-concentration of chromium--an in situ phytoremediation study at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Pattnaik, Mausumi M; Mishra, Aruna K; Patra, Hemanta K

    2012-01-01

    Mine waste water at South Kaliapani usually contains toxic levels of hexavalent Cr(VI). The present in situ study was conducted at South Kaliapani chromite mine area in Orissa state, India, to assess the phytoremediation ability of three plants, namely, rice (Oryza sativa L.), paragrass (Brachiaria mutica), and an aquatic weed (Eichhornia crassipes), in attenuating Cr(VI) from mine waste water and to correlate the bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Cr. Water hyacinth (E. crassipes) showed 24% to 54% reduction whereas paragrass (B. mutica) was able to reduce 18% to 33% of Cr(VI) from mine water. This reduction was studied over a period of 100 days of plant growth. The reduction was observed through a passage of a sum total of 2,000 sq. ft. cultivated plots and ponds separately. Reduction in Cr(VI) content in mine water varies with plant age as well as with the distance of passage. Cr accumulation and BCF values increased with high soil Cr levels as well as the age of plants. High BCF and transportation index (Ti) values, i.e., 10,924 and 32.09, respectively, were noted for water hyacinth. The Ti values indicated that the root-to-shoot translocation of Cr was very high after 100 days of growth. The total accumulation rate was maximum (8.29 mg Cr kg dry biomass(-1) day (-1)) in paragrass. The BCF values for roots were noted to be higher than those of leaves, stems, and grains of the 125-day-old plants. Hence, paragrass and water hyacinth may be used as tools of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination. PMID:21487717

  6. Origin and Evolution of Limestone Caves of Chhattisgarh and Orissa, India: Role of Geomorphic, Tectonic and Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, P. K.; Allu, N. C.; Ramesh, R.; Yadava, M. G.; Panigrahi, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate rocks undergo karstic process and karst morphology is a key to understand the nature and genesis of caves. The primary energy source for the formation of karst landforms is hydrological cycle. Geomorphic features along with hydrological characteristics provide important information not only on karst formation but also climate and environmental conditions. In this paper, we present the tectonic and geomorphic features that played a role in evolution of caves located in Chhattisgarh and Orissa States of India. The geomorphic and tectonic aspects of Kotumsar, Kailash, and Gupteshwar caves are discussed in relation to the origin and evolution of these caves. Caves are located near the water falls. The area is folded and faulted along the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) due to tectonic reactivation. Shaly-limestone beds exhibit vertical dipping near Gupteshwar cave, and steeply inclined near Kotumsar and Kailash caves. Indrāvati and Sabari/Kolab tributaries of the Godavari River drain the area. The landscape evolution and the origin of caves in the region is a multistage process, where the lithology, orogeny, fluvial action, and monsoon are the main agents, which is similar to the four state model (Ford and Ewers, 1978). The river basin evolution and regional tectonism also caused the initiation of karstification in the region. The evolution of caves is believed to have taken place in Pre-Pliocene under more humid conditions that coincided with the initiation of monsoon in India. Further, during the Quaternary wet-dry/cold-warm phases altered physical and chemical weathering of limestone rocks. Contrasting relief features of Bastar plateau have also helped the extensive cave formation in the region. The dissolution along weak planes initiated the openings of caves, further enlarged by geomorphic agents. Both monsoon and tectonics have caused fluctuations in water levels along river courses, which acted as active agents in evolution of caves.

  7. A New Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala→Gly), is the Major Polymorphic Variant in Tribal Populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Kaeda, J. S.; Chhotray, G. P.; Ranjit, M. R.; Bautista, J. M.; Reddy, P. H.; Stevens, D.; Naidu, J. M.; Britt, R. P.; Vulliamy, T. J.; Luzzatto, L.; Mason, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is usually found at high frequencies in areas of the world where malaria has been endemic. The frequency and genetic basis of G6PD deficiency have been studied in Africa, around the Mediterranean, and in the Far East, but little such information is available about the situation in India. To determine the extent of heterogeneity of G6PD, we have studied several different Indian populations by screening for G6PD deficiency, followed by molecular analysis of deficient alleles. The frequency of G6PD deficiency varies between 3% and 15% in different tribal and urban groups. Remarkably, a previously unreported deficient variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala→Gly), is responsible for most of the G6PD deficiency in tribal Indian populations but is not found in urban populations, where most of the G6PD deficiency is due to the G6PD Mediterranean (188 Ser→Phe) variant. The K of G6PD Orissa is fivefold higher than that of the normal enzyme. This may be due to the fact that the alanine residue that is replaced by glycine is part of a putative coenzyme-binding site. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:8533762

  8. A new glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala{yields}Gly), is the major polymorphic variant in tribal populations in India

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeda, J.S.; Bautista, J.M.; Stevens, D.

    1995-12-01

    Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is usually found at high frequencies in areas of the world where malaria has been epidemic. The frequency and genetic basis of G6PD deficiency have been studied in Africa, around the Mediterranean, and in the Far East, but little such information is available about the situation in India. To determine the extent of heterogeneity of G6PD, we have studied several different Indian populations by screening for G6PD deficiency, followed by molecular analysis of deficient alleles. The frequency of G6PD deficiency varies between 3% and 15% in different tribal and urban groups. Remarkably, a previously unreported deficient variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala{yields}Gly), is responsible for most of the G6PD deficiency in tribal Indian populations but is not found in urban populations, where most of the G6PD deficiency is due to the G6PD Mediterranean (188 Ser{yields}Phe) variant. The K{sup NADP}{sub m} of G6PD Orissa is fivefold higher than that of the normal enzyme. This may be due to the fact that the alanine residue that is replaced by glycine is part of a putative coenzyme-binding site. 37 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  10. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  11. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  12. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  13. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  14. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  15. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  16. Chromium bioaccumulation in rice grown in contaminated soil and irrigated mine wastewater--a case study at South Kaliapani chromite mine area, Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Pattnaik, Mousumi Madhusmita; Mishra, Aruna Kumari; Patra, Hemanta Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The level of chromium (Cr) contamination in soils and irrigated mine wastewater at South Kaliapani chromite mine region of Orissa, (India) were investigated. Chromium bioaccumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Khandagiri) irrigated with Cr+6 contaminated mine wastewater was analyzed along with its attenuation from mine wastewater. The levels of Cr+6 in irrigated mine wastewaters in successive rice grown plots were analyzed on 75 days and 100 days after transplantation of seedlings. Total chromium content in different parts of rice plants and soil samples from different plots was analyzed during harvesting stage (125 days after transplantation). Cr accumulation was significantly high in surface soils (0-20 cm) with a mean value of 11,170 mg kg(-1), but it decreased significantly after the crop harvest. About 70% to 90% reduction of Cr+6 levels was observed in irrigated mine wastewater when passed through successive rice plots. High bio-concentration of Cr in leaves with values ranging from 125-498 mg kg(-1) as compared to stem (25-400 mg kg(-1)) and grain (5-23 mg kg(-1)) was noticed. The reduction of Cr+6 levels is related to plant age, high biomass and area of water passage and was attributed to rhizofiltration technique. PMID:21598771

  17. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  18. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  19. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  20. Pteridophytes from Lower Gondwana formations of the Ib River Coalfield, Orissa and their diversity and distribution in the Permian of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Jeet Singh, Kamal; Chandra, Shaila

    2006-12-01

    Recent extensive investigations carried out in the Ib River Coalfield, Mahanadi Master Basin, Orissa, identified numerous fossiliferous beds in the lower Gondwana deposits. Six exposures of the Barakar and lower Kamthi formations yielded diverse and abundant plant remains. The flora includes twenty-three genera representing nine groups viz., Lycopodiales, Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Cordaitales, Coniferales, Ginkgoales, Cycadales and Glossopteridales. Systematic descriptions of the pteridophyte taxa namely Cyclodendron (Lycopodiales), Schizoneura, Raniganjia, Bengalia, equisetaceous stems (Equisetales), Trizygia, Benlightfootia (Sphenophyllales), Neomariopteris, and Dichotomopteris (Filicales) are presented in this paper. Pteridophytic leaves comprising nine taxa viz., Cyclodendron leslii, Schizoneura gondwanensis, Raniganjia bengalensis, Bengalia raniganjensis, Trizygia speciosa, Benlightfootia indica, Neomariopteris hughesii, N. talchirensis, and Dichotomopteris sp. together with equisetaceous stems constitute about 7.88% (72 specimens) of the total plant assemblage collected from this coalfield. Among the pteridophytes, equisetaceous stems are most abundant (40.3%; 29 specimens) followed by Schizoneura gondwanensis (20.8%, 15 specimens) and Trizygia speciosa (13.9%, 10 specimens). A summary of the known diversity of pteridophytes in the Indian Permian as a whole is provided. Barakar Formation exposures have been assigned to a lower and upper series based on possession of different floristic assemblages. Pteridophytes do not occur in the lower series. On this basis the beds of Lajkura, Jurabaga collieries, Ratanpur Fireclay Quarry and the locality near Belpahar Railway Station with pteridophyte fossils are assigned to the upper Barakar Formation (late Artinskian). Based on assemblages containing different pteridophytes, beds exposed at Sitaram and Dungri Pahar are assigned to the lower Kamthi Formation (Lopingian). The floristic composition suggests

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Nayak, Kailash C; Pattanaik, Pratiti; Swain, Sarada P; Kar, Harish C

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been asserted that psychological responses to disasters in children and adolescents vary widely across cultures, but this has rarely been investigated. The objectives of the study were to clinically evaluate the construct of traumatic stress symptoms and disorder in children and adolescents after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India; to find out the prevalence at one year; compare the effect in high and low exposure areas and study the factors associated with it. Methods Clinical examination of children and adolescents (n = 447) was done, supplemented by a symptoms checklist based on International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research and a semi-structured questionnaire for disaster related experiences. Results A majority of children had post-traumatic symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was present in 30.6% (95% confidence interval: 26.4 to 34.9), and an additional 13.6% had sub-syndromal PTSD. Parents or teachers reported mental health concerns in 7.2% subjects, who were a minor proportion (12.8%) of subjects with any syndromal diagnosis (n = 196). Significantly more (43.7%) children in high exposure areas had PTSD than that (11.2%) in low exposure areas (p < 0.001). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that high exposure, lower educational level and middle socioeconomic status significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. Extreme fear and perceived threat to life during the disaster, death in family, damage to home, or staying in shelters were not significantly associated with PTSD. Conclusion Following natural disaster PTSD is a valid clinical construct in children and adolescents in Indian set up; and though highly prevalent it may be missed without clinical screening. Its manifestation and associated factors resembled those in other cultures. PMID:17300713

  2. The effect of improved rural sanitation on diarrhoea and helminth infection: design of a cluster-randomized trial in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substantially to child mortality and morbidity. Obtaining health impact data for rural sanitation campaigns poses a number of methodological challenges. Here we describe the design of a village-level cluster-randomised trial in the state of Orissa, India to evaluate the impact of an ongoing rural sanitation campaign conducted under the umbrella of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC).We randomised 50 villages to the intervention and 50 villages to control. In the intervention villages the implementing non-governmental organisations conducted community mobilisation and latrine construction with subsidies given to poor families. Control villages receive no intervention. Outcome measures include (1) diarrhoea in children under 5 and in all ages, (2) soil-transmitted helminth infections, (3) anthropometric measures, (4) water quality, (5) number of insect vectors (flies, mosquitoes), (6) exposure to faecal pathogens in the environment. In addition we are conducting process documentation (latrine construction and use, intervention reach), cost and cost-effectiveness analyses, spatial analyses and qualitative research on gender and water use for sanitation. Results Randomisation resulted in an acceptable balance between trial arms. The sample size requirements appear to be met for the main study outcomes. Delays in intervention roll-out caused logistical problems especially for the planning of health outcome follow-up surveys. Latrine coverage at the end of the construction period (55%) remained below the target of 70%, a result that may, however, be in line with many other TSC intervention areas in India. Conclusion We discuss a number of methodological problems encountered thus far in this study that may be typical for sanitation trials. Nevertheless, it

  3. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  4. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  5. Association of TNF-α Promoter Polymorphism with HBV Associated Disease Outcome Among HBV Infected Patients from Orissa, Southern Part of East India

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Rajesh; Sarkar, Neelakshi; Biswas, Avik; Pal, Ananya; Saha, Debraj; Singh, Shivaram P.; Panigrahi, Manas K.; Bandopadhyay, Manikanana; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2014-01-01

    Background TNF-α promoter polymorphism has been known to be a potential predictive factor in patients with HBV infection. We therefore tried to investigate whether the TNF-α promoter polymorphism at position −238, −857 and −863 was associated with the outcome of HBV infection in a population from Orissa, southern part of East India. Methods A total of 195 patients recruited for the study were classified into 85 controls and 110 HBV infected cases, which included 34 IC, 30 CLD, 32 LC and 14 HCC patients. The polymorphisms at the respective sites were detected by a PCR-RFLP followed by statistical analysis. Results The frequency of the genotype −238 GG and the allele −238G in the cases (89.0% and 92.7% respectively) was significantly higher than that in the controls (68.2% and 82.2% respectively) (P < 0.001, OR = 3.8 and P = 0.001, OR = 2.73). Whereas the −238 GA genotype was significantly high in the control group (28.2%) when compared to the cases (7.2%) (P < 0.001, OR = 0.2). Similarly, the frequency of −863CC and the allele −863C was significantly higher among the cases (24.5% and 49.5%) compared to controls (1.17% and 34.7%), (P < 0.001, OR = 27.32 and P = 0.003, OR = 1.85), whereas the −863CA genotype was significantly high in the controls (67.0%) when compared to the cases (50.0%) (P = 0.01, OR = 0.49). Haplotype −863C/−857C/−238G in cases was significantly higher than controls (P = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that the genotype −863CC bears a negative association with liver disease progression. Conclusion The present study established an association of polymorphisms at site −238 and −863 of the TNF-α promoter with the outcome HBV infection and disease progression. PMID:25755561

  6. Promoting latrine construction and use in rural villages practicing open defecation: process evaluation in connection with a randomised controlled trial in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our group conducted a cluster-randomised trial in 100 villages of Orissa, India to measure the impact of a rural sanitation intervention implemented under the government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign, on diarrhoea and soil-transmitted helminth infections. This paper reports on a process evaluation conducted in the context of the trial. Methods Process evaluation data were collected through review of key documentation, quantitative surveys, direct observations, and semi-structured interviews with staff from implementing NGOs and community members. Between March 2011 and March 2012, trained enumerators recorded observations on latrine construction status every 6–8 weeks in the 50 intervention villages and noted activities reported to have taken place based on NGO staff interviews and review of NGO records. A survey among 10% of households in intervention and control villages was conducted to compare levels of awareness of key intervention components. In addition, 10% of village water and sanitation committee (VWSC) members were interviewed to measure their level of involvement in the intervention delivery. Results The percentage of households with a latrine (completed or under construction) increased from 8% at baseline to 66% one year after the start of the intervention in March 2012. Almost none of the intervention households recall any form of participatory community-level activities at the start of the programme, although intervention households were generally more aware of the Total Sanitation Campaign (91% versus 49%, p < 0.001), VWSCs (51% versus 9%, p < 0.001), adolescent girls groups (23% versus 8%, p < 0.01), wall paintings (44% versus 7%, p < 0.001) and were more likely to report a household visit on sanitation during the past three months (65% versus 3%, p < 0.001). We found no strong evidence of an association between levels of awareness of or participation in mobilisation activities and levels of latrine coverage

  7. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  8. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  9. The Importance of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

  10. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  11. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  12. School District Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

  13. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  14. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  15. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  16. A District Level Planning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, W. E.; Achilles, C. M.

    This report examines school district planning models in South Carolina. It focuses on three questions: (1) Of those school districts conducting some type of systematic planning, how many are producing strategic plans? Long-range plans? Accountability reports? (2) In those same districts, how many are preparing adequate program-management…

  17. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  18. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  19. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  20. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  1. A District's Journey to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

  2. Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boisson, Sophie; Stevenson, Matthew; Shapiro, Lily; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Lakhwinder P.; Ward, Dana; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Boiling, disinfecting, and filtering water within the home can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water among the hundreds of millions of people who rely on unsafe water supplies. However, the impact of these interventions on diarrhoea is unclear. Most studies using open trial designs have reported a protective effect on diarrhoea while blinded studies of household water treatment in low-income settings have found no such effect. However, none of those studies were powered to detect an impact among children under five and participants were followed-up over short periods of time. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of in-home water disinfection on diarrhoea among children under five. Methods and Findings We conducted a double-blind randomised controlled trial between November 2010 and December 2011. The study included 2,163 households and 2,986 children under five in rural and urban communities of Orissa, India. The intervention consisted of an intensive promotion campaign and free distribution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets during bi-monthly households visits. An independent evaluation team visited households monthly for one year to collect health data and water samples. The primary outcome was the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea (3-day point prevalence) among children aged under five. Weight-for-age was also measured at each visit to assess its potential as a proxy marker for diarrhoea. Adherence was monitored each month through caregiver's reports and the presence of residual free chlorine in the child's drinking water at the time of visit. On 20% of the total household visits, children's drinking water was assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of faecal contamination. The primary analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Binomial regression with a log link function and robust standard errors was used to compare prevalence of diarrhoea between arms. We used generalised estimating

  3. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  4. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  5. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  6. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  7. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  8. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  9. Research District Seeing Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-05-13

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

  10. District Support of School Improvement: Highlights from Three Districts. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter addresses various supports that districts are utilizing to help keep students in school and on the path to graduation. Described herein are three districts that have been particularly successful in raising student achievement--even though they differ in their specific strategies, fund allocation, and demographic composition. A…

  11. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  12. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  13. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

  14. Presumptions against School District Secession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Dale

    2009-01-01

    While political philosophers have paid a great deal of attention to providing a theory of secession for cases of nations breaking away from nation-states, little has been said about perhaps the most common type of secession--school district secession. I argue that while there is no principled prohibition against school district secession, there…

  15. Characteristics of District Evaluation Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, Pamela

    This study provides information about the actual functions and activities of school district evaluation units by examining an integral product of the units. This product, an evaluation report, was examined from a nationwide sample of district evaluation organizations (N=116). Reports were checked for the presence of particular evaluation report…

  16. Redesigning the District Operating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  17. Electoral Competition in Heterogeneous Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callander, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers a model of elections in which parties compete simultaneously for multiple districts. I show that if districts are heterogeneous, then a unique two-party equilibrium exists under plurality rule in which further entry is deterred. The equilibrium requires that parties choose noncentrist policy platforms and not converge to the…

  18. Turbine modifications for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

  19. Projection of school district enrollments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dillen, S. L.; Friedman, L. D.; Cheng, W. K.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives were to provide a better statistical basis for enrollment projections, to attempt to model the school district's enrollment, and to produce a single estimate of enrollment for each grade, grade group, and ethnic group, and for the total by year. Efforts were also made to provide error estimates for the projections, to design a simple, user-oriented computer program for use by school district administrators, and to work with real data from local school districts and aid them in making projections on an experimental basis. The study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory was concerned with projection methodology and production of a generally usable computer program.

  20. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.20 Districts. For the purpose of... are hereby initially established: District No. 1: The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county of Willacy...

  1. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.20 Districts. For the purpose of... are hereby initially established: District No. 1: The county of Cameron in the State of Texas; District No. 2: The county of Hidalgo in the State of Texas; and District No. 3 The county of Willacy...

  2. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  4. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  5. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  6. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  7. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  8. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don...

  9. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241...

  10. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA 95381. Greg Dias or Representative,...

  11. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion...

  12. Congressional District Visits in August

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Fushcia

    2014-08-01

    In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

  13. State of the District [Los Angeles Community College District].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    Accomplishments made by the Los Angeles Community College District during its fifth year of independent operation are noted, and 10 projects to receive attention during the coming year are listed. The accomplishments are: (1) increasing and diversifying enrollment, (2) stabilizing and improving the college environment, (3) developing fiscal…

  14. Your District Deserves an Audit Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

  15. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Order Regulating Handling...; District No. 2: The counties of Klamath, Lake, Jackson, and Josephine in the State of Oregon; District...

  16. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Order Regulating Handling...; District No. 4: The counties of Modoc and Siskiyou in the State of California; District No. 5: The...

  17. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Order Regulating Handling...; District No. 4: The counties of Modoc and Siskiyou in the State of California; District No. 5: The...

  18. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Order Regulating Handling...; District No. 4: The counties of Modoc and Siskiyou in the State of California; District No. 5: The...

  19. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Order Regulating Handling...; District No. 4: The counties of Modoc and Siskiyou in the State of California; District No. 5: The...

  20. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.11 Districts. (a) Districts shall consist of the following: (1... States of Arizona and New Mexico. (b) With the approval of the Secretary, the boundaries of any...

  1. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.11 Districts. (a) Districts shall consist of the following: (1... States of Arizona and New Mexico. (b) With the approval of the Secretary, the boundaries of any...

  2. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.11 Districts. (a) Districts shall consist of the following: (1... States of Arizona and New Mexico. (b) With the approval of the Secretary, the boundaries of any...

  3. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.11 Districts. (a) Districts shall consist of the following: (1... States of Arizona and New Mexico. (b) With the approval of the Secretary, the boundaries of any...

  4. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.11 Districts. (a) Districts shall consist of the following: (1... States of Arizona and New Mexico. (b) With the approval of the Secretary, the boundaries of any...

  5. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. The term...

  6. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast Guard District Commander or District...

  7. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. The term...

  8. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast Guard District Commander or District...

  9. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock...

  10. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications June 16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  11. Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

  12. Accounting Systems for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, E. Barrett, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Advises careful analysis and improvement of existing school district accounting systems prior to investment in new ones. Emphasizes the importance of attracting and maintaining quality financial staffs, developing an accounting policies and procedures manual, and designing a good core accounting system before purchasing computer hardware and…

  13. Strategies of School District Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jean B.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on conflict seen as the result of attempts to achieve desired outcomes in organizational "games." Conflict arises when conflictual behaviors are viewed as appropriate strategies to achieve goals. Data from two school districts are analyzed to examine the sources of conflict and to suggest means of conflict management. (Author/CS)

  14. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  15. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  16. Equalization among Florida School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Shiver, Lee

    1983-01-01

    This statistical analysis of funding equalization from 1970 to 1981 evaluates the distributional equity achieved by Florida's school finance plan and examines the relationship between selected per pupil revenue measures and variables thought to influence school district spending, concluding that greater equity has not been attained. (MJL)

  17. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  18. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  19. Forecasting School District Fiscal Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Curtis A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper's goal is to redefine fiscal health by broadening its predictive function and to determine which fiscal indicators are useful for forecasting fiscal health for one, two, and three years. Results indicate that school district fiscal health forecasts are potentially great planning tools for local for local decision makers. Includes 11…

  20. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  1. Facilitating Inter-District Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gene L.

    After an introductory section which points out that the responsibility of small and rural schools is to provide all children with a quality education, and that Boards of Education must decide what is best for all children in the community, the paper briefly describes 16 exemplary programs involving cooperation between school districts. The…

  2. 29 CFR 457.15 - District Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false District Director. 457.15 Section 457.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.15 District Director. District Director means the...

  3. 29 CFR 457.15 - District Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false District Director. 457.15 Section 457.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.15 District Director. District Director means the...

  4. 29 CFR 457.15 - District Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false District Director. 457.15 Section 457.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.15 District Director. District Director means the...

  5. 29 CFR 457.15 - District Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false District Director. 457.15 Section 457.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.15 District Director. District Director means the...

  6. 29 CFR 457.15 - District Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false District Director. 457.15 Section 457.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.15 District Director. District Director means the...

  7. District Learning Tied to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

  8. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  9. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  10. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.13 District. (a) Citrus District One shall include the Counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus, Sumter, and Lake. (b) Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St....

  11. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.13 District. (a) Citrus District One shall include the Counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus, Sumter, and Lake. (b) Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St....

  12. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.13 District. (a) Citrus District One shall include the Counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus, Sumter, and Lake. (b) Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St....

  13. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.13 District. (a) Citrus District One shall include the Counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus, Sumter, and Lake. (b) Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St....

  14. 7 CFR 905.13 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.13 District. (a) Citrus District One shall include the Counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus, Sumter, and Lake. (b) Citrus District Two shall include the Counties of Osceola, Orange, Seminole, Alachua, Putnam, St....

  15. Small School Districts: Networks of Collaborators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtwengler, Bill; Furtwengler, Carol; Turk, Randy; Hurst, David

    1997-01-01

    A study examining collaboration between two small rural school districts in Kansas found that school boards and superintendents from both districts encouraged and supported continuous collaboration, that collaboration supported more comprehensive curricular and extracurricular programs, and that collaboration allowed districts to maintain their…

  16. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  17. School District Leadership: Systems, Strategies, and Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovash, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    The researcher studied eight Minnesota school district leadership systems, strategies, and structures and the effect on student achievement. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from the eight Minnesota school districts. The population included eight northwestern Minnesota public school districts identified for "Needing…

  18. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  19. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  20. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  1. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  2. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  3. District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

    2014-01-01

    The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

  4. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  5. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  6. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Understanding School District Budgets: A Guide For Local Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    A school district budget is more than numbers. It is a record of a district?s past decisions and a spending plan for its future. It shows a district?s priorities whether they have been clearly articulated or simply occurred by default. And it is a communications document that can tell constituents a lot about the district?s priorities and goals. A…

  8. Got Web? Investing in a District Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

  9. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

  10. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  11. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vīgants, Ģirts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  12. 26 CFR 301.7701-10 - District director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false District director. 301.7701-10 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-10 District director. The term district director means the district director of internal revenue for an internal revenue district. The term...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7701-10 - District director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false District director. 301.7701-10 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-10 District director. The term district director means the district director of internal revenue for an internal revenue district. The term...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7701-10 - District director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false District director. 301.7701-10 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-10 District director. The term district director means the district director of internal revenue for an internal revenue district. The term...

  15. 26 CFR 301.7701-10 - District director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false District director. 301.7701-10 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-10 District director. The term district director means the district director of internal revenue for an internal revenue district. The term...

  16. 26 CFR 301.7701-10 - District director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false District director. 301.7701-10 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-10 District director. The term district director means the district director of internal revenue for an internal revenue district. The term...

  17. Patterns of Government for Wisconsin School Districts. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Board and Administrator Services.

    This publication outlines the characteristics of the five kinds of Wisconsin school districts: the common school district, the union high school district, the city school district, the unified school district, and the city of the first class. The report discusses general characteristics, annual meetings, school board duties and powers, mechanisms…

  18. 33 CFR 3.05-1 - First district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First district. 3.05-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-1 First district. (a) The District Office is in Boston, Massachusetts. (b) The First...

  19. 33 CFR 3.05-1 - First district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First district. 3.05-1 Section 3... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-1 First district. (a) The District Office is in Boston, Massachusetts. (b) The First...

  20. A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts. Missouri District Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for School Networking, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Missouri district is a small rural school district with 450 students and 51 staff with a total of 210 client computers. The district consists of two schools (K-6 and 7-12) housed in a single building. This document contains the results of the four 2004 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) case studies: (1) Software costs; (2) Hardware costs; (3)…

  1. Towards a Healthy District: Organizing and Managing District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarimo, E.

    This book is concerned with orienting health care workers in district health systems in developing countries to ways and means of overcoming problems, and describes briefly how district health systems can be improved. The book is organized around nine issues in nine chapters, each of which is an integral part of a district planning cycle. The…

  2. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  3. One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Richard J.

    In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

  4. The Interrelationship of School District Expenditures and Student Academic Achievement in Oklahoma Public Elementary School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study. The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the relationship between school district expenditures and student academic achievement in 102 public elementary school districts in the state of Oklahoma. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationship between school district expenditures and…

  5. From Districts to Schools: The Distribution of Resources across Schools in Big City School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Ross; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Amor, Hella Bel Hadj

    2007-01-01

    While the distribution of resources across school districts is well studied, relatively little attention has been paid to how resources are allocated to individual schools inside those districts. This paper explores the determinants of resource allocation across schools in large districts based on factors that reflect differential school costs or…

  6. Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

    2003-01-01

    School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

  7. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... maintaining irrigation flows; (4) a powerhouse containing a 1.2- megawatt (MW) Kaplan turbine; (5) a...

  8. Inter-District Cooperation: Salvation of the Small School District. New Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Luther E.

    In its least complex form, a cooperative can be an informal agreement between two or more school districts to cooperatively accomplish some task. As a cooperative gets more formalized and organized, with its own staff, its operations become more removed the control of its constituents and member districts. The local school district's primary…

  9. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the United…

  10. A New Kind of School District: How Local Leaders Can Create Charter Districts. The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Bryan

    This short paper discusses the advantages of and outlines key design issues for creating charter districts. The design issues are divided into three categories representing the three central elements of the environment the districts are trying to create for their schools: the opportunity to perform, incentives to perform, and capacity to perform.…

  11. A Guide to School District Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Allan K.

    School district reorganization is a process that requires considerable planning. This guide provides information on school district reorganization in the state of Nebraska, to interested boards of education and county and citizen reorganization committees. Topics discussed include planning for reorganization, establishing citizen committees, using…

  12. The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

    The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

  13. Out-of-District Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.

    This study examined issues regarding children who receive special education services outside of their home school district--specifically, reasons for these out-of-district placements in Ohio. The study reviewed relevant documents concerning federal and state requirements and funding, and consulted with Ohio Department of Education (ODE) personnel,…

  14. Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    2007-01-01

    Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

  15. Memphis District Reels from Operations Woes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The Memphis, Tennessee, school district is trying to steady itself in the wake of controversies that have rocked its operations side, potentially complicating its search for a new superintendent and renewing talk about putting the city's mayor in charge of the system. In the past few months, the district has been contending with official probes of…

  16. School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

  17. Characteristics of Improved School Districts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This research brief presents an overview of a 2004 study by G.S. Shannon and P. Bylsma entitled "Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research" (Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction). The authors reviewed more than 80 research articles that investigated the attributes of schools and districts that have…

  18. AASA Cites Five Districts for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The AASA Instructional Leadership and Technology Committee this year honored five school districts with Outstanding Achievement in Professional Development awards. Honored were Deer Valley Unified School District (Arizona), South Windsor Public Schools (Connecticut), Fort Knox Community Schools (Kentucky), West Orange Public Schools (New Jersey),…

  19. A Case Study of School District Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Several New England states have been rethinking the system whereby small towns make the key decisions about school budgets and staffing under the banner of local control. Maine already has mandated a reduction in the number of local school districts from 290 to 80, allowing localities to vote on the larger districts. This consolidation, unpopular…

  20. Districts Abandon Grants Targeting Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Three big-city districts--Chicago, Milwaukee, and New York--have terminated federal grants aimed at promoting performance-based compensation plans and professional development for teachers and principals. Overall, the 2010 Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants to the three districts would have provided an $88 million payout over five years--nearly 7…

  1. Characteristics of an Effective District Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the importance of effective district superintendents. A meta-analysis conducted by Marzano and Waters (2009) found that five characteristics were common in districts with effective superintendents. Twenty-seven studies met their criteria for the meta-analysis. Their primary research question was: "What is the strength of…

  2. The District Social-Pedagogical Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, O. E.; Fedorets, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of the regional organizational-pedagogical system in the former Soviet Union. Suggests that the organization of social interaction can be addressed on the district level. Discusses a project in the Dnestrovskii district in which a social pedagogical complex has been organized to strengthen schools' material base, develop…

  3. Assessing Inefficiencies in Illinois School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genge, Fred C.

    Findings of a study that incorporated a method for measuring the economic efficiency of K-8 school districts in Illinois are presented in this paper. The quadriform concept was used to identify four categories, or quadrants, for identifying school districts--technically efficient, low service, high service, and technically inefficient. The method…

  4. Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

  5. School Turnarounds: The Essential Role of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavadsky, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this book was a crucial observation: that if the school turnaround movement is to have widespread and lasting consequences, it will need to incorporate meaningful district involvement in its efforts. The result is a volume that considers school turnaround efforts at the district level, examining the evidence thus far and…

  6. Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

  7. Total Quality Can Help Your District's Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokeley, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Describes how educators in the Pearl River School District, Pearl River, New York, have implemented Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to evaluate and improve their effectiveness. Includes two charts that depict key indicators of financial and academic performance and a seven-year profile of the district's budget, enrollment, diploma rate,…

  8. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  9. A Small District's Quest for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Claudio

    In Texas, a financially troubled school district must submit a plan of action to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) for improving its financial situation without harming the quality of education delivered. If things get worse, TEA assigns a financial monitor to advise the district on overcoming its financial problems and to determine if further…

  10. Examining School District Efficiency in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.; Rolle, R. Anthony; He, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relative production efficiency of school districts in Georgia using the modified quadriform method. Overall, we find that the modified quadriform allows state-level policymakers to access a basic tool for analysis that makes relative comparison of school district productivity for use in policy analysis and policy…

  11. Loss of Accreditation Rocks Georgia District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the end, six months of management reforms and the hiring of an experienced urban superintendent failed to keep the Clayton County, Georgia, school district from becoming the nation's first district in nearly four decades to have its accreditation stripped. Last week's decision by the Atlanta-based Southern Association of Colleges and Schools…

  12. Creating a District Plan for Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Kathleen; Adams, Helen R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how to create a district plan for managing computer technology in schools from the perspectives of a district administrator and a media director. Topics addressed include equity in access and instruction; distance education consortiums; planning committee membership; goals and effective planning; staff support; adoption strategies;…

  13. Supporting Solo at the District Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Mary

    2011-01-01

    School librarians in the Mesquite Independent School District (ISD) have been operating solo on their campuses since the 1970s. Campus clerical assistance in the school libraries was a luxury that they couldn't afford. Since the district's vision was of a teaching librarian, a Library Processing Department was established in 1972. As years passed,…

  14. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  15. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line...

  16. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial number of…

  17. District Office Leadership: Hero or Villain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    For decades, school district offices, superintendents and school boards have been cast as "villains" in the drama of school reform and raising student achievement. This article presents research encompassing a different view of district leadership as the possible "hero" in these efforts. Recent studies by Harvard University (2007), Springboard…

  18. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Shasta County, Tehama County, Modoc County, Siskiyou County, Lassen County, Plumas County, and Colusa County. (b) Central Sacramento Valley District includes and consists of Sutter......

  19. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Shasta County, Tehama County, Modoc County, Siskiyou County, Lassen County, Plumas County, and Colusa County. (b) Central Sacramento Valley District includes and consists of Sutter......

  20. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Shasta County, Tehama County, Modoc County, Siskiyou County, Lassen County, Plumas County, and Colusa County. (b) Central Sacramento Valley District includes and consists of Sutter......

  1. 7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee..., Madison, and Teton; (b) District No. 2: The counties of Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Caribou, Franklin, Oneida, and Power; and (c) District No. 3: Malheur County, Oregon, and the remaining designated...

  2. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  3. Comprehensive Assessment Report, Pearl River School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl River Union Free School District, NY.

    The 1986 Comprehensive Assessment Report on the Pearl River (New York) Public School District describes the district's 1,807-student population (grades K through 12), the community, and its schools. Tables provide data on: (1) students' performance on standardized tests, including the California Achievement/Aptitude Tests; New York State Pupil…

  4. 5 Steps to a Greener School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

  5. Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

  6. Sustaining School Restructuring by Reforming School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Cyrus E.; Thorp, Victoria; Kuo, Victor

    For over 10 years, the accelerated schools movement has worked to implement a cohesive philosophy and process for change in over 1,000 schools in 41 states. This paper describes the characteristics of accelerated schools and details the influences that districts have on them. It demonstrates how districts influence the success or failure of…

  7. Implementing Clinical Supervision: A District Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Norine; DeMont, Roger A.

    This paper describes the Avondale School District's approach to incorporating clinical supervision within the teacher evaluation process. The development of major teacher appraisal systems, their underlying philosophies, and their characteristics are reviewed. In addition, specific processes and training activities used to develop a district model…

  8. Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorrer, Andrea K.; Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Intermittent attention to the district as the unit of study has left a void in our understanding of the complexities associated with the ability of district-level leaders to contribute to successful, systemic educational reform. In this article, the authors address this void by providing a narrative synthesis of previous findings,…

  9. Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidin, Zainin

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

  10. A Handbook for School District Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembowski, Frederick L.

    Designed for school business officials, this handbook provides research information and guidelines on school district banking and cash management systems. Section 1 gives an overview of district financial management operations, discussing the administrative framework, cash budgeting, information and control systems, collection and disbursement…

  11. Brevard District Plan for Career Education Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Olive W.

    The Brevard County Plan was written to include goals and objectives for the years 1974-77. Goals for 1974-75 include promoting the career education concept in all district schools (emphasizing the various career education elements at appropriate grade levels), setting up placement services, coordinating county and district goals, program…

  12. Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Gwenn

    2010-01-01

    Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

  13. Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Myra H.; And Others

    A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

  14. New Mexico's Very Small School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Doug

    The report addresses characteristics and concerns of New Mexico's 19 smallest school districts with a 1981-82 average daily membership ranging from 262 to 60 students. Information was gathered from a Public School Finance Division questionnaire sent to the 19 superintendents; from a December 1981 meeting with 10 of the smallest districts; from…

  15. Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2012-01-01

    More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

  16. Making Use of District and School Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how districts can better use their extensive student databases and other existing data to explore questions of interest. School districts are required to maintain a wealth of student information in electronic data systems and other formats. The meaningfulness of the data depends to a large degree on whether they can understand…

  17. Districts More Strategic about Hiring Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A handful of urban districts, such as Denver, the District of Columbia, Pittsburgh, and Tulsa, Oklahoma, are taking steps to practice "strategic hiring." The efforts consist of collecting a more-robust set of information on candidates, developing stronger relationships with teacher-preparation programs, and tracking new hires to determine their…

  18. District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

  19. 1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

    2010-01-01

    In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

  20. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON... as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) Medford... applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) The State of Washington....

  1. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON... as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) Medford... applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) The State of Washington....

  2. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON... as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) Medford... applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) The State of Washington....

  3. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON... as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) Medford... applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) The State of Washington....

  4. 7 CFR 927.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON... as applicable to pears for the fresh market, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) Medford... applicable to pears for processing, districts shall be defined as follows: (1) The State of Washington....

  5. Teacher-Quality Checklist for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many districts struggle with multiple--and often incompatible--data systems for tracking payroll, collecting teacher evaluations, recruiting and hiring. Aligning these systems and annually assessing where a district stands is the first step towards developing a smart human capital strategy. This checklist outlines the goals, data and questions a…

  6. Study of School District Administration and Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    School district administration and staffing patterns are examined in this report prepared in response to CRS 22-2-118, which requires the Colorado Department of Education to conduct a study to determine where savings of state and local funds may be realized. Section 1 offers an analysis of district staffing patterns from existing data. The second…

  7. Rural Districts Bolster Choices with Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Don

    2012-01-01

    All schools can benefit from giving students the option of online learning, but for many rural schools, online learning is a lifeline. In the past two years, Lane Education Service District in Oregon, USA, has developed online resources for 14 Lane County school districts, which vary in size from 170 students to as many as 17,000. Many of the…

  8. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito and Monterey. (f) District 6 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa,...

  9. Spin systems and Political Districting Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.

  10. Integrating district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Spurr, M.

    1996-11-01

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

  11. Neonatal mortality in Meerut district.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Mishra, V N; Singh, J V; Bhatnagar, M; Chopra, H; Singh, R B

    1993-09-01

    A study of neonatal mortality in Meerut district revealed an infant mortality rate of 50.1 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality accounted for 37.8% of infant mortality with a neonatal mortality rate of 19.0 per 1000 live births. 90.5% of these neonates were delivered at home largely by untrained personnel (57.2%). Only 28.6% of these neonates were treated by qualified doctors and only 30.9% of their mothers were fully immunized against tetanus. At least 2/3rd of neonatal mortality was due to exogenous factors with tetanus neonatorum and septicaemia being the principal causes of mortality each accounting for a mortality rate of 4.7 per 1000 live births. PMID:8112786

  12. Districts, Teacher Leaders, and Distributed Leadership: Changing Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.; Martinez, M. Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Using case studies of four schools in three districts, this article explores how leadership is distributed in districts and asks about the role of teacher leaders. It proposes that teacher leaders and districts can share three leadership tasks: procuring and distributing materials, monitoring improvement, and developing people. The district and…

  13. Preschool Guidelines: Rural Model (Trimble Local School District).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Educational Services.

    The purpose of this handbook is to guide rural school districts intending to establish a preschool program. The program described was established in the Trimble Local School District in the rural Appalachian area of northern Athens County, the third poorest district in Ohio. Contents concern: (1) the district's beliefs about children; (2)…

  14. School District Employment Reductions Slow. Get the Facts. #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Kansas school districts reduced employment by 327 full-time equivalent positions this school year, the smallest reduction in three years of cuts to district operating budgets. Districts reduced positions by 561 in FY 2010 and 1,626 in FY 2011. Districts eliminated nearly 400 "regular" teaching positions this year, but added 114 special education…

  15. 32 CFR 1651.4 - Review by district appeal board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review by district appeal board. 1651.4 Section... CLASSIFICATION BY DISTRICT APPEAL BOARD § 1651.4 Review by district appeal board. (a) An appeal to the district appeal board is determined by the classification of the registrant in a class other than 1-A or by...

  16. 32 CFR 1651.4 - Review by district appeal board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review by district appeal board. 1651.4 Section... CLASSIFICATION BY DISTRICT APPEAL BOARD § 1651.4 Review by district appeal board. (a) An appeal to the district appeal board is determined by the classification of the registrant in a class other than 1-A or by...

  17. 32 CFR 1651.4 - Review by district appeal board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review by district appeal board. 1651.4 Section... CLASSIFICATION BY DISTRICT APPEAL BOARD § 1651.4 Review by district appeal board. (a) An appeal to the district appeal board is determined by the classification of the registrant in a class other than 1-A or by...

  18. 32 CFR 1651.4 - Review by district appeal board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review by district appeal board. 1651.4 Section... CLASSIFICATION BY DISTRICT APPEAL BOARD § 1651.4 Review by district appeal board. (a) An appeal to the district appeal board is determined by the classification of the registrant in a class other than 1-A or by...

  19. 32 CFR 1651.4 - Review by district appeal board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review by district appeal board. 1651.4 Section... CLASSIFICATION BY DISTRICT APPEAL BOARD § 1651.4 Review by district appeal board. (a) An appeal to the district appeal board is determined by the classification of the registrant in a class other than 1-A or by...

  20. The Creative Cost Management Strategies of Two School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    Two Oregon schools districts that have been effective in managing their resources are Reedsport, a smaller district and the subject of part 1 of this bulletin; and Beaverton, one of the largest districts in the state, the focus of part 2. The Reedsport district plans the use of its funds based on a goal-setting process in the areas of instruction,…

  1. 33 CFR 3.40-1 - Eighth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eighth district. 3.40-1 Section 3.40-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eighth Coast Guard District § 3.40-1 Eighth district. (a)...

  2. School District Personnel Describe One Example of Effective Change Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Toni Griego

    Three large urban school districts located in the Midwest, Southwest, and West Coast regions were involved in a study designed to reveal district personnel's perceptions of change within their school district. After describing the study, this document analyzes perceptions of change related to one district's new bilingual program that was…

  3. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seventh district. 3.35-1 Section 3.35-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-1 Seventh district. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 3.35-1 - Seventh district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seventh district. 3.35-1 Section 3.35-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-1 Seventh district. (a)...

  5. An Analysis of a High Performing School District's Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corum, Kenneth D.; Schuetz, Todd B.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on the cultural elements of a high performing school district. Current literature on school district culture provides numerous cultural elements that are present in high performing school districts. With the current climate in education placing pressure on school districts to perform…

  6. School Districts Plan for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Meeting an expanding school population with imaginative planning has allowed school districts in Broward County, Florida, and Adams County, Colorado, to maintain a smooth, continuous operation in the educational process. (Author/MLF)

  7. Guidelines for Financing School District Computer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splittgerber, Frederic L.; Stirzaker, Norbert A.

    1984-01-01

    School districts can obtain computer services with purchase, lease, or network options. The advantages and disadvantages of each are explained. Guidelines are offered for assessing needs and determining costs of computer services. (MLF)

  8. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND... Watermelon Promotion Board. Each district, as defined in § 1210.501, is entitled to two producer and...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND... Watermelon Promotion Board. Each district, as defined in § 1210.501, is entitled to two producer and...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND... Watermelon Promotion Board. Each district, as defined in § 1210.501, is entitled to two producer and...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND... Watermelon Promotion Board. Each district, as defined in § 1210.501, is entitled to two producer and...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.401 - District conventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND... Watermelon Promotion Board. Each district, as defined in § 1210.501, is entitled to two producer and...

  13. 7 CFR 953.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... District No. 3. James City and Nansemond Counties and the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in the..., Pitt, Lenoir, Jones, Onslow, Carteret, Pamlico, Craven, Beaufort, Martin, Washington, Tyrrell,...

  14. Rochester City School District Peer Assistance Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierichella, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author evaluates the Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) program in the Rochester City School District, Rochester, NY. The author evaluates the system's strengths and weaknesses and discusses the program's alignment with New York State requirements.

  15. Emotional intelligence: district nurses' lived experiences.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah; Jenkins, Emrys; Mabbett, Gaynor

    2010-03-01

    Emotional Intelligence, recognizing and handling ones' own and others' emotions is beginning to figure in nursing literature, with potential to enhance care, teamwork and wellbeing. District nursing is laden with complex and emotional issues yet little research investigates the value of emotional intelligence in district nursing specifically. This qualitative study adopts interpretative phenomenological analysis with five district nurses, (of different grades), to illuminate perceptions and experiences of emotional intelligence. Findings show district nurses perceive emotional intelligence to be an essential part of their role, regardless of grade or position. Despite being a relatively new concept to nurses, each participant perceived relevant attributes as essential to quality care in the home, especially in relation to palliative care. Themes identified include: self awareness, control, assessment, experience, palliative care and leadership. Only some of these are consistent with existing literature and illustrate a need to investigate this interesting area further. PMID:20220631

  16. The Microcomputer in the Small School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Jerry

    1985-01-01

    Small school district administrators can use microcomputers to improve their management abilities and productivity through computerized accounting, electronic mail and online subscription services, and the use of integrated software programs. (MD)

  17. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  18. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  19. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  20. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  1. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  2. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  3. Cardiology in a district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Michael; Huggett, Isabel

    1982-01-01

    During 1975-81 a non-invasive cardiac unit was established at St Peter's Hospital, Chertsey, a district hospital serving a population of 202 000. There was a progressive increase in outpatient referrals in cardiology, and in 1981 non-invasive investigations included 424 echocardiograms, 305 exercise electrocardiograms, 275 ambulatory electrocardiograms, and 147 thallium-201 studies. Between 1979 and 1981, 151 patients were admitted directly to major centres for further investigation; 74% of those with ischaemic heart disease and 68% of those with valvular heart disease subsequently underwent surgery, a ratio of investigation to surgery that is half the norm for the four metropolitan regions. Based on the 1981 figures, which were substantially above those for 1980, there is a need for a minimum of 270 open heart operations per million of the population including 180 vein bypass operations. This figure for bypass grafting is 230% higher than in the United Kingdom as a whole in 1978 and has substantial implications. PMID:6811004

  4. [The district practitioner (1836-1984)].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, H

    2000-10-30

    In 1836, a system of district physicians was established in Norway. In addition to providing individual medical services, the district physicians supervised other health care providers and looked after vulnerable groups of patients. They were also chairmen of the local boards of health, and were supposed to engage in anything that might improve local health conditions. The first district physicians were given responsibility for enormous areas, and would rarely get in close contact with the people in their districts. When the districts were divided into smaller units, they came closer to the local people, but they had to struggle hard for recognition. Over the years, however, they succeeded by means of health information and increasingly effective medical remedies. In the late 1950s, local health services were in a deep crisis, but towards the end of the 1960s new and radical political trends initiated a revitalisation. Primary health care became increasingly popular among young doctors, and a large number of new positions were established. However, in 1984, at the height of this boom, the government chose to close down the district physician service. PMID:11109364

  5. Dual energy use systems: District heating survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.

  6. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  7. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast...

  8. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast...

  9. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 42.05-25 Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast...

  11. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander. 50.10-5 Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard...

  12. Title I Weighted Grants Skewed Toward Largest Districts: Per Pupil Funding Varies Sharply by District Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural School and Community Trust, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, some of the federal funds provided to local school districts under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act have been distributed through "weighted" grant formulas intended to better target funding to districts with the highest concentrations of poverty. These weighted grant formulas have produced some perverse effects:…

  13. 1984-85 State of the District Address. Los Angeles Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    In this address by the Chancellor of the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD), an overview is provided of major accomplishments, influences, changes, and directions of the District. Following introductory comments, the paper highlights some of the recent accomplishments of LACCD colleges, including the Test Construction and Evaluation…

  14. A Phenomenological Narrative Study of Texas School District Administrators Perspectives of Their Districts Virtual School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perspectives of Texas school district administrators concerning the virtual school programs being implemented in their districts. Interviews with the eight participants were analyzed in an effort to provide a comprehensive explanation of their lived experiences (Moustakas, 1994).…

  15. What Do Effective District Leaders Do? Strategies for Evaluating District Leadership. Policy Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Katie; Yoder, Nick

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Common Core State Standards and teacher evaluation reform, school leaders increasingly look to district leaders for support, coaching, and leadership. District leaders--superintendents, assistant or area superintendents, specialists, principal supervisors, and school business administrators--can hold varying and multiple roles…

  16. Intra-District Resource Allocation and Criteria Used for Student Based Funding in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloo, Peter Mangla

    2011-01-01

    Resource allocation to school sites in public school districts is inequitable. While Student Based Funding (SBF) has been implemented in several major urban school districts, there are few empirical studies about how SBF policies are derived and implemented. Current efforts to align resources with student need are hindered by a lack of systematic,…

  17. The Little District that Could: Literacy Reform Leads to Higher Achievement in California District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Budicin-Senters, Antoinette; King, L. McLean

    2005-01-01

    This article describes educational reform developed over a 10-year period in California's Lemon Grove School District, which resulted in a steady and remarkable upward shift in achievement for the students of this multicultural district just outside San Diego. Six elements of literacy reform emerged as the most significant factors affecting…

  18. Exploring Superintendent Leadership in Smaller Urban Districts: Does District Size Influence Superintendent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on urban school reform focuses on how the relatively small number of our nation's largest urban districts are approaching school reform with these objectives in mind. However, does smaller district size have any bearing, direct or indirect, on the nature of superintendent leadership? The authors' exploratory…

  19. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (73 FR 53439, September 16, 2008). We released... in the Federal Register (76 FR 65525, October 21, 2011). Huron Wetland Management District was..., Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts from October 21, 2011 to November 21, 2011 (76...

  20. Reducing the Achievement Gap through District/Union Collaboration: The Tale of Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, George Ann

    2007-01-01

    In looking for examples of districts that were making gains both in assuring teacher quality and in reducing gaps in student achievement, researchers continually came to Clark County, Nevada and Hamilton County, Tennessee. While the road to reform and the specific steps each district took were different, they shared a fundamental element--in both…

  1. Energy management in Louisiana's public school districts

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    Revenues for public education are declining and school budgets are being evaluated for ways to cut waste. The maintenance and operations budget often falls victim to the budget ax as maintenance on equipment and buildings is deferred. It may be that as a result of the deferred maintenance, school districts are actually spending more on maintenance and operations and energy than before. This study sought to determine the status of energy use in Louisiana's 66 public school districts and to determine the need for an energy management education program in those districts. Data for the 1991-1992 school year were collected using a mailed questionnaire from 55 of the 66 public school distrincts. Intensive non-response follow-up procedures were instituted to obtain a complete profile of the existing energy expenditure situation in the state's public school districts. Per square foot expenditures for energy were calculated for the 55 school districts that responded. A per student expenditure for energy was calculated for all 66 school districts. Per square foot and per student expenditures for energy and for maintenance and operations were compared to the state average and to the southern region average. The relationship between per student and per square foot expenditures was determined. The relationship between maintenance and operations and energy was also examined. School districts within the state were prioritized in order of need for an energy management program. Respondents rated 14 energy-related concepts as to their perceived importance for inclusion in an educational program on energy management for school maintenance and operations personnel. Findings indicate that a wide variation of per student and per square foot expenditures for energy and maintenance and operations exists within the state. No relationship was found between energy expenditures and maintenance and operations expenditures.

  2. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  3. Geographic Analysis of Alaska Lake Districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The state of Alaska has over 400,000 lakes greater than 0.01 km2 in surface area covering approximately 3.3% of the landscape. As in most lake-rich regions, these lakes are unevenly distributed on the landscape. So in order to better understand how lakes are organized on the landscape and relate this geographic organization to other climatologic, geologic, and biogeographic characteristics, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Alaska lakes. Using a combination of numerical abundance and surface-area extent of lakes, we selected lake density thresholds to identify and delineate 22 lake districts in Alaska. The total area of these 22 lakes districts occupy 16% of Alaska, yet encompass 64% of lakes and 76% of lake surface-area. The three largest lake districts are associated with the Yukon-Kuskokwin Delta, the Northern Arctic Coastal Plain, and the mountain front of the Alaskan Range on the Alaska Peninsula. Interestingly, these largest lake districts are covered by >17% lakes, while most of the smaller lake districts we identified have <10% lake cover. Of the remaining smaller lake districts, 9 are associated with mountain fronts or intermountain basins, 4 are associated with coastal plains, 3 are associated with floodplains and deltas, and 3 occur in high-elevation or mountain terrain. The highest numerical lake densities occur at deltas, while relatively lower densities occur in mountainous areas where individual lakes are often larger in surface area and likely volume. Comparison of these lake districts were made to permafrost distribution, glacial history, lithology, watershed position, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes to better understand where lake-rich regions occur, why, and how they might change in the future. Ten of the 22 lake districts occur in areas dominated by continuous permafrost, 6 occur in areas of discontinuous or sporadic permafrost, and the other 6 occur in regions without perennially frozen soils. The majority of lake districts

  4. 33 CFR 211.7 - Rights which may be granted by Division and District Engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Division Engineers, the President of the Mississippi River Commission, and District Engineers of districts... of the Mississippi River Commission in granting leases and District Engineers will administer...

  5. 33 CFR 211.7 - Rights which may be granted by Division and District Engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Division Engineers, the President of the Mississippi River Commission, and District Engineers of districts... of the Mississippi River Commission in granting leases and District Engineers will administer...

  6. 33 CFR 211.7 - Rights which may be granted by Division and District Engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Division Engineers, the President of the Mississippi River Commission, and District Engineers of districts... of the Mississippi River Commission in granting leases and District Engineers will administer...

  7. District nurses' role in managing medication dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-08-01

    A survey commissioned by the Patients Association (2015) has shown that the risky practice of altering solid-form medication to assist patients with swallowing difficulties is a daily occurrence in care homes. District nurses and community matrons who provide care to patients and assist staff in care homes are well-placed to raise awareness of the impact that tampering with tablets has on patient safety. It is essential that district nurses and community matrons discharge their duty of care to patients in care homes by supporting effective medication management that meets the individual needs of those patients. This article considers the legal and professional standards that must inform a district nurse's support of medication management for a patient with swallowing difficulties residing in a care home. PMID:27479856

  8. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    PubMed

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-01

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study. PMID:27479854

  9. Geothermal district heating: basics to success

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

  10. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  11. 20 CFR 704.301 - Administration; compensation districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EXTENSIONS Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act § 704.301 Administration; compensation districts. For the... Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to the State or States in such districts having adjacent shelf areas....

  12. General topographic view of Lakeview Historic District, view looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General topographic view of Lakeview Historic District, view looking south on G Street toward intersection of G and Center Streets - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  13. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. EPA - NEW ENGLAND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS - 108TH CONGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 108th Congress. Lines coincident with Congressional District boundaries were extracted from the existing National Atlas County Boundaries layer. In areas lacking coincident geometry, lines from State ...

  15. Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 in view, as well as Whiting Way, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. The recent tectonic stress districts and strong earthquakes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Zhang, H.

    2010-12-01

    According to the stress state and force source character, the recent tectonic stress field of China is preliminary divided into four classes. Among them, there are two first order districts, four second order districts, five third order districts and twenty-six fourth order districts. By analyzing those tectonic stress districts and strong earthquakes, the close relation between them is mainly summarized as follows: (1) The boundary of stress districts especially the first or second order boundary controlled by the interaction of tectonic plates has strong earthquakes very easily and frequently. (2) Stress districts with stress direction, regime type and stress value transformation are concentrative zones of strong earthquakes. (3) Stress districts with local stress differentiation but in the homogeneous stress background are the places where strong earthquakes are rela-tively concentrated. On the basis of these research work, we discuss the present dynamic environment in China from force source and plates movement.

  17. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District...

  18. 36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.3 Seashore District. (a) Description. The Seashore... and Chatham lying within the exterior boundaries of the Cape Cod National Seashore. (b) Zoning bylaws... distinctive Cape Cod character of existing residential structures will be maintained. (c)(1) No...

  19. 36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.3 Seashore District. (a) Description. The Seashore... and Chatham lying within the exterior boundaries of the Cape Cod National Seashore. (b) Zoning bylaws... distinctive Cape Cod character of existing residential structures will be maintained. (c)(1) No...

  20. 36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.3 Seashore District. (a) Description. The Seashore... and Chatham lying within the exterior boundaries of the Cape Cod National Seashore. (b) Zoning bylaws... distinctive Cape Cod character of existing residential structures will be maintained. (c)(1) No...

  1. 7 CFR 966.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 966.17 Section 966.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  2. 7 CFR 966.24 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 966.24 Section 966.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  3. Race to Top Districts "Personalize" Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The 16 Race to the Top district winners, pushed by $400 million in federal grants that put a premium on personalized learning, are embarking on vastly different makeovers of the classroom experience--from districtwide approaches to a narrower blueprint focused on middle school math. Despite the divergent approaches, a review of the winning…

  4. 1979 State of the District Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    The running of the Los Angeles Community College District incorporates two distinct kinds of functions: those of an educational nature and those that are corporate in scope. While the educational functions have been performed well, the future will demand even greater responsiveness to student needs. Issues to be faced in the future to insure that…

  5. School Attendance and the District Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert-Guillory, Julie

    2009-01-01

    House Bill 1 became a major piece of legislation in Texas a few years ago. It was designed primarily to address public school finance, property tax relief, public school accountability, and education-related matters. This piece of legislation has forced districts to manage their finances very differently, undergo budget reductions, and continue…

  6. Leveraging Mental Health Dollars into Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…

  7. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...): All territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction with the... northeasterly along the Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District No... Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward along the Malheur River to its...

  8. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...): All territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction with the... northeasterly along the Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District No... Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward along the Malheur River to its...

  9. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...): All territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction with the... northeasterly along the Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District No... Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward along the Malheur River to its...

  10. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...): All territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction with the... northeasterly along the Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District No... Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward along the Malheur River to its...

  11. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...): All territory within a boundary following the Snake River northwesterly from its junction with the... northeasterly along the Malheur River to the junction with the Snake River, the point of beginning. District No... Malheur River with the Snake River and extending southwestward along the Malheur River to its...

  12. Including Rural Districts in Inclusive Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfluger, Loretta; Hendricks, Jenny

    Teaching students who receive special education services in integrated settings requires intensive staff development and on-going training. Region 16 Education Service Center in the Texas panhandle serves 65 rural school districts covering 25,000 square miles and 80,000 students. In 1996, with direction and funding from the state legislature,…

  13. Arbitrage Interest Rules and School District Borrowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldon, Ward

    1989-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 limited the ability of school districts to borrow money through the sale of tax-exempt bonds and then invest bond issue proceeds at interest rates higher than those paid on the bonds. Discusses practical considerations and public policy ramifications. (MLF)

  14. District Priorities for Institutionalization Project, Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomar Community Coll. District, San Marcos, CA.

    This document describes what Palomar Community College District (California) is doing to address a pressing need in higher education: the need to produce more and better student learning in exchange for the state's education investment. The need is especially crucial in regard to the greater number of under-prepared students who are entering…

  15. One Urban District's Digital Learning Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Jay; Paredes, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementing major innovations in large urban districts can be a daunting and overwhelming idea--particularly when it comes to technology--due to real and perceived obstacles. Added to this challenge is the reality of the worst budget crisis in California history. When students are empowered by full access to technology, learning…

  16. Budget Eliminates Emergency Grants; Districts Regroup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Emergency training programs aimed to prepare schools for events like Columbine are losing their funding amid budget cuts. "Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools" grants from the federal office of safe and drug-free schools, has evaporated. After paying for hundreds of school districts to prepare for a Columbine-like event, the roughly…

  17. Private Firms Run Two Mich. Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Educators and policy observers are keeping a close eye on two controversial experiments in private management of public schools now unfolding in the western Michigan city of Muskegon Heights and in the Detroit-area community of Highland Park. Citing chronic budget woes in the communities' low-performing school districts, Gov. Rick Snyder of…

  18. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

  19. Geoprocessing at the Seattle School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, A. Dorothy

    The Seattle School District (Washington) assigns each of its students to a particular attendance area, gives that area a code name and computer designation called a geocode, then uses data processing methods to analyze the makeup of the student population in each area and to provide data for a number of planning purposes. The geoprocessing permits…

  20. Transfer, Honors and Excellence: Six Districts Spotlighted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSCC Bulletin, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Brief descriptions are provided of the honors programs offered at six community college districts. After an introductory discussion of the benefits, goals, and elements of honors programs, spotlighted programs are described, with some variation, in terms of activities, admissions requirements, academic standards, faculty involvement, association…

  1. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 932.21 Section 932.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District. 932.21 Section 932.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 932.21 Section 932.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District. 932.21 Section 932.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer districts. 932.121 Section 932.121 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 932.21 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 932.21 Section 932.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work…

  12. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  13. Can This School District Be Saved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marz, Will

    1992-01-01

    A case study of an anonymous but real-life district swamped in a conflict that involves a succession of superintendents, an entrenched school board secretary, a teacher who was fired and later elected board president, and several board members recalled. Three school leaders offer their advice. (MLF)

  14. Taking the Plunge: Districts Leap into Virtualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Moving from a traditional desktop computing environment to a virtualized solution is a daunting task. In this article, the author presents case histories of three districts that have made the conversion to virtual computing to learn about their experiences: What prompted them to make the move, and what were their objectives? Which obstacles prove…

  15. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 945.17 Section 945.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 945.17 Section 945.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District. 923.14 Section 923.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District. 923.14 Section 923.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 923.14 Section 923.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 930.6 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District. 930.6 Section 930.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  1. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 923.14 Section 923.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 930.6 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 930.6 Section 930.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  3. Administering and Preserving District Records in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a 1986-87 study of the value, storage conditions, use, and management of district records in Pakistan. Possible solutions to some of the problems identified are analyzed. Recommendations include relocation of records, microfilming, and development of records management and public access policies. Several immediate actions are also…

  4. School District Profiles, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul.

    This document is the 26th in a series that presents data on school districts in Minnesota in the areas of enrollment, staffing, and finance. Since 1994-1995, data has been presented as per average daily membership, but before that, weighted average daily membership was used. Increases in student enrollment in Minnesota began with the 1985-1986…

  5. 7 CFR 920.12 - District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District 920.12 Section 920.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 920.12 Section 920.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District. 920.12 Section 920.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 920.12 Section 920.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 989.22 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 989.22 Section 989.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 989.22 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District. 989.22 Section 989.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. The Hoboken School District: A Mini Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Earl Preston; Comick, Marvin

    Hoboken is a low spending district with high needs and a low tax base. Student enrollment in Hoboken is predominantly black and Hispanic. Student achievement levels are among the lowest in New Jersey. In this report, these problems are put into perspective with the aid of tables which contain data about Hoboken itself as well as comparative data…

  12. 7 CFR 923.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 923.14 Section 923.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 930.6 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 930.6 Section 930.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  14. "Gateway" Districts Struggle to Serve Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    As thousands of communities--especially in the South--became booming gateways for immigrant families during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English-learners arriving in their classrooms. Instructional programs were built from scratch. Districts had…

  15. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 917.14 Section 917.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  16. Staff Investment Pays Dividends in Maryland District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, Viers Mill Elementary School's home-grown leadership team has overseen a striking rise in test scores, especially among its substantial minority population. The school, located in Montgomery County, Maryland, exemplifies the district's strategy of using its human-resources operations as a lever to improve student…

  17. Fiscal Implications of School District Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, L. Dean

    1979-01-01

    In states with a large number of small school districts, such as Colorado (exemplified by the the case study examined in this paper), reorganization would seemingly result in significant economies of scale and equalization of the tax bases that support the schools. (Author)

  18. School Districts Can Stretch the School Dollar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Many districts continue to face budget challenges of historic proportions. Decisions made in the coming months will carry significant repercussions for years to come. The path of least resistance is to slash budgets in ways that erode schooling. In this scenario, important reforms are left behind, overall services are diminished, innovations are…

  19. District heating. Section 2: Products and services

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This is a directory of companies providing products and services in the area of district heating. The subheadings of the directory include developers and owner operators, equipment manufacturers, measuring instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, operation and maintenance, project management, repair, and financial and legal services.

  20. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 915.11 Section 915.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  1. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 915.11 Section 915.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  2. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 915.11 Section 915.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  3. School Districts as Partners in Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Rodosky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    When researchers are focused on improving teaching-and-learning domains that match the school district's strategic plan, not only focusing on their own research agenda, they yield powerful results that can be useful for guiding processes of improving student learning.

  4. Amarillo Independent School District: Accumulating Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breier, Betsy Broyles

    2011-01-01

    This case, set in the high plateau of the Texas Panhandle, covers the years 1998-2004. The focus is on voting rights. The Amarillo board members, like board members in most Texas districts, were elected at large. Faced with a voting rights lawsuit filed by the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, the League of United Latin American…

  5. Flexibility on SES Pleases Districts, Worries Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on some $800 million in money set aside for Supplemental Education Services which is being freed up under the Obama administration's NCLB waiver plan. The U.S. Department of Education's plan to grant states broad flexibility under the No Child Left Behind Act will free up as much as $800 million in money school districts now…

  6. Urban Districts Compare Notes on Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Urban school systems are large businesses, charged with running a wide range of noninstructional functions that typically do not garner them much national notice. Now, thanks to the work of a coalition of big-city districts, their leaders are gathering data on how those operations are run, in the hope of improving their business practices. The…

  7. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  8. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  9. States Eye Looser Rein on Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The push to give school districts greater operating flexibility--a grassroots rallying cry eclipsed in recent years by the charter school movement--is seeing a resurgence, as states seek to spur innovation that will help raise student achievement. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue is proposing "performance contracts" that would free administrators…

  10. What Energy Deregulation Means for Your District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how school districts might reduce energy costs in an era of electric industry deregulation. The competitive environment is described along with suggestions about joining purchasing groups to achieve pricing discounts. Final comments reveal the importance of energy contract negotiation. (GR)

  11. Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Lee, Steve W.; Tollefson, Nona; Pass, Lisa; Massengill, Donita

    2005-01-01

    Balanced literacy is a philosophical orientation that assumes that reading and writing achievement are developed through instruction and support in multiple environments in which teachers use various approaches that differ by level of teacher support and child control. The authors describe 1 urban school district's real-world attempt to create a…

  12. Michigan School District Buys Energy Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technological Horizons in Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    With the aid of a federal grant for energy conservation, the Warren Consolidated School System (Michigan) will purchase a Margaux 6400 Building Management system to manage energy usage in 35 district buildings. Reasons for selecting the system and system capabilities are briefly discussed. (Author/JN)

  13. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  14. Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shainline, Michael

    At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

  15. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  16. 7 CFR 989.22 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 989.22 Section 989.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  17. 7 CFR 989.22 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 989.22 Section 989.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  18. 7 CFR 989.22 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District. 989.22 Section 989.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  19. Greening the Toronto District School Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Emily

    2002-01-01

    The Toronto District School Board (Ontario) established a department of environmental education to lighten the school board's impact on the environment and to increase ecological literacy among students. School programs have been developed in the areas of eco-literacy, energy conservation, waste management, and school yard greening. One program…

  20. Hidalgo School District Supports All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodine, Thad R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the Hildago (Texas) Independent School District, in partnership with the University of Texas-Pan American, the University of Texas System, the Communities Foundation of Texas/Texas High School Project, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, promised that all of its students would earn college credits before graduating from high school.…

  1. District-Charter Collaborations on the Rise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The Synergy Charter Academy, one of three charter schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), used to occupy a cramped church space in south LA. Despite the facilities challenges, its more than 300 K students have generally scored in the top 10% on statewide tests in reading and math over the past seven years. When the district…

  2. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District. 917.14 Section 917.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  3. Teachers Already Armed in Some Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    Shooting instructor Johnny Price looked at the teachers lined up in front of him. Mr. Price, the owner of Big Iron Concealed Handgun Training in Waco, Texas, spent two days this month training teachers and staff members from the Clifton school district in all they need to know to earn licenses to carry weapons out of sight. There is no indication…

  4. School Districts, Communications, and Freedom of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2012-01-01

    Virtually every state has a stature entitling public access to meetings of governing bodies, including school boards. The exchange of information between the district and the public is governed by a variety of statutes. These statutes reflect a policy whereby the business of school boards is to be transparent and exposed to public scrutiny. Three…

  5. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false District. 922.14 Section 922.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  6. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 922.14 Section 922.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  7. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 922.14 Section 922.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  8. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 922.14 Section 922.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  9. 7 CFR 922.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District. 922.14 Section 922.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  10. How School District Bonds Are Rated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, David

    1992-01-01

    Bond ratings are an assessment by an independent rating agency of the credit worthiness of a bond issuer, such as a school district, on repayment of a particular bond issue. Describes the rating procedures Standard and Poor's Municipal Finance Department uses to assign bond ratings. (MLF)

  11. County School Districts: Research and Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Since the days when the country was dotted with one-room schoolhouses, many changes have taken place in school governance and management. In 1940, there were over 117,000 public school districts in the United States. In 2000, there were fewer than 15,000, even though the student population of the country had doubled in that time. While school…

  12. Districts Add Web Courses for Summer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    More and more school districts, as well as for-profit companies and nonprofit organizations, are offering Internet-based summer classes in core subjects, such as algebra and reading, and electives such as creative writing. In this article, the author discusses the growth of enrollment in online education for summer. The logistical ease of…

  13. District Number 22, ESEA Title I Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Center for Field Research and School Services.

    This report includes evaluations of four New York City school district educational projects funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The Intensive Reading Program offered concentrated, individual reading instruction to needy open enrollment children as well as some indistrict pupils. The program's objectives…

  14. Effective Records Management: The District Administrator's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrese, Marylynn

    1990-01-01

    School districts should have a records management system through which student, employee, and related documents are maintained. Explains the meaning of records management, the implications of choosing not to establish an ongoing program, and how to be a leader in the program. (eight references) (MLF)

  15. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  16. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  17. 43 CFR 426.19 - District responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... district that delivers irrigation water to nonexempt land under a contract with the United States must: (a... director; (h) Withhold deliveries of irrigation water to any landholder not eligible to receive irrigation... from each landholder based on the landholder's acreage limitation status, landholdings,...

  18. Energy Management. A Guide for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Association of School Boards, Winneconne.

    A successful energy management program in a single school or a school district requires an energy audit or survey. The audit identifies how much energy is being consumed, as well as where it is going. Furthermore, it shows opportunities for energy conservation. The walk-through energy conservation survey is the method that has the best prospect…

  19. Districts Begin Looking Harder at Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    As policymakers debate the merits of new tests and intervention strategies to improve student achievement, some districts are exploring a more basic warning sign: Are students even showing up? A growing consensus of research points to chronic absence--defined by the national policy group Attendance Counts as missing 10 percent of school or…

  20. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  1. The Micropolitics of School District Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.; Blase, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study of school district educational reform in the United States adds to the knowledge base of macropolitics of federal, state and local governing bodies and private sector agencies in formulating educational policies: It also contributes to our understanding the microplitics of policy implementation. Middle managers' political…

  2. Demographic Change and Local School District Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellis G.

    This paper summarizes a Great Plains School District Organization Project publication, People, Places, Perspectives: the Great Plains States, which was concerned with the demographic characteristics of the Midwest and their implications for educational planners. The author suggests that the challenges facing educational planners in the Midwest, as…

  3. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...

  4. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose boundaries are described...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the geographical areas whose boundaries are described...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...

  8. Conceptions of Evidence Use in School Districts: Mapping the Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Talbert, Joan E.

    2006-01-01

    Current policies place unprecedented demands on districts to use evidence to guide their educational improvement efforts. How districts respond is likely to be influenced by how individuals in the district conceptualize what it means to use evidence in their ongoing work. This study draws on sensemaking and institutional theory to investigate how…

  9. Little Reason for Being: A Case of School District Dissolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Pam

    In 1980, Tonnelly Central School District became the first school district in New York State to be dissolved pursuant to Section 1505 of Education Law, marking the first use of dissolution and annexation as a means by which to address the programmatic and management problems encountered in the operation of a central school district. Problems faced…

  10. Crowdlearning: 8 Districts Pool Resources to Focus on Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Paula; Erkens, Cassandra; Sanna, Diane; Savastano, Linda F.

    2015-01-01

    Eight school districts in Rhode Island formed the East Bay Professional Learning Community to launch a joint effort to develop a culture of assessment literacy through ongoing professional learning focused on team-specific action plans tightly aligned to school, district, and state initiatives. To accomplish this, the districts pooled their…

  11. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  12. 33 CFR 3.85-1 - Seventeenth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seventeenth district. 3.85-1 Section 3.85-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-1...

  13. Site-Based Budgeting: A New Age of District Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The effects of linking school districts' funding directly to the students they serve and providing local school districts and communities with more control over how that money is spent could ripple through the entire K-12 system, from the state Capitol to the classroom. For district leaders anxious to improve their schools and better support…

  14. Making the Grade: The Economic Evolution of American School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischel, William A.

    2009-01-01

    A significant factor for many people deciding where to live is the quality of the local school district, with superior schools creating a price premium for housing. The result is a "race to the top," as all school districts attempt to improve their performance in order to attract homebuyers. Given the importance of school districts to the daily…

  15. School District Energy Conservation Activities. R-96-J-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    To help New York's State Department of Education assess public school districts' energy conservation activities, the results of an audit of school districts' energy conservation activities are presented. The audit shows that most school districts have made some efforts toward energy conservation and that the Department does provide some assistance…

  16. 26 CFR 1.6164-7 - Termination by district director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination by district director. 1.6164-7... district director. (a) After an examination of the statement filed by the corporation is made. The district director is authorized to make such examination of the statements filed as he deems necessary...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6164-7 - Termination by district director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination by district director. 1.6164-7... district director. (a) After an examination of the statement filed by the corporation is made. The district director is authorized to make such examination of the statements filed as he deems necessary...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6164-7 - Termination by district director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination by district director. 1.6164-7... district director. (a) After an examination of the statement filed by the corporation is made. The district director is authorized to make such examination of the statements filed as he deems necessary...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6164-7 - Termination by district director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination by district director. 1.6164-7... director. (a) After an examination of the statement filed by the corporation is made. The district director.... If, upon such examination as he may make, the district director believes that, as of the time...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6164-7 - Termination by district director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination by district director. 1.6164-7... district director. (a) After an examination of the statement filed by the corporation is made. The district director is authorized to make such examination of the statements filed as he deems necessary...

  1. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district,…

  2. Between-District Test Score Variation, 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin; Reardon, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Describing the variation in test scores between and within school districts is critical for: (1) for policy-related and descriptive work that investigates the sorting of students among districts and the differential effectiveness of those districts; and (2) for methodological work planning future experiments or interventions. Intraclass…

  3. Portfolio School Districts for Big Cities: An Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Campbell, Christine; Menefee-Libey, David; Dusseault, Brianna; DeArmond, Michael; Gross, Betheny

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report from an ongoing study of four urban school districts (New York, New Orleans, Chicago, and the District of Columbia) that are experimenting with new school designs and new ways of holding schools accountable for performance. This report introduces the idea of a "portfolio school district," and shows how some leading school…

  4. School District 4J Facilities Siting Report, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Dan; And Others

    Eugene (OR) School District 4J is experiencing declining enrollments on a district-wide basis, but these declines have not been evenly distributed throughout the district. Schools in the Central city and older neighborhoods are experiencing declines, while schools in newer neighborhoods at the periphery are generally more crowded. At some future…

  5. Teachers Matter. Yes. Schools Matter. Yes. Districts Matter--Really?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Karin

    2015-01-01

    School districts shape the conditions in which schools operate and as such can support or undermine school success and thus student success. All of which is to say that school districts matter. This article looks at the success of two districts whose low-income and minority students beat the odds in academic achievement. Lessons from these…

  6. Census Mapping Project School District Data Book. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MESA Group, Arlington, VA.

    The School District Data Book (SDDB) is a database and information system housed on 51 CD-ROMs containing the most extensive set of data ever developed on children, their households, and the nation's school systems. The Data Book allows comparisons among school districts and permits the extraction of data about districts with particular…

  7. School District Data Book Reference Manual. User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MESA Group, Alexandria, VA.

    The School District Data Book is an electronic library containing social, economic, and administrative data for each of the 15,274 public school districts in the United States. It contains the most comprehensive demographic database ever developed for the nation's children. The School District Data Book is maintained on a set of 44 CD-ROMs. With a…

  8. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  9. 40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false District of Columbia. 81.309 Section 81.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.309 District of Columbia. District of...

  10. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination. (a... Organization (e.g., natural disaster, plant closure, overall economic downturn, sudden and severe economic... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District modification...

  11. INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT--IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VUILLEMOT, L.D.

    THE COMPOUNDING PROBLEMS OF A SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN A SCHOOL DISTRICT OF LESS THAN 15,000 POPULATION ARE OUTLINED BY THE DIRECTOR OF SPECIAL EDUCATION IN AN INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT IN ILLINOIS. A VARIETY OF ADAPTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IS CONSIDERED. THE DEVELOPMENT SINCE 1959-60 OF THE SPECIAL EDUCATION DISTRICT WHICH NOW SERVES…

  12. Inventory Control of Fixed Assets by School District Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul E.

    By July 1, 1966, each school district in New York State was required to install a system of property accounting. This pamphlet provides a suggested method of property accounting to assist school districts in meeting this requirement. In addition, suggestions are made to help the districts record the information needed for fire insurance purposes.…

  13. 33 CFR 3.85-1 - Seventeenth district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seventeenth district. 3.85-1 Section 3.85-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-1...

  14. How State Takeover School Districts Shake Up Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many state departments of education have taken over low-performing schools or districts as a school turnaround strategy. Recently, that strategy has shifted to creating new districts--managed by the state--that include schools and parts of districts that face challenges in performance. The governance structure brings…

  15. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  16. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  17. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  18. 27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District... Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  19. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  20. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  1. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  2. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  3. 77 FR 66182 - Race to the Top-District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Register (77 FR 49654) a notice inviting applications for the Race to the Top--District competition. That... to the Top--District AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice reopening the Race to the Top--District competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)...

  4. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  6. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  7. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  8. Potential role of district heating in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Karkheck, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential market penetration of district heating in the US is discussed. Estimates of optimal service levels, capital investment, and energy conservation potential are discussed. The technological concept of modern district heating and specific assessments of district heating in the US are briefly described. (MCW)

  9. Literacy Coach Role Implementation: How District Context Influences Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangin, Melinda M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the outcomes of one regional intermediate school district's effort to promote literacy coach role implementation in its 20 constituent districts. The findings from this study provide information about the kinds of district-level contexts that influenced literacy coach role implementation and how those contexts were…

  10. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section 167.5 Indians... Land management districts. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has established and will retain the present land management districts within the Navajo Indian Reservation, based on the social and...

  11. Collaborating with the Community: Lessons from a Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on case study research, highlights how a rural school district in the midwestern United States collaborated with local community organizations to meet the needs of English language learners after the district and community experienced rapid ethnic diversification. In particular, the district EL coordinator spearheaded the…

  12. SOME RESULTS OF A SIMULATION OF AN URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SISSON, ROGER L.

    A COMPUTER PROGRAM WHICH SIMULATES THE GROSS OPERATIONAL FEATURES OF A LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICT IS DESIGNED TO PREDICT SCHOOL DISTRICT POLICY VARIABLES ON A YEAR-TO-YEAR BASIS. THE MODEL EXPLORES THE CONSEQUENCES OF VARYING SUCH DISTRICT PARAMETERS AS STUDENT POPULATION, STAFF, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT, NUMBERS AND SIZES OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS, SALARY,…

  13. Fund Raising in California School Districts. A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Thomas W.; Hughes, K. Scott

    The results of a 1982 survey of California school districts concerning their efforts at private fundraising are presented here. It was found that 123 (or 61 percent) of responding districts either have programs or are planning programs. Although six districts raised more than $100,000 in 1981-82, the majority raised less that $20,000. Of the 66…

  14. 13 CFR 305.5 - Project administration by District Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project administration by District Organization. 305.5 Section 305.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION... § 305.5 Project administration by District Organization. (a) When a District Organization is not...

  15. Healthy Schools Initiative: Implementation Study in Four San Mateo County School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrich, Lisa; Sanchez, Monika; Strobel, Karen; Duong, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The Sequoia Healthcare District (SHD), in collaboration with four local school districts--Belmont-Redwood Shores School District (BRSSD), Redwood City School District (RCSD), San Carlos School District (SCSD), and Sequoia Union High School District (SUHSD)--launched the Healthy Schools Initiative (HSI) in August 2010. This three-year initiative is…

  16. School District-Census Geo-Reference File for Illinois for 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, Vernon C.; Chaudhari, Ramesh B.

    A first draft of a School District-Census Geo-Reference File for Illinois for 1980 has been completed. In this file each census enumeration district or block group is matched with the appropriate school district or districts. Companion files have also been developed for community college districts, area vocational education districts, and for a…

  17. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-01-01

    Background Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary health care. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. Setting The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. Method This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Results Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. Conclusions The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development. PMID:26842516

  18. A Study of the Impact of a K-12 School District-University Doctoral Cohort on District Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenological study examined how a K-12 school district-university partnership impacted a school district's leadership from the perspectives of cohort members and non-cohort members. The doctoral cohort consisted of 22 candidates. The intent of the program was to merge theory with best practice and to focus on increasing the district's…

  19. Excerpts from inside the Black Box School District Spending on Professional Development in Education: Lessons from Five Urban Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Odden, Allan; Fermanich, Mark; Archibald, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    As districts struggle to meet the demands of standards-based reform and requirements for "highly qualified" teachers in the face of increasing fiscal constraints, professional development has the potential to be a significant part of a district's improvement strategy. To use dollars effectively, districts need to think about how to best integrate…

  20. Promoting Excellence: "Good to Great", NYC's District 2, and the Case of a High-Performing School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two celebrated studies--New York City Community School District 2 (Elmore & Burney, 1999), and "Good to Great" (Collins, 2001), which examined sustained success in American corporations--to the case of a single high-performing school district. The question of interest concerns how school districts achieve and maintain high…

  1. Lessons Learned in Systemic District Reform: A Cross-District Analysis from the Comprehensive Aligned Instructional System (CAIS) Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Louise Bay; Vargo, Merrill

    2008-01-01

    Urban district reform has been hampered by the challenge of understanding and supporting the tremendous complexity of district change. Improving this understanding through actionable, practice-based research is the purpose of this study. The authors began the study with the hypothesis that achieving districts both align their instructional systems…

  2. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Houston Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Houston Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In…

  3. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Houston Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Houston Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In…

  4. Full-Day Kindergarten: A Case Study on the Perceptions of District Leaders in Four Suburban Pennsylvania School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the reasons why suburban district leaders opted for full-day or half-day kindergarten programming in a sample of four local suburban districts operating such programs in Southeastern, Pennsylvania. The primary data source was interviews with key district leaders including school board members, superintendents,…

  5. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Los Angeles Unified School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Los Angeles Unified School District's student achievement in reading. In…

  6. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  7. Prevalence of HCV genotypes in district Mardan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The prevalence of chronic HCV infections in Pakistan is about 5%, with most individuals being infected with HCV genotype 3a. Data on HCV genotypes distribution across various districts of the country are scarce. One example is district Mardan from where such data is available only from 17 individuals. Accordingly, the present study aimed at determining HCV genotypes distribution among 177 HCV RNA positive individuals from district Mardan. Findings Serum samples (n = 215) from patients suspected of hepatitis C were collected and processed for Nested PCR based detection and subsequent genotyping. Gender-wise and age-wise differences in HCV prevalence and HCV genotypes distribution were determined by χ2 test. Out of the total 215 serum samples, 177 were found to be positive for HCV RNA. The genotype 3a was the most predominant genotype among HCV RNA positive samples with a prevalence of 90.3%, followed by genotype 1a (5.6%), mixed genotypes (2.8%), genotype 3b (0.6%) and genotype 4 (0.6%). The HCV prevalence was higher in young individuals than old people and was indicative of reduced survival rate beyond 40 years. Conclusion HCV genotype 3a is the most predominant genotype in district Mardan. The state of the art preventive and therapeutic strategies should be implemented to control the spread of HCV infections. Further temporal studies involving different geographical areas of Pakistan, are required to improve the control measures for HCV infection. PMID:23514695

  8. District heating system, City of Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, T.

    1984-06-01

    An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140{sup 0}F water available to the Mark West Development, about five miles to the west of the city. The city district heating system is based on a supply water temperature of 175{sup 0}F and 120{sup 0}F return temperature. The capital cost estimate for Option 1 is $3,140,000. The resultant savings in conventional energy cost over a 20 year project life, assuming 12% bond financing, show a present worth of $4,074,000. This shows that the project should be economically feasible. The capital cost for Option 2 is estimated to be $4,230,000. The additional cost of Option 2 over Option 1, $1,090,000, will have to be recovered by the fee charged to the Mark West Development users for the water made available to them. Since, however, this use is unknown an evaluation of the economic feasibility of Option 2 cannot be made at this time.

  9. The influence of human rights on district nurse practice.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2009-10-01

    In the decade since its introduction, the Human Rights Act 1998 has had a profound effect on the way district nurses practice. New laws underpinning the principles and obligations of human rights law have seen a gradual legalisation of health care and a reigning in of the discretionary powers of health professionals such as district nurses.This article reflects on the Human Rights Act 1998's influence on district nurse practice. PMID:19966686

  10. Attachment of Young People to Their Home District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkkonen, Merja

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on young people's attachment to their home district. The purpose of this study was to establish how attached young people aged 17 were to their home district and what factors were involved in young people's attachment to their home districts. The structure of the young people's lives was studied on the basis of…

  11. Treatability/feasibility study for district water quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-01

    The South Adams County Water and Sanitation District`s most productive shallow alluvial wells are contaminated with a number of volatile organic chemicals. In addition, previous and ongoing studies by various agencies have detected several nonvolatile organic contaminants clearly associated with Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) operations in the northern portion of the existing District area and throughout the western half of the area north and west of RMA. This area is ultimately planned as an addition to the District`s present service area. The District retained the services of James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. (JMM) to evaluate treatment alternatives for removal of organics contaminants and softening. The objectives of the study are outlined in the District`s request for proposals dated October 11, 1985. In general, the objectives are: to establish, through an analysis of cost and availability, potential sources of supply for the current and projected District water demands; based on requirements of the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency, develop treated water quality goals; and select the most feasible treatment for organic contaminant removal with consideration of cost, constructability and reliability in meeting treated water quality goals.

  12. Political Change in a School District Leading to Cultural Change in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra

    To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…

  13. The Need for District Support for School Reform: What the Researchers Say. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Deborah

    This article focuses on the school district's role in implementing Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). Research shows that effective district support for CSR varies from district to district. This is due, in part, to the fact that many prior models bypassed the district, operating under the belief that reform would be more effective if it targeted…

  14. Cancer death rates in US congressional districts.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rebecca L; Sahar, Liora; Portier, Kenneth M; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the cancer burden is important for informing and advocating cancer prevention and control. Mortality data are readily available for states and counties, but not for congressional districts, from which representatives are elected and which may be more influential in compelling legislation and policy. The authors calculated average annual cancer death rates during 2002 to 2011 for each of the 435 congressional districts using mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the US Census Bureau. Age-standardized death rates were mapped for all sites combined and separately for cancers of the lung and bronchus, colorectum, breast, and prostate by race/ethnicity and sex. Overall cancer death rates vary by almost 2-fold and are generally lowest in Mountain states and highest in Appalachia and areas of the South. The distribution is similar for lung and colorectal cancers, with the lowest rates consistently noted in districts in Utah. However, for breast and prostate cancers, while the highest rates are again scattered throughout the South, the geographic pattern is less clear and the lowest rates are in Hawaii and southern Texas and Florida. Within-state heterogeneity is limited, particularly for men, with the exceptions of Texas, Georgia, and Florida. Patterns also vary by race/ethnicity. For example, the highest prostate cancer death rates are in the West and north central United States among non-Hispanic whites, but in the deep South among African Americans. Hispanics have the lowest rates except for colorectal cancer in Wyoming, eastern Colorado, and northern New Mexico. These data can facilitate cancer control and stimulate conversation about the relationship between cancer and policies that influence access to health care and the prevalence of behavioral and environmental risk factors. PMID:26208318

  15. District cooling in Stockholm using sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Fermbaeck, G.

    1995-12-31

    In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

  16. The Three Essentials: Improving Schools Requires District Vision, District and State Support, and Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Schmidt-Davis, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This research is part of a comprehensive effort to pinpoint the key leadership factors that improve student achievement and increase the number of high school graduates who are ready for college and careers. In this study, SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) examined the role of the district office in providing principals with the working…

  17. When Districts Drive Leadership Preparation Partnerships: Lessons from Six Urban District Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Margaret Terry

    2012-01-01

    This article is a cross-case analysis drawing on case study research conducted in 2009-2010 on six leadership preparation programs and their district-university affiliation, using research on consumer action and inter-organizational relationships to understand their relationships in developing leadership preparation programs. The six urban…

  18. Wisconsin District Case Study. A Report and Estimating Tool for K-12 School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for School Networking, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Wisconsin case study school district is primarily urban and growing with 21,500 students on 40 campuses. This document contains case studies that are presented in the same format at the 2003 studies, but also have a focus on additional technologies beyond the base distributed computing model. These new technologies are voice/data integration,…

  19. The Little District that Could: The Process of Building District-School Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhuon, Vichet; Gilkey, Elizabeth M.; Gonzalez, Margarita; Daly, Alan J.; Chrispeels, Janet H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes how trust emerged as an issue in one school district and the processes by which central office administrators enhanced trust with its school site leaders. Method: This exploratory participant observer case study uses multiple sources of data including surveys, interviews, observations, and documents collected during…

  20. Districts Developing Leaders: Lessons on Consumer Actions and Program Approaches from Eight Urban Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Margaret Terry; King, Cheryl; LaPointe, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Developing school leaders who are equipped with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to effectively lead low-performing schools has become a critical goal for local school districts intent on dramatically improving student outcomes. Given the current criticism surrounding leadership preparation programs and the changing nature of school…