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1

Parental roles of male and female thick-billed murres and razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador  

E-print Network

Parental roles of male and female thick-billed murres and razorbills at the Gannet Islands Institution, Washington, DC, USA) (Accepted: 4 January 2006) Summary We studied female and male parental roles indicated different female and male parental roles at the breeding site but not a female-biased allocation

Jones, Ian L.

2

Geology and geochemistry of Gannet (Karewa) Island, Tasman Sea: A rift?related nephelinitic tuff ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Karewa) Island is a small (0.06 km) island situated in the Tasman Sea, northwest of Kawhia Harbour, western North Island, New Zealand. It consists of well indurated, palagonitic tuff and lapilli tuff with subordinate scoriaceous basalt bombs and blocks (Karewa Volcanic Formation) which are considered to represent the eroded remnants of a tuff ring. Evidence for this includes such

R. M. Briggs; M. D. Rosenberg; P. J. de Lange; T. Itaya; P. R. King; R. C. Price

1997-01-01

3

Pursuit plunging by northern gannets (Sula bassana) \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern gannets ( Sula bassana ) are considered to obtain prey usually by rapid, vertical, shallow plunge dives. In order to test this contention and investigate underwater foraging behaviour, we attached two types of data-logging systems to 11 parental northern gannets at Funk Island in the North-West Atlantic. We documented, for the ¢ rst time to the authors' knowledge, gannets

Stefan Garthe; Silvano Benvenuti; William A. Montevecchi

2000-01-01

4

Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.  

PubMed

Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

2015-02-01

5

Northern gannets anticipate the spatio-temporal occurrence of their prey.  

PubMed

Seabirds, as other marine top predators, are often assumed to forage in an unpredictable environment. We challenge this concept and test the hypothesis that breeding Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) anticipate the spatio-temporal occurrence of their prey in the English Channel. We analyzed 23 foraging tracks of Northern gannets breeding on Rouzic Island (Brittany) that were recorded using GPS loggers during 2 consecutive years. All birds commuted between the breeding colony and foraging areas located at a mean distance of 85 km and 72 km (in 2005 and 2006, respectively) from the colony. Mean linearity indices of the outbound and inbound trips were between 0.83 and 0.87, approaching a beeline path to and from the foraging area. Additional parameters (flight speed, and number and duration of stopovers at sea) for the outbound and inbound trip were not statistically different, indicating that birds are capable of locating these feeding areas in the absence of visual clues, and to pin-point their breeding site when returning from the sea. Our bearing choice analysis also revealed that gannets anticipate the general direction of their foraging area during the first 30 min and the first 10 km of the trip. These results strongly suggest that birds anticipate prey location, rather than head into a random direction until encountering a profitable area. Further investigations are necessary to identify the mechanisms involved in seabird resource localization, such as sensorial abilities, memory effects, public information or a combination of these factors. PMID:20581265

Pettex, E; Bonadonna, F; Enstipp, M R; Siorat, F; Grémillet, D

2010-07-15

6

Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: Can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?  

PubMed

Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and ?-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony. PMID:25449633

Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

2015-03-01

7

Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles the educational system of Newfoundland and Labrador and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. Agency coordination of services is…

Timmons, Vianne; Smith, Brenda

2003-01-01

8

Windscape and tortuosity shape the flight costs of northern gannets.  

PubMed

When animals move across a landscape, they alternate between active searching phases in areas with high prey density and commuting phases towards and in-between profitable feeding patches. Such active searching movements are more sinuous than travelling movements, and supposedly more costly in energy. Here we provide an empirical validation of this long-lasting assumption. To this end, we evaluated simultaneously energy expenditure and trajectory in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) using GPS loggers, dive recorders and three-dimensional accelerometers. Three behavioural states were determined from GPS data: foraging, when birds actively searched for prey (high tortuosity, medium speed); travelling, when birds were commuting (straight trajectory, high speed); and resting (straight trajectory, low speed). Overall dynamic body acceleration, calculated from acceleration data, was used as a proxy for energy expenditure during flight. The impact of windscape characteristics (wind force and direction) upon flight costs was also tested. Energy expenditure of northern gannets was higher during sinuous foraging flight than during more rectilinear travelling flight, demonstrating that turns are indeed costly. Yet wind force and direction also strongly shaped flight energy expenditure; within any behavioural state it was less costly to fly with the wind than against it, and less costly to fly with strong winds. Despite the major flight costs of wind action, birds did not fully optimize their flight track relative to wind direction, probably because of prey distributions relative to the coastline and wind predictability. Our study illustrates how both tortuosity and windscape shape the foraging costs of marine predators such as northern gannets. PMID:24622894

Amélineau, Françoise; Péron, Clara; Lescroël, Amélie; Authier, Matthieu; Provost, Pascal; Grémillet, David

2014-03-15

9

The marine distribution of the Gannet Sula bassana in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall pattern of counts made at sea reflects the well-known seasonal movements of Gannets. During the breeding season, fishing trips rarely exceed 150 km from colony and most are below one-third of that distance.

M. L. Tasker; P. Hope Jones; B. F. Blake; T. J. Dixon

1985-01-01

10

CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving.  

PubMed

Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode. PMID:23851321

Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

2013-09-01

11

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste.  

PubMed

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds now feed extensively on fishery wastes. These are beneficial to non-breeding birds, which show reduced feeding effort and high survival. By contrast, breeding gannets double their diving effort in an attempt to provision their chicks predominantly with high-quality, live pelagic fishes. Owing to a scarcity of this resource, they fail and most chicks die. Our study supports the junk-food hypothesis for Cape gannets since it shows that non-breeding birds can survive when complementing their diet with fishery wastes, but that they struggle to reproduce if live prey is scarce. This is due to the negative impact of low-quality fishery wastes on the growth patterns of gannet chicks. Marine management policies should not assume that fishery waste is generally beneficial to scavenging seabirds and that an abundance of this artificial resource will automatically inflate their populations. PMID:18270155

Grémillet, David; Pichegru, Lorien; Kuntz, Grégoire; Woakes, Anthony G; Wilkinson, Sarah; Crawford, Robert J M; Ryan, Peter G

2008-05-22

12

Newfoundland and Labrador Rural Dialogue  

E-print Network

of Newfoundland and Labrador. It represents a brief synopsis of a range of issues identified as important of trends or characteristics, or that are within provincial management jurisdiction. It is important most rural areas are growing, their growth is not keeping pace with that of Census Metropolitan Areas

deYoung, Brad

13

Mercury and organochlorines in eggs from a Norwegian gannet colony  

SciTech Connect

The materials for this study consisted of addled eggs that were collected shortly after the laying season and stored frozen until analysis took place. The collection site is located near Nordmjele at 69/sup 0/ 08' N in northern Norway. Eggs were analyzed for DDE, PCBs and HCB by a gas chromatographic method described by BJERK and SUNDBY (1970). The PCBs were determined via pattern recognition using the commercial PCB standard Aroclor 1254, and the sum of peaks numbers 7, 8, and 10 was used (JENSEN 1972). Analysis for total mercury by flameless atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry followed the procedure of HATCH and OTT (1968). Results show a significant decrease in DDE as well as PCBs levels had taken place between the years 1972 and 1978. The 1979 data support the hypothesis that this indicates a trend as the average DDE and PCBs concentrations dropped further by 33 and 43 per cent, respectively. Only the eggs collected in 1979 were analyzed for HCB. The concentrations were very low (0.033 +/- 0.0018 ppm). The average mercury levels increased from 0.58 ppm in 1972 to 0.80 ppm in 1978 and then dropped to 0.36 ppm the following year. The present levels of DDE, PCBs, and HCB are well below those that by experience have caused problems as, for example, eggshell thinning. The mercury concentrations come closer to such levels as 0.5 ppm of mercury in eggs have been associated with reproductive impairment in pheasants. However, since fish and seafood in general, which constitute the diet of gannets, are rich in selenium, a strong antagonist to mercury such concentrations are probably well within safe limits too.

Fimreite, N. (Telemark College, BO, Norway); Brevik, E.M.; Torp, R.

1982-01-01

14

Perceptions of Distance Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: 1999 2009  

E-print Network

Perceptions of Distance Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: 1999 ­ 2009 ........................................................................................................... 80 #12; 5 Perceptions of Distance Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: 1999 2009

Oyet, Alwell

15

Understanding Regional Governance in Newfoundland and Labrador  

E-print Network

Understanding Regional Governance in Newfoundland and Labrador A Survey of Regional Development of regional governance in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). We would first like to thank, and for their sponsorship of the Rural-Urban Interaction: Understanding and Managing Functional Regions project. The Canada-Newfoundland

deYoung, Brad

16

Contrasting foraging tactics by northern gannets ( Sula bassana ) breeding in different oceanographic domains with different prey fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to forage and to provision offspring effectively, seabirds negotiate a complex of behavioural, energetic, environmental\\u000a and social constraints. In first tests of GPS loggers with seabirds in North America, we investigated the foraging tactics\\u000a of free-ranging northern gannets (Sula bassana) at a large and a medium-sized colony that differed in oceanography, coastal position and prey fields. Gannets at

Stefan Garthe; William A. Montevecchi; Gilles Chapdelaine; Jean-Francois Rail; April Hedd

2007-01-01

17

The diet of Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica and Northern Gannet Sula bassana chicks at a Shetland colony during a period of changing prey availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food of young Puffins and Gannets was examined between 1973 and 1988 on Hermaness, Unst. No prey other than fish was found in any year; 10 species were taken by Gannets and at least 13 by Puffins during this study period. Sandeel Ammodytes marinus was found to be the dominant prey species for Puffins in every sampling year except

A. R. Martin

1989-01-01

18

Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet.  

PubMed

Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Howland, Howard C; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E; Katzir, Gadi

2012-10-22

19

A NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENGLISH BIBLIOGRAPHY September 2010  

E-print Network

A NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ENGLISH BIBLIOGRAPHY September 2010 Sandra Clarke (clarkes at mun.ca) Linguistics Department, Memorial University St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador This bibliography updates, it does not include unpublished papers, including conference papers, which deal with Newfoundland

Oyet, Alwell

20

Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

2014-09-01

21

The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

2014-01-01

22

Surface Buoyant Plumes from Melting Icebergs in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) conducts annual surveys in the Labrador Sea along the repeat hydrography line AR7W. Since 2012, these shipboard surveys have been supplemented by underway CTD and optical measurements in the upper 200 m layer conducted with the towed undulating platform Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP). The MVP hydrographic data reveal rich variability of the upper layer salinity field on different spatial scales. The occupation of the AR7W line in May 2013 was followed by the experiment aimed at resolving the imprint of melting drifting icebergs on the upper layer thermohaline characteristics in the Labrador Sea. Here we present observations around two icebergs: the first iceberg drifted in relatively warm water of Atlantic origin (~2.5-3.1°C) off Greenland, while the second iceberg was on the Labrador shelf in cold water below 0°C. Both icebergs had a lengthscale of O(100 m). In both cases surface buoyant plumes fed by melt water and attached to the iceberg were observed. The plumes were evident in the anomalous thermohaline characteristics of the seawater. Their density anomalies were sufficiently strong to produce visible frontal structures, which imply a development of the intrinsic dynamics associated with a plume. The first plume formed over a time interval of ~10 hr, while the second plume formed over several days and extended for more than 1 km (tenfold the iceberg's size). Strong vertical displacements of the pycnocline were observed near the second iceberg. They are interpreted as the internal wave wake. This interpretation is based on the temporal scale of these oscillations (local buoyancy frequency), as well as on the spatial orientation of these waves with respect to the iceberg drift relative to the pycnocline. The observed internal waves partially overlapped with the plume and affected its structure. The saline seawater splashing by swell contributed to the surface melting of the icebergs. Scaling analysis of the observed plume suggests that it could be in the "rotational" dynamic regime with recirculating anticyclonic flow. In this case the melt water is trapped in the plume and affects the iceberg's thermodynamics and the rate of melt. These effects are likely to be more pronounced near bigger icebergs or ice islands, and will be a focus of our future observational campaign.

Yankovsky, Alexander; Yashayaev, Igor

2014-05-01

23

Flight destinations and foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana) preying on a small forage fish in a low-Arctic ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied data loggers (temperature-depth and GPS-temperature-depth) on individual birds in combination with dietary sampling and a vessel survey of prey availability to assess the foraging behaviour of northern gannets (Sula bassana, Linnaeus 1758) in a low-Arctic ecosystem in the NW Atlantic. We demonstrate that the gannets foraged almost exclusively on inshore and coastal aggregations of capelin. There was a

Stefan Garthe; William A. Montevecchi; Gail K. Davoren

2007-01-01

24

Flight destinations and foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana) preying on a small forage fish in a low-Arctic ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied data loggers (temperature-depth and GPS-temperature-depth) on individual birds in combination with dietary sampling and a vessel survey of prey availability to assess the foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana, Linnaeus 1758) in a low-Arctic ecosystem in the NW Atlantic. We demonstrate that the gannets foraged almost exclusively on inshore and coastal aggregations of capelin. There was a strong correspondence between the distributions of capelin and foraging gannets, and gannets exhibited persistence in successive foraging trips to the same foraging areas. The diving activity of gannets was highest during the early morning and evening, when capelin are known to be primarily available in the upper water column. Most of the gannets dive depths were less than 5 m. Flight speeds recorded by GPS were 9% higher than those estimated by previous methods and were shown to benefit from tail wind. This study shows how a combination of ship-based surveys and individually tagged birds can help understanding predator-prey intersection in a three-dimensional space in the marine environment.

Garthe, Stefan; Montevecchi, William A.; Davoren, Gail K.

2007-02-01

25

The Labrador Inuit Through Moravian Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started by Jan Hus in the late fourteenth century, the Moravian Church was one of the earliest Protestant movements to rebel against the Roman Catholic Church. Over the course of the seventeenth century, the Moravian Church was suppressed and they were forced to operate in secret. In the early eighteenth century, they were allowed to reestablish at the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. This community grew rapidly and became a center of Christian renewal and missionary work over the course of the century. In fact, the Moravian missionaries were the first large scale Protestant missionary movement and sent hundreds of missionaries to all parts of the globe. This work included missions to the coast of Labrador. This site, created by a joint effort of the University of Toronto Libraries, Memorial University Libraries, and the Biblioth'que de l'Universit" Laval, provides a thorough and fascinating look at the 250-year relationship between the Moravian missionaries and the Inuit of Labrador. The site includes background information on the Moravian Church, the Inuit, and Labrador as well as detailed looks at the various Moravian mission stations. After getting acquainted with the mission and the Inuit, visitors should be sure to check out both the interactive timeline and interactive map provided. The site also provides a teacher toolkit as well as a series of related links.

26

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-10-15

27

A virgin flight across the Tasman Sea? Satellite tracking of post-fledging movement in the Australasian Gannet Morus serrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies enable tracking of the route, duration, and destination of previously unassessed long-distance movements.\\u000a Fledgling Australasian Gannets Morus serrator from breeding populations in New Zealand had been reported to fly across the Tasman Sea to Australia, with this historic\\u000a knowledge derived from the recovery of banded carcasses and from observations of initial flight direction. We deployed Argos\\u000a satellite devices

Stefanie M. H. Ismar; Colin Hunter; Kevin Lay; Tamsin Ward-Smith; Peter R. Wilson; Mark E. Hauber

2010-01-01

28

The use of LANDSAT imagery to locate uncharted coastal features on the Labrador coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of several offshore islands, rocks and shoals on the Labrador Coast was performed, using LANDSAT imagery to assist in the location of uncharted hydrographic features. Several satellite coverages of the coast were studied prior to the survey, and suspected shoal points identified. Using map-derived control points and monocomparator measurements of the LANDSAT images, the positions of these points were determined by mathematical adjustment to an estimated position accuracy of 150 meters. As a result, on the survey, an uncharted island and eight uncharted drying rocks, which might easily have escaped detection from a survey ship, were verified and positioned. To check the accuracy of the coordinates derived from LANDSAT, three islands were positioned by standard ground survey methods. The positional differences, all less than 150 meters, are not plottable at the scale of the existing offshore charts. The LANDSAT positions were also used to control aerial photography of a shoal area for office compilation of a hydrographic chart.

Fleming, E. A.; Lelievre, D. D.

1977-01-01

29

Viewbook 2012-2013 Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

E-print Network

Changer Viewbook 2012-2013 Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada #12;imaginer and immersed in soulful, unique Newfoundland and Labrador culture. We make waves with kayak paddles, bold of MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND The largest university in Atlantic Canada, Memorial offers 100+ degree

Oyet, Alwell

30

Seasonal variability of the Labrador Current and shelf circulation off Newfoundland  

E-print Network

Seasonal variability of the Labrador Current and shelf circulation off Newfoundland Guoqi Han,1 models were established for the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf to investigate climatological monthly and along the Labrador and Newfoundland coasts. The Labrador Current is strong in the fall/winter and weak

deYoung, Brad

31

Excess Baggage for Birds: Inappropriate Placement of Tags on Gannets Changes Flight Patterns  

PubMed Central

Devices attached to flying birds can hugely enhance our understanding of their behavioural ecology for periods when they cannot be observed directly. For this, scientists routinely attach units to either birds' backs or their tails. However, inappropriate payload distribution is critical in aircraft and, since birds and planes are subject to the same laws of physics during flight, we considered aircraft aerodynamic constraints to explain flight patterns displayed by northern gannets Sula bassana equipped with (small ca. 14 g) tail- and back-mounted accelerometers and (larger ca. 30 g) tail-mounted GPS units. Tail-mounted GPS-fitted birds showed significantly higher cumulative numbers of flap-glide cycles and a higher pitch angle of the tail than accelerometer-equipped birds, indicating problems with balancing inappropriately placed weights with knock-on consequences relating to energy expenditure. These problems can be addressed by carefully choosing where to place tags on birds according to the mass of the tags and the lifestyle of the subject species. PMID:24671007

Vandenabeele, Sylvie P.; Grundy, Edward; Friswell, Michael I.; Grogan, Adam; Votier, Stephen C.; Wilson, Rory P.

2014-01-01

32

Excess baggage for birds: inappropriate placement of tags on gannets changes flight patterns.  

PubMed

Devices attached to flying birds can hugely enhance our understanding of their behavioural ecology for periods when they cannot be observed directly. For this, scientists routinely attach units to either birds' backs or their tails. However, inappropriate payload distribution is critical in aircraft and, since birds and planes are subject to the same laws of physics during flight, we considered aircraft aerodynamic constraints to explain flight patterns displayed by northern gannets Sula bassana equipped with (small ca. 14 g) tail- and back-mounted accelerometers and (larger ca. 30 g) tail-mounted GPS units. Tail-mounted GPS-fitted birds showed significantly higher cumulative numbers of flap-glide cycles and a higher pitch angle of the tail than accelerometer-equipped birds, indicating problems with balancing inappropriately placed weights with knock-on consequences relating to energy expenditure. These problems can be addressed by carefully choosing where to place tags on birds according to the mass of the tags and the lifestyle of the subject species. PMID:24671007

Vandenabeele, Sylvie P; Grundy, Edward; Friswell, Michael I; Grogan, Adam; Votier, Stephen C; Wilson, Rory P

2014-01-01

33

Epidemic shigellosis on a worktrain in Labrador.  

PubMed Central

An epidemic of shigellosis occurred on a worktrain in western Labrador in October 1974. During the outbreak 62 persons out of a crew of 91 became ill, 11 having recurrent illness; 14 were hospitalized. Epidemiologic analysis with laboratory confirmation implicated unchlorinated and contaminated lake water as the source of the epidemic. Faulty design of water storage tanks perpetuated the use of contaminated water; hence a second wave of illness occurred. The tanks were then thoroughly drained, cleaned and repaired. Many deficiencies in sanitation measures (most of which have since been rectified) were noted at the site of the epidemic as well as at other locations along the railway. Careful sanitation controls are essential in rapidly developing areas of northern Canada. PMID:788882

White, F. M.; Pedersen, A. T.

1976-01-01

34

Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

1982-09-01

35

Evolution of the Irminger Current anticyclones in the Labrador Sea from hydrographic data  

E-print Network

The continuous supply of heat and fresh water from the boundaries to the interior of the Labrador Sea plays an important role for the dynamics of the region and in particular, for the Labrador Sea Water formation. Thus, ...

Rykova, Tatiana

2006-01-01

36

The seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland current system in the Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

The Labrador Sea, as one of a few places of deep water formation, plays an important role in the Meridional Overturning Circulation. While the interior of the Labrador Sea, where the deepest convection takes place, is known ...

Rykova, Tatiana A

2010-01-01

37

Distribution and ventilation of water masses in the Labrador Sea inferred from CFCs and carbon tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive study of halocarbon tracers, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), based on over 100 stations in the Labrador Sea, demonstrated water mass structure and ventilation processes. Regional convection and isopycnal mixing of four water masses including newly ventilated Labrador Sea Water (LSWshallow), Labrador Sea Water produced in the winter of 1993–1994 (LSWdeep), North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW)

Kumiko Azetsu-Scott; E. Peter Jones; Robert M. Gershey

2005-01-01

38

Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Guidelines for research involving  

E-print Network

Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 1 Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Fern Brunger, PhD on behalf #12;Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 2 Table

Brownstone, Rob

39

Temporal and Spatial Scales of Labrador Sea Water Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labrador Sea Water is an intermediate water found at the same density and depth range in the North Atlantic as the Mediterranean water. It is formed by convection from the sea surface to depths greather than 2 km in winter in the Western Labrador Sea. The processes leading to deep convection begin with the formation of a 200 km scale cyclonic circulation about denser than average upper layer water in the Western Labrador Sea. This circulation pattern is hypothesized to be driven by an ocean/atmosphere heat exchange that has its maximum in this region. By early March, if deep convection is taking place, one sees that this body of denser upper waters penetrates to the top of the deep temperature/salinity maximum marking the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water. We note that the horizontal scale of this body is still 100-200 km normal to the coastline.

Clarke, R. A.

1984-01-01

40

Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.  

PubMed Central

To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region. Images PMID:7236572

Johnson, G J

1981-01-01

41

Carpal intra-articular blastomycosis in a Labrador retriever  

PubMed Central

A 6-month-old male castrated Labrador retriever was presented for coughing and forelimb lameness. Blastomyces dermatitidis was identified in cytology of sputum and synovial fluid. Repeat arthrocentesis 7 months later revealed resolution of septic arthritis. Fungal septic arthritis should be considered for cases of monoarthritis and may respond to oral itraconazole treatment. PMID:23904641

Woods, Katharine S.; Barry, Maureen; Richardson, Danielle

2013-01-01

42

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

E-print Network

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada FACULTY (709) 864-8851 or fax (709) 864- 2467 or e-mail deanfba@mun.ca. Memorial University is the largest university in Atlantic Canada. As the province's only university, Memorial plays an integral role

deYoung, Brad

43

Legislative Provisions for Special Education in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes legislative provisions supporting educational services for children with disabilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. It begins by providing educational history information and then reviews The Building Accessibility Act (1990), The Child, Youth and Family Services Act (1998), the Schools Act (1997), and the Human Rights Code…

Philpott, David; Nesbit, Wayne

2001-01-01

44

CES Case Competition: A Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Case Competition established by the Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter of the Canadian Evaluation Society based on the national Case Competition model. Describes the competition as an opportunity for students to gain skills, confidence, and contacts while working as teams. (SLD)

Courney, Bea; Etchegary, Holly

2003-01-01

45

Current Issues in Rural Education in Newfoundland and Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author has attempted to provide an overview of some of the issues and challenges confronting rural educators and parents in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. He has chosen to focus on three of the most pressing at this point in time: (1) declining enrollment and its consequences; (2) the continuing pressure on…

Mulcahy, Dennis M.

2007-01-01

46

An Abyssal Current in the Central Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) data collected along the repeat hydrographic section AR7W in the Labrador Sea has unveiled a new abyssal current, confined to a narrow trench extending from NW to SE over the entire abyssal basin and crossing AR7W in the center of the basin at about 57.8°N, 51.3°W. Maximum water depth in the trough is 75 - 100 m greater depth than the surrounding topography, and the current extends from about 160 m above the bottom to the bottom (3610 m), headed in a south to southeasterly direction. Maximum speeds of 10-20 cm s-1 occur in the deepest part of the current, implying a net transport of as much as 0.2 Sv of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Potential temperature and salinity in the bottom-intensified current tend to be well mixed below 3520 m, suggesting that the mixed bottom boundary layer is about 100 m thick. This V-shaped trench is part of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), which has been recognized as a turbidity current pathway by petrologists (Chough and Hesse, 1980; Chough et al., 1986). Another small trough intersects the main branch of the NAMOC where the abyssal current is observed, which may account for the varying direction of the current. This network of abyssal channels may provide a pathway for DSOW, entering the Labrador Sea around the southern tip of Greenland, to reach the central Labrador Sea with little delay. Indeed, Yashayaev and Dickson (2008) have noted the rapidity with which signals of hydrographic change in DSOW spread across the entire abyssal basin, reaching the central Labrador Sea within several months after their first appearance at the eastern boundary. Chough, S. K. and R. Hesse (1980). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea: III. Head spill vs. body spill deposits from turbidity currents on natural levees. J. of Sedimentary Petrology 50, 227-234. Chough, S. K., R. Hesse, and J. Muller (1987). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea. IV. Petrography and provenance of the sediments. Can. J. Earth Sci. 24, 731-740. Yashayaev, I., and R. R. Dickson (2008). Transformation and fate of overflows in the northern North Atlantic, in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate, edited by R. R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, pp. 505- 526, Springer, New York.

Hall, M. M.; Yashayaev, I.; Torres, D. J.

2012-12-01

47

Labrador current variability over the last 2000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice-loaded Labrador Current (LC) is an important component of the western North Atlantic circulation that influences the position and strength of the northern limb of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). This flow of cold and fresh Polar Waters originating from the Arctic has a marked impact on the North Atlantic climate, yet little is known about its variability beyond the instrumental period. In this study, we present the first sub-decadal alkenone-based 2000-year long sea-surface temperature (SST) records from the western Labrador Sea, a climatically crucial region at the boundary between the LC and the NAC. Our results show a clear link between the LC strength and the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), with a stronger NAM and a more vigorous LC during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). This suggests enhanced LC activity upon future global warming with implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).

Sicre, M.-A.; Weckström, K.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Kuijpers, A.; Benetti, M.; Masse, G.; Ezat, U.; Schmidt, S.; Bouloubassi, I.; Olsen, J.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

2014-08-01

48

Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

1991-09-01

49

Mesoscale physical variability affects zooplankton production in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface distribution (0-100 m) of zooplankton biomass and specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) activity, as a proxy of structural growth, were assessed during winter 2002 and spring 2004 in the Labrador Sea. Two fronts formed by strong boundary currents, several anticyclonic eddies and a cyclonic eddy were studied. The spatial contrasts observed in seawater temperature, salinity and fluorescence, associated with those mesoscale structures, affected the distributions of both zooplankton biomass and specific AARS activity, particularly those of the smaller individuals. Production rates of large organisms (200-1000 ?m) were significantly related to microzooplankton biomass (63-200 ?m), suggesting a cascade effect from hydrography through microzooplankton to large zooplankton. Water masses defined the biomass distribution of the three dominant species: Calanus glacialis was restricted to cold waters on the shelves while Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus finmarchicus were widespread from Canada to Greenland. Zooplankton production was up to ten-fold higher inside anticyclonic eddies than in the surrounding waters. The recent warming tendency observed in the Labrador Sea will likely generate weaker convection and less energetic mesoscale eddies. This may lead to a decrease in zooplankton growth and production in the Labrador basin.

Yebra, L.; Harris, R. P.; Head, E. J. H.; Yashayaev, I.; Harris, L. R.; Hirst, A. G.

2009-05-01

50

Local Governance, Creativity and Regional Development in Newfoundland and Labrador Lessons for Policy and Practice from Two Projects  

E-print Network

Local Governance, Creativity and Regional Development in Newfoundland and Labrador Lessons for Policy and Practice from Two Projects Celtic Rendezvous, Bauline East, Irish Loop, Newfoundland Development in Newfoundland and Labrador: Lessons for Policy and Practice from Two

deYoung, Brad

51

Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

Niiler, Pearn P.

2002-01-01

52

Boundary Current Eddies and Their Role in the Restratification of the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

An idealized model is used to study the restratification of the Labrador Sea after deep convection, with emphasis on the role of boundary current eddies shed near the west coast of Greenland. The boundary current eddies carry warm, buoyant Irminger Current water into the Labrador Sea interior. For a realistic end-of-winter state, it is shown that these Irminger Current eddies

Caroline A. Katsman; Michael A. Spall; Robert S. Pickart

2004-01-01

53

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR  

E-print Network

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Conference OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR May 16, 2007 St. John's Conference Report September and Development, Memorial University of Newfoundland www.mun.ca/harriscentre And The Oil and Gas Development

deYoung, Brad

54

A preliminary assessment of the true morels (Morchella) in Newfoundland and Labrador  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A preliminary assessment of true morels (Morchella) from Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) was obtained by using DNA sequence data from portions of three genes to identify 20 collections from Newfoundland and one from a remote location in Labrador. To place this work in a broader context, data on 25 co...

55

Surface buoyant plumes from melting icebergs in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) conducts annual surveys in the Labrador Sea along the repeat hydrography line AR7W. The occupation of the AR7W line in May 2013 was followed by the experiment aimed at resolving the imprint of melting drifting icebergs on the upper layer thermohaline characteristics in the Labrador Sea. We present high-resolution observations around two icebergs conducted with the towed undulating platform Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP). The first iceberg drifted in relatively warm water of Atlantic origin (~2.5-3.1 °C) off Greenland, while the second iceberg was on the Labrador shelf in cold water below 0 °C. Both icebergs had a lengthscale of O(100 m). In both cases surface buoyant plumes fed by melt water and attached to the iceberg were observed. The plumes were evident in the anomalous thermohaline characteristics of the seawater. Their density anomalies were sufficiently strong to produce visible frontal structures, which imply a development of the intrinsic dynamics associated with a plume. The first plume formed over a time interval of ~10 h, while the second plume formed over several days and extended for more than 1 km (tenfold the iceberg's size). Strong vertical displacements of the pycnocline were observed near the second iceberg. They are interpreted as the internal wave wake. This interpretation is based on the temporal scale of these oscillations (local buoyancy frequency), as well as on the spatial orientation of these waves with respect to the iceberg drift relative to the pycnocline. The observed internal waves partially overlapped with the plume and affected its structure. The saline seawater splashing by swell contributed to the surface melting of the icebergs. Scaling analysis of the second plume suggests that it could be in the “rotational” dynamic regime with recirculating anticyclonic flow.

Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Yashayaev, Igor

2014-09-01

56

Alimentary lymphosarcoma in a 4-year-old Labrador retriever.  

PubMed

Lymphosarcoma, a common canine hematopoietic neoplasm, occurs in multicentric, alimentary, mediastinal, and extranodal forms. Alimentary lymphoma accounts for approximately 5% of cases and is less easily diagnosed than the more common multicentric form. Chemotherapy is often effective, but recent therapeutic advances hold great promise for success in treating canine lymphoma. A 4-year-old, black Labrador retriever was presented (day 1) with a 2-day history of vomiting, polyuria/polydipsia, lethargy, and anorexia. The heart and respiratory rates were within normal limits, and the rectal temperature was 38.9 degrees C. Abdominal splinting was noted on palpation, which elicited urination. No obvious additional abnormalities were detected. PMID:15317395

Lowe, Andrew D

2004-07-01

57

Recent anthropogenic and climatic history of Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions of a poorly known and documented subarctic region, the Nunatsiavut (northern Labrador). A multiproxy approach was chosen, using fossil dinoflagellate cysts, diatoms and pollen from sediment cores taken into three fjords (Nachvak 59°N, Saglek 58.5°N, and Anaktalak 56.5°N). It allowed estimating terrestrial and marine influences in each fjord and documenting the recent history of human activities of the southern fjords (Saglek and Anaktalak). Fossil pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages allowed depicting the climate history of the region over the last ~200-300 years. In contrast to the general warming trend observed in the arctic and subarctic Canada since the beginning of the Industrial Era, the Nunatsiavut has experienced relative climate stability over this period. Fossil pollen data show a shift of the tree limit to the south illustrating the cooling of terrestrial conditions. Our reconstructions suggest that the Labrador region has remained climatically stable over the last ~150-300 years, with just a slight cooling trend of the reconstructed sea surface temperatures, only perceptible in Saglek and Anaktalak fjords.

Richerol, Thomas; Pienitz, Reinhard; Rochon, André

2014-09-01

58

Spindle cell ameloblastic carcinoma in a labrador retriever dog.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old castrated male Labrador retriever dog presented with a mass caudal to the first molar of his left mandible. Although the tumor was excised, a recurrent tumor was detected one month later and resected. Both tumors displayed invasive growth and were composed of neoplastic proliferation arranged in irregular lobules, nests and cords continuous with mucosal epithelium. The most prominent feature of the tumors was the presence of many proliferating spindle cells admixed with palisading basal-like cells, acanthocytes and stellate cells. In immunohistochemical examinations, the spindle cells were found to be positive for vimentin; cytokeratin AE1/AE3, 5/6, 14 and 19; and p63. The other neoplastic cells were positive for all of these markers shown above except vimentin. Based on these findings, the tumors were diagnosed as spindle cell ameloblastic carcinoma. PMID:23229541

Hatai, Hitoshi; Iba, Mitsuru; Kojima, Daisuke; Park, Chun-Ho; Tsuchida, Yasuhiko; Oyamada, Toshifumi

2013-01-01

59

Duplicated ectopic ureter in a nine-year-old Labrador.  

PubMed

A nine-year-old male neutered Labrador retriever presented with a history of chronic urinary tract infections and occasional dribbling of urine. Abdominal ultrasound showed changes suggestive of a left ectopic ureter. A pneumocystogram revealed an air-filled distended tubular and tortuous structure extending from the region of the prostatic urethra to the left kidney, consistent with an ectopic ureter. Intravenous urography depicted the presence of an additional left ureter with only slightly larger diameter than the right and with normal insertion in the bladder neck. A duplicated ectopic left ureter was suspected and confirmed during surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a duplicated ectopic ureter in the canine species. The combination of ultrasound and contrast radiography was important to reach the diagnosis. PMID:23551207

Novellas, R; Stone, J; Pratschke, K; Hammond, G

2013-07-01

60

Jets over Labrador and Quebec: noise effects on human health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the noise from low-level flights over Labrador and Quebec is harmful to human health. DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: Search of MEDLINE for articles on the effect of noise, particularly impulse noise associated with low-level flights, and a search of the references from identified articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: The noise levels from low-level flights could affect hearing acuity. However, the more important consequences appear to be stress-mediated physiologic effects, especially cardiovascular ones, and psychologic distress, particularly in children. Subjective perception of control over the noise has been found to mitigate some physiologic effects. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to show that the noise from low-level flights is harmful to human health. PMID:2007238

Rosenberg, J

1991-01-01

61

Attracting and Retaining Immigrants to Newfoundland and Labrador: Dr. Lan Gien and Dr. Rebecca Law  

E-print Network

Attracting and Retaining Immigrants to Newfoundland and Labrador: Dr. Lan Gien and Dr. Rebecca Law University (MUN) By Lan Gien, PhD., Professor, School of Nursing, MUN Rebecca Law, PharmD., Associate

deYoung, Brad

62

Labrador tea - the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.  

PubMed

Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5?min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25156477

Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

2014-08-25

63

Instabilities in the Labrador Sea water mass structure during the last climatic cycle  

E-print Network

Hillaire-Marcel and Guy Bilodeau Abstract: In the modern Labrador Sea, the North Atlantic deep water of the North Atlantic deep water, respectively. A drastically different structure characterized the glacial

Long, Bernard

64

State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model  

E-print Network

Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...

Fenty, Ian Gouverneur

2010-01-01

65

Petroleum exploration and resource potential of offshore Newfoundland and Labrador  

SciTech Connect

The continental margin of Newfoundland and Labrador, encompassing a total area of 714,000 mi/sup 2/ (1,849,252 km/sup 2/) has been the target of exploratory activity since the early 1960s. Exploratory drilling began on the Grand Banks in 1966 and by 1974 a total of 40 dry wells had been drilled. In 1979 wildcat drilling resumed on the Grand Banks and the Hibernia field was discovered with the drilling of the P-15 well. This well, with an estimated flow potential of more than 20,000 BOPD, was the first oil well drilled on the Atlantic shelf of North America capable of commercial production. Truly a giant, the Hibernia structure has a resource potential of 1.85 billion bbl of oil and 2.0 tcf of gas at a probability level of 50%. Six significant oil discoveries have been made on the Grand Banks. The reservoirs are fluvial-deltaic and shoreline sandstones of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. Since 1971, 25 wells drilled on the Labrador Shelf resulted in one oil and five gas discoveries. The reservoirs are Paleozoic carbonates and Lower Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene sandstones. All are capping or draping basement horst blocks. By the end of 1982, total exploratory efforts had resulted in the drilling of 86 wells and the acquisition of approximately 240,000 line-mi of marine reflection seismic. A total resource potential of these structures has been estimated at 14.7 billion bbl of oil and 88.6 tcf of gas at a 50% probability level. A commercial discovery was long in coming but the recent high success rates confirm this margin as a major frontier of enormous potential.

Burden, D.M.; Dobbin, J.; Sheppard, M.G.

1983-03-01

66

Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period.  

PubMed

The two main constituent water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean-North Atlantic Deep Water at the bottom and Labrador Sea Water at an intermediate level-are currently formed in the Nordic seas and the Labrador Sea, respectively. The rate of formation of these two water masses tightly governs the strength of the global ocean circulation and the associated heat transport across the North Atlantic Ocean. Numerical simulations have suggested a possible shut-down of Labrador Sea Water formation as a consequence of global warming. Here we use micropalaeontological data and stable isotope measurements in both planktonic and benthic foraminifera from deep Labrador Sea cores to investigate the density structure of the water column during the last interglacial period, which was thought to be about 2 degrees C warmer than present. Our results indicate that today's stratification between Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water never developed during the last interglacial period. Instead, a buoyant surface layer was present above a single water mass originating from the Nordic seas. Thus the present situation, with an active site of intermediate-water formation in the Labrador Sea, which settled some 7,000 years ago, has no analogue throughout the last climate cycle. PMID:11323666

Hillaire-Marcel, C; de Vernal, A; Bilodeau, G; Weaver, A J

2001-04-26

67

The Social Dynamics of Economic Performance: Innovation and Creativity in City-Regions Newfoundland and Labrador Project Preliminary Findings St. John's, Clarenville, Corner Brook & Labrador West  

E-print Network

The Social Dynamics of Economic Performance: Innovation and Creativity in City-Regions Newfoundland of Newfoundland and Labrador #12;Prepared by: Heather M. Hall Ph.D. Candidate Queen's University Kingston ON Tel .....................................................................................................................3! ISRN PROJECT ­ NATIONAL AND NEWFOUNDLAND OVERVIEW

deYoung, Brad

68

Lithospheric structure of the Labrador Sea from constrained 3-D gravity inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional inversions of free air gravity data constrained by bathymetric and sediment thickness information were undertaken over the Labrador Sea and its margins to generate 3-D density anomaly models to investigate broad-scale crustal structural variations across the extinct spreading centre. Benchmarked against independent seismic Moho depth constraints, a density anomaly isosurface within the inverted volumes was selected as a Moho-proxy and regional maps of Moho structure were developed. Inversions using two different sources for depth to basement constraints revealed similar Moho structures with a depth to Moho of 12 km beneath the Labrador Sea which deepens to 20 km and greater towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province. Density anomaly slices through the models corresponding to seismic lines show good agreement between the inverted Moho-proxy and the seismic Moho, with the only exceptions occurring where a high velocity lower crustal zone or underplate has been modelled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiling studies. The inverted depth to Moho estimates were combined with depth to basement constraints to investigate crustal thickness, both for the full crust and for individual crustal layers, revealing that the crust of the Labrador Sea is generally 5-10 km thick but thickens to 20-25 km towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province, not taking into account high density underplates or anomalously high density lower crust. Sediment and crustal thickness variations were investigated to compute stretching factors, ?, across the Labrador Sea and to identify zones which deviate from local isostatic compensation. Assuming both an initial unstretched crustal thickness of 35 km and using a variable unstretched crustal thickness model, much of the Labrador Sea has experienced 70-90 per cent thinning. The derived ? values suggest that embrittlement of the entire crust and serpentinization of the upper mantle are likely to have occurred for large portions of the central and southern Labrador Sea, inboard of known oceanic crust. Isostatic considerations reveal sediment excess and deficiency on the Labrador and Greenland margins, respectively, possibly reflecting fundamental rheological asymmetry, with the Greenland margin appearing weaker than the Labrador margin. A strong gradient from sediment deficiency to excess, exclusive to the Labrador margin, may reveal the southwestern limit of a regional graben bounding listric detachment or of a zone of distributed faults and detachments.

Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy

2013-11-01

69

The influence of meltwater on the Labrador Current in Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Current transports freshwater from the Arctic regions to the northern Atlantic and the freshwater flux can influence the meridional overturning circulation. The response of the Labrador Current to meltwater processes is unclear during the deglaciation of the ice sheets around the northwest Atlantic. This study utilized cores from Flemish Pass to monitor variations in the strength of the Labrador Current by using the sortable-silt proxy. The carbonate content, the amount of ice-rafted detritus and XRF chemical data were measured to identify the main meltwater events during the last deglaciation. This study observed a clear enhancement of the flow strength of the Labrador Current in Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas, with the greatest flow strength during the Younger Dryas event. The onset of the current enhancement was dated at ca 13 cal ka BP, which preceded the enhanced ice-rafted deposition in Hudson Strait by about one thousand years. The current enhancement in Flemish Pass during the Younger Dryas event corresponds to the freshening of the surface water. Thus meltwater preceding significant iceberg supply has an important effect on the Labrador Current in Heinrich events on the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin.

Li, Gang; Piper, David J. W.

2015-01-01

70

The Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Learning with Aboriginal Students: Findings from a Study in Coastal Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…

Philpott, David; Sharpe, Dennis; Neville, Rose

2009-01-01

71

Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador

Anderson, Kirk David

2007-01-01

72

The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

2012-12-01

73

Developing a Physician Management & Leadership Program (PMLP) in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

PubMed

Purpose - This article aims to document the process the province of Newfoundland and Labrador used to develop an innovative Physician Management and Leadership Program (PMLP). The PMLP is a collaborative initiative among Memorial University (Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Business), the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the Regional Health Authorities. As challenges facing health-care systems become more complex there is a growing need for management and leadership training for physicians. Design/methodology/approach - Memorial University Faculty of Medicine and the Gardiner Centre in the Faculty of Business in partnership with Regional Health Authorities and the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador identified the need for a leadership and management education program for physician leaders. A provincial needs assessment of physician leaders was conducted to identify educational needs to fill this identified gap. A Steering Committee was formed to guide the design and implementation and monitor delivery of the 10 module Physician Management and Leadership Program (PMLP). Findings - Designing management and leadership education programs to serve physicians who practice in a large, predominately rural geographic area can be challenging and requires efficient use of available resources and technology. Originality/value - While there are many physician management and leadership programs available in Canada and abroad, the PMLP was designed to meet the specific educational needs of physician leaders in Newfoundland and Labrador. PMID:25751247

Maddalena, Victor; Fleet, Lisa

2015-01-01

74

Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus in women screened for cervical cancer in Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background A higher incidence of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported in northern Canada and in First Nation, Métis and Inuit women, with some evidence to suggest that the HPV type distribution in these populations may be different from the rest of Canada. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the HPV type prevalence in Labrador women to determine if significant differences in HPV types could reduce the effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Design The prevalence of HPV types was determined in 1,370 women presenting for routine pap screening in Labrador between February and November 2010. Cervical cytology and HPV genotyping were performed on the same liquid-based cytology specimens. Results The overall prevalence of HPV was 21.4%; cytological abnormalities were found in 8.8% of the participants. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common high-risk HPV types. These two types were found in 52.4% of high-grade lesions. The prevalence in HPV infections was comparable across the Labrador regions. Conclusions The present results support the potential effectiveness of the HPV immunization program in Labrador. PMID:23440347

Severini, Alberto; Jiang, Ying; Brassard, Paul; Morrison, Howard; Demers, Alain A.; Oguntuase, Elizabeth; Al-Rushdi, Muna; Preston, Felicia; Ratnam, Samuel; Mao, Yang

2013-01-01

75

HUNTING FOR SECURITY: CHANGES IN THE EXPLOITATION OF MARINE BIRDS IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American wildlife exploitation, as exemplified in the seabird and seaduck hunts of Newfoundland and Labrador, was a basic means of food security in coastal communities. Patterns of need and exploitation changed radically since the arrival of Europeans who perceived abundant and inexhaustible wildlife populations. These perspectives often combined with adversarial approaches of securing livelihoods by \\

W. A. Montevecchi; H. Chaffey; C. Burke

76

Grammar without Speech Production: The Case of Labrador Inuttitut Heritage Receptive Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine morphosyntactic knowledge of Labrador Inuttitut by Inuit receptive bilinguals (RBs)--heritage speakers who are capable of comprehension, but produce little or no speech. A grammaticality judgment study suggests that RBs possess sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations, though to a lesser degree than fluent bilinguals. Low-proficiency…

Sherkina-Lieber, Marina; Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Johns, Alana

2011-01-01

77

Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea water from its source region to 26°N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than two decades of hydrography on the Abaco line east of the Bahamas at 26°N reveals decadal variability in the salinity of classical Labrador Sea Water (cLSW), despite the long distance from its source region in the North Atlantic Ocean. Hydrographic time series from the Labrador Sea and from the Abaco line show a pronounced step-like decrease in salinity between 1985 and 1995 in the Labrador Sea and between 1995 and 2010 at the Abaco line, suggesting a time lag between the two locations of approximately 9 years. The amplitude of the anomaly at the Abaco line is 50% of the amplitude in the Labrador Sea. A similar time lag and reduction of amplitude is found in the high-resolution OFES model, in which salinity anomalies can be observed propagating through the Deep Western Boundary Current as well as through a broad interior pathway. On its way south to the Abaco line, the cLSW becomes 8 standard deviations saltier due to isopycnal mixing with Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW). Climatological data in the North Atlantic suggests that the mixing ratio of MOW to cLSW at the Abaco line is 1:4 and that no variability in MOW is required to explain the observed variability at the Abaco line. The data studied here suggest that decadal cLSW anomalies stay relatively coherent while getting advected, despite the important role of interior pathways.

van Sebille, Erik; Baringer, Molly O.; Johns, William E.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Beal, Lisa M.; de Jong, M. Femke; van Aken, Hendrik M.

2011-12-01

78

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

79

Educational Psychologists' Perspectives on Their Professional Practice in Newfoundland and Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational psychology is in the midst of examination and potential change in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of published empirical research investigating educational psychology in the province. The current study surveyed educational psychologists from the four English districts in Newfoundland…

Harris, Gregory E.; Joy, Rhonda M.

2010-01-01

80

Teacher Education and Development in Newfoundland and Labrador in a Time of Restructuring and Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through reference to policy and research documents, this paper provides insight into how educational restructuring and reform are planned, presented, and implemented in Canada's Atlantic provinces, particularly Newfoundland and Labrador. It suggests that such reform and restructuring occur at the interface of a province's history, geography, and…

Samson, Florence

2001-01-01

81

WHERE DO YOU DRAW THE LINE? Regionalization in Newfoundland and Labrador  

E-print Network

WHERE DO YOU DRAW THE LINE? Regionalization in Newfoundland and Labrador A comparative synopsis of selected stakeholders' input #12;#12;Where do you draw the line? Regionalization in Newfoundland For the Leslie Harris Centre of Regional Policy and Development Memorial University of Newfoundland Jan. 25, 2008

deYoung, Brad

82

Maintaining Quality Programming in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: A Case Study in Policy and Structural Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newfoundland and Labrador has many rural communities, low literacy rates, high unemployment, declining enrollment and population, and teacher shortages. Policy responses have been to consolidate schools, increase rural teacher pay, increase teacher recruitment, implement distance learning and distance professional development, intensify…

Press, Harold; Galway, Gerald; Collins, Alice

2003-01-01

83

Matriculating Eastward: Maritime Student Migration to Newfoundland & Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, the number of both out-of-province Canadian and international students enrolled at Memorial University of Newfoundland has increased substantially. During this period, the enrollment levels of students from the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island have undergone an increase of approximately ten-fold.…

Kirby, Dale; Greene, Melanie; Bourgeois, Monique; Sharpe, Dennis

2011-01-01

84

Rare-earth elements and Nd and Pb isotopes as source indicators for Labrador Sea clay-size sediments during Heinrich event 2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elemental abundances and Nd and Pb isotope ratios were determined on samples from the carbonate-free, clay-size fractions of sediments from intervals above, within, and below Heinrich event 2 (H-2) in core HU87-9 from the Northwest Labrador Sea slope. In HU87-9, rare-earth element (REE) distributions and elemental concentrations within the H-2 event are distinct from those outside this event, ??Nd(0) and 206Pb/204Pb data also indicate different values for sediments deposited within and outside the H-2 event. Comparisons of REE patterns from the H-2 interval with those from bedrock units in Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and Labrador indicate that the Lake Harbour Group (LHG), which crops out on the north side of the Hudson Strait, is the most probable bedrock source of the clay-size fraction found within the H-2 interval in HU87-9. The Tasiuyak Gneiss (TG) and Lac Lomier Complex (LLC) have REE patterns (including a negative Eu anomaly) similar to those found in H-2 sediments; however, the La/Yb ratios of these units are smaller than those associated with H-2 sediments. The Nd and Pb isotope data support and complement REE-based interpretations of provenance; i.e., the Nd-Pb signatures of sediments deposited at the HU87-9 site during the H-2 event are similar to Nd-Pb signatures obtained on diamicts from the western end of Hudson Strait. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Benson, L.; Barber, D.; Andrews, J.T.; Taylor, H.; Lamothe, P.

2003-01-01

85

Time series study of CFC concentrations in the Labrador Sea during deep and shallow convection regimes (1991-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual measurements of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) along the Labrador Sea WOCE repeat section (AR7W) during 1991-2000 revealed increasing CFC-12 concentrations in the surface layer (<100 m), the newly ventilated Labrador Seawater (LSW), North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW), and Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). In newly ventilated LSW, CFC concentrations were influenced less by CFC concentrations in the atmosphere

Kumiko Azetsu-Scott; E. Peter Jones; Igor Yashayaev; Robert M. Gershey

2003-01-01

86

Time series study of CFC concentrations in the Labrador Sea during deep and shallow convection regimes (1991–2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual measurements of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) along the Labrador Sea WOCE repeat section (AR7W) during 1991–2000 revealed increasing CFC-12 concentrations in the surface layer (<100 m), the newly ventilated Labrador Seawater (LSW), North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW), and Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). In newly ventilated LSW, CFC concentrations were influenced less by CFC concentrations in the atmosphere

Kumiko Azetsu-Scott; E. Peter Jones; Igor Yashayaev; Robert M. Gershey

2003-01-01

87

Changes of the deep circulation and erosional inputs in the Labrador Sea over the late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of Labrador Sea Water has been one of the main contributors to the Atlantic thermohaline circulation influences the strength of NADW formation. In addition, the Labrador Sea has received weathering inputs of highly variable strength and sources. A high resolution downcore record recovered from south of Greenland (core MD99-2227) together with surface sediment samples from western part of Labrador Sea provides detailed information on deep sea and surface water circulation and through the Latest Quaternary. Radiogenic Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes are used as proxies for changes in water mass mixing and weathering inputs. Nd isotope data produced by leaching early sedimentary ferromanganese coatings reflect seawater compositions and show a pronounced trend towards less radiogenic values from the LGM to 12 kyr and then became less radiogenic again through the Holocene, which was most likely either linked to enhanced erosional input in the course of the retreat of the Laurentide Ice sheet or indicates enhanced contributions of a highly unradiogenic water mass such as Labrador Sea Water or diminished contributions of radiogenic Denmark Strait Overflow water. A major change in isotopic composition at 12 kyr towards more radiogenic isotope compositions is also observed in the leached 208,207,206Pb/204Pb data. Most notably, there was a pronounced change in the Pb isotope compositions at 8 kyr as well, which is not reflected by Nd or Hf isotope data and which reflects a major change in source provenance of the weathering inputs, most likely linked to the 8.2 kyr event, during which glacially dammed lakes Agassiz and Ojibway rapidly drained into the North Atlantic. This interpretation will be compared to the evidence from the radiogenic isotope evolution of the detrital fraction and of the clays. In contrast, with time leached Hf isotope data appear to be too radiogenic for Labrador Seawater but also show a marked unradiogenic peak at 12 kyr pointing to a strong influence of coatings preformed on land and in rivers. This is supported by the Hf isotope data being well above the seawater array when plotted against Nd isotopes. Based on the obtained data we reconstruct changes in the weathering inputs into the Labrador Sea and its current system, which has important implications for the reconstruction of the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and of North Atlantic Deep Water.

Filippova, A.; Frank, M.; Kienast, M.; Hillarie-Marcel, C.

2013-12-01

88

Linking the 8.2 ka Event and its Freshwater Forcing in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in (delta)18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that approx. 3 C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an 1.0 % decrease in western Labrador Sea (delta)18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic (delta)18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, C.

2012-01-01

89

Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection in a Labrador retriever with immune mediated haemolytic anaemia  

PubMed Central

Disseminated scedosporiosis is rare in dogs and is usually reported in German Shepherds with suspected heritable immunodeficiency. This is the first report of disseminated scedosporiosis due to Scedosporium prolificans in a Labrador retriever dog that was receiving immunosuppressive drug therapy for treatment of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia. Despite cessation of immunosuppressive medications and an initial response to aggressive treatment with voriconazole and terbinafine the dog developed progressive disease with neurological signs necessitating euthanasia six months from diagnosis. PMID:25473599

Taylor, Amanda; Talbot, Jessica; Bennett, Peter; Martin, Patricia; Makara, Mariano; Barrs, Vanessa R.

2014-01-01

90

Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection in a Labrador retriever with immune mediated haemolytic anaemia.  

PubMed

Disseminated scedosporiosis is rare in dogs and is usually reported in German Shepherds with suspected heritable immunodeficiency. This is the first report of disseminated scedosporiosis due to Scedosporium prolificans in a Labrador retriever dog that was receiving immunosuppressive drug therapy for treatment of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia. Despite cessation of immunosuppressive medications and an initial response to aggressive treatment with voriconazole and terbinafine the dog developed progressive disease with neurological signs necessitating euthanasia six months from diagnosis. PMID:25473599

Taylor, Amanda; Talbot, Jessica; Bennett, Peter; Martin, Patricia; Makara, Mariano; Barrs, Vanessa R

2014-10-01

91

Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

2013-01-01

92

Estimating aircraft SAR response characteristics and ocean wave spectra in the Labrador Sea Extreme waves Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Labrador Extreme Waves Experiment (LEWEX) was an international effort to assess methods of measuring and modeling the directional aspects of wind-generated ocean waves, especially their evolution in the presence of rapidly turning winds. The author describes data-processing methods that have been developed to derive estimates of two-dimensional wave height-variance spectra from the ocean imagery obtained in LEWEX by a

DAVID G. TILLEY

1989-01-01

93

Reimagining the Iglu: Modernity and the Challenge of the Eighteenth Century Labrador Inuit Winter House  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Inuit sod winter house or iglu has undergone a host of alterations over the past millennium, as housing styles were accommodated\\u000a to changing local milieus during the colonization of the Eastern Arctic. Many of these changes relate to subtle shifts in\\u000a gendered work and household social relations, and in Labrador from the eighteenth century some appear to reflect engagements

Peter Whitridge

2008-01-01

94

Labrador Sea convection and subpolar North Atlantic Deep Water export in the SODA assimilation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador Sea convection was most intense and reached the greatest depths in the early 1990s, followed by weaker, shallower, and more variable convection after 1995. The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) version 2.0.2\\/2.0.4 assimilation model is used to explore convective activity in the North Atlantic Ocean for the period from 1992 to 2007. Hydrographic conditions, which are relatively well observed

Friedrich A. Schott; Lothar Stramma; Benjamin S. Giese; Rainer Zantopp

2009-01-01

95

MTM1 mutation associated with X-linked myotubular myopathy in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the MTM1 gene encoding myotubularin cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a well-defined subtype of human centronuclear myopathy. Seven male Labrador Retrievers, age 14–26 wk, were clinically evaluated for generalized weakness and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsies showed variability in fiber size, centrally placed nuclei resembling fetal myotubes, and subsarcolemmal ringed and central dense areas highlighted with mitochondrial specific reactions. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the centrally located nuclei, abnormal perinuclear structure, and mitochondrial accumulations. Wild-type triads were infrequent, with most exhibiting an abnormal orientation of T tubules. MTM1 gene sequencing revealed a unique exon 7 variant in all seven affected males, causing a nonconservative missense change, p.N155K, which haplotype data suggest derives from a recent founder in the local population. Analysis of a worldwide panel of 237 unaffected Labrador Retrievers and 59 additional control dogs from 25 other breeds failed to identify this variant, supporting it as the pathogenic mutation. Myotubularin protein levels and localization were abnormal in muscles from affected dogs, and expression of GFP-MTM1 p.N155K in COS-1 cells showed that the mutant protein was sequestered in proteasomes, where it was presumably misfolded and prematurely degraded. These data demonstrate that XLMTM in Labrador Retrievers is a faithful genetic model of the human condition. PMID:20682747

Beggs, Alan H.; Böhm, Johann; Snead, Elizabeth; Kozlowski, Marek; Maurer, Marie; Minor, Katie; Childers, Martin K.; Taylor, Susan M.; Hitte, Christophe; Mickelson, James R.; Guo, Ling T.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Buj-Bello, Anna; Tiret, Laurent; Laporte, Jocelyn; Shelton, G. Diane

2010-01-01

96

Acquisition of a visual discrimination and reversal learning task by Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

Optimal cognitive ability is likely important for military working dogs (MWD) trained to detect explosives. An assessment of a dog's ability to rapidly learn discriminations might be useful in the MWD selection process. In this study, visual discrimination and reversal tasks were used to assess cognitive performance in Labrador retrievers selected for an explosives detection program using a modified version of the Toronto General Testing Apparatus (TGTA), a system developed for assessing performance in a battery of neuropsychological tests in canines. The results of the current study revealed that, as previously found with beagles tested using the TGTA, Labrador retrievers (N = 16) readily acquired both tasks and learned the discrimination task significantly faster than the reversal task. The present study confirmed that the modified TGTA system is suitable for cognitive evaluations in Labrador retriever MWDs and can be used to further explore effects of sex, phenotype, age, and other factors in relation to canine cognition and learning, and may provide an additional screening tool for MWD selection. PMID:24277162

Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Case, Beth C; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

2014-05-01

97

LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

2013-01-01

98

Muscular dystrophy in a family of Labrador Retrievers with no muscle dystrophin and a mild phenotype.  

PubMed

Animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy, most notably canine X-linked muscular dystrophy, play an important role in developing new therapies for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although the canine disease is a model of the human disease, the variable severity of clinical presentations in the canine may be problematic for pre-clinical trials, but also informative. Here we describe a family of Labrador Retrievers with three generations of male dogs having markedly increased serum creatine kinase activity, absence of membrane dystrophin, but with undetectable clinical signs of muscle weakness. Clinically normal young male Labrador Retriever puppies were evaluated prior to surgical neuter by screening laboratory blood work, including serum creatine kinase activity. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly increased in the absence of clinical signs of muscle weakness. Evaluation of muscle biopsies confirmed a dystrophic phenotype with both degeneration and regeneration. Further evaluations by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed the absence of muscle dystrophin. Although dystrophin was not identified in the muscles, we did not find any detectable deletions or duplications in the dystrophin gene. Sequencing is now ongoing to search for point mutations. Our findings in this family of Labrador Retriever dogs lend support to the hypothesis that, in exceptional situations, muscle with no dystrophin may be functional. Unlocking the secrets that protect these dogs from a severe clinical myopathy is a great challenge which may have important implications for future treatment of human muscular dystrophies. PMID:25813339

Vieira, Natassia M; Guo, Ling T; Estrela, Elicia; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana; Shelton, G Diane

2015-05-01

99

Calcium carbonate saturation states in the waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification is predicted to occur first in polar oceans. We investigated the saturation state of waters with respect to calcite (?cal) and aragonite (?arg) in six sections along an Arctic outflow pathway through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and into the northwestern Atlantic using dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity measurements from 2003 to 2005. The study area, a key region connecting the Arctic and the North Atlantic, includes Smith Sound, Barrow Strait, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. The average ?arg in the Arctic outflow was 1.18 ± 0.17 in Barrow Strait and 1.31 ± 0.14 in Smith Sound, with areas where ?arg < 1. The Arctic outflow through the CAA has a high content of Pacific waters, which have a low saturation state. These waters can be traced along the western Baffin Bay to Davis Strait. South of Davis Strait, this outflow is modified by mixing with slope and offshore waters of Atlantic origin and with the outflow from Hudson Strait. Despite the mixing, low saturation state water can still be identified on the southern Labrador Shelf. The aragonite saturation horizon is found at ˜150 m in Barrow Strait; at 200 m in Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and Hudson Strait; and at 2300 m in the Labrador Sea. This study provides baseline data of the saturation states for the waters of the CAA and the northwest Atlantic. It also illustrates the downstream evolution of low saturation state Arctic outflow in the northwest Atlantic.

Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Clarke, Allyn; Falkner, Kelly; Hamilton, James; Jones, E. Peter; Lee, Craig; Petrie, Brian; Prinsenberg, Simon; Starr, Michel; Yeats, Philip

2010-11-01

100

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

2005-12-16

101

Centronuclear Myopathy in Labrador Retrievers: A Recent Founder Mutation in the PTPLA Gene Has Rapidly Disseminated Worldwide  

PubMed Central

Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are inherited congenital disorders characterized by an excessive number of internalized nuclei. In humans, CNM results from ?70 mutations in three major genes from the myotubularin, dynamin and amphiphysin families. Analysis of animal models with altered expression of these genes revealed common defects in all forms of CNM, paving the way for unified pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms. Despite these efforts, some CNM cases remain genetically unresolved. We previously identified an autosomal recessive form of CNM in French Labrador retrievers from an experimental pedigree, and showed that a loss-of-function mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLA) gene segregated with CNM. Around the world, client-owned Labrador retrievers with a similar clinical presentation and histopathological changes in muscle biopsies have been described. We hypothesized that these Labradors share the same PTPLAcnm mutation. Genotyping of an international panel of 7,426 Labradors led to the identification of PTPLAcnm carriers in 13 countries. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the PTPLAcnm allele resulted from a single and recent mutational event that may have rapidly disseminated through the extensive use of popular sires. PTPLA-deficient Labradors will help define the integrated role of PTPLA in the existing CNM gene network. They will be valuable complementary large animal models to test innovative therapies in CNM. PMID:23071563

Guillaud, Laurent; Fender, Marilyn; Pelé, Manuel; Bilzer, Thomas; Olby, Natasha; Penderis, Jacques; Shelton, G. Diane; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Barthélémy, Inès; Aubin-Houzelstein, Geneviève; Blot, Stéphane; Hitte, Christophe; Tiret, Laurent

2012-01-01

102

Is there a north-south phase shift in the surface Labrador Current transport on the interannual-to-decadal scale?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of the Labrador Current has substantial interannual-to-decadal variability that may significantly impact the ocean climate and marine ecosystem off Atlantic Canada and Northeast United States. Nevertheless the alongshore coherence of the Labrador Current on the interannual-to-decadal scales has been a long standing question. Here we have used satellite altimetry data to study interannual-to-decadal variability of the unit-depth surface Labrador Current in the past two decades, in the context of the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic. The study for the first time reveals that the transport over the Labrador and northeastern Newfoundland Slope is out of phase with that over the Scotian Slope. The surface Labrador Current transport is positively and negatively correlated with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (with the transport lagging by about 1 year) in the north (the Labrador and northeastern Newfoundland Slope) and in the south (the Scotian Slope), respectively. In addition, the surface Labrador Current transport declines over the Labrador Slope and northeastern Newfoundland Slope and increases over the Scotian Slope. The north-south phase shift suggests two distinct regimes, which warrants further studies of underlying dynamic mechanisms and may have important implications for regional ecosystems and climate.

Han, Guoqi; Chen, Nancy; Ma, Zhimin

2014-01-01

103

Christmas Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING read with much interest the description of Christmas Island by Captain Aldrich and Mr. Lister, I have endeavoured to interpret some of the facts there given in the light of my own examination of similar islands in the Western Pacific. As pointed out by Captain Wharton, the complete casing of an island, 1200 feet in height, with coral rock

H. B. Guppy

1888-01-01

104

What causes the location of the air-sea turbulent heat flux maximum over the Labrador Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is a region of climatic importance as a result of the occurrence of oceanic wintertime convection, a process that is integral to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This process requires large air-sea heat fluxes that result in a loss of surface buoyancy, triggering convective overturning of the water column. The Labrador Sea wintertime turbulent heat flux maximum is situated downstream of the ice edge, a location previously thought to be causal. Here we show that there is considerable similarity in the characteristics of the regional mean atmospheric circulation and high heat flux events over the Labrador Sea during early winter, when the ice is situated to the north, and midwinter, when it is near the region of maximum heat loss. This suggests that other factors, including the topography of the nearby upstream and downstream landmasses, contribute to the location of the heat flux maximum.

Moore, G. W. K.; Pickart, R. S.; Renfrew, I. A.; Vâge, Kjetil

2014-05-01

105

Eastern and Western Boundary Currents in the Labrador Sea, 1995-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1995, the annual occupation of AR7W in the Labrador Sea has usually included LADCP data in addition to hydrographic measurements and tracers. We have previously presented results discussing the section-wide circulation for particular years, comparison with geostrophic velocities, and heat flux as determined from individual as well as composite sections. In this work, we present boundary current transports for a sampling of AR7W sections from 1995 through 2008. Both eastern and western boundary currents (EBCs, WBCs) are examined by combining LADCP data with density (or hydrographic) measurements from ships and profiling floats (Argo, PALACE). The transport estimates from LADCP data are also compared with the currents based on along-track multi-mission altimetry and with the lagrangian velocities from historic float and drifter trajectories. We find that WBC transports are mostly weaker than EBC transports, with slightly less variability year to year. Transports may be underestimated by 2 - 4 Sv when LADCP data are not available far enough onshore, so we extrapolate the velocities (carefully) to improve our estimate. Geostrophic velocities from hydrographic data can also be used to extend the coverage. WBC transports are about 32 Sv in the mean, but range from 22 to as much as 55 Sv. EBC transports range from 26 to 70 (!) Sv, with a mean of about 45 Sv. Higher transports, year to year, result from a combination of greater current width and faster velocities. Baroclinic transport relative to 1500 dbars for the upper level current ranges from 2.5 - 4.6 Sv, in good agreement with Lazier and Wright (1993). Using hydrographic data to determine transport in prescribed density layers, we find reasonable agreement with other recent observations in the Labrador Sea: for the western boundaries, Fischer et al. (2004) and Dengler et al. (2006) (CTD, LADCP and moored array data near 53 N and 56 N, respectively); for the eastern boundaries, Holliday et al. (2009), their Labrador Sea section near 59 N (CTD and LADCP data). For our sections, transport in density layers (in the mean) is conserved only below sigma-theta = 27.8, that is, in the overflow waters of the DWBC. References: Dengler, M., J. Fischer, F. A. Schott and R. Zantopp (2006), Deep Labrador Current and its variability in 1996-2005, Geophys. Res. Letters, vol. 33, L21S06, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026702. Fischer, J., F. Schott, and M. Dengler (2004), Boundary circulation at the exit of the Labrador Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1548-1570. Holliday, N. P., S. Bacon, J. Allen, and E. L. McDonagh (2009), Circulation and transport in the western boundary currents at Cape Farewell, Greenland, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1854-1870. Lazier, J. R. N., and D. G. Wright (1993), Annual velocity variations in the Labrador Current, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 659-678.

Hall, M. M.; Torres, D. J.; Yashayaev, I.

2010-12-01

106

Climate and sea ice variability in the SW Labrador Sea during the late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice components in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice records based on proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25 has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover, found in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice. We tested the reliability of this biomarker against observational sea ice data off Newfoundland (SW Labrador Sea), where box cores covering the last ca. 100-150 years were collected. Based on the results, IP25 proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing variability in past sea ice concentrations in the area. After having successfully validated the proxy in the SW Labrador Sea, we further analysed IP25 from a sediment core NE of Newfoundland covering the last ca. 5000 years, providing the southernmost multi-millennial record of this proxy to date. Based on this record and on diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data and alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the same core, we reconstructed climatic conditions in and Arctic sea ice export to the SW Labrador Sea area: Alkenone-based SSTs show a clear albeit variable decline after the Holocene Climate Optimum, while at the same time diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data suggest decreased melt water export from the Arctic. The IP25 record reveals increased sea ice export from the Baffin and Hudson Bays starting ca 1500 yr cal. BP, accelerating ca. 800 yr cal. BP and culminating at the height of the Little Ice Age. Sea ice export during the last century is comparable to the export during the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon

2014-05-01

107

Biogenic carbon and nitrogen export in a deep-convection region: simulations in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is a major sink of anthropogenic CO 2 due to deep-water formation in winter. To investigate the relative importance of different forms of export flux, we used a physical-biogeochemical model to simulate the vertical fluxes of particulate and dissolved biogenic carbon as a function of winter convection, food web dynamics and zooplankton vertical migration. The C:N ratio of these export fluxes was simulated based on trophic dynamics and bacterial activity. The model was run using winter convection and seasonal mixed layer evolution extracted from multi-year physical data collected in the central Labrador Sea. Comparisons between model output and data from the Labrador Sea and other systems indicate that the model provides a realistic picture of carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes. Our results suggest that on an annual basis, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export by deep, vertical convection is greater than that of the sinking flux of POC. Furthermore, the C:N ratio of exported dissolved organic matter (DOM) is higher than that of the particle sinking flux, resulting in 23% more carbon exported than would be estimated if predictions were made from the Redfield ratio (e.g., 11.4 vs. 7.0 for DOM and particulate organic matter, respectively, at the bottom of the euphotic zone and 17.2 vs. 9.3 at 1000 m depth). The active export of carbon by the respiration and mortality of migrating zooplankton amounts to 19% of sinking flux annually, but only 6% of total carbon export because of the high rates of DOC export in deep-water formation regions. Our model simulations indicate that non-Redfield ratio DOC export characterizes the function of the biological pump in deep-water formation regions.

Tian, Ru Cheng; Deibel, Don; Rivkin, Richard B.; Vézina, Alain F.

2004-03-01

108

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

109

Influence of climatic changes on the parasites of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua off coastal Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in 2000 and 2003, following the collapse of the commercial fishery in 1990, to compare metazoan parasites of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, captured off coastal Labrador, with samples taken in 1980 and 1986. Fish were captured by otter trawl offshore in the North Atlantic Fish Organisation subarea 2J. Parasites were removed from the digestive tract, stained, identified and compared between the different groups. Both the prevalence and mean abundance of trematodes, larval nematodes and E. gadi were significantly lower in fish taken in 2000 and 2003 than in 1980. While mean values of trematodes and nematodes declined in 1986, those of Echinorhynchus gadi remained unchanged in 1986 and 1990. Four-year-old cod sampled in 1990 harboured significantly fewer E. gadi than older age groups. The most commonly occurring trematodes included Podocotyle reflexa, Lepidapedon elongatum, Derogenes varicus and Hemiurus levinseni while the larval nematode, Anisakis sp. was predominant. Comparison of offshore samples taken in 2000 and 2003 with others taken in previous years suggests an overall decline of parasites coincident with a change in climatic conditions, the absence of a major food source, namely capelin Mallotus villosus, of cod and ultimately the decline of the Labrador population. PMID:16768862

Khan, R A; Chandra, C V

2006-06-01

110

KIGLAPAIT BIBLIOGRAPHY 13 October 2011 1969 The Kiglapait Layered Intrusion, Labrador. Geol. Soc. Amer. Memoir 112, 204 pp.  

E-print Network

Labrador, with Emphasis on Anorthosite. XXIV Internat. Geol. Cong. Guidebook A54, Ottawa, Canada, 72pp. 1994 Berg, Emslie, Hamilton, Morse, Ryan, Wiebe: Anorthositic, granitoid, and related rocks of the Nain above the Snyder Group. In Morse, S. A., Ed., Nain Anorthosite Project, Field Report 1974, UMass Dept. G

Bradley, Raymond S.

111

The Inclusive Classroom - Can the Teachers Keep Up? A Comparison of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the results of a previous study on 725 Nova Scotia teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and confidence in their abilities with those of 287 teachers from Newfoundland & Labrador. No provincial differences in teachers' perceptions of inclusion were found despite differences in provincial policy/practice. (Contains…

Edmunds, Alan

2003-01-01

112

Late Quaternary history of contourite drifts and variations in Labrador Current flow, Flemish Pass, offshore eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contourite drifts of alternating sand and mud, shaped by the Labrador Current, formed during the late Quaternary in Flemish Pass seaward of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The drifts preserve a record of Labrador Current flow variations through the last glacial maximum. A high-resolution seismic profile and a transect of four cores were collected across Beothuk drift on the southeast side of Flemish Pass. Downcore and lateral trends in grain size and sedimentation rate provide evidence that, between 16 and 13 ka, sediment was partitioned across Beothuk drift and the adjacent Flemish Pass floor by a strong current flow but, from 29 to 16 ka, sedimentation was more of a blanketing style, represented by draped reflections interpreted as being due to a weaker current. The data poorly resolve the low sedimentation rates since 13 ka, but the modern Labrador Current in Flemish Pass is the strongest it has been in at least the past 29 ka. Pre-29 ka current flow is interpreted based on reflection architecture in seismic profiles. A prominent drift on the southwestern side of Flemish Pass formed above a mid-Miocene erosion surface, but was buried by a mass-transport deposit after the penultimate glacial maximum and after drift deposition switched to eastern Flemish Pass. These findings illustrate the temporal complexity of drift sedimentation and provide the first detailed proxy for Labrador Current flow since the last glacial maximum.

Marshall, Nicole R.; Piper, David J. W.; Saint-Ange, Francky; Campbell, D. Calvin

2014-10-01

113

The breast cancer hormone receptor retesting controversy in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Lessons for the health system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with hormonal treatment is determined by the presence of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer. In Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), 425 of 1,088 (39.1%) patients who had original “negative” receptor tests conducted between 1997 and 2005, had positive results upon retesting in a specialized laboratory. This commentary addresses (1)

Deborah M. Gregory; Patrick S. Parfrey

2010-01-01

114

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

115

Earth Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

116

A shell-derived time history of bomb {sup 14}C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications  

SciTech Connect

Bomb-produced radiocarbon has been used in the past as an important tracer of ocean circulation and as a valuable tool for calculating CO{sub 2} air-sea exchange. However, previous studies of the ocean`s time-varying bomb {sup 14}C record have been confined exclusively to analyzing banded corals, and thus their application has been limited to the lower latitudes. The first time history of bomb {sup 14}C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean is obtained from a 54-year-old mollusc specimen, (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica, which was collected live from Georges Bank (41{degrees}N) in 1990. The annual growth bands of its shell were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C using accelerator mass spectrometry, producing a {Delta}{sup 14}C time history from 1939 to 1990. The depleted condition of the Georges Bank bomb {sup 14}C signal relative to two coral-derived North Atlantic {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories suggests a significant deepwater source for the waters on Georges Bank. Supported by previous work linking the origin of waters on Georges Bank to the Labrador Sea, the {Delta}{sup 14}C budget on Georges Bank is modeled as Labrador Sea water, which largely becomes confined to the shelf and partially equilibrates with the atmosphere during a 1-year transit time from the Labrador Sea to Georges Bank. This model is also used to estimate a time history of bomb {sup 14}C for the Labrador Sea. Prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C values calculated for the surface Labrador Sea suggest that a greater inventory of bomb {sup 14}C has accumulated here than has previously been reported. Deduced variations in the ventilation and/or {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake rates in the Labrador Sea correspond with observed changes in surface salinity of the Labrador Sea, suggesting a reduction in deepwater formation during the late 1960s and 1970s. 59 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Weidman, C.R.; Jones, G.A. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (United States)

1993-08-15

117

Absolute velocity along the AR7W section in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly every spring since 1990, hydrographic data have been collected along a section in the Labrador Sea known as AR7W. Since 1995, lowered acoustic doppler current profiler (LADCP) data have also been collected. In this work we use data from six of these sections, spanning the time period 1995 through 2008, to determine absolute velocity across AR7W and analyze the main features of the general circulation in the area. We find that absolute velocity fields are characterized by strong, nearly barotropic flows all along the section, meaning there is no “level of no motion” for geostrophic velocity calculations. There is strong variability from year to year, especially in the strength of the boundary currents at each end; nevertheless, combining data from.all 6 sections yields a well-organized velocity field resembling that presented by Pickart and Spall (2007), except that our velocities tend to be stronger: there is a cyclonic boundary current system with offshore recirculations at both ends of the line; the interior is filled with virtually uniform, top-to-bottom bands of velocity with alternating signs. At the southwestern end of the section, the LADCP data reveal a dual core of the Labrador Current at times when horizontal resolution is adequate. At the northeastern end, the location of the recirculation offshore of the boundary current is bimodal, and hence the apparent width of the boundary current is bimodal as well. In the middle of the section, we have found a bottom current carrying overflow waters along the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel, suggesting one of various possible fast routes for those waters to reach the central Labrador Sea. We have used the hydrographic data to compute geostrophic velocities, referenced to the LADCP profiles, as well as to compute ocean heat transport across AR7W for four of our sections. For all but one year, these fluxes are comparable to the mean air-sea heat flux that occurs between AR7W and Davis Strait from December to May (O(50-80 TW)), and much larger than the annual average values (O(10-20 TW)).

Hall, Melinda M.; Torres, Daniel J.; Yashayaev, Igor

2013-02-01

118

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around the Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea Dorthe Paulsen (1), Antoon Kuijpers (2), Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz (3) and Tove Nielsen (2) 1) Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K 2) Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgde 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. 3) Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C The southern end of the Davis Strait, the comparatively shallow-water area separating the Labrador Sea from the Baffin Bay, is cut by two deep submarine canyons of west Greenland, on the western and eastern side of the Fylla Banke, respectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate Late Pleistocene sedimentary processes governing the area of the two canyons in order to test if gravity flows or ocean currents are the most important factors governing canyon sedimentary processes in this region. Furthermore, an account is given on the formation of the two canyons in order to explain the significant difference between them. The study was carried out based on seismic profiles combined with bathymetric information, and a single sidescan sonar profile from one of the canyons (western canyon). Sedimentary information and an age model are derived from of a 5-m long gravity core (TTR13-AT-479G) collected from the mouth of the western canyon (southern end). The data indicates that the sedimentary regime is today highly affected by northward transport of the ocean currents and that gravity flows (southward from shallower to deep waters) are only of limited significance today. The deep southern end of the canyons are influenced by the upper parts of the deep North Atlantic Deep Water, but the majority of the sediment transport is linked to the strong northward flow of the lower parts of the West Greenland Current. For comparison the sediment transport is held up against earlier studies from the Davis Strait area, where 2D seismic profiles were carried out several places of the west coast of Greenland. These studies are from a contourite drift complex at the Davis Strait and north of Labrador Sea. A further possible process operating in maintaining active sediment transport through the canyon may be the cascading of dense winter water formed on the West Greenland shelf.

Paulsen, Dorthe; Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Nielsen, Tove

2014-05-01

119

Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers  

PubMed Central

This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog. PMID:21731189

Angle, T. Craig; Gillette, Robert L.

2011-01-01

120

Alopecia in a black Labrador retriever associated with focal sub-follicular panniculitis and sebaceous adenitis.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old entire male black Labrador retriever was presented with nonpruritic multicentric, well-demarcated alopecia of 12-weeks duration. Skin biopsies from the margins of alopecic regions showed sebaceous adenitis and sub-follicular panniculitis. Biopsies from alopecic areas showed severe follicular atrophy with residual fibrous tracts, loss of sebaceous glands and lymphohistiocytic panniculitis beneath individual atrophic hair follicle groups. These features differed from previous reports of pilosebaceous diseases of dogs and appeared to extend the spectrum of inflammatory patterns in presumed immune-mediated adnexal diseases of this species. During the 12-month follow-up, there was partial hair regrowth without treatment but alopecia was permanent in the centre of larger lesions. PMID:20374570

Varjonen, Katarina; Rest, Joan; Bond, Ross

2010-08-01

121

Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

122

Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals. PMID:25725460

Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

2015-05-15

123

Physiologic responses in healthy Labrador Retrievers during field trial training and competition.  

PubMed

Ten healthy Labrador Retrievers (4 females and 6 males aged 3-6.5 years [mean, 4.5 years]) training with a professional trainer were studied. The dogs were in training during the entire study. Dogs were monitored within 5 minutes after retrieving birds on land and in water on 2 consecutive days during training and on 2 consecutive days at the Atlanta Retriever Club Fall Field Trial. Baseline samples were taken in the morning on a separate day before the dogs were loaded onto a truck. Venous samples were analyzed with a portable blood analyzer. Measurements included hematocrit, sodium, potassium, chloride, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, lactate, blood pH, Pco2, Po2, HCO3, and TCO2 plus rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate. Ambient temperatures were recorded. Distances and times were estimated. Compared to baseline, significant increases occurred in rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, chloride, lactate, and pH postexercise (P < .05): sodium, potassium, BUN, Pco2, and TCO2 were significantly decreased postexercise. Blood pH was markedly higher after retrieves on land than after retrieves in water. Estimated mean speeds were 11.4 mph (18.3 km/h) during a triple retrieve on land and 5.6 mph (9.0 km/h) during a retrieve in water. Maximal ambient temperatures were 84-86 degrees F (29-30 degrees C). In summary, Labrador Retrievers training with a professional trainer had evidence of hyperthermia, respiratory alkalosis, hypocapnia, and mild metabolic acidosis monitored within 5 minutes postexercise during training and field trial competition when maximal ambient temperatures were 85 degrees F (29 degrees C). The results provide a baseline against which physiologic responses of dogs with poor performance can be compared. PMID:15058763

Steiss, J; Ahmad, H A; Cooper, P; Ledford, C

2004-01-01

124

Recruitment in the Barents Sea, Icelandic, and eastern Newfoundland/Labrador capelin (Mallotus villosus) stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a short-lived, coldwater, pelagic species that occurs in large populations in the Barents Sea, around Iceland and in the Newfoundland-Labrador area in the North Atlantic. Most individuals spawn only once at age three or four and die shortly after spawning. The commercial fisheries for capelin in the three areas are prosecuted on the pre-spawning and spawning age groups and knowledge of recruitment to the spawning stock and factors affecting recruitment are important in the management of the fisheries. Herein, we review the state of knowledge regarding recruitment in the three areas and factors that affect recruitment. Year class strength of capelin is fixed fairly early in life; at 0-group stage in the Barents Sea, by age 1 or earlier for Icelandic capelin, and within 2 weeks of hatching for the beach spawners in the Newfoundland area. No obvious single factor, common to the three stocks, has been proven to exert a significant influence on recruitment. In the Barents Sea, juvenile herring prey heavily on capelin larvae and when the estimates of the abundance of these juvenile herring were accounted for in the capelin stock-recruitment analysis, the fit in the stock-recruitment relationship improved. In Iceland, there is no reason to implicate predation as a dominant factor, although detailed studies have not been carried out. In the Newfoundland and Labrador area earlier studies suggested two factors were important for recruitment success: the frequency of onshore winds at a critical period during the residence of newly hatched larvae in the beach gravel and the presence of warm waters during the early larval phase in the pelagic environment. With further testing using more data, the temperature factor was found not to be significant but the frequency of onshore winds still explained a significant portion of the variation in year class strength. There appears to be no significant biological influence, such as predation, that has influenced recruitment in this area.

Carscadden, James E.; Gjøsæter, Harald; Vilhjálmsson, Hjálmar

2013-07-01

125

Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection  

SciTech Connect

Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

Emslie, R.F.

1985-01-01

126

A COLQ Missense Mutation in Labrador Retrievers Having Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by skeletal muscle weakness caused by disruption of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). CMSs are rarely encountered in veterinary medicine, and causative mutations have only been identified in Old Danish Pointing Dogs and Brahman cattle to date. Herein, we characterize a novel CMS in 2 Labrador Retriever littermates with an early onset of marked generalized muscle weakness. Because the sire and dam share 2 recent common ancestors, CMS is likely the result of recessive alleles inherited identical by descent (IBD). Genome-wide SNP profiles generated from the Illumina HD array for 9 nuclear family members were used to determine genomic inheritance patterns in chromosomal regions encompassing 18 functional candidate genes. SNP haplotypes spanning 3 genes were consistent with autosomal recessive transmission, and microsatellite data showed that only the segment encompassing COLQ was inherited IBD. COLQ encodes the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for termination of signal transduction in the NMJ. Sequences from COLQ revealed a variant in exon 14 (c.1010T>C) that results in the substitution of a conserved amino acid (I337T) within the C-terminal domain. Both affected puppies were homozygous for this variant, and 16 relatives were heterozygous, while 288 unrelated Labrador Retrievers and 112 dogs of other breeds were wild-type. A recent study in which 2 human CMS patients were found to be homozygous for an identical COLQ mutation (c.1010T>C; I337T) provides further evidence that this mutation is pathogenic. This report describes the first COLQ mutation in canine CMS and demonstrates the utility of SNP profiles from nuclear family members for the identification of private mutations. PMID:25166616

Rinz, Caitlin J.; Levine, Jonathan; Minor, Katie M.; Humphries, Hammon D.; Lara, Renee; Starr-Moss, Alison N.; Guo, Ling T.; Williams, D. Colette; Shelton, G. Diane; Clark, Leigh Anne

2014-01-01

127

Nihoa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from the NOW-RAMP 2002 Expedition documents a research expedition to Nihoa Island. It showcases Nihoa's unique birds and plants, the threat posed by invading grasshoppers, and restoration efforts.

2007-08-09

128

Island Panoramic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

129

Siberian Islands  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

2013-04-16

130

A dynamical model for wind-driven ice motion: Application to ice drift on the Labrador Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model has been developed to study short-term ice motion over the eastern Canadian continental shelf. The model consists of a Hibler ice model and a diagnostic ocean model. Ice is coupled to the ocean through a surface Ekman layer. The model is implemented for the Labrador Sea using 6-hourly winds and atmospheric pressures as input forcings.

C. L. Tang; Q. Gui

1996-01-01

131

The estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor testing errors in Newfoundland and Labrador: a journey of hope, health, and healing.  

PubMed

In Newfoundland and Labrador, the estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor testing errors left an unparalleled effect. Patients, families, members of healthcare teams, and many others were left shaken and wondering how the province could move forward. This article reflects on some of the processes Eastern Health had to go through to learn and grow from the experience, as well as discusses how the organization met the requirements set forth in the Commission of Inquiry report. PMID:24696944

Chubbs, Katherine

2013-01-01

132

Seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland Current System in the Labrador Sea in 1993-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Greenland Current System (WGCS) transports heat and freshwater into the Labrador Sea, influencing the formation of Labrador Sea Water, a key component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Notwithstanding its importance, relatively little is known about the structure and transport of this current system and its seasonal and interannual variability. Here we use historical hydrographic data from 1992 to 2008, combined with AVISO satellite altimetry, to diagnose the mean properties as well as seasonal and interannual variability of the boundary current system. We find that while the surface, fresh, cold West Greenland Current is amplified in summer, the subsurface warm, salty Irminger Current has maximum transport in winter, when its waters are also warmer and saltier. Seasonal changes in the total transport are thus mostly due to changes in the baroclinic structure of the current. By contrast, we find a trend toward warmer/saltier waters and a slowdown of the WGCS, within the period studied. The latter is attributed to changes in the barotropic component of the current. Superimposed on this trend, warm and salty anomalies transit through the system in 1997 and 2003 and are associated with a rapid increase in the transport of the boundary current due to changes in the baroclinic component. The boundary current changes precede similar changes in the interior with a 1-2 year lag, indicating that anomalies advected into the region by the boundary current can play an important role in the modulation of convection in the Labrador Sea.

Rykova, Tatiana; Straneo, Fiammetta; Bower, Amy S.

2015-02-01

133

Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals. PMID:24273070

Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

2014-03-01

134

On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

2013-07-01

135

Antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of staphylococci isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background Coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci are normal commensals of the skin and mucosa, but are also opportunist pathogens. Meticillin-resistant (MR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Healthy humans and other animals harbour a variety of staphylococci, including MR-CoPS and MR-CoNS. The main aims of the study were to characterise the population and antimicrobial resistance profiles of staphylococci from healthy non-vet visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers in the UK. Results Nasal and perineal samples were collected from 73 Labrador retrievers; staphylococci isolated and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods. They were also confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), PCR of the nuc gene and PCR and sequencing of the tuf gene. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials. In total, 102 CoPS (S. pseudintermedius n?=?91, S. aureus n?=?11) and 334 CoNS isolates were detected from 99% of dogs in this study. In 52% of dogs CoNS only were detected, with both CoNS and CoPS detected in 43% dogs and CoPS only detected in 4% of dogs. Antimicrobial resistance was not common among CoPS, but at least one MDR-CoNS isolate was detected in 34% of dogs. MR-CoNS were detected from 42% of dogs but no MR-CoPS were isolated. S. epidermidis (52% of dogs) was the most common CoNS found followed by S. warneri (30%) and S. equorum (27%), with another 15 CoNS species isolated from ? 15% of dogs. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were detected in 44% and 8% of dogs respectively. Conclusions MR- and MDR-CoPS were rare. However a high prevalence of MR- and MDR-CoNS were found in these dogs, even though they had no prior antimicrobial treatment or admission to veterinary premises. These findings are of concern due to the potential for opportunistic infections, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from these bacteria to coagulase positive staphylococci. PMID:24423104

2014-01-01

136

Prevalence of childhood eczema and food sensitization in the First Nations reserve of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background The Mushua Innu of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada seem to have a high rate of childhood eczema. Anecdotally this problem seems to be more common now than 20 years ago. There has been speculation that this could be related to food sensitization that may have arisen coincident with a move away from a traditional Innu diet. We undertook to assess the prevalence and severity of pediatric eczema in Natuashish (population 792), and investigate the level of sensitization to common food antigens. Methods Over a three-month period we performed a population survey of all children in the community from the ages of 2–12 inclusive. The one-year prevalence of eczema was assessed using the United Kingdom Working Party’s diagnostic criteria, and graded on the Nottingham Severity Scale. All children with eczema and twice as many age/sex matched controls were offered complete blood counts, total IgE, and food specific IgE levels for egg white, cow’s milk protein and wheat. Results One hundred and eighty two (95% of the eligible children) were assessed. Of the 182 children examined eczema was diagnosed in 30 (16.5%) - 22 females and 8 males. The majority of children with eczema (20/30) were classified as being in the moderate and severe category. Of the 22 with eczema and 40 controls who consented to venipuncture all but 3 had IgE levels above the lab's reference range. Food specific antibody assays showed that 32, 23, and 5 percent of children with eczema were sensitized to egg, milk, and wheat respectively. None of the controls were sensitized. Conclusions The children of Natuashish, Labrador have a high rate of eczema, much of it graded as moderate or severe. IgE levels were markedly elevated in children with and without eczema, with average values at least ten-fold higher than other populations. There is no evidence of an unusual amount of sensitization to egg, milk or wheat. PMID:24649812

2014-01-01

137

Mg/Ca Ratios in Coralline Red Algae as Temperature Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystems and fishery productivity in the Northwestern Atlantic have been considerably affected by regional climate and oceanographic changes. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC). The cold LC originates in the Labrador Sea and flows southbound along the Eastern Canadian coastline causing an important cooling effect on marine waters off the Canadian Atlantic provinces. Although interdecadal and interannual variability of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the LC system have been documented, a long-term pattern has not been identified. In order to better understand the observed ecosystem changes and their relationship with climate variability in the Northwestern Atlantic, a century-scale reconstruction of spatial and temporal variations of the LC is needed. This, however, requires reliable long-term and high-resolution SST records, which are not available from short instrumental observations. Here we present the first century-scale SST reconstructions from the Northwest Atlantic using long-lived coralline red algae. Coralline red algae have a high-Mg calcite skeleton, live in shallow water worldwide and develop annual growth bands. It has previously been demonstrated that subannual resolution SSTs can be obtained from coralline red algal Mg/Ca ratios, a commonly used paleotemperature proxy. Specimens of the long-lived coralline red algae Clathromorphum compactum were collected alive in August 2008 along a latitudinal transect spanning the southern extent of LC flow in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This collection is supplemented with specimens from the same region collected in the 1960's. In order to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of the LC, selected samples of C. compactum were analyzed for Mg/Ca using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Mg/Ca ratios range from 0.048 to 0.138 (measured in weight %) and relate to water temperatures of -1 to 16°C. Age models were established by comparing annual growth increments (average increment width 350 microns/year) with Mg/Ca cycles. This yielded subannually-resolved Mg/Ca-based SST reconstructions spanning the past century.

Gamboa, G.; Hetzinger, S.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Kunz, B.; Adey, W.

2009-05-01

138

Aggressive, solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with cutaneous involvement in a juvenile labrador retriever.  

PubMed

An 8.5-month-old male Labrador retriever presented with a cutaneous mass in the right maxillofacial region and swelling of the gingiva. The dog received antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. After 3 weeks the dog returned, presenting with disseminated cutaneous tumours on the neck, trunk and groin. One of the nodules was resected and a cutaneous round cell tumour was diagnosed on microscopical examination. The dog was humanely destroyed. Necropsy examination revealed disseminated tumours in the skin, internal organs and skeletal muscles. Microscopically, all of the tumours were composed of small round cells, arranged in nests. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, desmin, MyoD1, myogenin and smooth muscle actin, but were negative for CD3, CD18, CD79?cy, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, chromogranin A, class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex, neuron-specific enolase and S100. The average Ki67 index was 89.5%. The final diagnosis was a solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). This is the first report of the cutaneous multifocal form of ARMS in veterinary oncology. PMID:25555631

Otrocka-Domagala, I; Pazdzior-Czapula, K; Gesek, M; Koda, M; Mikiewicz, M; Mikolajczyk, A

2015-01-01

139

Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-01-01

140

Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.  

PubMed

Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets. PMID:16772447

Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

2006-07-01

141

Availability of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi to Black Spruce above the Present Treeline in Eastern Labrador  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host+) and the other half were free of host plants (host?). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host? soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

2013-01-01

142

Normal clinical electroretinography parameters for poodle, Labrador retriever, Thai ridgeback, and Thai Bangkaew  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to establish normal electroretinogram (ERG) parameters using 56 normal eyes of four dog breeds common in Thailand: poodle, Labrador retriever, Thai ridgeback, and Thai Bangkaew. Standard ERG findings were bilaterally recorded using a handheld multi-species ERG unit with an ERG-jet lens electrode for 28 dogs under preanesthesia with diazepam, anesthesia with propofol, and anesthesia maintenance with isoflurane. There were significant differences in the mean values of ERG amplitudes and implicit times among the four dog breeds (p < 0.05) except for the b-wave implicit time of the photopic 30 Hz flicker response with 3 cd.s/m2 (p = 0.610). Out of the four breeds, Thai Bangkaew had the longest implicit time (p < 0.001) of scotopic low intensity responses, b-wave of scotopic standard intensity responses (3 cd.s/m2), a-wave of the higher intensity response (10 cd.s/m2), and a-wave of the photopic single flash response (3 cd.s/m2). For the b/a ratio, only the ratio of the Cone response was significantly different among the different breeds. In this summary, normal ERG parameters for four dog breeds were reported. Data from the investigation supported the hypothesis that determination of breed-specific limits of normality for ERG responses is necessary for individual clinics and laboratories.

Sussadee, Metita; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai

2015-01-01

143

Rock magnetism and Paleomagnetism of Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35.8±1.0 Ma Mistastin Lake impact structure (Labrador, Canada) is characterized by a dominantly anorthositic target, which makes it a good terrestrial analogue for a lunar highland crater. The 28 km-diameter Mistastin structure contains impact melt rocks whose thickness reaches up to 80 meters. We collected 116 oriented cores in melt lithologies from four locations around the crater. Rock magnetic analyses show that the remanent magnetization is carried both by Ti-rich and Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Microscopic observations show that the latter probably resulted from high-temperature oxidation of the Ti-rich titanomagnetite. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization initially removes a viscous overprint, and then isolates what appears to be a stable thermoremanent magnetization at higher unblocking temperatures and peak fields. The mean direction, assumed to be parallel to the ambient geomagnetic field at the time of the impact, is consistent with the 30 Ma polar wander path of North America. We also collected 25 cores from anorthosite and mangerite from the Mesoproterozoic basement (around 1400 Ma), in order to study the pressure and thermal effects of the impact on the magnetic remanence and rock magnetic properties. Saturation remanence and coercivity increase from the periphery to the centre of the crater. Most samples have remanent magnetization directions similar to those expected for the Mesoproterozoic. Only basement rocks from the South shore lying very close to the contact of the melt rocks have a magnetization parallel to that of the melt.

Hervé, Gwenaël; Gilder, Stuart; Marion, Cassandra; Osinski, Gordon; Pohl, Jean; Sylvester, Paul

2014-05-01

144

Magma evolution in the Nain Complex, Labrador, and implications for the origin of anorthosite  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of over 50 chilled margins of plutons and contemporaneous dikes in the anorthositic Nain Complex reveal a well-defined trend of liquid evolution along a plagioclase-olivine cotectic. Fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase has resulted in extreme enrichment of TiO/sub 2/ and FeO/sub T/ and depletion of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the more evolved compositions. The contemporaneous Harp Dikes and Seal Lake Volcanics of southern Labrador also fall along this trend. Although rare, other dikes in the Nain complex are very olivine-rich and the olivine is quench-textured. Modeling of major and trace elements indicates that the leucotroctolitic liquids can be derived from the melatroctolites by olivine removal, and that the more evolved cotectic liquids can be derived from the leucotroctolitic liquids by removal of o1 + plag in a 25:75 ratio. If the equilibrium saturation surface of plagioclase is ignored, continued olivine removal from the leucotroctolites is capable of producing compositions very similar to compositions of hypothesized anorthositic magmas. In the Nain Complex, field evidence for supersaturation of plagioclase is abundant. Since all of the compositions discussed above are low in normative diopside, it may be that such liquids are less capable of nucleating plagioclase than liquid with more normal diopside contents, thus permitting the supersaturation.

Berg, J.H.

1985-01-01

145

Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

2013-01-01

146

Assessing the impact of genomic selection against hip dysplasia in the Labrador Retriever dog  

PubMed Central

Many purebred dogs exhibit a higher prevalence of inherited diseases compared with non-purebred dogs. One of the most popular breeds in the UK is the Labrador Retriever, which has a high prevalence of hip dysplasia resulting in high costs for surgical operations and impaired animal welfare. Considering the many complications of highly managed populations, mainly due to breeder's conventions and the resulting population structure, is of great importance for the proper development of a strategy against the disease. In this study, we have compared the utilities and performances of both genomic and phenotypic selection against hip dysplasia in a simulated population with the characteristics of the British Veterinary Association and Kennel Club (BVA/KC) hip dysplasia scheme. The results confirm the potential benefits of genomic selection by showing a moderate increase of 1.15-fold (assuming a realistic accuracy of r2 = 0.5) in response to selection due to the higher accuracy (between 0.96- and 1.32-fold, considering 0.35 ? r2 ? 0.7) and more than a threefold increase when all the offspring in each litter are tested (between 3.25- and 4.55-fold, again considering 0.35 ? r2 ? 0.7). PMID:24134497

Sánchez-Molano, E; Woolliams, JA; Blott, SC; Wiener, P

2014-01-01

147

Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

2002-01-01

148

THE FATE OF RURAL NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR has been a sore spot in this province for many years. However, Dr. Ken Stevens, professor and researcher in the Faculty of Education, may have a remedy.  

E-print Network

THE FATE OF RURAL NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR has been a sore spot in this province for many years Minister of Education, the Department of Education of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Industry Canada. That has been a success story." NEWFOUNDLAND: by Heidi Wicks Singapore of the Atlantic? #12;Dr. Stevens

Oyet, Alwell

149

A Study of Education, Out-Migration of Young Adults, and the Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the Economies of Rural Communities in Newfoundland and Labrador [Avalon West School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project is a study of education, out-migration of young adults, and the impact of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) on the education and economies of rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador. A qualitative study of Newfoundland and Labrador's rural schools were conducted from January to August 2001. This report…

Brown, Jean; Handrigan, Rachel; Stone, Gordon; Downey, Sherman

2002-01-01

150

Phytoplankton production and growth regulation in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparative study of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland shelves and Barents/Norwegian/Greenland seas and shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of phytoplankton (distribution, phenology, physiology, productivity and community composition) and environment properties that influence their growth (light and nutrients) comparing the western Subarctic Atlantic (Labrador Sea, Labrador/Newfoundland shelves) with the eastern Subarctic (Barents, Norwegian and Greenland Seas and shelves) and drawing on ship-based observations, satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) and output from a 3D coupled ecosystem-ocean circulation model, covering the last 15-25 yrs. Similarities between regions were seen in geographic variability (e.g. latitudinal gradients), seasonal cycles and magnitude of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and community composition. Regional differences were related to geographic location, presence/absence of ice, seasonal mixing, source waters (Arctic versus Atlantic) and nutrient supply, and response to atmospheric forcing. With regard to the latter, most of the observations considered in this study cover the recent period of rapid warming and the historical out-of-phase response (e.g. ice conditions, air and ocean temperatures, hydrography) of the western and eastern Subarctic Atlantic to atmospheric forcing is no longer apparent. Observations and modelling looking back over the last two decades suggest that the timing of the spring bloom and peak seasonal productivity are occurring progressively earlier in the year, particularly at high latitudes in both the western and eastern Subarctic. Climate change (ocean warming) is projected to increase overall phytoplankton productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic and will be manifest particularly in ice-influenced regions Labrador/Newfoundland Shelves, Barents/Greenland Seas and shelves and regions where Arctic outflow and Atlantic inflow influence phytoplankton dynamics. Northward movement of Atlantic waters as a result of climate change, manifest earliest in the eastern Subarctic (Norwegian/Barents Seas) will displace cold-water phytoplankton species with warm-water species and shift community transitions zones farther north in the coming decades.

Glen Harrison, W.; Yngve Børsheim, K.; Li, William K. W.; Maillet, Gary L.; Pepin, Pierre; Sakshaug, Egil; Skogen, Morten D.; Yeats, Philip A.

2013-07-01

151

Streamlined Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2003-01-01

152

Comparing mercury concentrations across a thirty year time span in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr from Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from multiple sample sites in Labrador, Canada were used to investigate possible differences in total mercury concentration ([THg]) between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean [THg] of anadromous Arctic charr was 0.03?g/g wet weight (ww) in 1977-78 and 0.04?g/g ww in 2007-09, while mean concentrations in non-anadromous conspecifics were 0.18?g/g ww in 1977-78 and 0.14?g/g ww in 2007-09. After correcting for the effects of fish age and fork-length, there was no widespread difference in the mean [THg] of anadromous or non-anadromous fish between the two time periods. However, at individual sites sampled during both time periods, [THg] increased, decreased, or did not change. The mean age of sampled fish declined from 9.0years in 1977-78 to 8.2years in 2007-09 for anadromous fish, and from 11.7years to 10.5years in non-anadromous Arctic charr. Similarly, mean fork-lengths decreased from 450mm to 417mm in anadromous and from 402mm to 335mm in non-anadromous fish between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean annual temperature at four Labrador weather stations increased by 1.6°C to 2.9°C between the two sampling periods. The lack of an overall trend in anadromous or non-anadromous Arctic charr [THg] despite warming temperatures that favour increased mercury methylation suggests that regional changes in climate-driven factors have had limited impacts on mercury exposure in Labrador freshwater or marine fish. PMID:24373639

van der Velden, S; Dempson, J B; Power, M

2015-03-15

153

Evaluation of Physician Return-for-Service Agreements in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite the widespread use of physician return-for-service (RFS) programs in Canada, few have been evaluated. We examined two types of RFS agreements (Family Medicine Bursary and Special Funded Residency Position) and (a) describe the proportion of RFS physicians who complete their service obligation and identify the predictors of completion and (b) compare the retention of RFS physicians to that of non-RFS physicians. Methods: Using administrative data on physicians with RFS agreements in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Memorial University's Postgraduate Medical Education Office and the Physician and Medical Practice Database, we calculated the proportion of RFS physicians (1997–2009) who fulfilled their service obligation and also identified predictors of completion. We then followed to 2010 a cohort of physicians who started practice in NL between 2000 and 2005 to compare the retention of RFS and non-RFS physicians. Results: Ninety-six (71.6%) of 134 RFS physicians fulfilled the service obligation in full. Physicians who held Special Funding Residency Position RFS agreements were 11.1 times less likely (95% CI: 4.0–33.3) to complete their service commitment than physicians who held Family Medicine Bursary RFS agreements. In the cohort of 60 RFS and 67 non-RFS physicians, 16.9% of RFS versus 41.8% of non-RFS physicians left NL by 2010 (p=0.004). RFS physicians were 3.22 times less likely (95% CI: 1.41–7.14) than non-RFS physicians to leave the province. Four years after starting practice, roughly 90% of RFS versus 60% of non-RFS physicians remained in NL; after 10 years, 70% of RFS versus 60% of non-RFS physicians remained (p=0.006). Conclusion: The RFS program improves the retention of physicians in NL. Using RFS tied to bursaries rather than residency positions may increase service completion and retention rates. PMID:23968626

Mathews, Maria; Heath, Sara Lynn; Neufeld, Shelley May; Samarasena, Asoka

2013-01-01

154

To Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of islands. They will learn where islands are located throughout the world and will study two very different island groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of islands of the world. Students will explore island flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.

155

Distributions of Calanus spp. and other mesozooplankton in the Labrador Sea in relation to hydrography in spring and summer (1995-2000) [review article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected mesozooplankton samples in the upper 100 m in spring or early summer each year between 1995 and 2000 along a section from Hamilton Bank (Labrador) to Cape Desolation (Greenland), and along additional sections in spring 1997 and early summer 1995. The North Atlantic waters of the central basin were characterised by the presence of the copepods Calanus finmarchicus, Euchaeta norvegica and Scolecithrocella minor and euphausiids. Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus and Pseudocalanus spp. were associated with the Arctic waters over the shelves. Amongst the other enumerated groups larvaceans were concentrated over the shelves and around the margins. Amphipods, pteropods and the copepods Oithona spp. and Oncaea spp. showed no definable relationships with water masses or bathymetry, while the diel migrant ostracods and chaetognaths were confined to deep water. Metrida longa, also a strong diel migrant, and Microcalanus spp., a mainly deep water species and possible diel migrant, were both sometimes quite abundant on the shelves as well as in the central basin, consistent with their likely Arctic origins. Analysis of community structure along the section across the Labrador Sea indicated that stations could be grouped into five different zones corresponding to: the Labrador Shelf; the Labrador Slope; the western and central Labrador Sea; the eastern Labrador Sea and Greenland Slope; and, the Greenland Shelf. The boundaries between zones varied spatially between years, but community composition was relatively consistent within a given zone and a given season (spring versus early summer). The relationship between community composition and water masses was not entirely straightforward. For example, Labrador Shelf water was generally confined to the shelf, but in spring 2000 when it also dominated the adjacent slope zone, the community in the Labrador Slope zone was similar to those found in other years. Conversely, in spring 1997, when Arctic organisms were unusually abundant in the Labrador Slope zone, there was no increased contribution of shelf water. In addition, North Atlantic organisms were often found on the shelves when no slope or central basin water was present. Although other organisms were sometimes very abundant, the mesozooplankton preserved dry weight biomass was dominated everywhere by the three species of Calanus, which together always accounted for ?70%. One species, C. finmarchicus, comprised >60% of the total mesozooplankton biomass and >80% of the abundance of large copepods in spring and summer throughout the central Labrador Sea. In western and central regions of the central basin average C. finmarchicus biomass was ca 4 g dry weight m -2 and average abundance, ca 17?000 m -2 over both seasons. Highest levels ( ca 7 g dry weight m -2, >100?000 m -2) occurred in the northern Labrador Sea in spring and in eastern and southwest regions in early summer. C. hyperboreus contributed ca 20% of the total mesozooplankton biomass in the central basin in spring and <5% in early summer, while C. glacialis accounted for <1%. Over the shelves, C. hyperboreus contributed a maximum of 54% and 3.6 g dry weight m -2, and C. glacialis, a maximum of 29% and 1 g dry weight m -2, to the total mesozooplankton biomass.

Head, E. J. H.; Harris, L. R.; Yashayaev, I.

2003-10-01

156

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

157

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

158

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

â??The Rockâ?, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay Areaâ??s most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâ??s best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of Americaâ??s most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from Alcatrazâ??s past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous â??Battle of Alcatrazâ? and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

159

Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities. Volume 4. Offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador  

SciTech Connect

This document is Volume 4 of a series of reports entitled ''Geological Evolution and Analysis of Confirmed or Suspected Gas Hydrate Localities.'' Volume 4 is an analysis of the ''Formation and Stability of Gas Hydrates Offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador.'' This report presents a geological description of the offshore regions of Newfoundland and Labrador, including regional and local structural settings, geomorphology, geological history, stratigraphy, and physical properties. It provides the necessary regional and geological background for more in-depth research of the area. Detailed discussion of bottom simulating acoustic reflectors, sediment acoustic properties, and distribution of hydrates within the sediments. The formation and stabilization of gas hydrates in sediments are considered in terms of phase relations, nucleation, and crystallization constraints, gas solubility, pore fluid chemistry, inorganic diagenesis, and sediment organic content. Together with a depositional analysis of the area, this report is a better understanding of the thermal evolution of the locality. It should lead to an assessment of the potential for thermogenic hydrocarbon generation. 183 refs., 64 figs., 1 tab.

Krason, J.; Rudloff, B.

1985-09-01

160

Dynamic sedimentation of Paleoproterozoic continental margin iron formation, Labrador Trough, Canada: Paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic Sokoman Formation (ca. 1.88 Ga) of the Labrador Trough, eastern Canada, is a ca. 100-m-thick succession of interbedded iron formation and fine-grained, terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks. Detailed examination of drill cores and outcrops indicates a dynamic paleoshelf where an oxygen-stratified water column, coastal upwelling of hydrothermally derived Fe and Si, as well as tide- and storm-generated currents controlled lithofacies character. Vertical and lateral facies stacking patterns record deposition through two relative sea-level cycles that produced seven distinct lithofacies comprising two unconformity-bounded sequences. Sequence 1 reflects deposition of hematitic peritidal iron formation as deep as the upper shoreface. Sequence 2 is truncated by later erosion and encompasses the change to deeper-water accumulation of magnetite and Fe silicate-rich iron formation. The character and lateral distribution of redox-sensitive facies indicate that iron formation accumulation was controlled as much by shelf hydraulics as oxygen levels. The development of a suboxic surface ocean is interpreted to reflect photosynthetic oxygen production from a combination of peritidal stromatolites and cyanobacterial phytoplankton that flourished in nutrient-rich, upwelled waters offshore. Deposition of other continental margin iron formations also occurred on Paleoproterozoic shelves that were favorably positioned for coastal upwelling. Variability between iron formations reflects intrinsic factors such as shelf profile, fluvial contribution, eolian input, evaporation rates, and coastal current systems, which influenced upwelling dynamics and the delivery of Fe, Si, and nutrients. Aridity onshore was a primary depositional control since it governed the transport and type of diluting terrigenous clastics as well as evaporative precipitation along the coastline. As in the Phanerozoic, unconformities, and transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces frame iron formation sequences, but with important differences. The absence of trace and body fossils as well as lack of terrestrial vegetation can make the recognition of these surfaces difficult. Transgressive surfaces can also be easily mistaken for Phanerozoic-style maximum flooding surfaces since stratigraphic condensation was restricted to inboard environments during ravinement. Outboard the accumulation of fresh precipitates increased sedimentation to produce a maximum flooding surface not usually marked by a prominent depositional hiatus. Understanding these differences is essential for establishing an accurate sequence stratigraphic framework. Such context is the backdrop for properly interpreting the sedimentology, oceanography, microbial ecology, and geochemistry of continental margin iron formations.

Pufahl, P. K.; Anderson, S. L.; Hiatt, E. E.

2014-07-01

161

Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of a Falling Stage Sandy Fjord Delta, Goose River, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment size and degree of cohesion are thought to exert a strong control on the morphodynamic processes, planform shape and clinoform stratigraphy of deltas. To test model predictions concerning these two parameters, we present a morphometric and stratigraphic analysis of a sandy delta formed where the Goose River flows into Goose Bay at the western end of Lake Melville, Labrador. Goose River delta sediments consist of arkosic, heavy-mineral-rich sand (D50 = 225 to 600 microns) with very little silt and clay, placing this delta at the coarser-grained, non-cohesive end of the spectrum. The delta started to form approx. 7000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated and post-glacial rebound created a relative base level fall of approximately 4 mm/yr. The current tidal range in Goose Bay averages 0.5 m, and the average wave height is negligible. Results from our 2012 field season show that the delta planform consists of two moribund lobes at elevations of ~ 5 m and ~ 2 m and a presently active delta at sea level. Aerial photography from 1951 to 2012 show there has been surprisingly little progradation despite active channel change at the six-month timescale and an assumed base level fall of 244 mm during that period. A topographic section along a dipline consists of three treads and two clinoform risers. The bottomset tread is a virtually featureless fjord bottom at ~35 m from which a first clinoform rises to a second tread at ~-15 m. The second tread is a sandy platform onto which an upper clinoform downlaps. This upper sandy clinoform ranges in dip from 9 to 17 dg. and passes into the topset at an elevation of ~ -1 m. The topset consists of braid-like trapezoidal unit bars that in GPR show little evidence of wave, alongshore current, or ice reworking, even though they are submerged at higher high tides. The planform, bar geometries and facies, and clinoform dips and dip-directions are remarkably consistent with model predictions from Delft3d.

Slingerland, R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Royce, J.; Burpee, A.; Cederberg, J.; Caldwell, R.; Nijhuis, A.; McGuffin, A.

2012-12-01

162

Oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in plagioclase corundum hercynite xenoliths from the Voisey's Bay Intrusion, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xenoliths of metamorphic country rocks are locally abundant within breccia sequences in gabbroic to troctolitic rocks of the Voisey's Bay Intrusion, Labrador, Canada. Thermochemical interaction with mafic magma has produced restite assemblages in the xenoliths that are composed of Ca-rich plagioclase, corundum, hercynite and minor magnetite. Hercynite was produced as a result of the breakdown of garnet and pyroxene that were originally present in the metamorphic rocks, as well as by the replacement of corundum, which was itself a product of feldspar degradation during xenolith-magma interaction. Hercynite that replaces pyroxene and garnet is granular to bulbous, whereas that which replaces corundum is acicular to skeletal. Ion microprobe analyses indicate that oxygen isotopic equilibrium was neither established during retrograde cooling of the xenolith assemblage, nor during the replacement processes which led to both types of pseudomorphous hercynite. ?18O values of hercynite that replaces garnet and pyroxene range from 5 to 11.5‰, and in part reflect the elevated ?18O values of the protolith minerals. Hercynite that replaces acicular corundum is characterized by ?18O values between 2.5 and 7.6‰. Oxygen isotopic equilibration with mantle-derived magma having a ?18O value of ˜ 5.5‰ should have produced values of hercynite near 2.5‰. Values of ? (plagioclase-corundum) range between 0.2 and 6.1‰, whereas D (hercynite-corundum) values, which are expected to be near 0, may be as large as 9.6‰ at the sub-millimeter scale. Oxygen isotopic disequilibrium may have resulted in the xenoliths due to rapid withdrawal of partial melt, and to the crystallization of plagioclase and biotite bands around the xenoliths which prevented isotopic communication of xenoliths with enclosing mafic magma. Although diffusive transport of oxygen in the xenoliths should have been a viable mechanism for isotopic exchange, the lack of isotopic equilibration during cooling and the preservation of steep isotopic gradients in composite hercynite-corundum grains suggest that reaction and crystallization were necessary to promote oxygen isotopic exchange among minerals in the xenoliths contained within the Voisey's Bay Intrusion.

Mariga, J.; Ripley, E. M.; Li, C.; McKeegan, K. D.; Schmidt, A.; Groove, M.

2006-08-01

163

Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

1991-01-01

164

Are metal mining effluent regulations adequate: identification of a novel bleached fish syndrome in association with iron-ore mining effluents in Labrador, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality guidelines for industrial effluents are in place in many countries but they have generally evolved within a limited ecotoxicological framework. Effluents from iron-ore mines have traditionally been viewed by regulatory bodies as posing little or no risk to the aquatic environment. However, it was recently reported that lake trout taken from a large iron-ore contaminated Lake in Labrador

J. F. Payne; D. Hamoutene; P. Yeats; A. Rahimtula; D. Scruton; C. Andrews

2001-01-01

165

"Borrowed Black": A Labrador Fantasy from the Book by Ellen Bryan Obed, Adapted for Stage by Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. Cue Sheet for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Borrowed Black: A Labrador Fantasy," by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven reproducible activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) The Story (orienting students to the characters and places…

Brown, Victoria

166

26. NEW SPECIES OF DINOCYSTS AND A NEW SPECIES OF ACRITARCH FROM THE UPPER MIOCENE AND LOWERMOST PLIOCENE, ODP LEG 105, SITE 646, LABRADOR SEA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new dinocyst genera, 14 new dinocyst species, and one new acritarch species are described from the upper Mi­ ocene to lowermost Pliocene Site 646 in the Labrador Sea. The new genera described are Habibacysta, Cristadinium, and Muraticysta. The new dinocyst species described are Capillicysta gloriana, Cerebrocysta? namocensis, Corrudi­ nium? labradori, Cristadinium cristatoserratum, Cristadinium diminutivum, Gongylodinium serratum, Habibacysta tectata, Impagidinium

Martin J. Head; Geoffrey Norris; Peta J. Mudie

167

A 750-kyr detrital-layer stratigraphy for the North Atlantic (IODP Sites U1302U1303, Orphan Knoll, Labrador Sea)  

E-print Network

A 750-kyr detrital-layer stratigraphy for the North Atlantic (IODP Sites U1302­U1303, Orphan Knoll 27 December 2011 Editor: P. DeMenocal Keywords: Orphan Knoll North Atlantic Heinrich layers Relative, drilled on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), preserve a record of detrital layers and other

Stoner, Joseph

168

Interannual variability in Labrador Sea ventilation inferred from a 19 year time-series of CFC measurements along WOCE line AR7W  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is an important deep water formation site where a large fraction of the ocean's deep waters have their last contact with the atmosphere. Quantifying the inter-annual variability of the ventilation of the Labrador Sea should therefore be useful for understanding deep ocean changes. We use yearly hydrographic measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 conducted along WOCE repeat section AR7W since 1991 together with a maximum entropy deconvolution method to infer the Labrador Sea's climatological transit-time distribution (TTD) and its inter-annual variability. We also present methodological improvements to the maximum entropy method that allows us to better quantify uncertainties in our inferred water ages so as to better separate real changes from noise associated with the under-determined nature of the deconvolution problem. The water age at depth 3000 m is 146 years. The result suggests that it takes 146 years to form North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Labrador Sea on average.

Hsieh, P.; Primeau, F. W.; Azetsu-Scott, K.

2012-12-01

169

The connection between Labrador Sea buoyancy loss, deep western boundary current strength, and Gulf Stream path in an ocean circulation model  

E-print Network

The connection between Labrador Sea buoyancy loss, deep western boundary current strength, and Gulf buoyancy forcing is explored in a global, non-eddy resolving ocean general circulation model. Increased buoyancy forcing strengthens the deep western boundary current, the northern recirculation gyre

Jochum, Markus

170

Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

2009-01-01

171

Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (approximately 1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywackes-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al2O3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and sigma Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% as FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO2 contents of source rocks by approximately 5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO2 contents approximately 45 wt% and the other approximately 65 wt%, and was the source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance II that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO2 contents approximately 65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher PCO2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe3+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the sigma Fe/Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt% organic C, but are extremely depleted in sigma Fe (<1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (approximately l ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (approximately 0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the approximately 1.9 Ga atmosphere-ocean system was anoxic. Depletion of these elements from the Ramah Group sediments

Hayashi, K. I.; Fujisawa, H.; Holland, H. D.; Ohmoto, H.

1997-01-01

172

Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde  

E-print Network

Tropical Rain Forest 5 Linear Algebra Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 5 / 26 #12Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands

Verschelde, Jan

173

Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposurexlevel of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact.

Howse, Dana [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., Canada A1B 3V6 (Canada); Gautrin, Denyse [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Neis, Barbara [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., A1B 3V6 (Canada)]. E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Horth-Susin, Lise [Valley Regional Hospital, Kentville, NS, B4N 5E3 (Canada); Jong, Michael [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University and Health Labrador Corporation, Happy Valley, NL, AOP 1EO (Canada); Swanson, Mark C. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

2006-06-15

174

Geochronology and Thermochronology of the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and precise dating of terrestrial impact structures is one of our most powerful tools for constraining the bombardment history of the inner Solar System, but reliable data are available for only about 10% of the known structures on Earth. Most of the reliable dates were obtained by applying the U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic techniques to glasses and minerals crystallized from impact melts. Unfortunately, impact melt-bearing impactites are easily eroded and have not been found in many impact structures. Recent research has shown, however, that impact events also have the capacity to reset some target rock isotopic systems that are typically used on Earth for low-temperature thermochronometry (e.g., (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite). For impact structures sufficiently large to have produced impact melt sheets, the combination of geochronology of neoblastic minerals from the impact sheet as well as thermochronology of appropriate minerals from the target rocks can provide valuable insights regarding not just the age of impact but the thermal evolution of the structure during and after impact. We are conducting such research at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in northern Labrador, Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The 28 km-diameter Mistastin structure is regarded as an excellent analogue for lunar impact structures in that the target rocks are Mesoproterozoic anorthosites, mangerites, and granodiorites. Previous attempts to date the Mistastin impact event using by U-Pb geochronology of zircons found within its thick impact melt sheet yielded only pre-impact target rock ages (Marion and Sylvester, 2010, Planetary and Space Science 58), implying that impact temperatures did not reach high enough temperatures for long enough to reset the U-Pb chronometer. Mak et al. (1976, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 31) reported several whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dates for crystalline impact melt rock that imply an impact age of ca. 36 Ma. We are exploring the use of two different mineral-isotopic techniques for dating the Mistastin impact event: conventional zircon (U-Th)/He and laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar on impact melts. Thus far, we have (U-Th)/He zircon data for both target rocks and impact melt rocks that indicate an impact age of 35.8 × 1.0 Ma at the 95% confidence level but also show that the degree of resetting of the (U-Th)/He zircon chronometer was highly variable within the impact site. In addition to these data, the presentation will include new laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar data for impact melt rocks collected throughout the crater that should reveal the extent of Ar isotopic homogeneity in sampled materials.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.; Mercer, C. M.; Osinski, G. R.; Marion, C.

2013-12-01

175

Anonymous HIV testing: what does it mean in policy and practice? A case study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

HIV infection is not a legally notifiable disease at the national level in Canada; however, provincial and territorial officials voluntarily undertake notification to the Public Health Agency of Canada. A case study involving four community-based sites in Newfoundland and Labrador found that the absence of clear legislation concerning HIV testing presented challenges for nurses who had to interpret and comply with provincial legislation and agency policy while meeting the needs of test-seekers. This ambiguous messaging is part of other conflicting information about the availability of anonymous HIV testing that, along with other factors, may contribute to under-testing and under-diagnosis in the province. From a social justice perspective, developing a national HIV strategy and amending legislation to facilitate anonymous HIV testing might provide clearer direction to nurses and agencies, and promote public health by improving service delivery and increasing testing in under-tested, higher-risk-taking populations. PMID:24759055

Hancock, Amanda; Gustafson, Diana L

2014-01-01

176

Malignant uveal schwannoma with peripheral nerve extension in a 12-week-old color-dilute Labrador Retriever.  

PubMed

The formalin-fixed, amber-colored right globe from a 12-week-old female silver Labrador Retriever dog was submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for light microscopic evaluation. The clinical history described a collapsed anterior chamber and multifocal nodular lesions in the peripheral iris. Histologically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally, the uveal mass was consistent with a malignant schwannoma; there was extension along peripheral nerves within the sclera. The signalment and behavior of the neoplasm distinguish it from the uveal schwannoma of blue-eyed dogs and bear some resemblance to the ocular lesions in human neurofibromatosis. The dilute color mutation may contribute to the cause. Six weeks later, the dog did not develop any additional masses. PMID:24513800

Duke, F D; Teixeira, L B C; Galle, L E; Green, N; Dubielzig, R R

2015-01-01

177

Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization.  

PubMed

In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average H(E)= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise F(ST)= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

2012-05-01

178

9/18/09 2:30 PMYour Newz -LifeCoach: alternative activities for Labradors -Similar news Page 1 of 4http://www.yournewz.com/similar/12592136/2009/08/25/category=0/source=0/0/LifeCoach:+alternative+activities+for+Labradors  

E-print Network

' Theory Offers Alternative to Dark Energy (SPACE.com) »Read it SPACE.com - Mathematicians have proposed idea of dark energy. Alternative proposal for Army training site also draws concerns »Read it A day9/18/09 2:30 PMYour Newz - LifeCoach: alternative activities for Labradors - Similar news Page 1

Temple, Blake

179

Evaluation of Labrador Sea Water formation in a global Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model setup, based on a comparison with observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep water formation in the Labrador Sea is simulated with the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a regionally focused, but globally covered model setup. The model has a regional resolution of up to 7 km, and the simulations cover the time period 1958-2009. We evaluate the capability of the model setup to reproduce a realistic deep water formation in the Labrador Sea. Two classes of modeled Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the lighter upper LSW (uLSW) and the denser deep LSW (dLSW), are analyzed. Their layer thicknesses are compared to uLSW and dLSW layer thicknesses derived from observations in the formation region for the time interval 1988-2009. The results indicate a suitable agreement between the modeled and observational derived uLSW and dLSW layer thicknesses except for the period 2003-2007 where deviations in the modeled and observational derived layer thicknesses could be linked to discrepancies in the atmospheric forcing of the model. It is shown that the model is able to reproduce four phases in the temporal evolution of the potential density, temperature, and salinity, since the late 1980s, which are known in observational data. These four phases are characterized by a significantly different LSW formation. The first phase from 1988 to 1990 is characterized in the model by a fast increase in the convection depth of up to 2000 m, accompanied by an increased spring production of deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW). In the second phase (1991-1994), the dLSW layer thickness remains on a high level for several years, while the third phase (1995-1998) features a gradual decrease in the deep ventilation and the renewal of the deep ocean layers. The fourth phase from 1999 to 2009 is characterized by a slowly continuing decrease of the dLSW layer thickness on a deeper depth level. By applying a composite map analysis between an index of dLSW and sea level pressure over the entire simulation period from 1958 to 2009, it is shown that a pattern which resembles the structure of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the main triggers for the variability of LSW formation. Our model results indicate that the process of dLSW formation can act as a low-pass filter to the atmospheric forcing, so that only persistent NAO events have an effect, whether uLSW or dLSW is formed. Based on composite maps of the thermal and haline contributions to the surface density flux we can demonstrate that the central Labrador Sea in the model is dominated by the thermal contributions of the surface density flux, while the haline contributions are stronger over the branch of the Labrador Sea boundary current system (LSBCS), where they are dominated by the haline contributions of sea ice melting and formation. Our model results feature a shielding of the central Labrador Sea from the haline contributions by the LSBCS, which only allows a minor haline interaction with the central Labrador Sea by lateral mixing. Based on the comparison of the simulated and measured LSW layer thicknesses as well as vertical profiles of potential density, temperature, and salinity it is shown that the FESOM model is a suitable tool to study the regional dynamics of LSW formation and its impact on a global, not regional restricted, scale.

Scholz, P.; Kieke, D.; Lohmann, G.; Ionita, M.; Rhein, M.

2014-03-01

180

Wind, current and swell influences on the ice extent and flux in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area as observed in the LIMEX '87 experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data collected by airborne and satellite instruments during the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment, that demonstrate the effects of oceanic and atmospheric processes on the ice conditions in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area. Special consideration is given to the development of algorithms for extracting information from SAR data. It is shown that SAR data can be used to monitor ice extent, determine ice motion, locate shear zones, monitor the penetration of swell into the ice, estimate floe sizes, and establish the dimensions of the ice velocity zones. It is also shown that the complex interaction of the ice cover with winds, currents, swell, and coastlines is similar to the dynamics established for a number of sites in both polar regions.

Argus, Susan Digby; Carsey, Frank; Holt, Benjamin

1988-01-01

181

Galapagos Islands Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

Dave Pape

1994-03-13

182

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

183

Japan: Shikoku Island  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the atmospheric ... flew overhead. These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 ...

2013-04-16

184

Bouvet Island near Antarctica  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-16

185

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

186

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

187

Falkland Islands, UK  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

1991-01-01

188

The impact of bio-optical heating on the properties of the upper ocean: A sensitivity study using a 3-D circulation model for the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of bio-optical heating on the properties of the upper Labrador Sea water was investigated by considering changes in light attenuation in water associated with the seasonal change of chlorophyll distribution. The time- and depth-dependent attenuation coefficients were obtained from remotely sensed SeaWiFS ocean-colour data. Sea-surface temperature (SST) and mixed-layer depth (MLD) were computed from a three-dimensional ocean circulation

Yongsheng Wu; Charles C. L. Tang; Shubha Sathyendranath; Trevor Platt

2007-01-01

189

Faults and fractures in central West Greenland: onshore expression of continental break-up and sea-floor spreading in the Labrador - Baffin Bay Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex Ungava fault zone lies in the Davis Strait and separates failed spreading centres in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. This study focuses on coastal exposures east of the fault-bound Sisimiut basin, where the onshore expressions of these fault systems and the influence of pre-existing basement are examined. Regional lineament studies identify five main systems: N-S, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW,

Robert W. Wilson; Knud Erik; S. Klint; Jeroen A. M. van Gool; Kenneth J. W. McCaffrey; Robert E. Holdsworth; James A. Chalmers

2006-01-01

190

Sea-ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal Arctic climate cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent ice data sets from the Greenland and Labrador Seas have been analyzed for the purpose of characterizing interannual and decadal time scale sea-ice extent anomalies during this century. Sea-ice concentration data for the 1953–1984 period revealed the presence of a large positive anomaly in the Greenland Sea during the 1960s which coincided with the “great salinity anomaly”, an

L. A. Mysak; D. K. Manak; R. F. Marsden

1990-01-01

191

The role of hydrothermal processes in the granite-hosted Zr, Y, REE deposit at Strange Lake, Quebec\\/Labrador: Evidence from fluid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strange Lake Zr, Y, REE, Nb, and Be deposit is hosted by a small, high-level, Late-Proterozoic peralkaline granite stock that intruded into high-grade metamorphic gneisses on the Quebec-Labrador border. The stock is extensively altered. Early alteration is manifested by the replacement of arfvedsonite with aegirine. Later alteration involved Ca-Na exchange. Zr, Ti, Y, REEs, Nb, and Be are concentrated

Stefano Salvi; Anthony E. Williams-Jones

1990-01-01

192

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

193

Barrier island configuration.  

PubMed

The 11 Virginia barrier islands are undergoing rapid changes in shore-line configuration. If this trend continues for another 100 years, two capelike features will develop. The process responsible for this island-chain pattern may be a standing edge wave trapped between Assateague Island and Cape Charles. PMID:17758013

Dolan, R; Hayden, B; Jones, C

1979-04-27

194

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

195

Diomede Islands, Bering Straight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

196

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

197

PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997-1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during 1997-1999 ranged from 0.24 to 62000 ng/g (dry weight) and decreased exponentially with distance from the contaminated beach. Given this gradient, spatial trends of PCBs in the food web were examined over four zones, according to distance from the contaminated beach: within 1.5 km--zone one, 1.5-4.5 km--zone two, 4.5-7.5 km--zone three, and greater than 7.5 km--zone four. PCB concentrations in a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), decreased significantly from zone one to zone two, three, four, and distant Labrador reference sites. PCB concentrations in the eggs of a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle) were as high as 48000 ng/g during 1997-1999 and average concentrations in zones one and two were 84 and 13 times higher than in zone four. Marine invertebrates closely reflected the concentrations of PCBs in the associated sediment. In contrast to the benthic-based food web, anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) showed no evidence of PCB accumulation from the contaminated sediments. Relatively high PCB concentrations were discovered in some great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) but appear to relate more to their high trophic level than sampling location. Those species that fed on or near the seabed and had limited foraging ranges were strongly influenced by the local contamination. Total PCB concentrations in the benthic-based food web were significantly higher than background levels for a distance of at least 7.5 km from the contaminated beach. This area is small in the context of widely distributed contamination from long-range transport but the area's high concentrations are comparable to levels associated with adverse effects elsewhere. Our findings should be useful to better assess the environmental impacts of PCB contamination at other coastal sites in the Arctic. PMID:16085280

Kuzyk, Z A; Stow, J P; Burgess, N M; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

2005-12-01

198

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

199

Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Emslie, R.F.

1986-01-01

200

A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. Conclusion The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL. PMID:24690512

2014-01-01

201

A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers. PMID:23844590

2013-01-01

202

Phenotypic and genetic evaluation of elbow dysplasia in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Bernese Mountain dogs.  

PubMed

Canine elbow dysplasia encompasses four developmental diseases: ununited anconeal process, osteochondrosis of the medial part of the humeral condyle, fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP), and incongruity of the elbow joint. Four radiographic views per joint were used to evaluate 2693 Labrador Retrievers (LRs), 1213 Golden Retrievers (GRs), and 974 Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMDs) for the presence of elbow dysplasia between 2002 and 2009 in the Netherlands. The views were also graded for signs of osteoarthritis and sclerosis. FCP was diagnosed most frequently in LRs, GRs and BMDs, with an incidence of 6%, 5%, and 15%, and a heritability of 0.17, 0.24, and 0.06, respectively. Heritabilities were estimated using a sire model and all available ancestors. Sclerosis at the base of the medial coronoid process was the radiographic sign most strongly correlated with FCP (r=0.95, 0.92, and 0.95 in LRs, GRs and BMDs, respectively). The sex of the dog was significantly correlated with the presence of osteoarthritis in LRs, but not in GRs and BMDs. Male LRs were 1.7-fold more frequently, but not more severely, affected by osteoarthritis than female dogs. Age at radiographic examination was significantly associated with osteoarthritis in all three breeds. The heritability estimates in Retrievers were high enough to warrant including FCP findings in the breeding policy, but until the biomechanical and genetic background of elbow dysplasia are better understood, correct phenotyping with a sensitive technique is essential. PMID:22336139

Lavrijsen, I C M; Heuven, H C M; Voorhout, G; Meij, B P; Theyse, L F H; Leegwater, P A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

2012-08-01

203

The Flores Island tsunamis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On

Harry Yeh; Fumihiko Imamura; Costas Synolakis; Yoshinobu Tsuji; Philip Liu; Shaozhong Shi

1993-01-01

204

Island biogeography Islands over-proportionally important in biogeography,  

E-print Network

continental islands; oceanic islands Alfred R. Wallace: 1823-1913 Studies of island biota are important. Wallace: In the absence of predation and competition, organisms on isolated landmasses may survive

Kiehn, Michael

205

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

206

Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

Burns, Emily

1993-01-01

207

Younger Dryas and Holocene oceanography of the western Labrador Sea region based on foraminifera and sediment proxies from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical analyses from three marine sediment cores from Placentia Bay on the southwest coast of Newfoundland captured the evolving surface and subsurface environment of the eastern Labrador Sea during the late glacial and Holocene. The area, which is today located in the boundary zone between the Arctic Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream in the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea was during the early part of the Younger Dryas (13.0-12.3 cal. kyr BP) dominated by cold, Arctic conditions and heavy sea-ice cover linked to a strong Polar Water component of the Inner Labrador Current. In the later part of the Younger Dryas (12.3-11.5 kyr BP) the influence of the Labrador Current (LC) became less pronounced resulting in more unstable conditions with varying sea-ice cover and increased influence of Gulf Stream water, presumably linked to an increased strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The earliest Holocene (11.5-10.4 kyr BP) saw slightly warmer subsurface conditions in Placentia Bay and increased productivity, presumably caused by a decreased southward transport of Polar Water via the LC. The onset of a strong AMOC caused the northward movement of the frontal zone between the Subpolar Gyre and the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre in the western North Atlantic region to closer proximity to the southern coast of Newfoundland compared to previously. From ca. 10.4-9.65 kyr BP increased bottom-current speeds and the presence of species often found in connection to oceanic fronts, suggest a further strengthening of the AMOC causing inflow of Atlantic-source water into Placentia Bay. This tendency was further strengthened at 9.65-7.3 kyr BP, which saw a relatively strong inflow of Atlantic-source Gulf Stream water into Placentia Bay, evidenced by high frequencies of Cassidulina neoteretis. This inflow of Atlantic was however temporarily halted around 8.2 kyr BP, when a short-lived, extreme peak in Globobulimina auriculata arctica suggests reduced bottom-water stratification. This may have been caused by an increased freshwater release from the Canadian Arctic, linked to the well-known 8.2-kyr event. Around 7.3 kyr BP, the inflow of warmer subsurface waters decreased, when subsurface waters of Placentia Bay returned to relatively cold, subarctic conditions. An enhanced influx of lower-saline water is inferred both by the presence of Elphidium bartletti, indicating an increased flux of meltwater from the Arctic entering Placentia Bay. This fresher water was likely transported by the Labrador Current and strong northerly winds. This scenario was again interrupted around ca 4.4 kyr BP, when higher C. neoteretis again suggest increase influx of Gulf Stream water, a tendency that continued until today, although with possibly slightly better mixing of LC and GS water after ~2.7 kyr BP. This decrease in the strength of the LC, may be linked to a decreased southward flow of LC water due to decreased meltwater release from the Canadian Arctic or due to a shift to a generally more negative Northern Annular Mode.

Sheldon, Christina; Pearce, Christof; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Reynisson, Njáll F.; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Juncker Hansen, Mette

2014-05-01

208

ANTHROPOLOGY 343 PACIFIC ISLANDS ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

ANTHROPOLOGY 343 PACIFIC ISLANDS ARCHAEOLOGY 2014, Fall Term William S. Ayres Department Archaeology, Ayres, Fall 2014 1 Anthropology 343 Pacific Islands Archaeology University of Oregon Fall islands are revealed through archaeological evidence. A review of basic archaeological concepts provides

209

Stewart Head from Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

210

Genome Wide Analysis Indicates Genes for Basement Membrane and Cartilage Matrix Proteins as Candidates for Hip Dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a ?2 statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001). Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia. PMID:24498183

Lavrijsen, Ineke C. M.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Martin, Alan J.; Harris, Stephen J.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Hazewinkel, Herman A. W.

2014-01-01

211

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a pediatric emergency department in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: First-generation cephalosporins and antistaphylococcal penicillins are typically the first choice for treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), but are not effective for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is currently unclear what percentage of SSTIs is caused by community-associated MRSA in different regions in Canada. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of MRSA in children presenting to a pediatric emergency department with SSTI, and to determine which antibiotics were used to treat these infections. METHODS: All visits to a pediatric emergency department were reviewed from April 15, 2010 to April 14, 2011. Diagnoses of cellulitis, abscess, impetigo, folliculitis and skin infection (not otherwise specified) were reviewed in detail to determine whether a culture was taken and which antibiotic was prescribed. RESULTS: There were 367 cases of SSTI diagnosed over the study period. Forty-five (12.3%) patients had lesions that were swabbed for culture and sensitivity. S aureus was the most common organism found, with 14 (66%) methicillin-sensitive cases and seven (33%) methicillin-resistant cases. Of the seven cases of MRSA identified, only one patient had clear risk factors for hospital-acquired MRSA. First-generation cephalosporins were initially prescribed for 280 (76%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of MRSA in the population presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Newfoundland and Labrador appeared to be low, although only a small percentage of infections were cultured. At this time, there appears to be no need to change empirical antibiotic coverage, which remains a first-generation cephalosporin. PMID:24634682

Peebles, Erin; Morris, Robert; Chafe, Roger

2014-01-01

212

On island arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older concepts of island arcs, prior to the 1960's, were dominated by the Indonesian model and described in terms of geosynclinal theory, but not altogether fruitfully. Platetectonics theory has given new insights into the genesis, mode of formation, behaviour and ultimate fate of island arcs. Subduction with descent of the lithospheric slab is the governing phenomenon. As the slab descends

Patrick J. Coleman

1975-01-01

213

Channel Islands rare plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

McEachern, K.

1999-01-01

214

VEGETATION OF HENDERSON ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of field surveys from the north and north-west beaches, the vegetation of Henderson Island can be classified into 11 vegetation communities: 2 in littoral environments with sandy substrates, 4 on rocky coasts and 5 associated with the limestone plateau. Apart from the cutting of 'miro' wood by Pitcairn islanders, the communities are remarkably undisturbed, with only 5

GUSTAV PAULAY; T. SPENCER

215

Barnacles on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

216

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

217

Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of < ~2 at 48-70% wt. % SiO2, in the ~10 km wide Oligocene Hidden Bay pluton on southern Adak Island and the 10 km wide Miocene Kagalaska pluton to the north on eastern Adak and the adjacent Kagalaska Island. Although small compared to most continental plutons, similarities in intrusive units, mineralogy and chemistry suggest common formation processes. The Aleutian calc-alkaline plutonic rocks mainly differ from continental plutons in having more oceanic like isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703-0.7033; Epsilon Nd = 9-7.8) and LIL (e.g., higher K/Rb) ratios. The Adak region plutons differ from Tertiary plutons on Unalaska Island further east in being more K-rich and in having a more oxidized and lower-temperature mineralogy. From a regional perspective, the Adak area plutons intrude Eocene/Oligocene Finger Bay Formation mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30.9 Ma and indicate an ~ 4 Ma intrusion history. Biotite Ar/Ar ages for Kagalaska gabbro and granodiorite samples range from 14.7 to 13.9 Ma. The new ages are consistent with the plutons being related to several eruptive centers and forming during the waning stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

2014-05-01

218

Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

219

Conservation Strategy for Sable Island  

E-print Network

Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

Jones, Ian L.

220

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

221

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

222

Island Watershed Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

Benson, Rod

2003-01-01

223

Photographs of Tinian Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of photographs depicts the 509th Composite Bomb Group on Tinian Island in the Pacific, the crews of the Enola Gay and Bock's Car, and actual atomic bombs that were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Christopher Griffith

224

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles; Geography Department)

2007-09-21

225

Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25, identified in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice, has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover. We tested the reliability of this biomarker as a sea ice proxy against observational sea ice data (sea ice concentrations from the global HadISST1 database) and against a more established sea ice proxy (sea ice diatom abundance in sediments) in the South-West (SW) Labrador Sea. Furthermore, our study location at the southern margin of Arctic sea ice drift provided a new environmental setting in which to further test the novel PIP25 index. Our two study sites are located North-East (NE) and South-East (SE) of Newfoundland where box cores covering the last ca 100-150 years were collected. IP25 concentrations are nearly an order of magnitude higher and sea ice diatoms more abundant in sediments from NE of Newfoundland, where sea ice prevails 2-4 months per year compared to the sediments SE of Newfoundland, where conditions are generally ice-free year round. The IP25 fluxes NE of Newfoundland agree well with multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) trends in the study area, which in previous studies have been shown to affect the climatic and sea ice conditions in the region. When assessed against observational sea ice data, IP25 appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sea ice variability in this setting compared to sea ice diatoms and proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing low-frequency variability in past sea ice concentrations. The PIP25 index results clearly differ from the observed sea ice data underlining that caution needs to be exercised when using the index in different environmental settings.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis G.; Hanhijärvi, Sami; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Schmidt, Sabine; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Andersen, Morten L.; Hill, Brian; Kuijpers, Antoon

2013-11-01

226

Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (?3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (P<0.001) and MDR (P<0.001). Significant at P<0.003, was the consumption of raw meat for clavulanate-amoxicillin (OR: 9.57; 95% CI: 2.0-45.7) and third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) (OR: 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-54.0). AMR E. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due to the increasing popularity of raw-meat canine diets, and the potential for opportunistic infection, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from commensal isolates to potential pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25732912

Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

2015-04-01

227

Island Inequality Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two islands, and their fish always swims toward the island with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

2009-01-15

228

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Lisa Gardiner

229

Conservation of the Island Spotted Skunk and Island Fox in a Recovering Island Ecosystenl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review available information on the ecolo­ gy of island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae) on Santa Cruz Island, with a focus on recent research, and present new infonnation on distribution and abundance. Our objective is to evaluate the present and future status of skunks and foxes in the context of ongoing island recov­

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

230

Grain shape variation and sedimentary processes of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments in Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

of Arctic water inasses ? contour following cur- rent and in-basin turbidity current plaved the inain role in the deposition of Baffin Bay sediments during thc carly to middle Miocene tiine: pelagic clepositiou linked to the Viest Greenland Ciirrent (XVGC... the late Pliocene to Pleistocene. The Precambrian crystalline metamorphic rocks in the surrounding areas: Greenland, Baffin Island and Northeastern Canada. , provided most of the sedimentary sources for the turbidites in the two basins. The Paleozoic...

Shan, Yongtang

1989-01-01

231

Adapting remotely sensed snow data for daily flow modeling on the Upper Humber River, Newfoundland and Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigated the use of remotely sensed snow information to help improve flood forecasting in western Newfoundland's Humber River Basin. Flood forecasting on the Humber River is important because of the large population settlements within the Humber Valley. In this research, two types of remotely sensed snow data were considered for analysis: (1) snow cover (or snow extent) and (2) snow water equivalent (SWE). The majority of this thesis focuses on the remotely sensed snow cover data. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra snow cover images were acquired over the Humber Valley watershed throughout the snowmelt period, from March to June, for the years 2000 to 2009. MODIS is an optical sensor on NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. Its daily temporal data are advantageous and the data are free and easily accessible. Daily snow cover data were extracted from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) daily snow product, specifically MOD10A1: a product derived from MODIS data, using a custom EASI script run in PCI Geomatica. PCI Geomatica is a robust remote sensing and image processing software. One major obstacle, regarding the acquisition of MODIS imagery over the Humber Valley watershed, is the presence of over 50% cloud cover for 80% of the days on average from March to June every year. This was a concern for data collection: affecting the sample size of acquired data and the accuracy of the snow cover data. When cloud cover is high there is a greater chance that it may be misclassified as snow and/or snow is misclassified as cloud cover. For this reason, a cloud-cover threshold was determined. The Rango-Martinec snowmelt runoff model, a widely used degree-day model which incorporates snow cover data as a direct input, was evaluated. It was found that the next day's flow is highly dependent on the previous day's flow and less dependent on the meteorological data: rainfall, snow cover, and temperature. The results from the snowmelt runoff model using the snow cover data provided very good final Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.85 for the calibration stage and 0.81 for the validation stage, but a consistent one-day lag of the modeled flow values was also observed. Although these results were not superior to currently employed flood forecasting models for the Upper Humber (because of a one-day lag in the modeled flows), the methodology developed herein may be useful for other river basins in NL where the flows are dominated by snowmelt during the spring such as the Exploits River Basin located in central NL. Remotely sensed snow water equivalent (SWE) data obtained from an advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E), aboard the Aqua satellite, was also investigated for daily flow modeling applications. SWE often provide a better estimate of snowmelt than snow cover but this data had several disadvantages in the Humber River Basin. The major obstacles included large spatial resolution (25 km), data inaccuracy for wet snow, boreal forest, mountainous regions, and time step irregularities. Extremely large variances in the SWE data rendered the information inaccurate and ineffective for streamflow forecasting on Newfoundland and Labrador's Humber River. This research makes significant contributions to the field of hydrology providing a valuable methodology in adapting remotely sensed snow data to daily flow simulation and will be helpful to local authorities.

Tom, Melissa

232

Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

Edwards, Edmundo

233

Long Island Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

Anders, R.

2013-05-01

234

A possible outburst flood early during the last interglacial (MIS 5e) recorded in sediments on Orphan Knoll and Eirik Drift, Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identified a distinct red, detrital-carbonate layer deposited during early MIS 5e in cores from the Labrador Sea. Sediment records from Orphan Knoll (IODP site U1302/3: 50o 10' N, 45o 38' W) and Eirik Drift (IODP site U1305: 57o 29' N, 48o 32' W) both contain obvious red layers (~30 and ~10 cm thick respectively) marked by high values of the a* parameter in colour reflectance space. The first derivative of the reflectance spectrum suggests that the red colour is imparted by hematite in the sediment. We present high-resolution core-scanning XRF records from both sites showing increases in Ca/Sr indicating high concentrations of detrital carbonate in the red layers. The wt% of >106?m size fraction is negligible across the layer and the layer is marked by a low in magnetic susceptibility, indicating that the layer is mostly clay to very fine sand without a noticeable IRD component. The detrital carbonate in the red layer is similar to deposits associated with Heinrich Events that are sourced from Hudson Strait; however, the absence of IRD and deposition during an interglacial period preclude the possibility of surging of a large ice sheet. We therefore speculate that the red, fine-grained detrital-carbonate layer may have been deposited by a glacial outburst flood from Hudson Strait during early MIS 5e. The final drainage of lake Agassiz at 8.2ka resulted in the deposition of a red layer in the western Hudson Strait, but there is no evidence of a similar red, detrital-carbonate layer in the open Labrador Sea. The 8.2ka event is known to have several climatic repercussions and if, as we speculate, a similar event occurs during the Eemian its impact should be recorded in other high-resolution regional climate records.

Hodell, D. A.; Nicholl, J. A.; Channell, J. E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; McCave, I. N.; Romero, O. E.

2011-12-01

235

Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

236

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

237

Late Colonization of Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in

Terry L. Hunt; Carl P. Lipo

2006-01-01

238

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

239

Costly island for Arctic drilling  

SciTech Connect

The largest artificial island in the frigid Beaufort Sea was recently completed. The $140-million teardrop-shaped island, the largest of 17 built in the Beaufort Sea, sits in 50-ft. of water, 20 miles northwest of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields on Alaska's North Slope. The problems encountered in constructing the island are discussed.

Not Available

1983-12-01

240

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

241

Island Ecology in Bermuda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

1981-01-01

242

Islands and despots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges a conventional wisdom: that when discussing political systems, small is democratic. And yet, can there be paradises without serpents? The presumed manageability of small island spaces promotes and nurtures dispositions for domination and control over nature and society. In such dark circumstances, authoritarian rule is a more natural fit than democracy. By adopting an inter-disciplinary perspective, this

Godfrey Baldacchino

2012-01-01

243

Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

244

Pine Island Bay  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... of the sequence is due to a gap in image acquisition during Antarctic winter, when the glacier was in continuous darkness. Pine Island ... continent's fastest moving glacier. This area of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is also believed to be the most susceptible to collapse. ...

2013-04-16

245

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

246

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Lori Perkins

2002-01-10

247

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

248

The plant geography of dredged-material islands along the Texas coast  

E-print Network

Island. 12. Soil data ? Port Isabel Island. 65 67 13. Soil salinities of the supra-tidal zones of Bird Island and Jellyfish Island. 70 14. Island area and environmental data. 77 15. Multiple regressions of ordination positions on vegetated area... Drift Island Reed Island Gnat Island Tortuga Island Mangrove Island Crane Island Wind Tidal Flats Island Mesquite Island Port Mansfield Island Discontinued Island Jellyfish Island Bird Island Port Isabel Island Location Trinity Bay Trinity...

Irish, Gary Joe

1978-01-01

249

Late colonization of Easter Island.  

PubMed

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement. PMID:16527931

Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

2006-03-17

250

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

251

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

252

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

253

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

254

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

255

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

256

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

PubMed Central

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

2012-01-01

257

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

2002-11-01

258

Islands in the landscape  

E-print Network

The string theory landscape consists of many metastable de Sitter vacua, populated by eternal inflation. Tunneling between these vacua gives rise to a dynamical system, which asymptotically settles down to an equilibrium state. We investigate the effects of sinks to anti-de Sitter space, and show how their existence can change probabilities in the landscape. Sinks can disturb the thermal occupation numbers that would otherwise exist in the landscape and may cause regions that were previously in thermal contact to be divided into separate, thermally isolated islands.

T. Clifton; Andrei Linde; Navin Sivanandam

2007-01-10

259

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand  

E-print Network

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand Term: January Term ESPM Track in New Zealand Visiting New Zealand was the most amazing experience of my life. You travel a lot and get to see every possible landscape of New Zealand - rainforests, mountains, caves, beaches, etc. The most we

Minnesota, University of

260

IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.  

PubMed

IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species. PMID:23677610

Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

2013-07-01

261

Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the CorTemp® ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp® sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and ?0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and ?1.1°C. PMID:25320380

Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

2014-01-01

262

Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July - August 1990 joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with 'background' air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forest region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region.

Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R. W.; Klemm, K.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L. A.

1994-01-01

263

"Mrs. Tilley had a very hasty wedding!": the class-based response to marriages in the Grenfell Mission of Newfoundland and Labrador.  

PubMed

The International Grenfell Association (IGA) attracted hundreds of single young women for nursing in northern Newfoundland and Labrador between 1939 and 1981. Under contract with the Mission, the Grenfell nurse was expected to behave in a non-sexual manner and uphold a strict moral code of behaviour. However, the Grenfell experience provided nurses with a unique opportunity for socializing with young men who ranged the social spectrum, from fishermen and labourers to medical professionals. This paper highlights the relationships and marriages of the nurses that developed during or immediately after their tenure with the IGA and evaluates the Grenfell Mission's class-based responses to those relationships. The administration responded either positively or negatively to nurses' marriages, depending on the socioeconomic background of the husband in question. Marriages to physicians or dentists were almost always celebrated while marriages to local men were usually questioned or treated with ambivalence. From the perspective of the IGA, the social status of the nurse could be raised or lowered depending on the socioeconomic background of her marriage partner. PMID:20533786

Coombs-Thorne, Heidi

2010-01-01

264

Will the increased military low-level flying activity in Labrador be detrimental to the hearing of humans in the region?  

PubMed

The Government of Canada has directed the Department of National Defence to encourage our NATO allies to increase use of their facilities at Goose Bay, Labrador. This has already resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of military flying in the area, and more is projected. Much of the flying is done at very low altitude. The aboriginal people in the region (the Innu and, to a lesser extent, the Inuit) are demanding a halt to low-level military flying, and their representatives claim that the noise from the low-flying jet aircraft can cause hearing loss and ear disease. A survey on the ground in the area measured noise levels up to 127.7 dBA with very brief exposure levels. A task force commission to look at the problem concluded that occasionally low-level subsonic overflights might produce noise levels that were potentially damaging to hearing, but that the probability of this happening is at present very low because of the low frequency of flights. This might change if the frequency of flights increases. PMID:2921789

Baxter, J D; West, R; Miller, A

1989-02-01

265

A Mutation in the SUV39H2 Gene in Labrador Retrievers with Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNPK) Provides Insights into the Epigenetics of Keratinocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK), an inherited monogenic autosomal recessive skin disorder, leads to crusts and fissures on the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 13 HNPK cases and 23 controls. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 2 (praw?=?4.4×10?14). The analysis of shared haplotypes among the 13 cases defined a critical interval of 1.6 Mb with 25 predicted genes. We re-sequenced the genome of one case at 38× coverage and detected 3 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval with respect to the reference genome assembly. We genotyped these variants in larger cohorts of dogs and only one was perfectly associated with the HNPK phenotype in a cohort of more than 500 dogs. This candidate causative variant is a missense variant in the SUV39H2 gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase, which mediates chromatin silencing. The variant c.972T>G is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved asparagine into a lysine in the catalytically active domain of the enzyme (p.N324K). We further studied the histopathological alterations in the epidermis in vivo. Our data suggest that the HNPK phenotype is not caused by hyperproliferation, but rather delayed terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Thus, our data provide evidence that SUV39H2 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of keratinocyte differentiation ensuring proper stratification and tight sealing of the mammalian epidermis. PMID:24098150

Jagannathan, Vidhya; Bannoehr, Jeanette; Plattet, Philippe; Hauswirth, Regula; Drögemüller, Cord; Drögemüller, Michaela; Wiener, Dominique J.; Doherr, Marcus; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Galichet, Arnaud; Welle, Monika M.; Tengvall, Katarina; Bergvall, Kerstin; Lohi, Hannes; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Linek, Monika; Paradis, Manon; Müller, Eliane J.; Roosje, Petra; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

266

Rain on small tropical islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow rather than elevated surface heating.

Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

2011-04-01

267

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

268

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Donald M Yow

269

Murre Colony on Prince Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

270

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

271

An Island Effect in Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)

Richards, Norvin

2000-01-01

272

Island cosmology in the landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the

Yun-Song Piao

2008-01-01

273

Rethinking Easter Island's ecological catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) has become a paragon for prehistoric human induced ecological catastrophe and cultural collapse. A popular narrative recounts an obsession for monumental statuary that led to the island's ecological devastation and the collapse of the ancient civilization. Scholars offer this story as a parable of today's global environmental problems. In this paper, I review new and emerging

Terry L. Hunt

2007-01-01

274

Tidal Pool on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

275

Filariasis in Palawan, Philippine Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

FILARIASIS in the Philippine Islands is endemic in certain areas of the Bicol Peninsula of Luzon, in the neighbouring islands of Samar and Leyte, and in Mindanao, where there are extensive plantations of abaca1. Here, the principal vector is Aedes poicilius, which breeds in the leaf axils especially of abaca and banana trees2. Baisas3 found that in some communities of

Benjamin D. Cabrera

1964-01-01

276

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

277

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

278

Momentum transport in magnetic islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the transport of momentum across an island using the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model. We find that the Reynolds stress gives rise to a momentum source proportional to the resistivity. As a result of the frozen-in property the transport of momentum can be described by a one-dimensional equation, even for islands with finite aspect-ratio. We present numerical and analytic solutions of this transport equation and compare these solutions to numerical solutions of the full time- dependent RMHD equations. Of particular interest is the momentum transport in islands where the helical current density reverses sign. In such islands, the Reynolds stress also reverses sign, creating the possibility for localized zonal flow generation. The constant-psi approximation, however, fails in the presence of current reversal. We have developed new equilibrium solutions for thin islands that we plan to use to examine the transport of momentum in the presence of current reversal.

Waelbroeck, F. L.; Grasso, D.; Porcelli, F.; Tebaldi, C.

2006-04-01

279

Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance  

PubMed Central

One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

2014-01-01

280

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

281

SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

282

Marte Valles Crater 'Island'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

283

Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

284

PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software  

PubMed Central

The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

2012-01-01

285

9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72...Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. ...Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined. [43 FR...

2014-01-01

286

Seasonal and depth-dependent variations in the size and lipid contents of stage 5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus in the waters of the Newfoundland Shelf and the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the variation in energy reserves of individual C5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus from the Newfoundland continental shelf and the Labrador Sea collected from surface and overwintering (or bottom) depths prior to, during and after the expected timing of the onset of diapause. Overall, the trend was for a decreasing average prosome length as the year progressed for all locations although the decline was smallest in the Labrador Sea and greatest in the deep waters of the continental shelf. The size of the oil sac was closely linked to the weight of the copepodite but the form of this relationship showed substantial variations with depth and season. We show a clear increase in the relative oil sac volume for C. finmarchicus between late spring and late summer, by which time some animals had descended to diapause depths. The progressive decrease in oil sac volume of animals sampled at depth in the Labrador Sea between September and December suggests a significant loss of energy reserves during diapause. From the distribution of volumes and body sizes in December we estimate that 23-53% of individuals would not be able to meet the energetic cost of moulting and early gonad development. Overall, some of our observations appear to invalidate earlier hypotheses concerning the governing role of lipids in the life history of C. finmarchicus. However, assessment of the factors that influence entry into dormancy should be based on the relative probabilities of alternative strategies for successful reproduction (e.g. entering dormancy vs. continuing into a second generation).

Pepin, Pierre; Head, Erica J. H.

2009-06-01

287

Terrestrial ecosystem recovery following removal of a PCB point source at a former pole vault line radar station in Northern Labrador.  

PubMed

Saglek Bay (LAB-2), located on the northeast coast of Labrador is a former Polevault station that was operated by the U.S. Air Force from 1953 to 1971 when it was abandoned. An environmental assessment carried out in 1996 determined that the site was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with concentrations in soils far exceeding the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) regulation of 50 ?g/g in three areas of the site (Beach, Site Summit, Antenna Hill). This led to remediation work carried out between 1999 and 2004 to remove and/or isolate all PCB-contaminated soil exceeding 50 ?g/g and to further remediate parts of the site to <5 ?g/g PCBs. In this study, spatial and temporal trends of PCB concentrations in soil, vegetation (Betula glandulosa and Salix spp.), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were investigated over a period of fourteen (1997-2011) years in an effort to track ecosystem recovery following the removal of the PCB point sources. The data collected shows that PCB levels in vegetation samples are approximately four times lower in 2011 than pre-remediation in 1997. Similarly, PCB concentrations in deer mice in 2011 are approximately three times lower than those measured in 1997/98. Spatial trends in vegetation and deer mice continue to demonstrate that areas close to the former point sources of PCBs have higher PCB concentrations than those further away (and higher than background levels) and these residual PCB levels are not likely to decrease in the foreseeable future given the persistent nature of PCBs in general in the environment, and in particular in cold climates. PMID:23712118

Ficko, Sarah A; Luttmer, Carol; Zeeb, Barbara A; Reimer, Kenneth

2013-09-01

288

Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

Pepin, Pierre

2013-05-01

289

Investigating public perceptions and knowledge translation priorities to improve water safety for residents with private water supplies: a cross-sectional study in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

Background The first objective of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water and alternative sources with respect to safety, quality, testing and treatment in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. The second objective was to provide public health practitioners with recommendations for improving knowledge translation (KT) efforts in NL, based on assessments of respondents’ perceived information needs and preferred KT methods. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of 618 households with private water supplies was conducted in March-April, 2007. Questions pertained to respondents’ perceptions of their tap water, water concerns, alternative water use, well characteristics, and water testing behaviours. Results Approximately 94% of households were supplied by private wells (50% drilled and 50% dug wells), while 6% obtained water from roadside ponds, rivers or springs (RPRS). While 85% rated their water quality highly, 55% nevertheless had concerns about its overall safety. Approximately 11% of respondents never tested their water, and of the 89% that had, 80% tested at frequencies below provincial recommendations for bacterial testing. More than one-third of respondents reported treating their water in the home, and 78% employed active carbon filtration methods. Respondents wanted more information on testing options and advice on effective treatment methods. Targeted advertising through television, flyers/brochures and/or radio is recommended as a first step to increase awareness. More active KT methods involving key stakeholders may be most effective in improving testing and treatment behaviour. Conclusions The results presented here can assist public health practitioners in tailoring current KT initiatives to influence well owner stewardship behaviour. PMID:24365203

2013-01-01

290

Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk. PMID:24160559

Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhon Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S; Mclaughlin, John R

2014-03-28

291

Constructing artificial islands in Canada's Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1972, Esso has constructed 17 artificial islands in the Canadian Beaufort Sea in water shallower than 66 ft (20 m). The sandbag-retained island uses a berm of sandbags around the island, thus reducing the volume of fill required; an alternative construction is the sacrificial beach island characterized by long gradual beaches and used when fill is readily available. The

Dingle

1982-01-01

292

Island Political Economy Geoff Bertram & Bernard Poirine  

E-print Network

323 Chapter 10 Island Political Economy Geoff Bertram & Bernard Poirine Introduction In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Upolu Island, Western Samoa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

2000-01-01

294

Upolu Island, Western Samoa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

2000-01-01

295

The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientations of the several hundred ancient stone monuments on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) have now been measured and analysed. The results indicate that approximately fifteen ceremonial platforms were carefully oriented solsticially or equinoctially.

Liller, W.

296

The archaeoastronomy of Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orientations of the several hundred ancient stone monuments on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) have now been measured and analysed. The results indicate that approximately fifteen ceremonial platforms were carefully oriented solsticially or equinoctially.

W. Liller

1991-01-01

297

Oil Spill Threatens Galapagos Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, the aging Ecuadorean tanker "Jessica" ran aground on San Cristobal Island, threatening the delicate ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands, famous as the location for much of Charles Darwin's key research. The Galapagos, 97 percent of which is a national park, is perhaps the last complete and preserved island archipelago. The captain of the ship has since accepted responsibility for misjudging his entry into the bay and running the ship aground, spilling approximately 160,000 gallons of oil. Efforts continue to refloat the ship and remove the 10,000 gallons left inside. Fortunately, favorable winds and currents have limited the amount of oil washing up on the Galapagos Islands, but the long-term effects remain to be seen.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

2001-01-01

298

Wild Ponies on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

299

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

300

Island Cosmology in the Landscape  

E-print Network

In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the evolution of standard big bang cosmology. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of curvature perturbation generated during the emergence of island. We find that generally the spectrum obtained is nearly scale invariant, which can be well related to that of slow roll inflation by a simple duality. This in some sense suggests a degeneracy between their scalar spectra. In addition, we also simply estimate the non-Gaussianity of perturbation, which is naturally large, yet, can lie well in the observational bound. The results shown here indicate that the island emergently thermalized in the landscape can be consistent with our observable universe.

Yun-Song Piao

2008-06-11

301

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Massy Halbert

302

Magnetic island formation in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

Yoshikawa, S.

1989-04-01

303

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...established to provide habitat for a diversity of birds...particular emphasis on nesting bald eagles and seabirds, as well...conserving wildlife and their habitats, CCPs identify wildlife-dependent...Island to enhance seabird nesting habitat and forest...

2010-08-18

304

Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

2014-09-01

305

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

306

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

307

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).  

PubMed

Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

308

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

309

Using multiple sulfur isotopes to link biological isotope fractionation in a sedimentary protolith to a magmatic Ni-sulfide deposit: Voisey's Bay Ni deposit, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that crustal contamination is required for the formation of significant magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits. Either the addition of external S or SiO2 promote early sulfide saturation. The most direct indicator of S addition by this contaminant is S isotopes. However, the traditional use of ?34S values is inadequate in deposits where Archean sedimentary sulfides incorporated into these deposits might not have significantly different ?34S values from those of mantle S. Even in sediments that have variable ?34S values, ?34S signature can be reset to magmatic values by equilibrating large amounts of silicate magma with initial sulfide melt. However, sedimentary rocks contain isotope evidence of biological fractionation processes in the relationship between ?33S and ?34S values. We used multiple S isotope data to constrain the relationship between ?33S and ?34S values, identify biological S isotope fractionation in the metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Tasiuyak Gneiss, and compare this relationship to that in the Voisey's Bay magmatic Ni-deposit. The Voisey's Bay Ni-sulfide deposit, Labrador is hosted by a troctolitic conduit system. The Voisey's Bay intrusion is a part of the Nain plutonic suite and intruded at approximately 1.3 Ga along the boundary between the Proterozoic Tasiuyak Gneiss of the Churchill province and Archean gneisses of the Nain province. The general model suggests assimilation of a large amount of sulfidic Tasiuyak gneiss, leading to sulfur saturation prior to emplacement, even though the Tasiuyak gneiss does not have a high concentration of sulfur. High-temperature equilibrium relationships are not present in our measured ?33S and ?34S values from the Voisey's Bay deposit. Instead they indicate that a kinetic process is responsible for S isotope fractionations in the mineralization and troctolite, similar to that recorded by the Tasiuyak gneiss. The observed relationship between ?33S and ?34S values is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction, in agreement with the previously interpreted marine sedimentary protolith to the Tasiuyak gneiss. This relationship has apparently been inherited by the troctolite and the mineralization through assimilation of the Tasiuyak gneiss, despite the equilibration of the sulfide melt with a very large amount of silicate magma, resetting the ?34S values in the deposit to magmatic, or nearly magmatic, values.

Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Wing, B. A.

2012-12-01

310

Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model more closely follows techniques employed by field geologists and is fundamental to the geologic interpretation of an area. Even so, an operational time cost/benefit analyses should be carefully considered in each situation, to determine when such comprehensive data collection would maximize the science return.Finally, it should be recognized that analogue deployments cannot faithfully model the time scales of robotic planetary missions. Analogue missions are limited by the difficulty and expense of fieldwork. Thus, analogue deployments should focus on smaller aspects of robotic missions and test components in a modular way (e.g., dropping communications constraints, limiting mission scope, focusing on a specific problem, spreading the mission over several field seasons, etc.).

Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

2013-07-01

311

Fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility and its role in REE ore formation: Evidence from the Strange Lake rare metal deposit, Québec-Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegmatites and adjacent subsolvus granites (two alkali feldspars) of the Mid-Proterozoic Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) host potentially economic concentrations of high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), zirconium and niobium. Previous studies have proposed that these concentrations were the result of a combination of extreme fractionation of a peralkaline granitic magma and later hydrothermal remobilization. However, the recent discovery of melt inclusions which, after heating to 900 or 950 °C, quench to immiscible fluoride and silicate glasses, suggests an additional mechanism of HFSE concentration. Crystallized melt inclusions are common in quartz phenocrysts of the early hypersolvus and transsolvus granite. After heating, four types of inclusions were discerned. Type 1 inclusions quench to a single silicate glass containing a high concentration of Zr, Nb and Ti. Quenching of Type 2 inclusions produces a Zr, Nb, Ti-rich silicate glass containing a globule of calcium-rich fluoride glass with a high concentration of the REE. The third inclusion type is similar to Type 2, except that the calcium-rich fluoride glass contains a globule of REE-fluoride glass (up to 50 wt.% total REE). Type 4 inclusions contain calcium-fluoride glass with multiple silicate globules. We propose that during or soon after emplacement, the early granitic magma exsolved a calcium fluoride melt into which rare earth elements (REE) partitioned preferentially. The conjugate silicate melt was consequently depleted in Ca and the REE, and enriched in Zr, Nb and Ti. Crystallization of the fluoride melt occurred late in the crystallization history of the silicate magma allowing it to accumulate in the volatile-rich residual magma that formed the pegmatites. This played a major role in the extreme enrichment of the pegmatites in Ca, F and REE. Crystallization of the pegmatites proceeded inwards from an outer zone in which feldspars, quartz, arfvedsonite and zirconosilicate minerals dominate to a core where the immiscible fluoride liquid collected and crystallized fluorite and REE minerals. Fluid exsolved from the silicate melt reacted with the products of both the silicate and fluoride melts, remobilizing most of the HFSE including the REE. This study reports a rare example of silicate-fluoride melt immiscibility and the first in which such immiscibility played a role in concentrating the REE to potentially economic levels.

Vasyukova, Olga; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

2014-08-01

312

A 750-kyr detrital-layer stratigraphy for the North Atlantic (IODP Sites U1302-U1303, Orphan Knoll, Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1302-U1303, drilled on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), preserve a record of detrital layers and other proxies of hydrographic change that extend the record of ice-sheet/ocean interactions through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (?18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), and an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (wt.% > 106 ?m). The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich (H) layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~ 2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~ 3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 16 and have near-synchronous analogs at Site U1302/03. Detrital layers at Site U1302/03 are distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. We distinguish Heinrich-like layers associated with IRD from detrital layers marked by multiple detrital-layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to lofted sediment derived from drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). The prominent detrital layers at Sites U1302/03 and U1308 can be correlated to millennial scale features in the Chinese speleothem (monsoon) record over the last 400 kyr, implying a link between monsoon precipitation and Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) instability. The detrital-layer stratigraphy at Site U1302/03 provides a long record of LIS dynamics against which other terrestrial and marine records can be compared.

Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Röhl, U.

2012-02-01

313

Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

2014-11-01

314

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

315

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

316

The American Experience: Coney Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before Lawrence Ferlinghetti entitled his famous book of Beat poems A Coney Island of the Mind, the amusement park located on "a tiny spit of land at the foot of Brooklyn, NY" had come to represent a quintessential American desire for mechanized, manic fun. This companion site to the PBS airing this week of the American Experience provides a history of the amusement park, a substantial essay on the history of roller coasters, an enhanced transcript of the broadcast (available July 26), a gallery of Coney Island images, historical film clips of the park in action, a teacher's guide (which was not yet available when we visited), and an essay comparing Coney Island to the Internet. Watch out for that first hyperlink!

317

Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

2015-02-01

318

The Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

2002-01-01

319

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Mel Goodwin

320

3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

321

Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... but they are twice as likely to have stomach cancer. Although Asian/Pacific Islander women are 30% less ... are almost three times as likely to have stomach cancer. Both Asian/Pacific Islander men and women have ...

322

Coastal mesoscale changes on Matagorda Island  

E-print Network

on the coastal geomorphology of Matagorda Island. Based on the statistical and morphometric analysis of the coastal landforms, the island was divided into three distinct sub-environments: an erosional eastern zone, a transitional mixed zone, and a depositional...

Lariscy, Kevin William

2001-01-01

323

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

324

Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

325

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

326

78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...13-AWP-14] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands...action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic...overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action...

2013-10-25

327

Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated at the extreme margin of the Indo-West Pacific biotic province, the four islands of the isolated Pitcairn Group hold interest for biogeographers and archaeologists alike. Human settlement may have been as early as the 8th century AD for the uplifted limestone island of Henderson, the most pristine island of its kind. An archaeological survey of the Pitcairn Islands is

MARSHALL I. WEISLER

1995-01-01

328

INSULAR AND MIGRANT SPECIES, LONGEVITY RECORDS, AND NEW SPECIES RECORDS ON GUANA ISLAND, BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACf.-We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vennivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Ca- tharus

CLINT W. BOAL; FRED C. SIBLEY; TRACY S. ESTABROOK; JAMES LAZELL

2006-01-01

329

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY  

E-print Network

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

Luther, Douglas S.

330

Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

1992-01-01

331

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2014-07-01

332

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2013-07-01

333

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2011-07-01

334

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2012-07-01

335

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM  

E-print Network

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

336

Geology and geochronology of the Line Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological and geophysical studies along the entire length of the Line Islands were undertaken in order to test the hot spot model for the origin of this major linear island chain. Volcanic rocks were recovered in 21 dredge hauls and fossiliferous sedimentary rocks were recovered in 19 dredge hauls. Volcanic rocks from the Line Islands are alkali basalts and hawaiites.

S. O. Schlanger; M. O. Garcia; B. H. Keating; J. J. Naughton; W. W. Sager; J. A. Haggerty; J. A. Philpotts; R. A. Duncan

1984-01-01

337

Costing eradications of alien mammals from islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to estimate costs of alien species eradications is essential for a rigorous assessment of priorities for island restoration. Using a global data file from 41 islands, mostly gleaned from the 'grey' literature, we show that the cost of vertebrate eradications can be satisfactorily predicted if island area and species to be eradicated are known. About 72% of the

T. L. F. Martins; M. de L. Brooke; G. M. Hilton; S. Farnsworth; J. Gould; D. J. Pain

2006-01-01

338

Review on sustainable development of island microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In microgrid, distributed generators (DG) can be utilized effectively, and controlled intelligently and flexibly. By use of rich renewable energy sources (RES) on islands, island microgrids can be built to develop clean and pollution-free renewable energy power industry, which makes islands' natural balance of the regional energy industry achieved, the ‘renewable energy’ economy developed, the industrial structure optimized, and industrial

Ping Ji; Xiao Xin Zhou; ShouYuan Wu

2011-01-01

339

Tiber Island in ancient and medieval Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether formed from an alluvial deposit or from the erosion of a tufa ridge, Tiber Island existed at least as early as the eighth century BC. According to Roman tradition, however, the island was formed only in 509 BC, after the expulsion of the Tarquins. It is probable that this tradition arose from an early taboo placed on the island

Margaret Angela Brucia

1990-01-01

340

Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

Bjornstad, Bruce N.

2006-08-08

341

MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

342

Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

343

Concerns generated by islanding [electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss islanding operation and to provide end-users with items to consider when determining distributed generation plant and equipment design requirements. Islanding is operating an electric generating plant without an external voltage and frequency reference. Operating in parallel is the opposite of islanding. This article attempts to describe the valid concerns that grid operators

P. L. Villenueve

2004-01-01

344

Bacterial contamination of goundwater in Jeju Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the contaminated groundwater with biological elements. The study area is located in Jeju Island, Korea. The island is formed with volcanic rock. To evaluate the chemical composition of the groundwater in the island, three rounds of water samplings were performed (August, October and November of 2007). Prior to water sampling for laboratory

Y. Jo; J. Lee; S. Jun; R. Kim

2009-01-01

345

Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

Benz, Richard

346

Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated with islanding detection on the utility side, whereas a local technique is associated with islanding detection on the DG side.

P. Mahat; Zhe Chen; B. Bak-Jensen

2008-01-01

347

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

348

The Manitoulin Island Space Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

Shaffer, Dianna

1991-01-01

349

Coconut Island Visitor Information Packet  

E-print Network

Coconut Island Visitor Information Packet The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology P.O. Box 1346.hawaii.edu/HIMB/welcome.html For dorm reservations and questions, contact housing managers at himbdorm@hawaii.edu (primary form a sponsor before proceeding with housing arrangements. For dorm reservations and questions, contact housing

Holland, Kim N.

350

The flora of Antipodes Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of botanical exploration of Antipodes Island begins in 1890 and is outlined up to 1985. The numbers of terrestrial species now known are algae (3), fungi (2), lichens (17), liverworts (37), mosses (21), lycopods (3), ferns (17), and flowering plants (52). Three of the latterare adventive (Poa annua, Stellaria media, Sonchus asper). The 20 species of indigenous monocotyledons

E. J. Godley

1989-01-01

351

UV - VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 144 is located in Virgin Islands NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, I...

352

Birds are islands for parasites.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

2014-08-01

353

Island Explorers Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes science curriculum facilitated through hands-on marine science activities correlated with the California Science Framework. Curriculum focuses on major ocean concepts and Catalina Island. Program involves overnight field trip to Wrigley Institute. Teacher training component is in development. Two student activities focusing on garibaldi and kelp are available on the site.

354

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

355

Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

2007-12-12

356

Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

2002-05-01

357

Trace element composition of olivine - implications for the evolution of the olivine gabbro-troctolite-hosted Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mesoproterozoic Voisey's Bay intrusion is part of the Nain Plutonic Suite, which transects the 1.85 Ga collisional boundary between the Proterozoic Churchill Province and the Archean Nain Province in Eastern Labrador. The intrusion comprises a group of troctolitic to olivine gabbroic bodies linked by olivine gabbro dikes; together these rocks host the world-class Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit. Zones of massive and disseminated sulfide mineralization (Reid Brook, Discovery Hill, Mini-Ovoid and Ovoid) occur within a dike and at the entry line of this dike into a larger intrusion termed the Eastern Deeps [1, 2, 3]. At least two pulses of magma have generated the intrusion and the associated sulfide mineralization; an initial surge that achieved sulfide saturation by interacting with upper crustal rocks, and a later pulse of fresh, undepleted magma that forced the initial magma upwards and both remobilized the immiscible sulfide liquid and upgraded it in metal content [1, 2, 3]. Previous research [1, 2] has shown that the Ni content of olivine from the distinct sulfide-bearing host rocks is highly variable, and also indicative of both magma mixing and interaction of silicate magmas with sulfide. To further validate the significance of the olivine chemistry as a tracer for ore-forming petrological processes, we have determined the abundances of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn in olivines from the various mafic lithologies of the Eastern Deeps intrusion using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We present systematic variations in Mn, Co, Ni and Zn with Fo-content in olivines for both sulfide-free and sulfide-bearing zones. Olivines from mineralized and brecciated troctolitic/gabbroic zones display significantly higher Mn (up to 11,000 ppm) and Zn (up to 550 ppm) concentrations than those from nominally barren counterparts. The barren troctolite, broadly termed normal troctolite (NT), is a petrographically homogenous plagioclase and olivine cumulate. However, olivine compositional data establish the presence of "reef-like" horizons with, for instance, elevated Ni concentrations (up to 2,500 ppm), versus surrounding horizons where values of ? 1,500 ppm are predominant. These horizons correspond with deflections in the whole-rock MgO, Fe2O3 and MnO contents. If these horizons are widespread and traceable laterally within the intrusion it would imply that: (1) a "cryptic-layering" might be preserved in olivines from the otherwise homogenous NT - indicating either crystallization from an input of fresh, undepleted mafic magma, or an interaction of those olivines with a Ni-rich sulfide liquid [1, 2], (2) the high Mn and Zn concentrations, coupled with lower forsterite values, are probably a result of crystallization from a country rock-contaminated mafic magma, and therefore, might act as a mineral-based indicator for the assimilation of upper crustal material. These observations may assist in developing a signature for olivines that have been in contact with highly contaminated (and thus potentially sulfide saturated) magmas. [1] Li et al. (2000) Econ. Geol. 95, 771-799. [2] Li and Naldrett (1999) Lithos 47, 1-31. [3] Lightfoot and Naldrett (1999) GAC Vol. 13, 1-30.

Bulle, F.; Layne, G. D.

2011-12-01

358

Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2015-02-01

359

Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

360

The island rule: made to be broken?  

PubMed Central

The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency. PMID:17986433

Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

2007-01-01

361

Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15

362

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed Central

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. PMID:12952621

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-01-01

363

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2012-04-01

364

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2010-04-01

365

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2013-04-01

366

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2011-04-01

367

Okhotskia: International Kuril Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of the Kuril Archipelago." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal -- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University -- to view text and images describing project Objectives, Rationale and Scope, Anticipated Future Research, and more. Links are also provided to project Results (including IKIP databases, publications, and presentations) and Island Info including sections on Vascular Plants, Stoneflies, Nesting Birds, and many more. Additionally, a very nicely organized photo gallery features maps and many beautiful photographs taken by project participants during collecting expeditions to the Kuril Archipelago.

368

The Three Mile Island crisis  

SciTech Connect

Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI.

Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

1988-01-01

369

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario; )

2004-11-01

370

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

371

Flora of the Marquesas Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology offers online access to taxonomic and geographical information on the vascular plants of the Marquesas Islands. An easy-to-use search tool retrieves plant checklists, which include species distribution and status information. Other features of this well-presented Web site include a searchable image gallery, curatorial information on collected specimens, a general account of the Marquesas, and some gorgeous panoramic photos. Look for additional features as the site develops.

372

How to Trace Island Freeboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The vertical movements affecting island edifices have a direct effect on the evolutionary history of those edifices. During\\u000a the seamount stage, the height of the edifice relative to the ocean’s surface—a parameter that mostly depends on the volcanic\\u000a activity and the uplift\\/subsidence of the edifice—has a strong impact on the dominant eruptive style. This happens because\\u000a the height of the

Ricardo Alexandre dos Santos Ramalho

373

Slope protection for artificial island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of

M. T. Czerniak; J. I. Collins; A. T. Shak

1981-01-01

374

Tambora Caldera, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tambora caldera on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia (8.5S, 118.0E) is a large crater formed in 1815 when a huge volcanic eruption ejected millions of tons debris high into the atmosphere. The particulate matter was blown around the globe by winds, masking much of the Earth's surface from sunlight, lowering global temperatures. Snow fell in New England in June and freezes occurred in the summer of 1816 which became known as the year without a summer.

1988-01-01

375

Processes of barrier island erosion  

SciTech Connect

During 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the processes causing the extreme rates (up to 20 m/year) of erosion of Louisiana's barrier islands. These processes must be better understood in order to predict future erosion and to assess management and erosion mitigation plans. The study is divided into three parts: the geologic development of barrier islands, the critical processes leading to erosion, and applications of results. This paper provides an overview of the part of the study on critical processes. The process part includes modeling erosion of the barrier islands due to sea level rise, the net loss of sand offshore, gradients in longshore transport, and overwash. Evidence indicates that the low-lying barrier beaches on much of the Louisiana coast do not approach an equilibrium configuration. These beaches, which, in many places, are not protected by dunes, are overwashed even during moderate storms and apparently are not evolving to a configuration that limits overwash. As a result, even with stable sea level, the beaches will continue to overwash and migrate landward during storms. Commonly used methods of modeling beach response to rising sea level assume beaches approach an equilibrium configuration, hence applying these methods to coastal Louisiana is problematical.

Sallenger, A.H. Jr. (Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Williams, S.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1989-09-01

376

Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

2005-01-01

377

Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.  

SciTech Connect

Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

Williams, Kelly Porter

2013-10-01

378

GIV: A Tool for Genomic Islands Visualization  

PubMed Central

A Genomic Islands (GI) is a chunk of DNA sequence in a genome whose origin can be traced back to other organisms or viruses. The detection of GIs plays an indispensable role in biomedical research, due to the fact that GIs are highly related to special functionalities such as disease-causing GIs - pathogenicity islands. It is also very important to visualize genomic islands, as well as the supporting features corresponding to the genomic islands in the genome. We have developed a program, Genomic Island Visualization (GIV), which displays the locations of genomic islands in a genome, as well as the corresponding supportive feature information for GIs. GIV was implemented in C++, and was compiled and executed on Linux/Unix operating systems. Availability GIV is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www5.esu.edu/cpsc/bioinfo/software/GIV PMID:24250116

Che, Dongsheng; Wang, Han

2013-01-01

379

A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345 Marseille (France); France-Japan Magnetic Fusion Laboratory, LIA 336 CNRS, Marseille (France); Poyé, A. [Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Yagi, M. [Plasma Theory and Simulation Gr., JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan); Garbet, X. [IRFM, CEA, St-Paul-Lez-Durance 13108 (France); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2014-09-15

380

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

381

Mass wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those comprising the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable with the passage of time, resulting in failures of the subaerial and submarine portion of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary source of destruction and loss of volume of many oceanic islands, but our knowledge of mass wasting in seamount and island chains is still rudimentary. To better understand mass wasting in the western Galapagos Islands, multi-beam bathymetry, backscatter and sidescan sonar data were used to examine topography characteristic of mass wasting. Observations show that mass wasting plays an important role in the morphological development of Galapagos volcanoes. While volcanic activity continues to modify the submarine terrain, the data show that several types of mass wasting can be found in this archipelago. The steep upper slopes of the north and west flanks of Fernandina Island and the north and southwest flanks of Isabela Island are characterized by slump sheets. The lower slopes on the north and west flank of Fernandina and the southwest tip of Isabela Island are characterized by debris flows. The northwest tip of Isabela Island is characterized by chaotic slumping and detached blocks originating from the sector collapse of Volcan Ecuador. Unlike the giant landslides documented by GLORIA imagery around the Hawaiian Islands, the western Galapagos Islands appear to be characterized by small slumps and debris flows. Nevertheless, this study indicates that submarine mass wasting is widespread in the western Galapagos Islands and is an important component of erosion of these volcanic edifices.

Hall, H.; Sager, W. W.

2009-12-01

382

The Beetles of the Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided in collaboration by researchers at Montana State and Ohio State universities, this database of the Beetles of the Virgin Islands contains records for over 34,000 specimens of 489 beetle species. The database also offers mapping capabilities for identifying beetle collection locations. Query by Island, Family, or Specimen to find details for each species -- including scientific name, number of specimens in the database, islands where this species has been collected, and collecting methods.

383

The evolution of birdsong on islands  

PubMed Central

Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals on islands, by undertaking a broad comparison based on pairs of closely related island-mainland species across the globe. We studied song traits related to complexity (number of different syllables, frequency bandwidth), to vocal performance (syllable delivery rate, song duration), and also three particular song elements (rattles, buzzes, and trills) generally implicated in aggressive communication. We also investigated whether song complexity was related to the number of similar sympatric species. We found that island species were less likely to produce broadband and likely aggressive song elements (rattles and buzzes). By contrast, various aspects of song complexity and performance did not differ between island and mainland species. Species with fewer same-family sympatric species used wider frequency bandwidths, as predicted by the character release hypothesis, both on continents and on islands. Our study supports the hypothesis of a reduction in aggressive behavior on islands and suggests that discrimination against closely related species is an important factor influencing birdsong evolution. PMID:24455143

Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

2013-01-01

384

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

385

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall August 18, 2003 ­ December 4, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 7 Wind Speed Distributions

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

386

Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set  

DOE Data Explorer

During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

Long, Chuck

387

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

388

Island length distribution in genome sequencing.  

PubMed

We consider the general problem of constructing a physical map of a genome by welding islands of overlapping clones. Both distribution of clone length and non-uniform probability of overlap detection are taken into account, the latter restricted to the Markov case in which only the location of the end of the developing island is required. Exact results for the distribution of island length are obtained in the special cases of fixed clone length or rigid overlap criterion, and mean and variance for the general situation. Determination of ocean length distribution permits island number and contig number distributions to be found as well. PMID:10501922

Percus, O E; Percus, J K

1999-09-01

389

Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.  

PubMed

We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes. PMID:16803325

Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

2006-06-01

390

Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands  

SciTech Connect

We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-06-09

391

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

392

Hydrogeology of the Galapagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the heterogeneity of geological formations, volcanic islands present complex and contrasting hydrogeological settings. A young discipline in the Galapagos, hydrogeology requires an understanding of geology, geomorphology, climate and hydrology. Throughout history, navigators, scientists and inhabitants noted the lack of surface freshwater; and water availability limited settlement of the islands. Today, this limitation is overcome through groundwater exploitation and expensive desalination, fed by economic growth. This shift has freed the field of hydrogeology from the existing premise of water being the principal drive for human development. Within this context, our approach is to lead a pluri-disciplinary research to characterize Galapagos hydrogeology. It involves a long-term commitment with international, national and local partners. Field investigations conducted on the inhabited islands of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela and Floreana reveal three types of aquifers. A low-lying basal aquifer outcrops on Santa Cruz and Isabela. Due to the high permeability of fractured shield series forming coastal aprons, intruding sea water mixes with discharging freshwater, and confers a high salt content to groundwater. In order to characterize the hydraulic properties of this aquifer, the propagation of the tidal signal into the basal aquifer has been investigated through piezometric monitoring in three open coastal fractures and the deep well on Santa Cruz. Springs are scarce in the Archipelago, but have been identified historically on Santa Cruz and Floreana, located on the flanks of volcanic cones, and fed by small perched aquifers. On San Cristobal, high-level aquifers feed springs on the southern mountainside that contribute to a network of permanent rivers that reach the sea, a unique feature in the whole archipelago. They are independent from El Junco, a unique summital freshwater, and semi-endoreic lake. Internal resistivity structure of Santa Cruz and San Cristobal was revealed through a helicopter borne TEM geophysical survey using the SkyTEM system. An area of over 350 km2 was covered, with depth of investigation of up to 200 m. It allows visualization of 3-dimensional internal low-resistivity layers on the southern windward mountainsides and salt-water intrusion beneath both islands, which relate to some known hydrological features. However, validation of the resistivity model requires drilling of exploration boreholes. Evaporation, runoff and infiltration estimations were obtained from monitoring rainfall and surface runoff in the highlands of Santa Cruz. As an on-going study, new topics of interest are explored: soil properties and contribution of fog water in the hydrological budget; geomorphological context of groundwater emergence; and stable isotopes and noble gases characterization of water masses. The hydrogeology of the central islands provides a window to understand hydro-geomorphological evolution of the Galapagos Islands; and a link between their biological content and the physical environment.

D'Ozouville, N.; Pryet, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.; Deffontaines, B.; Auken, E.

2010-12-01

393

Hematology and Serum Chemistry of the Island Spotted Skunk on Santa Cruz Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined serum biochemis- try and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet sea- son). One parameter, glucose, significantly

Kevin R. Crooks; D. K. Garcelon; Cheryl A. Scott; Jeffery T. Wilcox; Steven F. Timm; Dirk H. Van

2003-01-01

394

FALSE KILLER WHALES AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF INTER-ISLAND MOVEMENTS AND  

E-print Network

FALSE KILLER WHALES AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF INTER-ISLAND MOVEMENTS Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, 7600 Sand Point Way N.E., Seattle, WA 98115 5 Hawaiian Islands best estimate of population size for false killer whales within Hawaiian waters is only 268 individuals

Baird, Robin W.

395

Modeling the erosion of tropical volcanic ocean islands : The Tahiti island case (French Polynesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we are interested in modeling the erosion of the Tahiti island, with two main objectives: risk assessment (erodibility of terrains with rainfall, catastrophic runoffs) and estimation of subsidence rate. The Tahiti island created around 1.4 Myears ago by an intraplate hotspot (aerial radiometric dating), is divided into two geological units: the main island Tahiti-Nui to northwest (end

F. Ye; L. Sichoix; J. Barriot; P. Dumas

2009-01-01

396

46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line drawn from...

2010-10-01

397

46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line drawn from...

2014-10-01

398

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A straight line drawn from the northeasternmost extremity of Wassaw Island 031° true through Tybee...

2010-07-01

399

46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line drawn from...

2013-10-01

400

46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line drawn from...

2012-10-01

401

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A straight line drawn from the northeasternmost extremity of Wassaw Island 031° true through Tybee...

2014-07-01

402

46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line drawn from...

2011-10-01

403

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A straight line drawn from the northeasternmost extremity of Wassaw Island 031° true through Tybee...

2012-07-01

404

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A straight line drawn from the northeasternmost extremity of Wassaw Island 031° true through Tybee...

2011-07-01

405

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A straight line drawn from the northeasternmost extremity of Wassaw Island 031° true through Tybee...

2013-07-01

406

RCN: SEAPRE: Seabird Islands and Introduced Predators: Impacts of Presence and Eradication on Island Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTELLECTUAL MERIT: Seabird islands (islands with large populations of seabirds) are crucial to the survival of native animals and plants due to the large subsidies provided by nutrient inputs of marine origin. Seabird predators have devastated seabird populations and drastically altered vegetation processes and ecosystem function all over the world. These predators are now being eradicated on hundreds of islands,

Christa Mulder; Wendy Anderson; Don Croll; Josh Donlan; Julie Ellis; Stephen Kress; Bernie Tershy; Alexander Wait; Peter Bellingham; Robbie McDonald; José Miguel Fariña; Dave Towns; Eric Vidal; David Wardle; Chris Wilcox

407

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I -Isolated islands  

E-print Network

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I - Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick at Austin Austin, TX 78712 A set of reduced, 2-D, two-fluid, drift-MHD (magnetohydrodynami- cal) equations magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid veloc

Fitzpatrick, Richard

408

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands  

E-print Network

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatricka A set of reduced, two-dimensional, two-fluid, drift-MHD magnetohydrodynamical equations is derived magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid

Fitzpatrick, Richard

409

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: II -Islands interacting with resistive walls or  

E-print Network

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: II - Islands interacting with resistive walls perturbation is investigated using two-fluid, drift-MHD (magnetohydrodynamical) theory in slab geometry by single-fluid MHD theory. Three ion polarization terms are found in the Rutherford island width evolution

Fitzpatrick, Richard

410

Turbulence in Coastal Fronts near the Mouths of Block Island and Long Island Sounds  

E-print Network

it actively mixes with Long Island Sound (LIS) water (O'Donnell, 1997). Also, this river is the major freshTurbulence in Coastal Fronts near the Mouths of Block Island and Long Island Sounds Edward R and Technology, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth 706 S. Rodney French Blvd, New Bedford MA 027444, USA

Goodman, Louis

411

A photographic guide to some vascular plants of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

E-print Network

A photographic guide to some vascular plants of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Geum Rossi, lush meadows, wetlands, and rocky tundra. The island's geology varies, with southern parts old (mid. With respect to plant biogeography, Kiska lies in the central Aleutian zone of depressed diversity, lacking

Jones, Ian L.

412

An island approach to industrial ecology: towards sustainability in the island context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fields of study have employed geophysical islands in experimental design with a great deal of success. An island is a closed and bounded system in many respects and presents a manageable unit of study. The island microcosm has been the basis for significant advances in areas such as evolutionary biology, ecosystem ecology and physical anthropology. The same properties that

P. J. Deschenes; Marian Chertow

2004-01-01

413

Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George Island, Florida  

E-print Network

Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George September 2009 Keywords: Dune recovery LiDAR Overwash Hurricane Dennis Barrier island During the summer of the barrier island are analyzed, along with the short-term post-storm recovery of secondary dunes. Results

Fagherazzi, Sergio

414

Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Haeg Island Michael J. Benton a,  

E-print Network

Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Haeg Island Michael J. Benton a, , Zoltan 2009 Accepted 21 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Dinosaurs Cretaceous, in 1914, to suggest that the latest Cretaceous dinosaurs from Haeg, Romania were an island fauna, based

Benton, Michael

415

Permian-Triassic trap magmatism in Bel'kov Island (New Siberian Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was inspired by information on Paleozoic andesites, dacites, and diabases in Bel'kov Island in the 1974 geological survey reports used to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of the continental block comprising the New Siberian Islands and the bordering shelf. We did not find felsic volcanics or Middle Paleozoic intrusions in the studied area of the island. The igneous rocks

A. B. Kuzmichev; A. E. Goldyrev

2007-01-01

416

77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...waterways of the Long Island Sound. Vessels will be able...portion of the Long Island Sound during the effective...proposed rule would be in effect for only 75 minutes late...cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment...Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing...

2012-06-12

417

Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.

The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.

The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.

Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2000-01-01

418

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

419

The magmatic evolution of young island arc crust observed in gabbroic to tonalitic xenoliths from Raoul Island, Kermadec Island Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide new geochemical and O isotope data for minerals and whole rocks of a suite of gabbroic to tonalitic xenoliths from Raoul Island in the Kermadec island arc. The plagioclase, olivine and clinopyroxene compositions are similar to those observed in the Raoul Island lavas supporting a close relationship of the plutonic and volcanic rocks by crystal fractionation. Plagioclase in gabbros is significantly more An-rich than in similar rocks from oceanic spreading axes reflecting higher water contents in the island arc magmas. Incompatible element and O isotope data suggest that the gabbroic rocks formed from accumulation of minerals of the ascending magmas whereas the tonalites represent highly evolved magmas after extreme fractional crystallization. Temperatures of the magmas calculated from O isotope equilibria and pyroxene thermometers range from about 1200 °C in the mafic to 800 °C in felsic rocks. Barometry of the rocks suggests that gabbros formed between 12 and 18 km depth and tonalites shallower which is in agreement with seismic models of island arc crustal layering. The xenolith data from Raoul Island support seismic studies indicating that some portions of the Tonga-Kermadec island arc show similar layering of felsic and mafic rocks to the Izu-Bonin and the fossil Talkeetna island arcs.

Haase, Karsten M.; Lima, Selma; Krumm, Stefan; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

2014-12-01

420

33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. 165...Coast Guard District § 165.1703 Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. ...area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude...

2010-07-01

421

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2012-07-01

422

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2013-07-01

423

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2011-07-01

424

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2014-07-01

425

Contradiction and grammar : the case of weak islands  

E-print Network

This thesis is about weak islands. Weak islands are contexts that are transparent to some but not all operator-variable dependencies. For this reason, they are also sometimes called selective islands. Some paradigmatic ...

Abrusán, Márta

2007-01-01

426

Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA ISLAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA ISLAND SUBSTATION, FACING WEST - Yerba Buena Island Substation, Adjacent to north side of bridge on Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

427

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2010-10-01

428

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2011-10-01

429

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2013-10-01

430

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2014-10-01

431

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2012-10-01

432

Recovery Act Invests $116,000 at Apostle Islands  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar checks out the island's photovoltaic solar panels. Solar panels are the sole source of electricity for the islands and are used to run the interior of the lighthouse on Michigan Island....

433

82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City of Washington by Robert King Plate No. 1 - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

434

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2010-07-01

435

Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael, M.; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

2011-01-01

436

Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections. PMID:14726454

Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

2004-01-01

437

Deformation interplay at Hawaii Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes are known to be closely related to the tectonic environment, including vent locations and eruptions resulting from faults and earthquakes. Similarly, adjacent volcanoes interact with each other in time and space, as suggested for the Hawaiian volcanoes Kilauea and Mauna Loa. New satellite radar data imply even more complex deformation interplay in Hawaii than previously thought, involving magma chamber pressure changes, dike intrusions, slow earthquakes and ground subsidence. The affected regions are the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits, their active rift zones, the island’s unstable southeast flank and even the capital city of Hilo. Based on the data acquired by the European satellite ENVISAT, we present in this work a five-year spatio-temporal analysis of the deformation signals recorded between 2003 and 2008. The data suggests that most of the deformation sources are acting in chorus. The magma intrusion at the Mauna Loa chamber and the intrusion into the Kilauea rift dike are correlated in time while also interacting with gravity-driven flank movement events. Some of the events occur silently underneath the Kilauea south flank, such as slow earthquakes that may largely affect all of the active magmatic systems and reverse their sign of correlation. This study of the interplay between multiple deformations and inherently coupled systems provides a better understanding of Hawaiian volcano activity and may lead to new methods for assessing the hazards that arise during volcano-tectonic activities elsewhere.

Shirzaei, M.; Walter, T. R.

2009-12-01

438

Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sustainable fishing is on everyone's lips lately, but the Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) has been committed to "the highest level of economic and social benefits that is compatible with sustainable use of our tuna resources" since 1979. Visitors unfamiliar with how combating illegal fishing is accomplished should check out the "Monitoring, Control, Surveillance" link, which contains details about Operation Kurukuru, a recent surveillance operation. The operation was aimed at boats fishing without licenses or taking an amount of fish over the legal limit, such as the fishing vessel in Tuvalu that was found to have excessive shark fins onboard, and was thus fined $10,000 USD. Visitors might also like an article here that reports on a tuna data workshop in the Solomon Islands that addressed the role women could play as observers on fishing vessels to ensure proper catch data. As fishing vessels have typically had all male crews, employing a woman on the boat would require gender awareness measures and safety training, but the employment benefits for the women would be most welcome.

439

Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

Payne, Diana, Ed.

2009-01-01

440

The Pacific Island Health Care Project  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

Person, Donald Ames

2014-01-01

441

Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation  

E-print Network

Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office agency thereof. #12;A Comparison of Hawaii's Inter-Island Maritime Transportation of Solid Versus Liquid of Honolulu Advertiser ISO Tank Container, courtesy of Hawaii Intermodal Tank Transport Petroleum products

442

Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

Dube, Michael W. M.

2012-01-01

443

Rorty's Liberal Utopia and Huxley's Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richard Rorty controversially suggests that literature is more important for political progress in liberal society than political philosophy. Indeed, eschewing conventional choices, like Plato's Republic or Machiavelli's Prince, Rorty argues that the best introduction to political thought is Aldous Huxley's celebrated dystopian novel, Brave New World. Rorty, however, neglects Huxley's positive utopian work, Island. This is unfortunate because Island depicts

William M. Curtis

2011-01-01

444

Rorty's Liberal Utopia and Huxley's Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Richard Rorty controversially suggests that literature is more important for political progress in liberal society than political philosophy. Indeed, eschewing conventional choices, like Plato's Republic or Machiavelli's Prince, Rorty argues that the best introduction to political thought is Aldous Huxley's celebrated dystopian novel, Brave New World. Rorty, however, neglects Huxley's positive utopian work, Island. This is unfortunate because Island depicts

William M. Curtis

2011-01-01

445

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

446

Mantle reservoirs and ocean island basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mantle part of the continental lithosphere possesses in part Sr and Nd isotopic compositions similar to those of ocean island basalts. Here we investigate circumstances under which this mantle material may become detached from continental lithosphere, incorporated into the convective flow and thereby providing a source for some ocean island basalts.

Dan McKenzie; R. K. O'Nions

1983-01-01

447

Island dreaming: the contemplation of Polynesian paradise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images of islands, especially in Polynesia, critically of Tahiti, emerged and evolved in the aftermath of island encounters with outsiders, many of whom were male. Visions of utopia dominated discourse, in different phases, as distance and smallness enhanced enchantment, yet remained centred of Tahiti, after subsequent encounters with diverse groups. Perceptions of dystopia and the ‘ignoble savage’, and the need

John Connell

2003-01-01

448

Long Island Solar Farm Project Overview  

E-print Network

, began delivering power to the LIPA grid in November 2011, and is currently the largest solar solar photovoltaic power plant built through a collaboration including BP Solar, the Long Island Power. Project Developer/Owner/Operator: Long Island Solar Farm, LLC (BP Solar & MetLife) Purchaser of Power

Ohta, Shigemi

449

Petroleum geology of Sakhalin Island, USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sakhalin is a long, narrow island approximately the size of Hokkaido, consisting of two coastal mountain ranges and a central valley. It is located 10-300 km (6-190 mi) east of the Soviet mainland in the Sea of Okhotsk. The island is cored by Cretaceous and older rocks that comprise a fold belt characteristic of plate collision and accretion tectonics. Cenozoic

Silverman

1990-01-01

450

Marine Algae of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reexamination of some previous collections of marine algae from the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), also known as the Leeward Hawaiian Islands, and the addition of more recent collections have resulted in recognition of 48 taxa of Chlorophyta (green algae), with eight new records for the NWHI; 33 taxa of Phaeophyta (brown algae), with seven new records; and 124 species ofRhodophyta

ISABELLA A. ABBOTT

451

Being Logical About Desert Island Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

To begin with, I refuse to be stranded on a desert island: sand without vegetation, hot sun, and salty water are just not conducive to good thinking. So let’s get into deserted tropical island mood, which is what everyone else has been doing. First, let’s wind time back to around 1978. This is important because our bodies can do without

Alex Borgida

2002-01-01

452

Tin diselenide quantum-sized island films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Island films based on the intermediate phases forming in Ge-Se and Sn-Se systems are prepared by the incongruent evaporation of film structures of a Sn1 - x Se x composition. The surface morphology of these structures is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of growth conditions on the size distribution of islands is established.

Kushkhov, A. R.; Gaev, D. S.; Rabinovich, O. I.; Stolyarov, A. G.

2012-03-01

453

Emergently thermalized islands in the landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter, we point out that in the eternal inflation driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it might be possible that some large and local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can stride over the barriers between different vacua and straightly create some islands with radiation and matter in new vacua. Then these thermalized islands

Yun-Song Piao

2008-01-01

454

YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island  

E-print Network

Leader's Forum is a valuable and long standing tradition for the horticulture industry on Long Island and success of the green industry on Long Island. Thanks to Fred Soviero, this year's Leader's Forum, country sausage, seasoned potatoes, coffee, tea, and assorted fruit juices. Following breakfast, the two

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

455

Genomic islands in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism for the evolution of microbial genomes. Pathogenicity islands — mobile genetic elements that contribute to rapid changes in virulence potential — are known to have contributed to genome evolution by horizontal gene transfer in many bacterial pathogens. Increasing evidence indicates that equivalent elements in non-pathogenic species — genomic islands — are important in

Ulrich Dobrindt; Bianca Hochhut; Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2004-01-01

456

Island-finding ability of marine turtles  

E-print Network

by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Keywords: magnetic navigation; map; orientation; olfaction; migration, it has been suggested that green turtles might potentially use geomagnetic information to find AscensionIsland-finding ability of marine turtles Graeme C. Hays1* , Susanne AÃ? kesson2 , Annette C

Hays, Graeme

457

DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016  

EPA Science Inventory

The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

458

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2012-07-01

459

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR 120 X Rhode Island—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

460

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR 120 X Rhode Island—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2011-07-01

461

40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...noted. Virgin Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR X Virgin Islands—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2011-07-01

462

Character of submarine groundwater discharge around islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from oceanic islands has been estimated to contribute over a third of the global SGD due to the high shoreline-to-land area ratio, orographic precipitation, short aquifer pathways and poorly developed surface drainage. Relatively few islands have been studied, but SGD is typically found to be an important, and often the only, source of nutrients to coastal

H. Bokuniewicz; R. Coffey; M. A. Charette

2009-01-01

463

Desalination in the Canary Islands: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canary Islands are subject to a continuous drought with average rainfall of about 300 mm per year. Therefore, water resources are scarce, and several islands depend strongly on sea and brackish water desalination. Over the last 10 years, an enormous development of desalination activities has taken place. This paper presents a review on the current conditions of desalination technologies

Jose M. Veza

2001-01-01

464

Rhode Island Election Tickets: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhode Island was the first English colony in America to issue printed election ballots, with the first issued in the mid-1740s. This survey of Rhode Island election tickets, while not exhaustive, is representative of the use of tickets in elections spanning a period of over 150 years and documents state and local politics, political factions and election results from the

Russell J. DeSimone; Daniel C. Schofield

2007-01-01

465

Gal?pagos: Islands of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gal?pagos Islands are sometimes thought of as the birthplace of evolution. Not because evolution begins there, not because evolution occurs there and nowhere else, but because the results of evolution so visible. A visit to these islands in 1835 helpe

Carole C. Baldwin

2000-01-01

466

A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR VANCOUVER ISLAND.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS ENVISIONED, THE REGIONAL COLLEGE IS JUSTIFIED BY THE MANY KINDS OF STUDENTS IT CAN SERVE AND THE VARIETY AND APPROPRIATENESS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IT CAN OFFER. VANCOUVER ISLAND HAS TRANSPORTATION DIFFICULTIES, A MARKEDLY UNEVEN POPULATION, AND SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN FORESTRY EXPLOITATION. POPULATION GROWTH ON THE ISLAND HAS BEEN GREAT AND…

MARSH, LEONARD

467

Teaching ICT to Pacific Island Background Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that in order for students from Pacific Islands backgrounds in multicultural information and communication technology (ICT) classrooms to gain maximum benefit from their studies, teachers must be aware of their cultural background and expectations. Technologies and teaching approaches which are foreign to indigenous Pacific islanders must be introduced cautiously so that all involved may fully appreciate the

Savae Latu; Alison Young

2004-01-01

468

Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

2007-01-01

469

Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.  

PubMed

Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water. PMID:22048924

Vlahovi?, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

2012-10-01

470

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond...

2010-07-01

471

IslandViewer: an integrated interface for computational identification and visualization of genomic islands  

PubMed Central

Summary: Genomic islands (clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin; GIs) play a critical role in medically important adaptations of bacteria. Recently, several computational methods have been developed to predict GIs that utilize either sequence composition bias or comparative genomics approaches. IslandViewer is a web accessible application that provides the first user-friendly interface for obtaining precomputed GI predictions, or predictions from user-inputted sequence, using the most accurate methods for genomic island prediction: IslandPick, IslandPath-DIMOB and SIGI-HMM. The graphical interface allows easy viewing and downloading of island data in multiple formats, at both the chromosome and gene level, for method-specific, or overlapping, GI predictions. Availability: The IslandViewer web service is available at http://www.pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer and the source code is freely available under the GNU GPL license. Contact: brinkman@sfu.ca PMID:19151094

Langille, Morgan G. I.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

2009-01-01

472

A review of the contributions of fisheries and climate variability to contrasting dynamics in two Arcto-boreal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Persistent high productivity in the Barents Sea and collapse on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the North Atlantic and adjacent seas have been fished intensively for years, and many are now severely depleted. In order to promote recovery and sustainable harvesting, it is essential to understand factors that have contributed to the declines and to variability in rates of recovery. Considerable insight may be gleaned by comparing and contrasting the histories of the Northeast Arctic (NEA) cod in the Barents Sea - Svalbard area of the northeast Atlantic and the “northern cod” on the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) shelf in the northwest Atlantic. These two stocks, which were among the 3 largest cod stocks during the middle of the 20th century, are Arcto-boreal, and have many species of prey and predators in common. The biomass of NEA cod has varied considerably over time, and in 2009 was a little above 60% of its maximum observed level, which occurred in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In contrast, the biomass of NL cod decreased steadily from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increased somewhat during the 1980s, and crashed during the early 1990s to an extremely low level, at which it remained for a decade before showing recent indications of improvement. Although both stocks were influenced by similar changes in harvesting strategies and environmental circumstances, both biotic and abiotic, there are two events which stand out as being particularly influential. First, crises developed in the management of both stocks in the late 1980s. For NEA cod, the crisis was environmental, caused by the collapse of capelin (Mallotus villosus), the main food for adult cod, whereas for NL cod the crisis was caused by a sudden large reduction in scientific perception of stock size. The difference in response to these crises strongly influenced subsequent stock dynamics. Catches of NEA cod were reduced considerably, preventing severe overharvesting of the cod that at that time experienced low productivity, whereas catches of NL cod were reduced only a little, contributing to escalating fishing mortality. The second event followed directly upon the first. The North Atlantic Oscillation index, which had been increasingly positive since the early 1970s, became strongly so during the early 1990s, creating favourable environmental conditions (warm water) in the Barents Sea and highly unfavourable conditions (cold water and extensive ice cover) on the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The NEA stock recovered quickly, whereas the NL stock collapsed. The NEA cod has remained highly productive to this date, whereas the NL cod remained very unproductive for a decade, primarily because of high mortality, most of which appears to have been natural.

Lilly, George R.; Nakken, Odd; Brattey, John

2013-07-01

473

Electron energization during magnetic island coalescence  

SciTech Connect

Radio emission from colliding coronal mass ejection flux ropes in the interplanetary medium suggested the local generation of superthermal electrons. Inspired by those observations, a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic island coalescence models the magnetic reconnection between islands as a source of energetic electrons. When the islands merge, stored magnetic energy is converted into electron kinetic energy. The simulation demonstrates that a mechanism for electron energization originally applied to open field line reconnection geometries also operates near the reconnection site of merging magnetic islands. The electron heating is highly anisotropic, and it results mainly from an electric field surrounding the reconnection site that accelerates electrons parallel to the magnetic field. A detailed theory predicts the maximum electron energies and how they depend on the plasma parameters. In addition, the global motion of the magnetic islands launches low-frequency waves in the surrounding plasma, which induce large-amplitude, anisotropic fluctuations in the electron temperature.

Le, A.; Egedal, J. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Daughton, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-07-15

474

Honey Bee Apis mellifera Parasites in the Absence of Nosema ceranae Fungi and Varroa destructor Mites  

E-print Network

Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 3. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland

Shutler, Dave

475

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the