Note: This page contains sample records for the topic gannet islands labrador from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

IMPACTS OF INTRASPECIFIC KLEPTOPARASITISM AND DIET SHIFTS ON RAZORBILL ALCA TORDA PRODUCTIVITY AT THE GANNET ISLANDS, LABRADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific kleptoparasitism, the stealing of food from members of the same species, has received widespread but mostly superficial attention in the scientific literature. However, the effects of such behavior can be significant. Here we report on high rates of intraspecific kleptoparasitism in the Razorbill Alca torda at the Gannet Islands, a behavior that appears to be colony-specific. Razorbills carry their

JENNIFER L. LAVERS; IAN L. JONES

2007-01-01

2

Population structure, distribution patterns and precopulatory mate-guarding in the feather mite Alloptes Canestrini, 1879 (Acari: Analgoidea: Alloptidae) on auks (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather mites are ubiquitous avian ectoparasites whose population structure is expected to vary with degree of coloniality and other aspects of host bird species' ecology. We investigated aggregation . and infrapopulation structure of feather mites of the genus Alloptes Canestrini on four auk species (with different levels of nesting aggregations) breeding at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, Canada. Feather mite populations

Sabir B. Muzaffar; Ian L. Jones

2005-01-01

3

Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals. PMID:24361782

Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

2014-03-01

4

Parental roles of male and female thick-billed murres and razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We studied female and male parental roles in two sympatric auks, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) and razorbill (Alca torda), with initial biparental care at the breeding site and later exclusively paternal care at sea. Our study addressed the following two questions: Why do males accompany chicks to sea?, and How do the sexes allocate parental effort at the breeding

Rosana Paredes; Ian L. Jones; Daryl J. Boness

2006-01-01

5

Analyses of sex and individual differences in vocalizations of Australasian gannets using a dynamic time warping algorithm.  

PubMed

The study of the evolution of sexual differences in behavioral and morphological displays requires analyses of the extent of sexual dimorphism across various sensory modalities. In the seabird family Sulidae, boobies show dramatic sexual dimorphism in their vocalizations, and gannet calls have also been suggested to be dimorphic to human observers. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of sexually dimorphic calls in the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) through the first comprehensive description of its vocalizations recorded at two localities; Cape Kidnappers, where individuals were banded and sexed from DNA samples, and at the Muriwai gannetry, both on the North Island of New Zealand. Calls were first inspected using basic bioacoustic features to establish a library of call element types for general reference. Extensive multivariate tests, based on a dynamic time warping algorithm, subsequently revealed that no sexual differences could be detected in Australasian gannet calls. The analyses, however, indicated extensive and consistent vocal variation between individuals, particularly so in female gannets, which may serve to signal individual identity to conspecifics. This study generates predictions to identify whether differences in Australasian gannet vocalizations play perceptual and functional roles in the breeding and social biology of this long-lived biparental seabird species. PMID:22894237

Krull, C R; Ranjard, L; Landers, T J; Ismar, S M H; Matthews, J L; Hauber, M E

2012-08-01

6

Space partitioning without territoriality in gannets.  

PubMed

Colonial breeding is widespread among animals. Some, such as eusocial insects, may use agonistic behavior to partition available foraging habitat into mutually exclusive territories; others, such as breeding seabirds, do not. We found that northern gannets, satellite-tracked from 12 neighboring colonies, nonetheless forage in largely mutually exclusive areas and that these colony-specific home ranges are determined by density-dependent competition. This segregation may be enhanced by individual-level public information transfer, leading to cultural evolution and divergence among colonies. PMID:23744776

Wakefield, Ewan D; Bodey, Thomas W; Bearhop, Stuart; Blackburn, Jez; Colhoun, Kendrew; Davies, Rachel; Dwyer, Ross G; Green, Jonathan A; Grémillet, David; Jackson, Andrew L; Jessopp, Mark J; Kane, Adam; Langston, Rowena H W; Lescroël, Amélie; Murray, Stuart; Le Nuz, Mélanie; Patrick, Samantha C; Péron, Clara; Soanes, Louise M; Wanless, Sarah; Votier, Stephen C; Hamer, Keith C

2013-07-01

7

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds

David Gremillet; Lorien Pichegru; G regoire Kuntz; G. Woakes

2008-01-01

8

Cretaceous-Tertiary paleobathymetry of Labrador and Baffin shelves, and its significance to evolution of Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The integrated micropaleontological and palynological analyses of 17 wells from offshore Labrador and southern Baffin Island allowed consistent assignments of biozones, ages, and depositional environments to the sections. Resolution attained is approximately at the stage level or finer. Interpretation of the foraminifera and palynomorphs from the Labrador Shelf indicates that the depositional environments were mainly neritic during the Early and early Late Cretaceous, changed to bathyal during the Maastrichtian to late Eocene, and returned to neritic during the Oligocene to Miocene. The sections drilled on the Baffin Shelf do not include Cretaceous sediments, but indicate bathyal environments from Paleocene to early Eocene, and neritic to nonmarine environments from late Eocene to Miocene. The Barremian to Campanian continental to neritic sediments from the Labrador Shelf correspond to the initial rifting phase of the Labrador-Greenland continental plate; whereas the Maastrichtian to late Eocene bathyal sediments correspond to the opening of the southern part of the Labrador Sea with the creation of oceanic crust. The Labrador Sea reached the Baffin shelf area during the Maastrichtian. The Oligocene to Miocene neritic to continental sediments of both the Labrador and Baffin Shelf areas correspond to the filling phase of the basin, with resulting buildup of the continental shelves and slopes.

Helenes, J.; Gradstein, F.

1988-03-01

9

Stable isotope ratios in Cape gannets around the southern coasts of Africa reveal penetration of biogeographic patterns in oceanic signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern coasts of Africa are influenced by two major oceanic currents, leading to biogeographic patterns in inshore and offshore species assemblages, and in the stable isotope signatures of suspended particulate matter and filter-feeding mussels. We used the stable isotope ratios of carbon ( 13C/ 12C) and nitrogen ( 15N/ 14N) from the blood and feathers of adult and chick Cape gannets ( Morus capensis) to investigate whether the geographic differences observed at the lower levels in the marine communities are deep penetrating effects that reach top predators. Additionally, we evaluated whether trophic segregation occurs between adult and reared chick gannets, and whether a shift to wintering habitat occurs in adults. The study was conducted during the 2006 breeding season on Bird Island in the Agulhas system, and on Malgas and Ichaboe Islands, in the south and north Benguela respectively. Our results showed significant differences in the isotope ratios of members of different colonies, but no intra-colony differences between tissues or age groups. These results indicate that there is neither age-related nor temporal segregation in the diet of members of the same colony. Feather isotopic values suggest that adults remain all year round in the same habitats, and do not undertake long migration after reproduction. Since all gannets tend to target similar prey, we attributed among-colony differences in isotope signatures mostly to the oceanic conditions experienced by the main prey of birds rather than substantial differences in diet composition. Overall, isotopic signatures segregate the two current systems, with depleted carbon values in the Agulhas and enriched nitrogen values in the upwelled waters of the Benguela. Within the Benguela birds from Ichaboe in the north had higher ? 15N values than those from Malgas in the south, which we attributed to differences in the functioning of the upwelling cells in the vicinity of the two colonies. Finally, slight variation in the proportion of main prey and discards from fisheries may contribute to the variation in the stable-isotope signatures between colonies in the Benguela.

Jaquemet, Sébastien; McQuaid, Christopher

2008-11-01

10

Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles the educational system of Newfoundland and Labrador and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. Agency coordination of services is…

Timmons, Vianne; Smith, Brenda

2003-01-01

11

The contribution of private and public information in foraging by Australasian gannets.  

PubMed

Predators that forage on foods with temporally and spatially patchy distributions may rely on private or public sources of information to enhance their chances of foraging success. Using GPS tracking, field observations, and videography, we examined potential sites and mechanisms of information acquisition in departures for foraging trips by colonially breeding Australasian gannets (Morus serrator). Analyses of the bill-fencing ceremony between mated pairs of breeding gannets did not detect correlations between parameters of this reciprocal behavior and foraging trips, as would have been predicted if gannets used this behavior as a source of private information. Instead, 60 % of the departing birds flew directly to join water rafts of other conspecific en route to the feeding grounds. The departure of solitary birds from the water rafts was synchronized (within 60 s) with the arrival of incoming foragers and also among departing birds. Furthermore, solitary departing birds from the rafts left in the same directional quadrant (90º slices) as the prior arriving (67 %) and also prior departing forager (79 %). When associated plunge dives of conspecific were visible from the colony, providing a public source of information, gannets more often departed from the water rafts in groups. Our study thus provides evidence for the use of water rafts, but not the nest site, as locations of information transfer, and also confirms the use of local enhancement as a strategy for foraging flights by Australasian gannets. PMID:24337907

Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Hauber, Mark E; Libby, Eric; Amiot, Christophe; Raubenheimer, David

2014-07-01

12

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste.  

PubMed

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds now feed extensively on fishery wastes. These are beneficial to non-breeding birds, which show reduced feeding effort and high survival. By contrast, breeding gannets double their diving effort in an attempt to provision their chicks predominantly with high-quality, live pelagic fishes. Owing to a scarcity of this resource, they fail and most chicks die. Our study supports the junk-food hypothesis for Cape gannets since it shows that non-breeding birds can survive when complementing their diet with fishery wastes, but that they struggle to reproduce if live prey is scarce. This is due to the negative impact of low-quality fishery wastes on the growth patterns of gannet chicks. Marine management policies should not assume that fishery waste is generally beneficial to scavenging seabirds and that an abundance of this artificial resource will automatically inflate their populations. PMID:18270155

Grémillet, David; Pichegru, Lorien; Kuntz, Grégoire; Woakes, Anthony G; Wilkinson, Sarah; Crawford, Robert J M; Ryan, Peter G

2008-05-22

13

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste  

PubMed Central

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds now feed extensively on fishery wastes. These are beneficial to non-breeding birds, which show reduced feeding effort and high survival. By contrast, breeding gannets double their diving effort in an attempt to provision their chicks predominantly with high-quality, live pelagic fishes. Owing to a scarcity of this resource, they fail and most chicks die. Our study supports the junk-food hypothesis for Cape gannets since it shows that non-breeding birds can survive when complementing their diet with fishery wastes, but that they struggle to reproduce if live prey is scarce. This is due to the negative impact of low-quality fishery wastes on the growth patterns of gannet chicks. Marine management policies should not assume that fishery waste is generally beneficial to scavenging seabirds and that an abundance of this artificial resource will automatically inflate their populations.

Gremillet, David; Pichegru, Lorien; Kuntz, Gregoire; Woakes, Anthony G; Wilkinson, Sarah; Crawford, Robert J.M; Ryan, Peter G

2008-01-01

14

The diet of Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica and Northern Gannet Sula bassana chicks at a Shetland colony during a period of changing prey availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food of young Puffins and Gannets was examined between 1973 and 1988 on Hermaness, Unst. No prey other than fish was found in any year; 10 species were taken by Gannets and at least 13 by Puffins during this study period. Sandeel Ammodytes marinus was found to be the dominant prey species for Puffins in every sampling year except

A. R. Martin

1989-01-01

15

Geomorphological reconstruction of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador sector formed one of three major domes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last (Wisconsinan) glaciation. Reconstruction of its evolution is important because it modulated atmospheric and oceanic circulation over 1-100 ka time scales. This paper reports new geomorphological evidence of ice flow, which is used to reconstruct glimpses of the behaviour of the Labrador Sector during its evolution. Flow evidence indicates a southern position (51°N) of the Labrador ice divide, presumed to be the usual location when the ice sheet was close to its maximum extent. A previously inferred dramatic surge of Labrador ice across Hudson Strait and onto Baffin Island (at 9.9-9.4 ka) is verified. Seemingly contradictory evidence regarding deglaciation in northern Quebec has been analysed and a reconstruction developed that solves this problem. Deglacial retreat of the Labrador Ice Sheet was highly asymmetric with rapid retreat of the southern margin, northwards migration of the centre of mass by 500 km, and slow retreat along the northern margin. As it shrank its thermal regime changed from cold-centred to entirely cold-based and it finally fragmented into many residual ice caps and glaciers. This dynamic and asymmetric behaviour may be due to destabilisation of the Labrador Ice Sheet triggered by Heinrich-event ice streaming through Hudson Strait.

Clark, Chris D.; Knight, Jane K.; T. Gray, James

2000-09-01

16

Generalized tetanus in a Labrador retriever  

PubMed Central

A 10-week-old, intact female, Labrador retriever was presented for progressive extensor rigidity, facial swelling, and difficulty in walking. Generalized tetanus was diagnosed and treated successfully.

Sprott, Kerri-Rae

2008-01-01

17

The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

2014-01-01

18

Baffin Bay and Baffin Island, North Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summer is finally beginning to thaw Canada's Baffin Island (center) and the Labrador Sea (lower right). This MODIS image shows that a river of ice still remains in the Davis Strait, which connects the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay to the north.

2002-01-01

19

Wind energy resource map of Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a wind energy resource map of Labrador, Canada is presented. Surface data collected from weather stations located throughout Labrador has been collected and extrapolated for height and surface condition adjustments. Several mesoscale wind maps have been obtained from the NCEP\\/NCAR and COADS databases, along with the generation of a couple of mesoscale wind maps with information from

P. Jewer; M. T. Iqbal; M. J. Khan

2005-01-01

20

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

21

Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population has increased considerably over the past century, both in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1980, the population in Australian waters has increased threefold, from 6,600 breeding pairs to approximately 20,000 pairs in 1999-2000, a rate of 6% per year. Reasons for the increase in the Australasian gannet population are poorly understood; here we consider

A. Bunce; F. Norman; N. Brothers; R. Gales

2002-01-01

22

Flight destinations and foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana) preying on a small forage fish in a low-Arctic ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied data loggers (temperature-depth and GPS-temperature-depth) on individual birds in combination with dietary sampling and a vessel survey of prey availability to assess the foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana, Linnaeus 1758) in a low-Arctic ecosystem in the NW Atlantic. We demonstrate that the gannets foraged almost exclusively on inshore and coastal aggregations of capelin. There was a strong correspondence between the distributions of capelin and foraging gannets, and gannets exhibited persistence in successive foraging trips to the same foraging areas. The diving activity of gannets was highest during the early morning and evening, when capelin are known to be primarily available in the upper water column. Most of the gannets dive depths were less than 5 m. Flight speeds recorded by GPS were 9% higher than those estimated by previous methods and were shown to benefit from tail wind. This study shows how a combination of ship-based surveys and individually tagged birds can help understanding predator-prey intersection in a three-dimensional space in the marine environment.

Garthe, Stefan; Montevecchi, William A.; Davoren, Gail K.

2007-02-01

23

Observations of the Labrador Sea eddy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an observational study of small-scale coherent eddies in the Labrador Sea, a region of dense water formation thought to be of considerable importance to the North Atlantic overturning circulation. Numerical studies of deep convection emphasize coherent eddies as a mechanism for the lateral transport of heat, yet their small size has hindered observational progress. A large part

Jonathan M. Lilly; Peter B. Rhines; Friedrich Schott; Kara Lavender; John Lazier; Uwe Send; Eric D’Asaro

2003-01-01

24

Surface Buoyant Plumes from Melting Icebergs in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) conducts annual surveys in the Labrador Sea along the repeat hydrography line AR7W. Since 2012, these shipboard surveys have been supplemented by underway CTD and optical measurements in the upper 200 m layer conducted with the towed undulating platform Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP). The MVP hydrographic data reveal rich variability of the upper layer salinity field on different spatial scales. The occupation of the AR7W line in May 2013 was followed by the experiment aimed at resolving the imprint of melting drifting icebergs on the upper layer thermohaline characteristics in the Labrador Sea. Here we present observations around two icebergs: the first iceberg drifted in relatively warm water of Atlantic origin (~2.5-3.1°C) off Greenland, while the second iceberg was on the Labrador shelf in cold water below 0°C. Both icebergs had a lengthscale of O(100 m). In both cases surface buoyant plumes fed by melt water and attached to the iceberg were observed. The plumes were evident in the anomalous thermohaline characteristics of the seawater. Their density anomalies were sufficiently strong to produce visible frontal structures, which imply a development of the intrinsic dynamics associated with a plume. The first plume formed over a time interval of ~10 hr, while the second plume formed over several days and extended for more than 1 km (tenfold the iceberg's size). Strong vertical displacements of the pycnocline were observed near the second iceberg. They are interpreted as the internal wave wake. This interpretation is based on the temporal scale of these oscillations (local buoyancy frequency), as well as on the spatial orientation of these waves with respect to the iceberg drift relative to the pycnocline. The observed internal waves partially overlapped with the plume and affected its structure. The saline seawater splashing by swell contributed to the surface melting of the icebergs. Scaling analysis of the observed plume suggests that it could be in the "rotational" dynamic regime with recirculating anticyclonic flow. In this case the melt water is trapped in the plume and affects the iceberg's thermodynamics and the rate of melt. These effects are likely to be more pronounced near bigger icebergs or ice islands, and will be a focus of our future observational campaign.

Yankovsky, Alexander; Yashayaev, Igor

2014-05-01

25

The Labrador Inuit Through Moravian Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started by Jan Hus in the late fourteenth century, the Moravian Church was one of the earliest Protestant movements to rebel against the Roman Catholic Church. Over the course of the seventeenth century, the Moravian Church was suppressed and they were forced to operate in secret. In the early eighteenth century, they were allowed to reestablish at the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. This community grew rapidly and became a center of Christian renewal and missionary work over the course of the century. In fact, the Moravian missionaries were the first large scale Protestant missionary movement and sent hundreds of missionaries to all parts of the globe. This work included missions to the coast of Labrador. This site, created by a joint effort of the University of Toronto Libraries, Memorial University Libraries, and the Biblioth'que de l'Universit" Laval, provides a thorough and fascinating look at the 250-year relationship between the Moravian missionaries and the Inuit of Labrador. The site includes background information on the Moravian Church, the Inuit, and Labrador as well as detailed looks at the various Moravian mission stations. After getting acquainted with the mission and the Inuit, visitors should be sure to check out both the interactive timeline and interactive map provided. The site also provides a teacher toolkit as well as a series of related links.

26

Contrasting Population Trends at Two Razorbill Colonies in Atlantic Canada: Additive Effects of Fox Predation and Hunting Mortality? Comparaison de la tendance de deux colonies de Petits Pingouins dans les provinces de l'Atlantique : la prédation par le renard et la mortalité par la chasse ont-elles un effet cumulatif?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a stochastic, stage-based, matrix-projection population model to assess population viability and estimate the impact of mortality caused by hunting, illegal and incidental to the murre (Uria sp.) hunt, and fox (Alopex lagopus) predation on Razorbill (Alca torda) populations breeding on the Gannet Islands, Labrador, the \\

Jennifer L. Lavers; Ian L. Jones; Gregory J. Robertson; Antony W. Diamond

2009-01-01

27

Sex-specific differences in diving behaviour of two sympatric Alcini species: thick-billed murres and razorbills  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Gannet Islands, Labrador, sympatric thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia (L., 1758)) and razorbills (Alca torda L., 1758) are slightly sexually dimorphic and have similar intersexual differences in parental roles; females are the main meal providers and males are mostly involved in brooding and chick defence at the breeding site and at sea. The question is whether differences in parental

Rosana Paredes; Ian L. Jones; Daryl J. Boness; Yann Tremblay; Martin Renner

2008-01-01

28

Atlantic Puffin ( Fratercula arctica ) chick diet and reproductive performance at colonies with high and low capelin ( Mallotus villosus ) abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared nestling diet and growth, breeding phenology, breeding success, and adult mass of Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica) between two seabird colonies adjacent to ocean habitat with presumed high and low cap- elin (Mallotus villosus) abundance in 1996-1998. We hypothesized that puffins at their colony at Gannet Islands, Labrador, where capelin were scarce, would exhibit lower reproductive performance than at

Shauna M. Baillie; Ian L. Jones

2003-01-01

29

The use of LANDSAT imagery to locate uncharted coastal features on the Labrador coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of several offshore islands, rocks and shoals on the Labrador Coast was performed, using LANDSAT imagery to assist in the location of uncharted hydrographic features. Several satellite coverages of the coast were studied prior to the survey, and suspected shoal points identified. Using map-derived control points and monocomparator measurements of the LANDSAT images, the positions of these points were determined by mathematical adjustment to an estimated position accuracy of 150 meters. As a result, on the survey, an uncharted island and eight uncharted drying rocks, which might easily have escaped detection from a survey ship, were verified and positioned. To check the accuracy of the coordinates derived from LANDSAT, three islands were positioned by standard ground survey methods. The positional differences, all less than 150 meters, are not plottable at the scale of the existing offshore charts. The LANDSAT positions were also used to control aerial photography of a shoal area for office compilation of a hydrographic chart.

Fleming, E. A.; Lelievre, D. D.

1977-01-01

30

Interannual to Decadal Variability of Outflow from the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decade of weak convection in the Labrador Sea associated with decreasing water mass transformation, in combination with advective and eddy fluxes into the convection area, caused significant warming of the deep waters in both the central Labrador Sea and boundary current system along the Labrador shelf break. The connection to the export of Deep Water was studied based on moored current meter stations between 1998 and 2009 at the exit of the Labrador Sea, near the shelf break at 53 ° N. More than 100 year-long current meter records have been analyzed with respect to high frequency variability, decaying from the surface to the bottom layer, and for the annual mean flow, showing intra- to interannual variability but no detectable decadal trend in the strength of the deep and near bottom flow out of the Labrador Sea.

Visbeck, M.; Fischer, J.; Zantopp, R.; Nunes, N.

2010-12-01

31

Does the Labrador Water reach the CANIGO area?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the cruises conducted as part of the CANIGO (Canary Islands Açores Gibraltar Observations) project were made in an area enclosing a box off the African coast with limits at latitudes 29ºN and 32ºN and longitude 18ºW. The vorticity distribution shows along the 32ºN section relatively minimum values centered at about 2000-2500 m of depth. At this depth interval there also appear high oxygen concentrations (>5.8 ml/l) and low nitrates and silicates (< 19.5 and 20 micromol/kg respectively). Taking into account diverse possibilities to find the origin of this water core, the observations seem to point out that a small amount of the Labrador Water may be arriving -below the Mediterranean Water- to this latitude (there is no sign of it at latitude 29ºN), hence the increase in salinity due to this pathway. The subject is open to other possibilities but not enough references have been found to justify the case

M. JOSE, R.; Marimar, V.; Andres, C.; Juana, G.; Javier, P.; Leire, M.; Carlos, B.; Octavio, L.

2001-12-01

32

Tectonics of Sedimentary Cover and Basement of Labrador Sea (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data obtained by drilling are used to describe the cross section of sedimentary cover in the Labrador Sea between Labrador and Greenland. The acoustic basement and its surface structure are described. The consolidated oceanic crust in the area was created...

K. A. Klitin

1987-01-01

33

"Labrador lung": an unusual mixed dust pneumoconiosis.  

PubMed Central

Forty-eight workers involved for various periods from 1962 in mining and milling iron-containing rock in the Carol Lake area of western Labrador were found in late 1974 and early 1975 to have pneumoconiosis. Their annual chest roentgenograms demonstrated irregular nodular densities, and several revealed mild hilar lymphadenopathy or pleural thickening. All 48 workers were asymptomatic and had normal pulmonary function; their average age was 38 years. At work they had been exposed to high levels of dust containing iron, silica and anthophyllite, a type of asbestos. Lung biopsy specimens from 13 of them showed widespread focal fibrosis, large amounts of hemosiderin and silica and many ferruginous bodies; one ferruginous body was identified as having a core of anthophyllite. A granulomatous reaction was seen in two biopsy specimens and typical silicotic nodules were found in two others. The relatively brief exposure, especially in ones case (11 months), and the short latent interval before the development of the pneumoconiosis are reasons for concern for the health of iron ore workers. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5

Edstrom, H. W.; Rice, D. M.

1982-01-01

34

Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations

Kara L. Lavender; Russ E. Davis; W. Brechner Owens

2000-01-01

35

Temporal and spatial scales of Labrador Sea water formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labrador Sea Water is an intermediate water found at the same density and depth range in the North Atlantic as the Mediterranean water. It is formed by convection from the sea surface to depths greather than 2 km in winter in the Western Labrador Sea. The processes leading to deep convection begin with the formation of a 200 km scale cyclonic circulation about denser than average upper layer water in the Western Labrador Sea. This circulation pattern is hypothesized to be driven by an ocean/atmosphere heat exchange that has its maximum in this region. By early March, if deep convection is taking place, one sees that this body of denser upper waters penetrates to the top of the deep temperature/salinity maximum marking the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water. We note that the horizontal scale of this body is still 100-200 km normal to the coastline.

Clarke, R. A.

1984-01-01

36

Did the Hudson Strait in Arctic Canada record the opening of the Labrador Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hudson Strait-Evans Strait-Foxe Channel is a major E-W trending composite topographic feature in Arctic Canada that connects Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin with the Labrador Sea. It corresponds to a ~1000 km long, WNW elongated body of water with maximal depths reaching 900 m in its eastern part. Based on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, the Hudson Strait comprises several fault-controlled sub-basins having a half graben geometry and corresponding to gravity lows on the Bouguer anomaly map. In the sub-basins, the sedimentary succession is thicker than the one preserved onshore (a few hundred metres) and reaches a maximum of ~ 2.6 km in the eastern part of the Hudson Strait, an estimate comparable with the maximum thickness documented in the Hudson Bay. Despite the low penetration of high-resolution seismic data, several angular unconformities have been documented locally. The lower part of the offshore succession unconformably overlies the Precambrian basement and correlates with Middle Ordovician to Silurian rocks exposed in nearby islands. The nature and age of the upper part of the succession remains poorly constrained even if a Mesozoic age has been proposed in the past. Phanerozoic strata generally dip less than 3° except in deformed zones characterized by open folds and down to basement faults, where strata dip locally at 10° or more. Faults are steeply dipping and generally have a clear geomorphological expression. Faults are oriented WNW and ENE, dip predominantly toward the north and record an extensional (or transtensional) tectonic event. Deformed zones characterized by open folds that trend parallel with the main faults attest of a subsequent episode of shortening. Forward modelling of satellite-derived gravity data indicates that interpreted sediment thickness alone cannot explain the entire negative anomaly found in sub-basins and that an additional source, possibly associated with the depth variation of the crust-mantle interface, contributes to the gravity signal. An attractive hypothesis would be to link tectonic structures (normal or transtensional faults and subsequent open folds) to Cretaceous - Paleocene rifting and seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea. However, a better understanding of the role and timing of the Ungava Fault zone which is located offshore, to the east of Baffin Island is crucial to test this hypothesis as this fault may kinematically decoupled the Labrador Sea from the Canadian landmass.

Pinet, Nicolas; Keating, Pierre; Lavoie, Denis

2013-04-01

37

Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.  

PubMed Central

To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region. Images

Johnson, G J

1981-01-01

38

Canine hip and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the outcomes from recent genetic analyses of hip and elbow scores from British Veterinary Association (BVA)\\/UK Kennel Club (KC) screening programmes targeted at reducing the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers. The analyses made use of 25,243 hip scores and 3613 elbow scores. Heritabilities (± standard error) for hip score, analysed

J. A. Woolliams; T. W. Lewis; S. C. Blott

2011-01-01

39

Legislative Provisions for Special Education in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes legislative provisions supporting educational services for children with disabilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. It begins by providing educational history information and then reviews The Building Accessibility Act (1990), The Child, Youth and Family Services Act (1998), the Schools Act (1997), and the Human Rights Code…

Philpott, David; Nesbit, Wayne

2001-01-01

40

CES Case Competition: A Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Case Competition established by the Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter of the Canadian Evaluation Society based on the national Case Competition model. Describes the competition as an opportunity for students to gain skills, confidence, and contacts while working as teams. (SLD)

Courney, Bea; Etchegary, Holly

2003-01-01

41

Current Issues in Rural Education in Newfoundland and Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author has attempted to provide an overview of some of the issues and challenges confronting rural educators and parents in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. He has chosen to focus on three of the most pressing at this point in time: (1) declining enrollment and its consequences; (2) the continuing pressure on…

Mulcahy, Dennis M.

2007-01-01

42

The Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment data collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1996 and 1998, a concerted effort was made to study the deep open ocean convection in the Labrador Sea. Both in situ observations and numerical models were employed with close collaboration between the researchers in the fields of physical oceanography, boundary layer meteorology, and climate. A multitude of different methods were used to observe the state of ocean and

G. Krahmann; M. Visbeck; W. Smethie; Eric A. D'Asaro; Peter B. Rhines; R. Allyn Clarke; John Lazier; Russ E. Davis; Pearn P. Niiler; Peter S. Guest; Jens Meincke; G. W. Kent Moore; Robert S. Pickart; W. Brechner Owens; Mark D. Prater; Ian A. Renfrew; Friedrich A. Schott

2003-01-01

43

An Abyssal Current in the Central Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) data collected along the repeat hydrographic section AR7W in the Labrador Sea has unveiled a new abyssal current, confined to a narrow trench extending from NW to SE over the entire abyssal basin and crossing AR7W in the center of the basin at about 57.8°N, 51.3°W. Maximum water depth in the trough is 75 - 100 m greater depth than the surrounding topography, and the current extends from about 160 m above the bottom to the bottom (3610 m), headed in a south to southeasterly direction. Maximum speeds of 10-20 cm s-1 occur in the deepest part of the current, implying a net transport of as much as 0.2 Sv of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Potential temperature and salinity in the bottom-intensified current tend to be well mixed below 3520 m, suggesting that the mixed bottom boundary layer is about 100 m thick. This V-shaped trench is part of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), which has been recognized as a turbidity current pathway by petrologists (Chough and Hesse, 1980; Chough et al., 1986). Another small trough intersects the main branch of the NAMOC where the abyssal current is observed, which may account for the varying direction of the current. This network of abyssal channels may provide a pathway for DSOW, entering the Labrador Sea around the southern tip of Greenland, to reach the central Labrador Sea with little delay. Indeed, Yashayaev and Dickson (2008) have noted the rapidity with which signals of hydrographic change in DSOW spread across the entire abyssal basin, reaching the central Labrador Sea within several months after their first appearance at the eastern boundary. Chough, S. K. and R. Hesse (1980). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea: III. Head spill vs. body spill deposits from turbidity currents on natural levees. J. of Sedimentary Petrology 50, 227-234. Chough, S. K., R. Hesse, and J. Muller (1987). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea. IV. Petrography and provenance of the sediments. Can. J. Earth Sci. 24, 731-740. Yashayaev, I., and R. R. Dickson (2008). Transformation and fate of overflows in the northern North Atlantic, in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate, edited by R. R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, pp. 505- 526, Springer, New York.

Hall, M. M.; Yashayaev, I.; Torres, D. J.

2012-12-01

44

Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

1991-01-01

45

Labrador current variability over the last 2000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice-loaded Labrador Current (LC) is an important component of the western North Atlantic circulation that influences the position and strength of the northern limb of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). This flow of cold and fresh Polar Waters originating from the Arctic has a marked impact on the North Atlantic climate, yet little is known about its variability beyond the instrumental period. In this study, we present the first sub-decadal alkenone-based 2000-year long sea-surface temperature (SST) records from the western Labrador Sea, a climatically crucial region at the boundary between the LC and the NAC. Our results show a clear link between the LC strength and the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), with a stronger NAM and a more vigorous LC during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). This suggests enhanced LC activity upon future global warming with implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).

Sicre, M.-A.; Weckström, K.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Kuijpers, A.; Benetti, M.; Masse, G.; Ezat, U.; Schmidt, S.; Bouloubassi, I.; Olsen, J.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

2014-08-01

46

Oceanography of a tidally choked fjord: Lake Melville, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Melville is large and complex sub-Arctic fjord that is a major outlet for freshwater on the Labrador coast. Although it has been the subject of exploration for centuries, we still know relatively little about its oceanography. We are studying the influence of changes in the fresh water discharge on the dynamics and ecosystem of Lake Melville in Labrador and how they interact with long-term climatic variability. Enormous hydroelectric developments have changed the freshwater runoff dynamics with unknown implications for the local and regional oceanography. The fjord is tidally choked, leading to intense flows at the entrance of 3-4 m/s. We will review the role of mixing and seasonal cycles in determining water properties in the lake and how changing climatic and freshwater conditions influence the oceanography and sea-ice dynamics. We will present historical data for the Lake together with results from our recent oceanographic work. We will compare our current measurements with results of a high resolution, variable element, coupled ocean-ice model for the Lake. The long-term exchange between the Labrador Sea and Lake Melville will be studied with this high-resolution ocean model. The implications of interannual ocean and atmospheric variability on the Lake ocean ecosystem will be discussed.

deYoung, Brad; Lu, Zhaoshi; Demirov, Entcho

2013-04-01

47

Knorr 147 Leg V Hydrographic Data Report: Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 2 February and 20 March 1997, the first phase of the Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment was carried out on R/V Knorr, during which 127 hydrographic stations were occupied throughout the Labrador basin. This included five boundary crossings (t...

S. Zimmerman T. K. McKee R. S. Pickart W. M. Smethie

2000-01-01

48

The Seasonal Nutrient Density of Country Food Harvested in Makkovik, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of country food to the diets of residents of Makkovik, Labrador, reflects the seasonal availability of different species on the northern Labrador coast. The nutrient density of the wild food component of the food supply varies from season to season according to the relative contribution of the various species harvested. In the summer, the level of calcium is

M. G. ALTON MACKEY; R. D. MOORE ORR

49

Ageostrophic linear stability analysis of the Labrador Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water mass transformation process in the Labrador Sea during winter plays an important role for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the global climate system. The Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is exported within the deep Labrador Current (LC) after the convection process. LSW takes up large amounts of atmospheric tracer gases as CO2 and oxygen, and is thus one of the major agent for ventilation of the abyssal ocean. It is shown that enhanced eddy kinetic energy (EKE) along the LC shows up in a 1/12° ocean model simulation during the transformation process. Moored in-situ measurements within the LC also show enhanced EKE levels during winter. This instability processes within the LC is important as it might alter the water mass properties of the (LSW) by frontal mixing processes during the water mass transformation and export within the LC. The frontal instability process, which lead to enhanced EKE along the LC during winter is investigated using ageostrophic linear stability analysis. Dense and weakly stratified water masses produced during the wintertime transformation process lead to weaker stratification and a strengthening of the lateral density gradients within the LC. Weak stratification and enhanced vertical shear result in low Richardson numbers and the growth rate of baroclinic waves increases significantly within the shelf break LC during winter. Rapid frontogenesis along the whole LC sets in resulting in enhance EKE. During the rest of the year strong stratification and weak vertical shear leads to larger Richardson numbers and smaller growth rates. Ageostrophic linear stability analysis shows that a geostrophic interior mode has similar wavelengths as the first wavelike disturbances in the model simulations. A shallow mode with lateral scales O (1 km) is also predicted, which can be associated with mixed layer instabilities and submesoscale variability but remains unresolved by the model simulation.

Thomsen, S.; Eden, C.

2012-12-01

50

Tidal Currents and Eddy Statistics From Iceberg Trajectories off Labrador.  

PubMed

Extensive data on the trajectories of icebergs located off the coast of Labrador has yielded information on tidal currents, the effect of wind on iceberg motion, and the properties of the low-frequency eddies. Statistical properties of the data were shown to be related to theoretical ideas on two-dimensional turbulence and to the connection between Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity statistics. The results have led to an estimate of the cross-shelf mixing rate and a statistical prediction scheme for iceberg trajectories. PMID:17793767

Garrett, C; Middleton, J; Hazen, M; Majaess, F

1985-03-15

51

Petroleum exploration and resource potential of offshore Newfoundland and Labrador  

SciTech Connect

The continental margin of Newfoundland and Labrador, encompassing a total area of 714,000 mi/sup 2/ (1,849,252 km/sup 2/) has been the target of exploratory activity since the early 1960s. Exploratory drilling began on the Grand Banks in 1966 and by 1974 a total of 40 dry wells had been drilled. In 1979 wildcat drilling resumed on the Grand Banks and the Hibernia field was discovered with the drilling of the P-15 well. This well, with an estimated flow potential of more than 20,000 BOPD, was the first oil well drilled on the Atlantic shelf of North America capable of commercial production. Truly a giant, the Hibernia structure has a resource potential of 1.85 billion bbl of oil and 2.0 tcf of gas at a probability level of 50%. Six significant oil discoveries have been made on the Grand Banks. The reservoirs are fluvial-deltaic and shoreline sandstones of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. Since 1971, 25 wells drilled on the Labrador Shelf resulted in one oil and five gas discoveries. The reservoirs are Paleozoic carbonates and Lower Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene sandstones. All are capping or draping basement horst blocks. By the end of 1982, total exploratory efforts had resulted in the drilling of 86 wells and the acquisition of approximately 240,000 line-mi of marine reflection seismic. A total resource potential of these structures has been estimated at 14.7 billion bbl of oil and 88.6 tcf of gas at a 50% probability level. A commercial discovery was long in coming but the recent high success rates confirm this margin as a major frontier of enormous potential.

Burden, D.M.; Dobbin, J.; Sheppard, M.G.

1983-03-01

52

Genetic evaluation of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV) for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009) were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection. PMID:21042573

Lewis, Thomas W; Blott, Sarah C; Woolliams, John A

2010-01-01

53

Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements  

PubMed

The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000 m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations of the ocean currents that lead to this distribution of Labrador Sea water have, however, been difficult and therefore scarce. We have used more than 200 subsurface floats to measure directly basin-wide horizontal velocities at various depths in the Labrador and Irminger seas. We observe unanticipated recirculations of the mid-depth (approximately 700 m) cyclonic boundary currents in both basins, leading to an anticyclonic flow in the interior of the Labrador basin. About 40% of the floats from the region of deep convection left the basin within one year and were rapidly transported in the anticyclonic flow to the Irminger basin, and also eastwards into the subpolar gyre. Surprisingly, the float tracks did not clearly depict the deep western boundary current, which is the expected main pathway of Labrador Sea water in the thermohaline circulation. Rather, the flow along the boundary near Flemish Cap is dominated by eddies that transport water offshore. Our detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that we may have to revise our picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation. PMID:10993072

Lavender; Davis; Owens

2000-09-01

54

Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period.  

PubMed

The two main constituent water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean-North Atlantic Deep Water at the bottom and Labrador Sea Water at an intermediate level-are currently formed in the Nordic seas and the Labrador Sea, respectively. The rate of formation of these two water masses tightly governs the strength of the global ocean circulation and the associated heat transport across the North Atlantic Ocean. Numerical simulations have suggested a possible shut-down of Labrador Sea Water formation as a consequence of global warming. Here we use micropalaeontological data and stable isotope measurements in both planktonic and benthic foraminifera from deep Labrador Sea cores to investigate the density structure of the water column during the last interglacial period, which was thought to be about 2 degrees C warmer than present. Our results indicate that today's stratification between Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water never developed during the last interglacial period. Instead, a buoyant surface layer was present above a single water mass originating from the Nordic seas. Thus the present situation, with an active site of intermediate-water formation in the Labrador Sea, which settled some 7,000 years ago, has no analogue throughout the last climate cycle. PMID:11323666

Hillaire-Marcel, C; de Vernal, A; Bilodeau, G; Weaver, A J

2001-04-26

55

Model simulations of mesoscale eddies and deep convection in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convection in the Labrador Sea is confined within a small region in the southwest part of the basin. The strength of deep convection in this region is related to the local atmospheric and ocean characteristics, which favor processes of deep convection preconditioning and intense air-sea exchange during the winter season. In this study, we explored the effect of eddy-induced flux transport on the stratification of the Labrador Sea and the properties of deep convection. Simulations from an eddy-resolving ocean model are presented for the Labrador Sea. The general circulation was well simulated by the model, including the seasonal cycle of the deep Labrador Current. The simulated distribution of the surface eddy kinetic energy was also close to that derived from Topex-Poseidon satellite altimeter data, but with smaller magnitude. The energy transfer diagnostics indicated that Irminger rings are generated by both baroclinic and barotropic processes; however, when they propagate into the interior basin, the barotropic process also disperses them by converting the eddy energy to the mean flow. In contrast to eddy-permitting simulations, deep convection in the Labrador Sea was better represented in the eddy-resolving model regarding their lateral position. Further analysis indicated that the improvement might be due to the lateral eddy flux associated with the resolved Irminger rings in the eddy-resolving model, which contributes to a realistic position of the isopycnal dome in the Labrador Sea and correspondingly a realistic site of deep convection.

Zhu, Jieshun; Demirov, Entcho; Zhang, Ying; Polomska-Harlick, Ania

2014-07-01

56

Island Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Island Information web site provides numerous facts and figures about the earth's islands. Island data is organized into the following categories: island superlatives, principal world islands and groups, 100 largest islands of the world, largest islands by continent, largest islands of selected countries, 35 largest islands of the United States, largest islands of selected U.S. states, 38 largest islands of Canada, largest islands of Canadian provinces, largest lake islands of the world, most populous islands of the world, most populous island countries, islands divided by international borders, tallest islands of the world, former and alternative names of islands, and island misinformation. All of the information within the web site is displayed in easy-to-read charts.

2001-10-07

57

Pollakiuria and stranguria in a Labrador retriever with penile HSA.  

PubMed

An approximately 8 yr old castrated male Labrador retriever presented for evaluation of weight loss, stranguria, and pollakiuria. Lysis of the proximal one-third of the os penis was diagnosed on abdominal radiographs, and a positive contrast urethrography revealed a smoothly marginated filling defect along the dorsal aspect of the urethra at the level of the radiographically observed osteolysis. Regional ultrasound revealed an echogenic mass at the proximal aspect of the os penis with a severely irregular and discontinuous periosteal surface. A penile hemangiosarcoma (HSA) was confirmed on histopathologic evaluation after a penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy were performed. Although HSA is a common malignant neoplasm in dogs, lysis of the os penis has not previously been documented. Adjunctive chemotherapy, although recommended, was declined, and the patient survived 236 days postoperatively. That survival time is considerably longer than the average survival time for patients with HSA, other than cutaneous forms of HSA. Although an uncommon presentation, HSA of the penis should be considered a differential diagnosis in older canines with signs of lower urinary tract disease, especially in breeds that have been documented to be predisposed to HSA. PMID:24446403

Fry, Joanna K; Burney, Derek; Hottinger, Heidi; Fabiani, Michelle; Feagin, Clint

2014-01-01

58

Myotonia dystrophica: unusual features in a Labrador family.  

PubMed Central

A large family with myotonia dystrophica has been recognized in an isolated area of Labrador. The complete family tree showed 29 of 108 members to be affected, including an infant with the congenital form of the disease. The propositus presented with epiphora and reduced frequency of blinking, with incomplete closure--features that have not previously been stressed. Ten of the younger affected persons had no lens opacities, although most had systemic muscle signs. Slit-lamp examination was therefore not a valuable method of early detection of the disease in the family. Many of the women affected by myotonia dystrophica had obstetric complications, particularly hydramnios, premature onset of labour, necessity for cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal death. Hydramnios was associated in each instances with perinatal death. The fetus in each case of hydramnios may have had the gene for myotonia dystrophica. Immunoglobulin A concentrations were reduced significantly in 27 affected persons in comparison with 77 unaffected family members. There were no such differences for the other immunoglobulin classes.

Webb, D.; Mathews, A.; Harris, M.; Muir, I.; Hostetter, J.; Marshall, W.; Salimonu, L.; Gray, J.; Faulkner, J.; Johnson, G.

1978-01-01

59

Ice-sheet sourced juxtaposed turbidite systems in Labrador Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ice-sheet sourced Pleistocene turbidite systems of the Labrador Sea are different from non-glacially influenced systems in their facies distribution and depositional processes. Two large-scale sediment dispersal systems are juxtaposed, one mud-dominated and associated with the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), the other sand-dominated and forming a huge submarine braided sandplain. Co-existence of the two systems reflects grain-size separation of the coarse and fine fractions on an enormous scale, caused by sediment winnowing at the entrance points of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the sea (Hudson Strait, fiords) and involves a complex interplay of depositional and redepositional processes. The mud-rich NAMOC system is multisourced and represents a basinwide converging system of tributary canyons and channels. It focusses its sand load to the central trunk channel in basin centre, in the fashion of a "reverse" deep-sea fan. The sand plain received its sediment from the Hudson Strait by turbidity currents that were generated either by failure of glacial prodelta slopes at the ice margin, or by direct meltwater discharges with high bedload concentration. We speculate that the latter might have been related to subglacial-lake outburst flooding through the Hudson Strait, possibly associated with ice-rafting (Heinrich) events.

Hesse, R.; Klaucke, I.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Piper, D. J. W.

1997-01-01

60

Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador,…

Anderson, Kirk David

2007-01-01

61

The Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Learning with Aboriginal Students: Findings from a Study in Coastal Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…

Philpott, David; Sharpe, Dennis; Neville, Rose

2009-01-01

62

The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

2012-12-01

63

Contrasted dynamics of northern Labrador tree lines caused by climate change and migrational lag.  

PubMed

The northern Québec-Labrador tree lines are the most climatically stressed tree ecosystems of eastern North America. In particular, white spruce (Picea glauca) tree line populations distributed between 56 degrees N and 58 degrees N and 61 degrees W and 66 degrees W show contrasted responses to recent changes in climate according to their geographic position relative to the Labrador Sea. Along the coast, the northernmost latitudinal and altitudinal tree lines responded positively to warming over the last 50 years with invading spruce several tens of meters above the current tree line. In contrast, white spruce tree lines across the wind-exposed Labrador plateau are located much higher in altitude and have receded a few tens of meters beginning around AD 1740-1750 and have not yet recovered. Whereas no field evidence of recent fire and insect damage was found, all inland tree line stands were progressively damaged likely due to mechanical defoliation of wind-exposed trees. Massive tree death in the 19th century caused a reduction in the number of seed-bearing trees, and declining tree lines were not replenished by seedlings. Recent warming reported for northern latitudes has not been strong enough to change the regressive tree line trajectory in interior Labrador. However, white spruce expansion above coastal tree line in the northernmost forest site in Labrador is in line with current climatic trends. It is hypothesized that the species is still advancing toward its potential tree line higher in altitude due to delayed postglacial migration. The slow advance of white spruce in northernmost coastal Labrador is likely caused by the rugged topography of the Torngat-Kaumajet-Kiglapait mountains. PMID:17503604

Payette, Serge

2007-03-01

64

Canine hip and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

This paper examines the outcomes from recent genetic analyses of hip and elbow scores from British Veterinary Association (BVA)/UK Kennel Club (KC) screening programmes targeted at reducing the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers. The analyses made use of 25,243 hip scores and 3613 elbow scores. Heritabilities (± standard error) for hip score, analysed on a log scale, and for elbow score were 0.35±0.02 and 0.19±0.04, respectively, with a genetic correlation of 0.41±0.09. For both hip and elbow scores, there was a near perfect genetic correlation between the left and right joint; analysis of hip score showed a predictive benefit of using the total of left and right scores rather than worst score and the benefit of using all component scores rather than their aggregate score. Downward genetic trends were observed in both hip and elbow scores, although the latter was consistent with it being correlated to response to genetic change in hip score. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) offered substantial benefits in accuracy and hence genetic progress when compared to the use of phenotypes for both hip and elbow scores. There are major opportunities for improving selection against elbow dysplasia through the use of bivariate evaluations, although progress against dysplasia would be improved by more widespread elbow scoring. The studies highlighted a number of ways in which data recording for addressing complex traits may be improved in the future. Ongoing advances in genomic technology may be utilised for increasing the rate of genetic progress in selection against HD and for complex diseases in general, through the use of genomic evaluations. PMID:21737322

Woolliams, J A; Lewis, T W; Blott, S C

2011-08-01

65

Epidemiologic features of hepatitis B virus infection in northern Labrador.  

PubMed Central

We studied the epidemiologic features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in northern Labrador to determine the prevalence of the infection and to obtain a database to develop a vaccination strategy. The study population included seven communities in which five ethnic groups were represented: Inuit, Innu, mixed Inuit and European ancestry ("settler"), nonnative/nonsettler transient population ("white") and people of Innu-white or Innu-Inuit origin ("mixed"). Blood samples from 2156 people (62% of the area residents) were tested for antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), anti-HBc IgM and antibody to the surface antigen (anti-HBs). The overall crude prevalence rate of HBV seromarkers was 14.7% and the HBsAg carrier rate at least 3.2%; the rates were highest for Inuit (26.4% and 6.9% respectively), followed by settler (10.0% and 1.9% respectively) and Innu (7.6% and 0.4% respectively); the white and mixed groups had the lowest overall rates (2.5% and 3.3% respectively). Although the overall prevalence rates were about the same for the two sexes, the HBsAg carrier rate was higher in males (male:female ratio 1.6:1.0). No HBV carriers were positive for HBeAg or anti-HBc IgM antibody. The rate of exposure to HBV was 4% for those below the age of 20 years and reached a peak for those aged 45 to 54 years (85% for Inuit, 40% for settlers and 37% for Innu). There was also a wide variation in the age-standardized prevalence rates (0% to 27.9%) among the ethnic groups in the seven communities surveyed.

Baikie, M; Ratnam, S; Bryant, D G; Jong, M; Bokhout, M

1989-01-01

66

Interannual to multidecadal modes of Labrador climate variability inferred from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of Labrador is uniquely influenced by Labrador Sea atmosphere-ocean dynamics and related sea surface temperature, sea ice and atmospheric fluctuations in the northwest Atlantic. Here we describe composite ring width and maximum latewood density white spruce records averaged over five (four for density) treeline sites in northern Labrador, spanning the past four centuries. These records correlate significantly with surface air and sea surface temperature records for the northwest Atlantic as well as with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Temperatures over Labrador appear to have been influenced by climate processes operating on interannual to multidecadal time scales over the length of the tree-ring record. The ring width composite reveals a significant (>99% level) mode of variation centered at around 40-60 years which appears to be robust over the full length of record and may correspond to multidecadal modes identified in model and instrumental studies of North Atlantic climate. The density composite indicates significant peaks at about 21-24, 9 and 2-3 years, which generally correspond to spectral modes identified for the NAO. This density series also shows a significant (>99% level) mode of variation at 3.6 years, which is statistically coherent with the winter (DJF) Southern Oscillation Index. This mode decreases in amplitude in the 1800s period of the Little Ice Age, one of the lowest growth periods in the Labrador tree-ring series as well as other northern temperature proxies. This period was also a time of diminished solar activity and several major volcanic events, including the eruption of Tambora in 1815. The ensuing summer of 1816 was the coldest over the past four centuries as inferred from the Labrador density composite. Hardships suffered by Labrador Inuit resulting from the extreme cold period of 1816-17 are mentioned in Moravian mission records. Archaeological and ethnohistorical data also document shifts in the subsistence practices and settlement patterns of Labrador Inuit throughout the 1800s. Many of the cultural changes have been attributed to the effects of European settlement of the region, but may also be a response to the severe climatic conditions during this time.

D'Arrigo, R.; Buckley, B.; Kaplan, S.; Woollett, J.

2002-09-01

67

2 - 4 million years of sedimentary processes in the Labrador Sea: implication for North Atlantic stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine sedimentary records from the western North Atlantic show that a significant portion of sediment deposited since the Pliocene originated from the Canadian Shield. In the Labrador Sea, previous studies have shown that bottom currents .strongly influenced sedimentation during the Pliocene, while during the Quaternary, intensification of turbidity current flows related to meltwater events were a dominant factor in supplying sediment to the basin and in the development of the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). Despite understanding this general pattern of sediment flux, details regarding the transfer of sediment from the Labrador Shelf to deep water and from the Labrador Sea to the North Atlantic remain poorly understood. Our study focuses on sedimentary processes occurring along the Labrador margin since the Pliocene and their consequences on the margin architecture, connection to the NAMOC, and role in sediment flux from the Labrador basin to the Sohm Abyssal Plain. Piston core and high resolution seismic data reveal that during the Pliocene to mid Pleistocene, widespread slope failures led to mass transport deposition along the entire Labrador continental slope. After the mid Pleistocene, sedimentation along the margin was dominated by the combined effects of glaciation and active bottom currents. On the shelf, prograded sedimentary wedges filled troughs and agraded till sheets form intervening banks. On the slope, stacked glaciogenic fans developed seaward of transverse troughs between 400 and 2800 mbsl. On the lower slope, seismic data show thick sediment drifts capped by glacio-marine mud. This unit is draped by well stratified sediment and marks a switch from a contourite dominated regime to a turbidite dominated regime. This shift occurred around 0.5 - 0.8 ka and correlates to the intensification of glaciations. Late Pleistocene sediments on the upper slope consist of stratified sediments related to proglacial plume fall-out. Coarse grained sediments, other than ice rafted detritus, by-passed the upper and middle slope and were transported to the lower slope and deep ocean. Seismic profiles and multibeam data along the Labrador Slope show a complex network of channels, with wide flat-bottomed channels off Saglek Bank to narrow channels off Cartwright Bank. The channels merge around 3000 mbsl to form single wide (~20 km) channels that eventually intersect, or flow parallel to the NAMOC. Rapid development of the NAMOC from the mid to late Pleistocene affected depositional patterns for sediment sourced from the Labrador margin. Downslope-transported sediment from the Labrador margin mostly tends to fill the basin or feed into NAMOC through tributary systems, whereas sediments derived from Hudson Strait feed the NAMOC and eventually the Sohm Abyssal plain. Sediment transported southward by the Western Boundary Undercurrent and Labrador Current likely reflect input along the margin, from Hudson Strait to Orphan Basin. Turbidite spill-over deposits are observed onlapping the continental margin of Labrador and Newfoundland as far south as Newfoundland Ridge.

Mosher, D. C.; Saint-Ange, F.; Campbell, C.; Piper, D. J.

2012-12-01

68

Matriculating Eastward: Maritime Student Migration to Newfoundland & Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, the number of both out-of-province Canadian and international students enrolled at Memorial University of Newfoundland has increased substantially. During this period, the enrollment levels of students from the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island have undergone an increase of approximately ten-fold.…

Kirby, Dale; Greene, Melanie; Bourgeois, Monique; Sharpe, Dennis

2011-01-01

69

Age-related thoracic radiographic changes in golden and labrador retriever muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Golden retriever and Labrador retriever muscular dystrophy are inherited progressive degenerative myopathies that are used as models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in man. Thoracic lesions were reported to be the most consistent radiographic finding in golden retriever dogs in a study where radiographs were performed at a single-time point. Muscular dystrophy worsens clinically over time and longitudinal studies in dogs are lacking. Thus our goal was to describe the thoracic abnormalities of golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs, to determine the timing of first expression and their evolution with time. To this purpose, we retrospectively reviewed 390 monthly radiographic studies of 38 golden retrievers and six Labrador retrievers with muscular dystrophy. The same thoracic lesions were found in both golden and Labrador retrievers. They included, in decreasing frequency, flattened and/or scalloped diaphragmatic shape (43/44), pulmonary hyperinflation (34/44), hiatal hernia (34/44), cranial pectus excavatum (23/44), bronchopneumonia (22/44), and megaesophagus (14/44). The last three lesions were not reported in a previous radiographic study in golden retriever dogs. In all but two dogs the thoracic changes were detected between 4 and 10 months and were persistent or worsened over time. Clinically, muscular dystrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with a combination of these thoracic radiographic findings. PMID:22702494

Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Labruyère, Julien J; Thibaud, Jean Laurent; Barthélémy, Inès; Leperlier, Dimitri; Saunders, Jimmy H; Blot, Stéphane

2012-01-01

70

Kinematic analysis of the gait of 10 labrador retrievers during treadmill locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trotting gait of 10 sound, adult labrador retrievers was analysed using kinematic gait analysis on a purpose-built treadmill using video-based motion analysis software. The maximal angular displacement, minimal angular displacement, average angular displacement, and the maximal positive and negative angular velocities of the right elbow and right stifle were measured over five gait cycles at defined time points during

D. N. Clements; M. R. Owen; S. Carmichael; S. W. J. Reid

2005-01-01

71

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

72

Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as...

S. Hakkinen

2002-01-01

73

Renal adenoma in a 5-year-old Labrador retriever: big is not always bad.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old Labrador retriever was presented with anorexia, hematuria, and a 3-week history of mild lethargy, periodic inappetance, and weight loss. A firm mass in the cranial abdomen was discovered on physical examination. Following clinical work-up the owners elected euthanasia. On postmortem examination, histopathology determined that the mass was a benign renal adenoma. PMID:23904644

Lillakas, Kristina

2013-02-01

74

Comminuted fracture of the ulnar carpal bone in a Labrador retriever dog  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old male Labrador retriever dog was evaluated for acute lameness without weight-bearing in the right forelimb after an 8-meter fall. Radiographs revealed a comminuted fracture of the ulnar carpal bone that required removal of bone fragments. This appears to be the first report of such a condition.

Vedrine, Bertrand

2013-01-01

75

How Does Labrador Sea Water Enter the Deep Western Boundary Current?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador Sea Water (LSW), a dense water mass formed by convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, is an important constituent of the meridional overturning circulation. Understanding how the water mass enters the deep western boundary current (DWBC), one of the primary pathways by which it exits the subpolar gyre, can shed light on the continuity between climate conditions in the

Jaime B. Palter; M. Susan Lozier; Kara L. Lavender

2008-01-01

76

Spreading of Labrador sea water: an advective-diffusive study based on Lagrangian data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathways and timescales for the spreading of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) in the subpolar North Atlantic are investigated with an advective–diffusive model. The model's mean flow and eddy diffusivity are derived from float measurements, while the region of LSW formation is obtained from hydrographic data. Two main export pathways for LSW are reproduced by the model: eastward into the

Fiammetta Straneo; Robert S. Pickart; Kara Lavender

2003-01-01

77

Renal adenoma in a 5-year-old Labrador retriever: Big is not always bad  

PubMed Central

A 5-year-old Labrador retriever was presented with anorexia, hematuria, and a 3-week history of mild lethargy, periodic inappetance, and weight loss. A firm mass in the cranial abdomen was discovered on physical examination. Following clinical work-up the owners elected euthanasia. On postmortem examination, histopathology determined that the mass was a benign renal adenoma.

Lillakas, Kristina

2013-01-01

78

Maintaining Quality Programming in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: A Case Study in Policy and Structural Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newfoundland and Labrador has many rural communities, low literacy rates, high unemployment, declining enrollment and population, and teacher shortages. Policy responses have been to consolidate schools, increase rural teacher pay, increase teacher recruitment, implement distance learning and distance professional development, intensify…

Press, Harold; Galway, Gerald; Collins, Alice

2003-01-01

79

Teacher Education and Development in Newfoundland and Labrador in a Time of Restructuring and Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through reference to policy and research documents, this paper provides insight into how educational restructuring and reform are planned, presented, and implemented in Canada's Atlantic provinces, particularly Newfoundland and Labrador. It suggests that such reform and restructuring occur at the interface of a province's history, geography, and…

Samson, Florence

2001-01-01

80

Educational Psychologists' Perspectives on Their Professional Practice in Newfoundland and Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational psychology is in the midst of examination and potential change in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of published empirical research investigating educational psychology in the province. The current study surveyed educational psychologists from the four English districts in Newfoundland…

Harris, Gregory E.; Joy, Rhonda M.

2010-01-01

81

Estimation of Heritability of Litter Size in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to litter size in Labrador retrievers and German shepherd dogs in the breeding colony at The Seeing Eye, Inc. The environmental factors with significant impact on litter size were the parity of the dam and contemporary group, a three-month period that represents seasonal effects, the

Elizabeth Hare; Eldin A. Leighton

2006-01-01

82

Surgical treatment of a hemivertebra by partial ventral corpectomy and fusion in a Labrador puppy.  

PubMed

This report describes a partial ventral verte-brectomy and interbody fusion for a progressive hemivertebra disease using a ventral transthoracic approach in a 3.6-month-old male Labrador puppy. The goal of this article is to clarify the potential advantages of this uncommon surgical technique for this condition and to discuss its technical aspects. PMID:20585711

Meheust, P; Robert, R

2010-01-01

83

Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus in women screened for cervical cancer in Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background A higher incidence of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported in northern Canada and in First Nation, Métis and Inuit women, with some evidence to suggest that the HPV type distribution in these populations may be different from the rest of Canada. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the HPV type prevalence in Labrador women to determine if significant differences in HPV types could reduce the effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Design The prevalence of HPV types was determined in 1,370 women presenting for routine pap screening in Labrador between February and November 2010. Cervical cytology and HPV genotyping were performed on the same liquid-based cytology specimens. Results The overall prevalence of HPV was 21.4%; cytological abnormalities were found in 8.8% of the participants. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common high-risk HPV types. These two types were found in 52.4% of high-grade lesions. The prevalence in HPV infections was comparable across the Labrador regions. Conclusions The present results support the potential effectiveness of the HPV immunization program in Labrador.

Severini, Alberto; Jiang, Ying; Brassard, Paul; Morrison, Howard; Demers, Alain A.; Oguntuase, Elizabeth; Al-Rushdi, Muna; Preston, Felicia; Ratnam, Samuel; Mao, Yang

2013-01-01

84

Canary Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

1992-01-01

85

Changes of the deep circulation and erosional inputs in the Labrador Sea over the late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of Labrador Sea Water has been one of the main contributors to the Atlantic thermohaline circulation influences the strength of NADW formation. In addition, the Labrador Sea has received weathering inputs of highly variable strength and sources. A high resolution downcore record recovered from south of Greenland (core MD99-2227) together with surface sediment samples from western part of Labrador Sea provides detailed information on deep sea and surface water circulation and through the Latest Quaternary. Radiogenic Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes are used as proxies for changes in water mass mixing and weathering inputs. Nd isotope data produced by leaching early sedimentary ferromanganese coatings reflect seawater compositions and show a pronounced trend towards less radiogenic values from the LGM to 12 kyr and then became less radiogenic again through the Holocene, which was most likely either linked to enhanced erosional input in the course of the retreat of the Laurentide Ice sheet or indicates enhanced contributions of a highly unradiogenic water mass such as Labrador Sea Water or diminished contributions of radiogenic Denmark Strait Overflow water. A major change in isotopic composition at 12 kyr towards more radiogenic isotope compositions is also observed in the leached 208,207,206Pb/204Pb data. Most notably, there was a pronounced change in the Pb isotope compositions at 8 kyr as well, which is not reflected by Nd or Hf isotope data and which reflects a major change in source provenance of the weathering inputs, most likely linked to the 8.2 kyr event, during which glacially dammed lakes Agassiz and Ojibway rapidly drained into the North Atlantic. This interpretation will be compared to the evidence from the radiogenic isotope evolution of the detrital fraction and of the clays. In contrast, with time leached Hf isotope data appear to be too radiogenic for Labrador Seawater but also show a marked unradiogenic peak at 12 kyr pointing to a strong influence of coatings preformed on land and in rivers. This is supported by the Hf isotope data being well above the seawater array when plotted against Nd isotopes. Based on the obtained data we reconstruct changes in the weathering inputs into the Labrador Sea and its current system, which has important implications for the reconstruction of the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and of North Atlantic Deep Water.

Filippova, A.; Frank, M.; Kienast, M.; Hillarie-Marcel, C.

2013-12-01

86

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium;Biology); Jennifer Spangenberg (Beloit College;)

2005-12-16

87

Geomagnetic paleointensity and environmental record from Labrador Sea core MD95-2024: global marine sediment and ice core chronostratigraphy for the last 110 kyr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piston core MD95-2024 from the Labrador Rise provides a continuous record of rapidly deposited detrital layers denoting Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) instability. The core also provides a high-resolution record of geomagnetic paleointensity, that is consistent with, but at higher temporal resolution than previous Labrador Sea records. Correlation to the Greenland Summit ice cores (GRIP\\/GISP2) is achieved by assuming that Labrador

J. S. Stoner; J. E. T. Channell; C. Hillaire-Marcel; C. Kissel

2000-01-01

88

On the mid-depth circulation in the Labrador and Irminger Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical circulation model with 1/6° resolution and an accurate topography formulation explains details of the observed circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas that were recently revealed by Lavender et al. [2000]. We show that the recirculation pattern is established through a locally wind induced flow controlled by the bottom topography and enhanced through remote baroclinic forcing by the dense plume of Denmark Strait overflow water. The basic circulation is a robust feature in a hierarchy of model setups. It exists in the purely barotropic case driven by steady winds and is even maintained when realistic daily forcing is added. The narrow recirculation zone is manifested by a sea level depression spanning from the Denmark Strait across the Irminger into the Labrador Sea.

Käse, R. H.; Biastoch, A.; Stammer, D. B.

89

Two Loci on Chromosome 5 Are Associated with Serum IgE Levels in Labrador Retrievers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with

Marta Owczarek-Lipska; Béatrice Lauber; Vivianne Molitor; Sabrina Meury; Marcin Kierczak; Katarina Tengvall; Matthew T. Webster; Vidhya Jagannathan; Yvette Schlotter; Ton Willemse; Anke Hendricks; Kerstin Bergvall; Åke Hedhammar; Göran Andersson; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Claude Favrot; Petra Roosje; Eliane Marti; Tosso Leeb

2012-01-01

90

Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4–5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3–4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal.

Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

2014-01-01

91

Glucocorticoid-dependent hypoadrenocorticism with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia mimicking sepsis in a Labrador retriever dog  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism (GDH) with immune-mediated-neutropenia (IMN) and -thrombocytopenia (IMT) were diagnosed in a 3-year-old Labrador retriever dog. Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism is rare and diagnostically challenging as clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities are often nonspecific. Immune-mediated cytopenias and other autoimmune disorders, as part of an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome have been reported with hypoadrenocorticism in humans. This is the first reported case of hypoadrenocorticism and bicytopenia in a dog.

Snead, Elisabeth; Vargo, Cheryl; Myers, Sherry

2011-01-01

92

Glucocorticoid-dependent hypoadrenocorticism with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia mimicking sepsis in a Labrador retriever dog.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism (GDH) with immune-mediated-neutropenia (IMN) and -thrombocytopenia (IMT) were diagnosed in a 3-year-old Labrador retriever dog. Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism is rare and diagnostically challenging as clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities are often nonspecific. Immune-mediated cytopenias and other autoimmune disorders, as part of an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome have been reported with hypoadrenocorticism in humans. This is the first reported case of hypoadrenocorticism and bicytopenia in a dog. PMID:22467971

Snead, Elisabeth; Vargo, Cheryl; Myers, Sherry

2011-10-01

93

Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort.

2013-01-01

94

Impact of Labrador Sea Convection on the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overturning and horizontal circulations of the Labrador Sea are deduced from a composite vertical section across the basin. The data come from the late-spring\\/early-summer occupations of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) AR7W line, during the years 1990-97. This time period was chosen because it corresponded to intense wintertime convection—the deepest and densest in the historical record—suggesting that the

ROBERT S. PICKART; MICHAEL A. SPALL

2006-01-01

95

Short-Term Impacts of Low-Level Jet Fighter Training on Caribou in Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term impacts on caribou (Rangifer turandus) of low-level jet fighter training activity at Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay (Labrador) were investigated during the 1986-88 training seasons (April-October). Visual observations of low-level (30 m agl) jet overpasses indi- cated an initial stade response but otherwise brief overt reaction by woodland caribou on late-winter alpine tundra habitat. Between 1986 and 1988,

FRED H. HARRINGTON

1991-01-01

96

Surface changes in the eastern Labrador Sea around the onset of the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the relative climate stability of the present interglacial, it has been punctuated by several centennial-scale climatic oscillations; the latest of which are often colloquially referred to as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). The most favored explanation for the cause of these anomalies is that they were triggered by variability in solar irradiance and/or volcanic activity and amplified by ocean-atmosphere-sea ice feedbacks. As such, changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are widely believed to have been involved in the amplification of such climatic oscillations. The Labrador Sea is a key area of deep water formation. The waters produced here contribute approximately one third of the volume transport of the deep limb of the AMOC and drive changes in the North Atlantic surface hydrography and subpolar gyre circulation. In this study, we present multiproxy reconstructions from a high-resolution marine sediment core located south of Greenland that suggest an increase in the influence of polar waters reaching the Labrador Sea close to MCA-LIA transition. Changes in freshwater forcing may have reduced the formation of Labrador Sea Water and contributed toward the onset of the LIA cooling.

Moffa-Sánchez, Paola; Hall, Ian R.; Barker, Stephen; Thornalley, David J. R.; Yashayaev, Igor

2014-03-01

97

Geochemistry of the nain massif anorthosite, labrador: Magma diversity in five intrusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrography and major- and trace-element concentrations of the anorthositic Bird Lake Massif (BLM), Susie Brook Slab (SBS), Lister Massif (LM), Port Man vers Run (PMR), and Kikkertavak area (KIK) in the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS), Labrador, delineate the mineralogical and composition ranges of these large intrusions. From these, a variety of magmas and staging histories can be inferred. The BLM and SBS are mainly noritic anorthosites of the western region exposed along Tikkoatokhakh Bay (TIK). Tilting and stretching deformation distinguish SBS from BLM, but the two units show no mineralogical or chemical differences. The KIK and PMR intrusions are mainly troctolitic to noritic anorthosites of the eastern region, and they contain more mafic components than the TIK bodies. Chemically, all the anorthositic rocks are high in Ba, Sr, and the ratio K/Rb, and low in Zr, Rb, and Rb/Sr. The three plutonic bodies, BLM, SBS, and LM, along TIK are similar and can be clearly distinguished from KIK and PMR intrusions by element concentrations and ratios. Diagrams of element pairs show that each intrusion or group has its own evolutionary trend and variable style, indicating that they represent independent magma batches rather than fractionally related volumes of the same magma. REE patterns show light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion, and strong positive Eu anomalies, correlated with cumulus plagioclase. In chemical comparison with adjacent plutons, one PMR-chilled leucotroctolite, after subtraction of 18% cumulus plagioclase, is similar to the Kiglapait magma (KI); one melatroctolite in KIK is close to the comb-layered melatroctolite of the Snowflake zone in the Hettasch Intrusion (HI); and the average leucotroctolite and leuconorite in KIK are similar to the leucotroctolite unit and the upper leuconorite, respectively, at Paul Island (PI). Therefore, the magmas from PMR and KIK are similar to those of wellknown troctolitic bodies and their feldspar-rich cumulates. KIK differs from PMR in having somewhat higher An and Xmg values. All these lines of evidence show that at least three types of magma existed in the study area: sodic noritic magma accumulating plagioclase in TIK, troctolitic magma in KIK, and a magma similar to but more evolved than KIK in PMR. The methods used also illustrate the feasibility of characterizing magma compositions from diverse types of cumulates. Regional differences in modal and chemical composition occur in the NPS. Noritic compositions with pale plagioclase are located in the western and southern regions, and troctolitic compositions with darker plagioclase are located in the eastern region. A reasonably accurate boundary can now be drawn between the two regions, which differ in the nature of their transport from the mantle. In comparison with a primitive mantle composition, high Ba, Pb, K, Sr, Ti, and low Rb, Nb, Zr in the Nain anorthositic rocks are distinctive. These anomalies and the isotopic results of other investigators are consistent with mantle source enrichment followed by variable contamination during magma ponding at the base of the depleted crust.

Xue, Suizhou; Morse, S. A.

1993-08-01

98

Full-fit reconstruction of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the opening of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay between Greenland and North America remains controversial. Recent seismic data suggest that magnetic lineations along the margins of the Labrador Sea, originally interpreted as seafloor spreading anomalies, may lie within the crust of the continent-ocean transition. These data also suggest a more seaward extent of continental crust within the Greenland margin near the Davis Strait than assumed in previous full-fit reconstructions. Our study focuses on reconstructing the full-fit configuration of Greenland and North America using an approach that considers continental deformation in a quantitative manner. We use gravity inversion to map crustal thickness across the conjugate margins, and assimilate observations from available seismic profiles and potential field data to constrain the likely extent of different crustal types. We derive end-member continental margin restorations following alternative interpretations of published seismic profiles. The boundaries between continental and oceanic crust (COB) are restored to their pre-stretching locations along small circle motion paths across the region of Cretaceous extension. Restored COBs are fitted quantitatively to compute alternative total-fit reconstructions. A preferred full-fit model is chosen based on the strongest compatibility with geological and geophysical data. Our preferred model suggests that (i) the COB lies oceanward of magnetic lineations interpreted as magnetic anomaly 31 (70 Ma) in the Labrador Sea, (ii) all previously identified magnetic lineations landward of anomaly 27 reflect intrusions into continental crust, and (iii) the Ungava fault zone in Davis Strait acted as a leaky transform fault during rifting. This robust plate reconstruction reduces gaps and overlaps in the Davis Strait and suggests that there is no need for alternative models proposed for reconstructions of this area including additional plate boundaries in North America or Greenland. Our favored model implies that break up and formation of continent-ocean transition (COT) first started in the southern Labrador Sea and Davis Strait around 88 Ma and then propagated north and southwards up to onset of real seafloor spreading at 63 Ma in the Labrador Sea. In the Baffin Bay, continental stretching lasted longer and actual break up and seafloor spreading started around 61 Ma (Chron 26).

Hosseinpour, M.; Müller, R. D.; Williams, S. E.; Whittaker, J. M.

2013-07-01

99

Full-fit reconstruction of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the opening of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay between Greenland and North America remains controversial. Recent seismic data suggest that magnetic lineations along the margins of the Labrador Sea, originally interpreted as seafloor spreading anomalies, may lie within the crust of the continent-ocean transition. These data also suggest a more seaward extent of continental crust within the Greenland margin near Davis Strait than assumed in previous full-fit reconstructions. Our study focuses on reconstructing the full-fit configuration of Greenland and North America using an approach that considers continental deformation in a quantitative manner. We use gravity inversion to map crustal thickness across the conjugate margins, and assimilate observations from available seismic profiles and potential field data to constrain the likely extent of different crustal types. We derive end-member continental margin restorations following alternative interpretations of published seismic profiles. The boundaries between continental and oceanic crust (COB) are restored to their pre-stretching locations along small circle motion paths across the region of Cretaceous extension. Restored COBs are fitted quantitatively to compute alternative total-fit reconstructions. A preferred full-fit model is chosen based on the strongest compatibility with geological and geophysical data. Our preferred model suggests that (i) the COB lies oceanward of magnetic lineations interpreted as magnetic anomaly 31 (70 Ma) in the Labrador Sea, (ii) all previously identified magnetic lineations landward of anomaly 27 reflect intrusions into continental crust and (iii) the Ungava fault zone in Davis Strait acted as a leaky transform fault during rifting. This robust plate reconstruction reduces gaps and overlaps in Davis Strait and suggests that there is no need for alternative models proposed for reconstructions of this area including additional plate boundaries in North America or Greenland. Our favoured model implies that break-up and formation of continent-ocean transition (COT) first started in the southern Labrador Sea and Davis Strait around 88 Ma and then propagated north and southwards up to the onset of real seafloor spreading at 63 Ma in the Labrador Sea. In Baffin Bay, continental stretching lasted longer and actual break-up and seafloor spreading started around 61 Ma (chron 26).

Hosseinpour, M.; Müller, R. D.; Williams, S. E.; Whittaker, J. M.

2013-11-01

100

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

101

The Wild Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. var. minus lodd) Industry in Newfoundland and Labrador and the Potential for Expansion Utilizing European Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. var. minus Lodd, known in Newfoundland and Labrador as partridgeberry, is an economically important native fruit that is harvested from unmanaged natural stands. Annual production varies, but a mean annual harvest of 96,500 kilograms makes Newfoundland and Labrador the largest North American producer. Most fruit is exported frozen, but there is local secondary processing. There is a

B. G. Penney; C. A. Gallagher; P. A. Hendrickson; R. A. Churchill

102

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

103

Climate and sea ice variability in the SW Labrador Sea during the late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice components in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice records based on proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25 has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover, found in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice. We tested the reliability of this biomarker against observational sea ice data off Newfoundland (SW Labrador Sea), where box cores covering the last ca. 100-150 years were collected. Based on the results, IP25 proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing variability in past sea ice concentrations in the area. After having successfully validated the proxy in the SW Labrador Sea, we further analysed IP25 from a sediment core NE of Newfoundland covering the last ca. 5000 years, providing the southernmost multi-millennial record of this proxy to date. Based on this record and on diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data and alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the same core, we reconstructed climatic conditions in and Arctic sea ice export to the SW Labrador Sea area: Alkenone-based SSTs show a clear albeit variable decline after the Holocene Climate Optimum, while at the same time diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data suggest decreased melt water export from the Arctic. The IP25 record reveals increased sea ice export from the Baffin and Hudson Bays starting ca 1500 yr cal. BP, accelerating ca. 800 yr cal. BP and culminating at the height of the Little Ice Age. Sea ice export during the last century is comparable to the export during the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon

2014-05-01

104

Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. Materials and methods This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. Discussion A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. Conclusion The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research.

Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

2013-01-01

105

Individual fertility differences in the frozen-thawed spermatozoa among semen donors in the Labrador Retriever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We aimed to validate and determine the possible application of transcervical insemination of frozen semen for improved breeding\\u000a in guide dogs for the blind in Japan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From February 2004 to March 2007, a total of 53 Labrador Retriever bitches, used for the breeding of guide dogs for the blind,\\u000a were transcervically inseminated with frozen-thawed semen from 13 males by means

Yoshinori Suwa; Yasuyuki Abe; Dong Soo Lee; Yoshiko Yanagimoto Ueta; Hiroshi Suzuki

2009-01-01

106

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

107

A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.  

PubMed

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height. PMID:23527306

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

108

Freshening of the Labrador Sea surface waters in the 1990s: Another great salinity anomaly?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed Labrador Sea surface salinities for 1951-2001 in region [55W-40W, 45N-55N] show freshening in the 1990s which may rival the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA) of the 1970s [Dickson et al., 1988]. The 1990s freshening is distinct in the lowest range of salinity values associated with the coastal waters. The variability of the highest salinity values, provided by the North Atlantic Current entering the Labrador Sea, shows that the high salinity Atlantic waters were not widely present in the 1970's and 1990s. This can be interpreted as weakened transport of saline waters to the area. This explanation is consistent with an Arctic-North Atlantic model results forced by NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data (for 1958-2001) which suggest that these periods are associated with a reduced meridional overturning. The model also associates the coastal freshening with southward current anomalies which are well correlated with the number of icebergs crossing 48N.

Häkkinen, Sirpa

2002-12-01

109

A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism  

PubMed Central

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drogemuller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

110

Geochronological and lead-isotope evidences for rapid crust formation in middle-proterozoic time: The Labrador example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive U-Pb geochronological studies in the Grenville and Makkovik provinces have shown that eastern Labrador is underlain by two distinct crustal blocks. In order to substantiate the juvenile character of the middle-Proterozoic crustal block, the isotopic compositon of lead in leached k-feldspars from the same rocks were analyzed. The results of the analysis are briefly discussed.

Schaerer, Urs

1988-01-01

111

The Inclusive Classroom - Can the Teachers Keep Up? A Comparison of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the results of a previous study on 725 Nova Scotia teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and confidence in their abilities with those of 287 teachers from Newfoundland & Labrador. No provincial differences in teachers' perceptions of inclusion were found despite differences in provincial policy/practice. (Contains…

Edmunds, Alan

2003-01-01

112

Continental slope sedimentation adjacent to an ice-margin. II. Glaciomarine depositional facies on labrador slope and glacial cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight depositional facies have been identified in Labrador Slope and Basin cores on the basis of sedimentary structures and textures. These are combined into three genetic groups: (1) hemipelagic facies HI with ice-rafted debris (IRD) and H without IRD (with a combined thickness of about 53% of the total core length); (2) debris-flow facies D (7%) and three turbidite facies

Dong Wang; Reinhard Hesse

1996-01-01

113

Nihoa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from the NOW-RAMP 2002 Expedition documents a research expedition to Nihoa Island. It showcases Nihoa's unique birds and plants, the threat posed by invading grasshoppers, and restoration efforts.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

114

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around the Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea Dorthe Paulsen (1), Antoon Kuijpers (2), Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz (3) and Tove Nielsen (2) 1) Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K 2) Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgde 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. 3) Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C The southern end of the Davis Strait, the comparatively shallow-water area separating the Labrador Sea from the Baffin Bay, is cut by two deep submarine canyons of west Greenland, on the western and eastern side of the Fylla Banke, respectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate Late Pleistocene sedimentary processes governing the area of the two canyons in order to test if gravity flows or ocean currents are the most important factors governing canyon sedimentary processes in this region. Furthermore, an account is given on the formation of the two canyons in order to explain the significant difference between them. The study was carried out based on seismic profiles combined with bathymetric information, and a single sidescan sonar profile from one of the canyons (western canyon). Sedimentary information and an age model are derived from of a 5-m long gravity core (TTR13-AT-479G) collected from the mouth of the western canyon (southern end). The data indicates that the sedimentary regime is today highly affected by northward transport of the ocean currents and that gravity flows (southward from shallower to deep waters) are only of limited significance today. The deep southern end of the canyons are influenced by the upper parts of the deep North Atlantic Deep Water, but the majority of the sediment transport is linked to the strong northward flow of the lower parts of the West Greenland Current. For comparison the sediment transport is held up against earlier studies from the Davis Strait area, where 2D seismic profiles were carried out several places of the west coast of Greenland. These studies are from a contourite drift complex at the Davis Strait and north of Labrador Sea. A further possible process operating in maintaining active sediment transport through the canyon may be the cascading of dense winter water formed on the West Greenland shelf.

Paulsen, Dorthe; Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Nielsen, Tove

2014-05-01

115

Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers  

PubMed Central

This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog.

Angle, T. Craig; Gillette, Robert L.

2011-01-01

116

Dolomitization on an evaporitic Paleoproterozoic ramp: Widespread synsedimentary dolomite in the Denault Formation, Labrador Trough, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Denault Formation (2.1-1.9 Ga) crops out in the Labrador Trough, northeastern Québec and western Labrador. Rocks surrounding the town of Schefferville, Quebec contain textural characteristics consistent with deposition on the middle and outer portions of a storm-influenced shallow ramp. Mid-ramp facies consist of intraclastic grainstones with hummocky cross-stratification (HCS), swaley cross-stratification (SCS), current ripples, and graded event beds. Further outboard, grainstones grade into deeper-water laminites that are composed of even, mm-scale couplets of flat-lying organic and dolomudstone laminae. Scours within the laminites suggest periodic storm activity. Laminites gradually grade into outer ramp deep-water shales. An isolated eastern stromatolitic buildup is separated from these ramp facies by 50 km (present day). This succession can be interpreted as the remnant of a near-continuous margin or may simply represent an isolated accumulation that developed on a pre-existing topographic high. The presence of gypsum pseudomorphs in all lithofacies indicates that the Denault margin was restricted and evaporitic. Four paragenetic stages are recognized in the diagenetic evolution of the Denault Formation: (1) carbonate deposition, contemporaneous marine cementation, authigenic gypsum growth, and precipitation of authigenic chert; (2) synsedimentary mimetic dolomite precipitation; (3) pore-rimming and pore-occluding shallow burial dolomite cement; and (4) fabric destructive, sutured, anhedral burial dolomite. Gypsum crystals occur in all lithofacies, form the nuclei of interstitial dolomite rhombs, average 10 ?m in length, and often display swallowtail twinning. Paleoproterozoic ocean water had very low concentrations of dissolved sulfate and evaporation in restricted settings would have been required to form gypsum. Formation of microcrystalline gypsum across this restricted ramp facilitated dolomite precipitation by increasing pore water Mg/Ca ratios and lowering its dissolved sulfate concentrations. Such an interpretation may explain why there is an abundance of synsedimentary dolostone in the Precambrian and the relative paucity of Phanerozoic analogs.

Zentmyer, R. A.; Pufahl, P. K.; James, N. P.; Hiatt, E. E.

2011-06-01

117

Genetic evaluation of the nine component features of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the genetic relationship between the nine component traits comprising the British Veterinary Association (BVA) total hip score in UK registered Labrador Retrievers. Data consisted of 11,928 single records of trait scores of dogs aged between one and four years (365-1459 days) old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007. Pedigree information was provided by the UK Kennel Club. The distribution of trait scores showed only small numbers of dogs with visible malformation in the six traits that were scored according to the severity of osteoarthritis. Linear mixed models were fitted using ASREML. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.38, and litter effects from 0.04 to 0.10. Genetic correlations between all nine traits were extremely high ranging from 0.71 to 1.0, implying considerable genetic similarity. The decomposition demonstrated that aggregate scores of only the 3 traits indicative of laxity in one year old dogs was predictive of the phenotype of the remaining six scored on osteoarthritic severity in dogs at 4+ years old. The application of selection index methodology in selecting against hip dysplasia using the trait scores was explored and potential improvements in accuracy (directly related to response to selection) of over 10% are reported compared to the current total hip score. This study demonstrates that traits descriptive of joint laxity are valuable early-age predictors of osteoarthritis and shows that there is scope for improvement in the way data from the UK hip score scheme are used for selection against hip dysplasia in Labradors. This was verified via use of selection indices, which identified substantial increases in accuracy, not only via optimum coefficients, but also through an easily applicable aggregate of scores of just two or three traits only compared with the current total hip score. PMID:21042594

Lewis, Thomas W; Woolliams, John A; Blott, Sarah C

2010-01-01

118

Recruitment in the Barents Sea, Icelandic, and eastern Newfoundland/Labrador capelin (Mallotus villosus) stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a short-lived, coldwater, pelagic species that occurs in large populations in the Barents Sea, around Iceland and in the Newfoundland-Labrador area in the North Atlantic. Most individuals spawn only once at age three or four and die shortly after spawning. The commercial fisheries for capelin in the three areas are prosecuted on the pre-spawning and spawning age groups and knowledge of recruitment to the spawning stock and factors affecting recruitment are important in the management of the fisheries. Herein, we review the state of knowledge regarding recruitment in the three areas and factors that affect recruitment. Year class strength of capelin is fixed fairly early in life; at 0-group stage in the Barents Sea, by age 1 or earlier for Icelandic capelin, and within 2 weeks of hatching for the beach spawners in the Newfoundland area. No obvious single factor, common to the three stocks, has been proven to exert a significant influence on recruitment. In the Barents Sea, juvenile herring prey heavily on capelin larvae and when the estimates of the abundance of these juvenile herring were accounted for in the capelin stock-recruitment analysis, the fit in the stock-recruitment relationship improved. In Iceland, there is no reason to implicate predation as a dominant factor, although detailed studies have not been carried out. In the Newfoundland and Labrador area earlier studies suggested two factors were important for recruitment success: the frequency of onshore winds at a critical period during the residence of newly hatched larvae in the beach gravel and the presence of warm waters during the early larval phase in the pelagic environment. With further testing using more data, the temperature factor was found not to be significant but the frequency of onshore winds still explained a significant portion of the variation in year class strength. There appears to be no significant biological influence, such as predation, that has influenced recruitment in this area.

Carscadden, James E.; Gjøsæter, Harald; Vilhjálmsson, Hjálmar

2013-07-01

119

Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection  

SciTech Connect

Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

Emslie, R.F.

1985-01-01

120

Heat Island Effect  

MedlinePLUS

... to learn more. More Information on Urban Heat Islands Heat Island Basics Chapter from EPA’s Reducing Urban ... Island Video Segments What Is an Urban Heat Island? As urban areas develop, changes occur in their ...

121

Antioxidant Status of Pair-Fed Labrador Retrievers Is Affected by Diet Restriction and Aging1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total

Howard D. Stowe; Dennis F. Lawler; Richard D. Kealyy

122

The arrival of recently formed Labrador Sea Water in the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5°N  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) of the North Atlantic is a principal conduit between the formation region for Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and the oceanic interior to the south. Time series (1985-1997) of hydrographic properties obtained in the DWBC at 26.5°N show that prior to 1994, temperature, salinity, and transient tracer properties within the LSW density range showed little

Robert L. Molinari; Rana A. Fine; W. Douglas Wilson; Ruth G. Curry; Jeff Abell; Michael S. McCartney

1998-01-01

123

The arrival of recently formed Labrador sea water in the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5°N  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) of the North Atlantic is a principal conduit between the formation region for Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and the oceanic interior to the south. Time series (1985–1997) of hydrographic properties obtained in the DWBC at 26.5°N show that prior to 1994, temperature, salinity, and transient tracer properties within the LSW density range showed little

Robert L. Molinari; Rana A. Fine; W. Douglas Wilson; Ruth G. Curry; Jeff Abell; Michael S. McCartney

1998-01-01

124

A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF "COLDS" ON AN ISOLATED TROPICAL ISLAND (ST. JOHN, UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS, WEST INDIES  

PubMed Central

Studies in the Virgin Islands, Labrador, and Alabama, suggest that colds are incited by some specific agent with which we are not yet familiar. They suggest also that the secondary and more severe symptoms associated with colds may be due to certain aerobic flora commonly found in the nasopharynx. Types of pneumococci which are virulent (to white mice) and true Pfeiffer's bacilli requiring both V and X substance (and forming indol?) seem to be of particular importance in these secondary infections. The studies indicate that the specific agent which initiates colds is infectious in nature, and spread by direct contact, with an incubation period of 1 to 3 days. There is strong evidence that environmental factors, particularly reduction in atmospheric temperature, have some influence upon the incidence of colds.

Milam, Daniel F.; Smillie, Wilson G.

1931-01-01

125

Thermal Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

126

Streamlined Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2003-01-01

127

A 1600-Year History of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments in Emerald Basin, on the continental shelf off Halifax, N.S., accumulate at a rate of about 30 cm/thousand years. This rate is great enough to record century to millennial scale changes in the surface and deep (~230m) waters in the basin. In 1998 we cored Emerald Basin, and other locations in the nearby slope water system, in order to develop an ocean-climate history of the region using paleoceanographic techniques. The core top has a modern 14C age, and other 14C dates indicate approximately linear sedimentation rates to 1600 calendar years B.P. Today the continental shelf off Nova Scotia is bathed by a mixture of coastal and slope waters. This mixture varies on interannual to interdecadal timescales. For example, the work of Petrie and Drinkwater and others of the Bedford Institute clearly shows that during the very strong minimum phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 1960s, the Labrador Current was colder and fresher than today and intruded into Emerald Basin. Sea surface temperatures (SST) decreased by 1-2 degrees on an annual average basis, and bottom water temperatures dropped by about 4 degrees. We applied 5 proxies for seawater temperature changes to the sediments of Emerald Basin. Surface water temperature changes are reflected in the percent abundance of the polar planktonic foraminifer N. pachyderma (s.), in the oxygen isotope ratio (d18-O) of the shells of this species, and in the unsaturation ratio of alkenones produced by phytoplankton. Bottom water temperature changes are recorded by the d18-O of benthic forams, and by the Mg/Ca in their shells. All five of these proxies indicate the ocean warmed suddenly sometime in the past 150 years or so. The exact date is uncertain because 14C dating is inaccurate in recent centuries, but we believe this abrupt warming probably correlates with the ice melt layer evidence for warming in the ice caps of the Canadian Archipelago. This region is known to be one of the main source regions for the Labrador Current. Before this recent warming, SST was continually lower by 1-2 degrees, and bottom water was colder by about 6 degrees. These results suggest that there was no Medieval Warm Period off Nova Scotia. Because there is no evidence of Medieval warming in the Canadian archipelago, it seems likely that coastal waters from Baffin Bay to at least as far south as Nova Scotia were continually cold for ~1500 of the past 1600 years. The present hydrography on the Scotian Shelf may be strongly influenced by anthropogenic effects.

Keigwin, L. D.; Sachs, J.; Rosenthal, Y.

2001-12-01

128

Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer isotope data from the same minerals indicate that the syenite and ore have initial Nd within a single ?Nd unit. This combined with their field relationship to the foliation and the microtextures observed in thin section suggests that the REE minerals experienced syndeformational growth from a hydrothermal fluid, acting on both host and ore, where REEs in aqueous hard ligand complexes became saturated in silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate minerals through the changing T, P and chemical conditions brought on by deformation.

Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

2012-12-01

129

Prevalence of childhood eczema and food sensitization in the First Nations reserve of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background The Mushua Innu of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada seem to have a high rate of childhood eczema. Anecdotally this problem seems to be more common now than 20 years ago. There has been speculation that this could be related to food sensitization that may have arisen coincident with a move away from a traditional Innu diet. We undertook to assess the prevalence and severity of pediatric eczema in Natuashish (population 792), and investigate the level of sensitization to common food antigens. Methods Over a three-month period we performed a population survey of all children in the community from the ages of 2–12 inclusive. The one-year prevalence of eczema was assessed using the United Kingdom Working Party’s diagnostic criteria, and graded on the Nottingham Severity Scale. All children with eczema and twice as many age/sex matched controls were offered complete blood counts, total IgE, and food specific IgE levels for egg white, cow’s milk protein and wheat. Results One hundred and eighty two (95% of the eligible children) were assessed. Of the 182 children examined eczema was diagnosed in 30 (16.5%) - 22 females and 8 males. The majority of children with eczema (20/30) were classified as being in the moderate and severe category. Of the 22 with eczema and 40 controls who consented to venipuncture all but 3 had IgE levels above the lab's reference range. Food specific antibody assays showed that 32, 23, and 5 percent of children with eczema were sensitized to egg, milk, and wheat respectively. None of the controls were sensitized. Conclusions The children of Natuashish, Labrador have a high rate of eczema, much of it graded as moderate or severe. IgE levels were markedly elevated in children with and without eczema, with average values at least ten-fold higher than other populations. There is no evidence of an unusual amount of sensitization to egg, milk or wheat.

2014-01-01

130

Antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of staphylococci isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background Coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci are normal commensals of the skin and mucosa, but are also opportunist pathogens. Meticillin-resistant (MR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Healthy humans and other animals harbour a variety of staphylococci, including MR-CoPS and MR-CoNS. The main aims of the study were to characterise the population and antimicrobial resistance profiles of staphylococci from healthy non-vet visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers in the UK. Results Nasal and perineal samples were collected from 73 Labrador retrievers; staphylococci isolated and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods. They were also confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), PCR of the nuc gene and PCR and sequencing of the tuf gene. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials. In total, 102 CoPS (S. pseudintermedius n?=?91, S. aureus n?=?11) and 334 CoNS isolates were detected from 99% of dogs in this study. In 52% of dogs CoNS only were detected, with both CoNS and CoPS detected in 43% dogs and CoPS only detected in 4% of dogs. Antimicrobial resistance was not common among CoPS, but at least one MDR-CoNS isolate was detected in 34% of dogs. MR-CoNS were detected from 42% of dogs but no MR-CoPS were isolated. S. epidermidis (52% of dogs) was the most common CoNS found followed by S. warneri (30%) and S. equorum (27%), with another 15 CoNS species isolated from ? 15% of dogs. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were detected in 44% and 8% of dogs respectively. Conclusions MR- and MDR-CoPS were rare. However a high prevalence of MR- and MDR-CoNS were found in these dogs, even though they had no prior antimicrobial treatment or admission to veterinary premises. These findings are of concern due to the potential for opportunistic infections, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from these bacteria to coagulase positive staphylococci.

2014-01-01

131

Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-01-01

132

Assessing the impact of genomic selection against hip dysplasia in the Labrador Retriever dog.  

PubMed

Many purebred dogs exhibit a higher prevalence of inherited diseases compared with non-purebred dogs. One of the most popular breeds in the UK is the Labrador Retriever, which has a high prevalence of hip dysplasia resulting in high costs for surgical operations and impaired animal welfare. Considering the many complications of highly managed populations, mainly due to breeder's conventions and the resulting population structure, is of great importance for the proper development of a strategy against the disease. In this study, we have compared the utilities and performances of both genomic and phenotypic selection against hip dysplasia in a simulated population with the characteristics of the British Veterinary Association and Kennel Club (BV /KC) hip dysplasia scheme. The results confirm the potential benefits of genomic selection by showing a moderate increase of 1.15-fold (assuming a realistic accuracy of r(2) = 0.5) in response to selection due to the higher accuracy (between 0.96- and 1.32-fold, considering 0.35 ? r(2) ? 0.7) and more than a threefold increase when all the offspring in each litter are tested (between 3.25- and 4.55-fold, again considering 0.35 ? r(2) ? 0.7). PMID:24134497

Sánchez-Molano, E; Woolliams, J A; Blott, S C; Wiener, P

2014-04-01

133

Magma evolution in the Nain Complex, Labrador, and implications for the origin of anorthosite  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of over 50 chilled margins of plutons and contemporaneous dikes in the anorthositic Nain Complex reveal a well-defined trend of liquid evolution along a plagioclase-olivine cotectic. Fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase has resulted in extreme enrichment of TiO/sub 2/ and FeO/sub T/ and depletion of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the more evolved compositions. The contemporaneous Harp Dikes and Seal Lake Volcanics of southern Labrador also fall along this trend. Although rare, other dikes in the Nain complex are very olivine-rich and the olivine is quench-textured. Modeling of major and trace elements indicates that the leucotroctolitic liquids can be derived from the melatroctolites by olivine removal, and that the more evolved cotectic liquids can be derived from the leucotroctolitic liquids by removal of o1 + plag in a 25:75 ratio. If the equilibrium saturation surface of plagioclase is ignored, continued olivine removal from the leucotroctolites is capable of producing compositions very similar to compositions of hypothesized anorthositic magmas. In the Nain Complex, field evidence for supersaturation of plagioclase is abundant. Since all of the compositions discussed above are low in normative diopside, it may be that such liquids are less capable of nucleating plagioclase than liquid with more normal diopside contents, thus permitting the supersaturation.

Berg, J.H.

1985-01-01

134

To Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of islands. They will learn where islands are located throughout the world and will study two very different island groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of islands of the world. Students will explore island flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.

135

A Study of Education, Out-Migration of Young Adults, and the Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the Economies of Rural Communities in Newfoundland and Labrador [Avalon West School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project is a study of education, out-migration of young adults, and the impact of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) on the education and economies of rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador. A qualitative study of Newfoundland and Labrador's rural schools were conducted from January to August 2001. This report…

Brown, Jean; Handrigan, Rachel; Stone, Gordon; Downey, Sherman

2002-01-01

136

Phytoplankton production and growth regulation in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparative study of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland shelves and Barents/Norwegian/Greenland seas and shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of phytoplankton (distribution, phenology, physiology, productivity and community composition) and environment properties that influence their growth (light and nutrients) comparing the western Subarctic Atlantic (Labrador Sea, Labrador/Newfoundland shelves) with the eastern Subarctic (Barents, Norwegian and Greenland Seas and shelves) and drawing on ship-based observations, satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) and output from a 3D coupled ecosystem-ocean circulation model, covering the last 15-25 yrs. Similarities between regions were seen in geographic variability (e.g. latitudinal gradients), seasonal cycles and magnitude of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and community composition. Regional differences were related to geographic location, presence/absence of ice, seasonal mixing, source waters (Arctic versus Atlantic) and nutrient supply, and response to atmospheric forcing. With regard to the latter, most of the observations considered in this study cover the recent period of rapid warming and the historical out-of-phase response (e.g. ice conditions, air and ocean temperatures, hydrography) of the western and eastern Subarctic Atlantic to atmospheric forcing is no longer apparent. Observations and modelling looking back over the last two decades suggest that the timing of the spring bloom and peak seasonal productivity are occurring progressively earlier in the year, particularly at high latitudes in both the western and eastern Subarctic. Climate change (ocean warming) is projected to increase overall phytoplankton productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic and will be manifest particularly in ice-influenced regions Labrador/Newfoundland Shelves, Barents/Greenland Seas and shelves and regions where Arctic outflow and Atlantic inflow influence phytoplankton dynamics. Northward movement of Atlantic waters as a result of climate change, manifest earliest in the eastern Subarctic (Norwegian/Barents Seas) will displace cold-water phytoplankton species with warm-water species and shift community transitions zones farther north in the coming decades.

Glen Harrison, W.; Yngve Børsheim, K.; Li, William K. W.; Maillet, Gary L.; Pepin, Pierre; Sakshaug, Egil; Skogen, Morten D.; Yeats, Philip A.

2013-07-01

137

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

âÂÂThe RockâÂÂ, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay AreaâÂÂs most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâÂÂs best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of AmericaâÂÂs most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from AlcatrazâÂÂs past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous âÂÂBattle of Alcatrazâ and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

138

The Eocene/Oligocene benthic foraminiferal turnover at ODP Site 647, southern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biostratigraphical record of ODP Hole 647A in the southern Labrador Sea is exceptional in the northern Atlantic, because it provides the only direct calibration of the benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy to the standard chronostratigraphy by means of a well-constrained age model. Moreover, it is the only site in the western North Atlantic that recovered a reasonably complete Eocene/Oligocene boundary interval, whereas at other sites the boundary is present as a hiatus. Palaeobathymetrically, it was the deepest site in the northwestern Atlantic and was in the pathway of bottom water flowing through the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, thereby giving unique insight into the nature of the abyssal biofacies and changes in bottom water properties over the boundary interval. Our high-resolution study of the faunal record at Site 647 confirms earlier findings (e.g. Van Couvering et al. 1981, Kaminski et al., 1989) that the E/O transition was an interval of significant faunal change among benthic foraminifera. The E/O transition in Hole 647A is characterised by a major extinction event among deep-water agglutinated foraminiferal species (DWAF), especially among taxa that use organic cement to constrict their tests. In total, 90 DWAF species and generic groupings are observed in our record. Species diversity falls from ca. 25 DWAF species/sample in the uppermost Eocene to 3 - 5 species across the E/O boundary interval. The uppermost Eocene is characterised by an acme in large suspension-feeding tubular forms such as Psammatodendron and Bathysiphon, suggesting increased bottom water activity and improved ventilation. The boundary interval in Core 647A-30R is nearly devoid of DWAF, with only the calcareous-cemented DWAF surviving. This interval also displays the first appearance of the calcareous benthic species Turrilina alsatica and a major acme of Nuttallides umbonifer (up to 70% of the assemblage) suggesting the sudden appearance of a southern hemisphere water mass. This species is linked to Antarctic Bottom Water in the modern ocean and at the E/O boundary. Several organically-cemented DWAF species reappear as Lazarus taxa in the lowermost Oligocene, but diversity never recovered to Eocene values. The decline in DWAF and in the proportions miliolids suggest improved ventilation of the bottom water in the Labrador Sea across the E/O boundary interval. Infaunal taxa (such as nodosariids, pleurostomellids, and stilomellids) show an increase in relative abundance across the interval, reflecting increased levels of productivity in agreement with earlier studies of organic carbon and biogenic silica content (Bohrmann & Stein, 1989). This high-resolution faunal record enables a better understanding of the palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic change at the E-O transition in the northern North Atlantic.

Kaminski, Michael A.; Ortiz, Silvia; Bown, Paul

2010-05-01

139

Nutritional management of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.  

PubMed

Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which d-penicillamine is the most commonly used. d-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous d-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis. Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1months (range, 5.9-39months) after being effectively treated with d-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.3±0.3mgcopper/1000kcal and 64.3±5.9mgzinc/1000kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined. Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with d-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. PMID:24439471

Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent C; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

2014-03-01

140

Export of Labrador Sea Water from the subpolar North Atlantic: A Lagrangian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from 59 acoustically tracked RAFOS floats obtained during 2003-2008 are analyzed here to study the spreading pathways of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) from the subpolar to subtropical North Atlantic. An earlier paper based on a subset of these float data presented evidence of a potentially important interior pathway for the southward spreading of LSW. Here those results are reinforced with the full data set and new information on LSW pathways around the Grand Banks is presented. About 70% of the RAFOS floats were expelled into the ocean interior east of the Grand Banks and meandered slowly eastward toward the mid-Atlantic ridge, a pathway observed previously with profiling floats. Less than 10% was advected continuously around the Grand Banks by the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). A larger fraction (˜17%) drifted into the subtropical interior from the Tail of the Grand Banks, suggesting that this pathway is at least if not more important than the DWBC pathway for the export of LSW to the subtropics. RAFOS floats released closest to the continental slope at 700 m depth were more likely to rapidly reach subtropical latitudes, mainly because they drifted through Flemish Pass, a 1100 m deep channel between the Grand Banks and the Flemish Cap, which protects fluid parcels from being swept off the continental slope by meanders of the North Atlantic Current. A statistical comparison of the RAFOS trajectories with more than 5000 simulated floats obtained from the Family of Linked Atlantic Models Experiment (FLAME) high-resolution ocean general circulation model reveals a similar pattern of LSW spreading. The RAFOS and simulated floats are also used to show that contrary to a previous modeling study, the isobaric RAFOS floats do not underestimate the amount of LSW that continuously follows the DWBC around the Grand Banks compared to isopycnal floats. These results have implications for the connectivity of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation between the subpolar and the subtropical North Atlantic.

Bower, Amy; Lozier, Susan; Gary, Stefan

2011-09-01

141

Evaluation of Physician Return-for-Service Agreements in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite the widespread use of physician return-for-service (RFS) programs in Canada, few have been evaluated. We examined two types of RFS agreements (Family Medicine Bursary and Special Funded Residency Position) and (a) describe the proportion of RFS physicians who complete their service obligation and identify the predictors of completion and (b) compare the retention of RFS physicians to that of non-RFS physicians. Methods: Using administrative data on physicians with RFS agreements in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Memorial University's Postgraduate Medical Education Office and the Physician and Medical Practice Database, we calculated the proportion of RFS physicians (1997–2009) who fulfilled their service obligation and also identified predictors of completion. We then followed to 2010 a cohort of physicians who started practice in NL between 2000 and 2005 to compare the retention of RFS and non-RFS physicians. Results: Ninety-six (71.6%) of 134 RFS physicians fulfilled the service obligation in full. Physicians who held Special Funding Residency Position RFS agreements were 11.1 times less likely (95% CI: 4.0–33.3) to complete their service commitment than physicians who held Family Medicine Bursary RFS agreements. In the cohort of 60 RFS and 67 non-RFS physicians, 16.9% of RFS versus 41.8% of non-RFS physicians left NL by 2010 (p=0.004). RFS physicians were 3.22 times less likely (95% CI: 1.41–7.14) than non-RFS physicians to leave the province. Four years after starting practice, roughly 90% of RFS versus 60% of non-RFS physicians remained in NL; after 10 years, 70% of RFS versus 60% of non-RFS physicians remained (p=0.006). Conclusion: The RFS program improves the retention of physicians in NL. Using RFS tied to bursaries rather than residency positions may increase service completion and retention rates.

Mathews, Maria; Heath, Sara Lynn; Neufeld, Shelley May; Samarasena, Asoka

2013-01-01

142

Lipid [corrected] classes, fatty acids, and sterols in seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern labrador.  

PubMed

Seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern Labrador, was sampled for lipid classes, fatty acid, and sterol composition. Gilbert Bay is a proposed Marine Protected Area, and the composition of seafood from this region is interesting from both human health and ecological perspectives. Analyses included four species of bivalves and flesh and liver samples from four fish species. Lipids from a locally isolated population of northern cod (Gadus morhua) were also compared to lipids from other cod populations. Lipid classes were analyzed by Chromarod/Iatroscan TLC-FID, fatty acids by GC, and sterols by GC-MS. Three cod populations had similar levels of total lipid per wet weight (0.6%) with triacylglycerols (TAG), sterols, and phospholipids comprising on average 13, 11, and 51%, respectively, of their total lipids. Fatty fish such as capelin and herring contained on average 8.4% lipid with 86% present as TAG. Fish livers from cod and herring showed opposite trends, with cod having elevated lipid (27%) and TAG (63%) and herring containing only 3.8% lipid and 20% TAG. Shellfish averaged 0.6% lipid; however, significant lipid class differences existed among species. Fatty acid analysis showed few significant differences in cod populations with on average 57% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and 24% saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cod livers had lower PUFA (34%) and elevated MUFA (44%) relative to flesh. Bivalves averaged 25% SFA, 18% MUFA, and 57% PUFA, whereas scallop adductor muscle had the highest PUFA levels (63%). Bivalves contained 20 different sterols with cholesterol present as the major sterol (19-39%). trans-22-Dehydrocholesterol, brassicasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, and campesterol individually accounted for >10% in at least one species. High levels of PUFA and non-cholesterol sterols observed in Gilbert Bay seafood demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition. PMID:15264928

Copeman, Louise A; Parrish, Christopher C

2004-07-28

143

Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

2009-01-01

144

"STARS" at Black Island Comms.  

NSF Publications Database

... with Black Island chosen over Arrival Heights, Cape Royds, White Island, Daily Island, Marble Point ... Island. The Black Island site provides an unobstructed horizon of the Pacific Ocean Region (POR ...

145

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

146

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

147

Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities. Volume 4. Offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador  

SciTech Connect

This document is Volume 4 of a series of reports entitled ''Geological Evolution and Analysis of Confirmed or Suspected Gas Hydrate Localities.'' Volume 4 is an analysis of the ''Formation and Stability of Gas Hydrates Offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador.'' This report presents a geological description of the offshore regions of Newfoundland and Labrador, including regional and local structural settings, geomorphology, geological history, stratigraphy, and physical properties. It provides the necessary regional and geological background for more in-depth research of the area. Detailed discussion of bottom simulating acoustic reflectors, sediment acoustic properties, and distribution of hydrates within the sediments. The formation and stabilization of gas hydrates in sediments are considered in terms of phase relations, nucleation, and crystallization constraints, gas solubility, pore fluid chemistry, inorganic diagenesis, and sediment organic content. Together with a depositional analysis of the area, this report is a better understanding of the thermal evolution of the locality. It should lead to an assessment of the potential for thermogenic hydrocarbon generation. 183 refs., 64 figs., 1 tab.

Krason, J.; Rudloff, B.

1985-09-01

148

Fylla Bank: structure and evolution of a normal-to-shear rifted margin in the northern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cenozoic seafloor spreading between Greenland and North America is generally considered a major right-stepping ridge-transform-ridge system between NW-SE trending spreading ridge segments in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The ridges were linked by N-S/NNE-SSW trending transform motions in the Davis Strait, in particular expressed by the ˜1000-km-long Ungava Fault Zone. Fylla Bank, part of the southern West Greenland continental margin, is located in the northernmost Labrador Sea at the transition between the normal and shear rifting regimes of the Labrador Sea and Davis Strait. As such, the Bank may be compared with the Demerara Plateau, part of the French Guinea-Northeast Brazil continental margin. Seismic reflection interpretations presented in this study show that Fylla Bank is situated above an extensive basin complex, herein referred to as Fylla Structural Complex, which contains an up to 5-km-thick Cretaceous-Cenozoic sedimentary succession above an inferred pre-Cretaceous basement. Seismic mapping of basement structures show that the complex is dominated by NNW-/NW-striking rift basins in its southern part and NNE-striking rift basins in its northern part. The rift basins are interpreted to be the result of an initial late-Early Cretaceous rift phase, which mainly resulted in the formation of the NNW-/NW-striking structures, and a subsequent early Campanian rift phase, mainly resulting in the formation of large NNE-striking rotated fault blocks. Resumed rifting in the early Cenozoic deepened the NNE-striking rift basins. The NNE-oriented structures have previously been interpreted to initiate during the latest Cretaceous. However, this study suggests that they initiated transfer faults already during the late-Early Cretaceous rift phase and possibly correlate with along-strike discontinuities in oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea to define margin segmentation in southern West Greenland, including the borders of Fylla Bank. A structural-kinematic model presented here thus suggests that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic poly-phase rifting to some extent was controlled by pre-existing crustal fabric. Combined with an interpreted interplay between normal stresses in the Labrador Sea and oblique-shear stresses in the Davis Strait, this resulted in a very complex structural-tectonic evolution and the formation of several distinct structural styles. The seismic interpretations are supported by maps of the Moho topography and crustal thickness which were compiled from results of pseudo-3-D gravity modelling. The maps show minimum crustal thicknesses (11 km) and maximum Moho uplifts in areas where the NNW-/NW- and NNE-striking structures interact. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between Moho topography, crustal attenuation, rift-enforced thermal uplift and erosion, and post-rift subsidence in the area. This is interpreted to be a result of thermally controlled basin dynamics.

Døssing, Arne

2011-11-01

149

Genetic analysis of results of a Swedish behavior test on German Shepherd Dogs and Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and the influence of systematic effects on behavior test results in dogs. Behavior test results on 1,813 Labrador Retrievers (LR) and 2,757 German Shepherd Dogs (GSD) were analyzed. The behavior test included observations on courage, defense drive, prey drive, nerve stability, temperament, cooperation, affability, and gun shyness. Sex and age influenced most of the traits, and seasons of birth and testing and litter size and composition influenced some of the traits. Apart from defense drive in GSD, and courage, nerve stability, hardness, and affability in LR, all traits were heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 0.14 for hardness to 0.38 for affability in GSD, and from 0.03 for affability to 0.56 for gun shyness in LR. Genetic correlations ranged from 1.00 (LR) and 0.95 (GSD) between courage and hardness to -0.01 (LR) and -0.03 (GSD) between gun shyness and defense drive. Most genetic correlations were positive. Correlations with cooperation were mainly negative, especially in GSD. Genetic correlations between courage and defense drive in LR (0.26) and GSD (0.80), between courage and prey drive in LR (0.27) and GSD (0.65), between affability and nerve stability in LR (0.09) and GSD (0.64), between affability and temperament in LR (-0.24) and GSD (0.39), and between cooperation and hardness in LR (0.28) and GSD (-0.67) were significantly different between the breeds. Genetic parameters for defense drive and cooperation in GSD and hardness and gun shyness in LR were genetically different between the sexes. Results of this study indicate that correction for systematic effects is essential when making selection decisions. Estimating breeding values would be a good solution, incorporating both correction for systematic effects and using all genetic links. Genetic parameters need to be estimated for each breed separately. PMID:18502884

van der Waaij, E H; Wilsson, E; Strandberg, E

2008-11-01

150

Joint laxity and its association with hip dysplasia in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

A study was done to determine whether radiographic-distraction measurement of coxofemoral joint (hip) laxity at 4 and 8 months of age can serve as a predictor of hip dysplasia in older Labrador Retrievers. The method of Smith, Biery, and Gregor was used for radiologic examination of hips and for evaluation of radiographs. Mean (+/- SEM) distraction laxity (ie, distraction index) for 10 adult disease-free dogs was 0.29 +/- 0.05, whereas a group of 8 dogs with dysplastic hips had mean distraction index of 0.60 +/- 0.10 (P < 0.05). Mean distraction index at 4 months of age for 11 pups of 4 litters from matings between dogs with normal hips was 0.39 +/- 0.07, and was 0.54 +/- 0.04 for 31 pups of 7 litters from matings between dogs with hip dysplasia. The distraction index and, thus, joint laxity at that age was significantly (P = 0.0351) different for the 2 groups. The distraction index at 4 months correlated positively with the distraction index at a later age at necropsy (r = 0.43; P = 0.0289). Distraction index < 0.4 at 4 months of age predicted normal hips in 88% of cases and distraction index > or = 0.4 predicted hip dysplasia in 57% of the dogs. Logistic regression modeling indicated that the odds of a hip being normal decreased with increasing distraction index, and thus, with increasing joint laxity. The logistic regression models provided a reasonable mathematical description of the data. Based on the logistic model of the data, distraction indexes between 0.4 and 0.7 at either 4 or 8 months of age were not associated strongly enough with evidence of disease to be clinically reliable in predicting, on an individual basis, the outcome for dysplastic hip conformation when dogs were older. Index > 0.7 was associated with high probability for developing dysplastic joints and distraction index < 0.4 predicted normal hips with high probability. PMID:8116927

Lust, G; Williams, A J; Burton-Wurster, N; Pijanowski, G J; Beck, K A; Rubin, G; Smith, G K

1993-12-01

151

Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by direct assimilation of early Archean crustal rocks and/or by fluids that have interacted with such crust. Adjacent anorthositic rocks also show variable ??{lunate}Nd some as low as -14.7, implying larger degrees if crustal assimilation, perhaps by parental magmas during lower crustal ponding prior to emplacement. These contamination effects preclude straightforward determination of the isotopic character of mantle sources for both BLI and the anorthositic rocks. ?? 1992.

Ashwal, L. D.; Wiebe, R. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Snyder, D.

1992-01-01

152

Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of a Falling Stage Sandy Fjord Delta, Goose River, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment size and degree of cohesion are thought to exert a strong control on the morphodynamic processes, planform shape and clinoform stratigraphy of deltas. To test model predictions concerning these two parameters, we present a morphometric and stratigraphic analysis of a sandy delta formed where the Goose River flows into Goose Bay at the western end of Lake Melville, Labrador. Goose River delta sediments consist of arkosic, heavy-mineral-rich sand (D50 = 225 to 600 microns) with very little silt and clay, placing this delta at the coarser-grained, non-cohesive end of the spectrum. The delta started to form approx. 7000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated and post-glacial rebound created a relative base level fall of approximately 4 mm/yr. The current tidal range in Goose Bay averages 0.5 m, and the average wave height is negligible. Results from our 2012 field season show that the delta planform consists of two moribund lobes at elevations of ~ 5 m and ~ 2 m and a presently active delta at sea level. Aerial photography from 1951 to 2012 show there has been surprisingly little progradation despite active channel change at the six-month timescale and an assumed base level fall of 244 mm during that period. A topographic section along a dipline consists of three treads and two clinoform risers. The bottomset tread is a virtually featureless fjord bottom at ~35 m from which a first clinoform rises to a second tread at ~-15 m. The second tread is a sandy platform onto which an upper clinoform downlaps. This upper sandy clinoform ranges in dip from 9 to 17 dg. and passes into the topset at an elevation of ~ -1 m. The topset consists of braid-like trapezoidal unit bars that in GPR show little evidence of wave, alongshore current, or ice reworking, even though they are submerged at higher high tides. The planform, bar geometries and facies, and clinoform dips and dip-directions are remarkably consistent with model predictions from Delft3d.

Slingerland, R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Royce, J.; Burpee, A.; Cederberg, J.; Caldwell, R.; Nijhuis, A.; McGuffin, A.

2012-12-01

153

Response to Natural Hazards: Multi-Level Governance Challenges in Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newfoundland and Labrador's perspective on emergency measures in response to natural hazards is shaped by several factors. Climate, meteorology, and terrain are the dominant factors both in the occurrence of events and the responses to them. The economy, dominated by resource-based activities, is a significant influence in accentuating exposure to natural hazards. In this situation, the role of earth scientists is critical. However, effective input from geographers, geomorphologists, and climatologists requires an understanding of the governance regime. For emergency services, both formal public policy responses, informal mechanisms, and the interfacing that exists between public policy mechanisms and social forces are significant. In an era where more and more problems are considered as "interdependent", and require different governmental, social, and professional expertise forces to come together to address objectives, there is interest in exploring and analyzing patterns of communication, interactions and policy learning across inherited silos. A major political-policy struggle is the challenge of managing rural-urban differences in capacity and perspective. Another challenge involves finding ways for professions to merge their protocols and cultures. Embracing best practices associated with natural hazards and emergency preparedness is influenced by the power and independence of various groups involved. Critical events provide windows of opportunity for urging new approaches, but whether these become institutionalized or not normally depends on the interplay of ideas, interests, individuals, and institutions. In coping with natural hazards, renewing governance required finding new incentives to integrate across jurisdictions and disciplinary and governmental-society boundaries. Perception and response to natural hazards is very much connected with the historical-policy context. The pace of effective response indicates the impact of culture, capacity, institutions, and interests in the struggle to shift priorities, especially if these are being imposed externally. Emergency planning involves contestation, shifting priorities, building knowledge capacity, and merging policy and jurisdictional networks based on best practices. It requires renewing governance, coordinating planning, data collection, building infrastructure and establishing a common vision where different interests can work together to promote common values and objectives. However, emergency planning is difficult to change and reform based on a common vision and approach, because the inherited formal and informal structures tend to be very complex multi-disciplinary systems. Not only does this pose difficulties in renewing governance, establishing clear lines of authority, and responsibility across jurisdictions, it is very difficult for previously unrecognized groups to participate. Natural hazard researchers, unfortunately, frequently fit into this latter category.

Catto, N.; Tomblin, S.

2009-04-01

154

Freshwater Export from the Arctic Ocean and its Downstream Effect on Labrador Sea Deep Convection in a High-Resolution Numerical Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Labrador Sea is one of the only known locations of deep open ocean convection, a process determined to play a significant role in regulating global thermohaline circulation and climate. The main hypothesis of this study is that low salinity water from...

T. P. McGeehan

2010-01-01

155

Interannual variability in Labrador Sea ventilation inferred from a 19 year time-series of CFC measurements along WOCE line AR7W  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is an important deep water formation site where a large fraction of the ocean's deep waters have their last contact with the atmosphere. Quantifying the inter-annual variability of the ventilation of the Labrador Sea should therefore be useful for understanding deep ocean changes. We use yearly hydrographic measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 conducted along WOCE repeat section AR7W since 1991 together with a maximum entropy deconvolution method to infer the Labrador Sea's climatological transit-time distribution (TTD) and its inter-annual variability. We also present methodological improvements to the maximum entropy method that allows us to better quantify uncertainties in our inferred water ages so as to better separate real changes from noise associated with the under-determined nature of the deconvolution problem. The water age at depth 3000 m is 146 years. The result suggests that it takes 146 years to form North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Labrador Sea on average.

Hsieh, P.; Primeau, F. W.; Azetsu-Scott, K.

2012-12-01

156

Geochemistry of ˜1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (˜1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywacke-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO 2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al 20 3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and ?Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% vs FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO 2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO 2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO 2 contents of source rocks by ˜5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO 2 contents ˜45 wt% and the other ˜65 wt%, and was the source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance 11 that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO 2 contents ˜65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher Pco 2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe2+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe 2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the ?Fe/ Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt%o organic C, but are extremely depleted in ?Fe (< 1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (˜1 ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (˜0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the ˜1.9 Ga atmosphere-ocean system was anoxic. Depletion of these elements from the Ramah Group sediments may have occurred during diagenesis.

Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Holland, Heinrich D.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

1997-10-01

157

Wind energy, Humble Island  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Wind energy, Humble Island Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : January 24, 1992 ... Memorandum (Facility for Wind Generation of Energy at Humble Island, Near Palmer Station, Antarctica ...

158

Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

1980-01-01

159

Galapagos Islands Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-03-13

160

Pine Island Bay  

... Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View Larger Image ... x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime between November 4 and ...

2013-04-16

161

Bouvet Island near Antarctica  

... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-16

162

Pine Island Glacier  

article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View Larger Image ... (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left ...

2013-04-16

163

Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposurexlevel of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact.

Howse, Dana [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., Canada A1B 3V6 (Canada); Gautrin, Denyse [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Neis, Barbara [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., A1B 3V6 (Canada)]. E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Horth-Susin, Lise [Valley Regional Hospital, Kentville, NS, B4N 5E3 (Canada); Jong, Michael [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University and Health Labrador Corporation, Happy Valley, NL, AOP 1EO (Canada); Swanson, Mark C. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

2006-06-15

164

Geochronology and Thermochronology of the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and precise dating of terrestrial impact structures is one of our most powerful tools for constraining the bombardment history of the inner Solar System, but reliable data are available for only about 10% of the known structures on Earth. Most of the reliable dates were obtained by applying the U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic techniques to glasses and minerals crystallized from impact melts. Unfortunately, impact melt-bearing impactites are easily eroded and have not been found in many impact structures. Recent research has shown, however, that impact events also have the capacity to reset some target rock isotopic systems that are typically used on Earth for low-temperature thermochronometry (e.g., (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite). For impact structures sufficiently large to have produced impact melt sheets, the combination of geochronology of neoblastic minerals from the impact sheet as well as thermochronology of appropriate minerals from the target rocks can provide valuable insights regarding not just the age of impact but the thermal evolution of the structure during and after impact. We are conducting such research at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in northern Labrador, Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The 28 km-diameter Mistastin structure is regarded as an excellent analogue for lunar impact structures in that the target rocks are Mesoproterozoic anorthosites, mangerites, and granodiorites. Previous attempts to date the Mistastin impact event using by U-Pb geochronology of zircons found within its thick impact melt sheet yielded only pre-impact target rock ages (Marion and Sylvester, 2010, Planetary and Space Science 58), implying that impact temperatures did not reach high enough temperatures for long enough to reset the U-Pb chronometer. Mak et al. (1976, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 31) reported several whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dates for crystalline impact melt rock that imply an impact age of ca. 36 Ma. We are exploring the use of two different mineral-isotopic techniques for dating the Mistastin impact event: conventional zircon (U-Th)/He and laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar on impact melts. Thus far, we have (U-Th)/He zircon data for both target rocks and impact melt rocks that indicate an impact age of 35.8 × 1.0 Ma at the 95% confidence level but also show that the degree of resetting of the (U-Th)/He zircon chronometer was highly variable within the impact site. In addition to these data, the presentation will include new laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar data for impact melt rocks collected throughout the crater that should reveal the extent of Ar isotopic homogeneity in sampled materials.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.; Mercer, C. M.; Osinski, G. R.; Marion, C.

2013-12-01

165

Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposure x level of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact. PMID:16109398

Howse, Dana; Gautrin, Denyse; Neis, Barbara; Cartier, André; Horth-Susin, Lise; Jong, Michael; Swanson, Mark C

2006-06-01

166

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

167

Island Fox Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)

2010-05-03

168

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

169

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

170

Assessment of articular cartilage and subchondral bone using EPIC-microCT in Labrador retrievers with incipient medial coronoid disease.  

PubMed

The aetiopathogenesis of medial coronoid disease (MCD) remains obscure, despite its high prevalence. The role of changes to subchondral bone or articular cartilage is much debated. Although there is evidence of micro-damage to subchondral bone, it is not known whether this is a cause or a consequence of MCD, nor is it known whether articular cartilage is modified in the early stages of the disease. The aim of the present study was to use equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent with micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate changes to both the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone of the medial coronoid processes (MCP) of growing Labrador retrievers at an early stage of the disease and at different bodyweights. Of 14 purpose-bred Labrador retrievers (15-27 weeks), six were diagnosed with bilateral MCD and one was diagnosed with unilateral MCD on the basis of microCT studies. The mean X-ray attenuation of articular cartilage was significantly higher in dogs with MCD than in dogs without MCD (P<0.01). In all dogs, the mean X-ray attenuation of articular cartilage was significantly higher at the lateral (P<0.001) than at the proximal aspect of the MCP, indicating decreased glycosaminoglycan content. Changes in parameters of subchondral bone micro-architecture, namely the ratio of bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/TV), bone surface to volume ratio (BS/BV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; mm), size of marrow cavities described by trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp; mm), and structural model index (SMI), differed significantly by litter (P<0.05) due to the difference in age and weight, but not by the presence/absence of MCD (P>0.05), indicating that subchondral bone density is not affected in early MCD. This study demonstrated that cartilage matrix and not subchondral bone density is affected in the early stages of MCD. PMID:23846028

Lau, S F; Wolschrijn, C F; Siebelt, M; Vernooij, J C M; Voorhout, G; Hazewinkel, H A W

2013-10-01

171

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

172

Ice Island Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarises the issues related to the use of man-made ice islands as exploration drilling structures in the Canadian Arctic Islands and Beaufort Sea. The historical development of ice island technology has been reviewed with respect to design, ...

2005-01-01

173

Diomede Islands, Bering Straight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

174

Hemilaryngeal reconstruction using an axial island cheek flap supported by Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh.  

PubMed

The defect that remains after an extended hemilaryngectomy continues to be a challenge to the reconstructing surgeon. The reconstruction ideally must provide airway protection against aspiration, allow for phonation, and provide a durable mucosal surface. It also must be accomplished in one stage. Nine Labrador dogs underwent successful reconstruction of the hemilarynx using an axial island cheek flap based on the facial artery and vein. Adequate laryngeal function was demonstrated by maintenance of body weight, normal barium swallows, return of strong bark, and no evidence of aspiration pneumonia. Pathologic review confirmed a viable mucosal surface and incorporation of the Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh in a fibrous reaction. We have concluded that this method of reconstruction provides a result superior to currently used techniques. PMID:3177742

Winek, T G; Sasaki, T M; Luallin, D; Cook, D W; Galey, W T; Baker, H W

1988-10-01

175

Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization  

PubMed Central

In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes.

Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

2012-01-01

176

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

177

Assessment of cardiac function using global and regional left ventricular endomyocardial and epimyocardial peak systolic strain and strain rate in healthy Labrador retriever dogs.  

PubMed

Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is based on tracking of natural acoustic myocardial markers. The study aimed at quantifying global and regional endomyocardial and epimyocardial left ventricular longitudinal, circumferential and radial peak systolic strain and strain rate, including feasibility and variability; and assessing synchronicity and torsion, in healthy dogs. Cineloops were acquired from left apical 4-chamber, basal and apical right parasternal short-axis views in 22 healthy Labrador retrievers. A general epimyocardial to endomyocardial strain gradient was found. Strain was higher at apex compared to base. A strain longitudinal base to apex gradient was found. Left ventricular synchronicity could be assessed in all dogs and torsion in 1/3. Short axis apical view had highest variability. Dog and operator contributed most to overall variance. In conclusion, STE allows assessment of myocardial function in healthy Labrador retrievers. A longitudinal base to apex gradient was found and a new synchronicity index for use in dogs was introduced. PMID:23481140

Carnabuci, C; Hanås, S; Ljungvall, I; Tidholm, A; Bussadori, C; Häggström, J; Höglund, K

2013-08-01

178

Wind, current and swell influences on the ice extent and flux in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area as observed in the LIMEX '87 experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data collected by airborne and satellite instruments during the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment, that demonstrate the effects of oceanic and atmospheric processes on the ice conditions in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area. Special consideration is given to the development of algorithms for extracting information from SAR data. It is shown that SAR data can be used to monitor ice extent, determine ice motion, locate shear zones, monitor the penetration of swell into the ice, estimate floe sizes, and establish the dimensions of the ice velocity zones. It is also shown that the complex interaction of the ice cover with winds, currents, swell, and coastlines is similar to the dynamics established for a number of sites in both polar regions.

Argus, Susan Digby; Carsey, Frank; Holt, Benjamin

1988-01-01

179

Warming and salinification of Labrador Sea Water and deep waters in the subpolar North Atlantic at 60°N in 1997–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative estimate of the temperature and salinity variations in the Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the Iceland-Scotland Overflow\\u000a Water (ISOW), and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is given on the basis of the analysis of repeated observations\\u000a over a transatlantic section along 60°N in 1997, 2002, 2004, and 2006. The changes distinguished in the research evidence\\u000a strong warming and

A. A. Sarafanov; A. V. Sokov; A. S. Falina

2009-01-01

180

Drawdown Episodes of the Labrador-Quebec Ice Dome Through Ungava Bay During Heinrich Events? Insights From the Sediment Sources of Ice Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial terrains surrounding the Ungava Bay region are characterized by abundant drumlins, crag-and-tails, and other lineations indicating convergent ice flow towards the bay. These geomorphologic features have been interpreted to represent a complex network of fast-flowing ice (ice streams), which drained the eastern sector (Labrador-Quebec ice dome) of the Laurentide ice sheet at some time during the last glacial cycle.

M. Roy; S. R. Hemming; M. Parent; M. Machlus

2007-01-01

181

Faults and fractures in central West Greenland: onshore expression of continental break-up and sea-floor spreading in the Labrador - Baffin Bay Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex Ungava fault zone lies in the Davis Strait and separates failed spreading centres in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. This study focuses on coastal exposures east of the fault-bound Sisimiut basin, where the onshore expressions of these fault systems and the influence of pre-existing basement are examined. Regional lineament studies identify five main systems: N-S, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW,

Robert W. Wilson; Knud Erik; S. Klint; Jeroen A. M. van Gool; Kenneth J. W. McCaffrey; Robert E. Holdsworth; James A. Chalmers

2006-01-01

182

Sea-ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal Arctic climate cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent ice data sets from the Greenland and Labrador Seas have been analyzed for the purpose of characterizing interannual and decadal time scale sea-ice extent anomalies during this century. Sea-ice concentration data for the 1953–1984 period revealed the presence of a large positive anomaly in the Greenland Sea during the 1960s which coincided with the “great salinity anomaly”, an

L. A. Mysak; D. K. Manak; R. F. Marsden

1990-01-01

183

A comparison of sea surface temperatures from microwave remote sensing of the Labrador Sea with in situ measurements and model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the few places in the ocean where winter cooling and mixing creates conditions where water from the surface can penetrate into the deep ocean the Labrador Sea is an area of interest to people studying climate change in the ocean. Persistent cloud cover over this area makes it impossible to use infrared satellite imagery to relate space/time changes in sea surface temperature (SST) to changes in surface currents and air-sea interaction. Using passive microwave SSTs from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), we plot space/time changes in SST in the Labrador Sea and relate these changes to both simultaneous in situ measurements of temperature and numerical model SSTs. A direct comparison between the microwave SSTs, infrared SSTs, and in situ temperatures measured from profiling floats reveals that the microwave SSTs are a good representation of space/time changes in infrared SST and in ocean temperatures down to 10 m below the sea surface. Comparisons between the microwave SSTs and time series of temperatures at depths below 50 m reveal that winter/spring surface cooling makes the SST similar to temperatures at these deeper depths in the convection region of the central Labrador Sea. Detailed comparison of the annual cycle between the microwave SSTs and the model SST and 10 m currents reveals overall good agreement and some interesting differences.

Emery, William J.; Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; BöNing, Claus

2006-12-01

184

Full-fit reconstruction of opening of Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay: A special focus on continental deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the pre-rift configuration of Greenland and North America, and the early tectonic evaluation within the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, raises several issues. Some models treat linear magnetic anomalies adjacent to the continental margins of the Labrador Sea as 28-33 seafloor-spreading isochrones. However, more recent seismic data suggest that so-called "transitional crust" extends much further seaward. In addition, various authors have proposed that treating Greenland and North America as rigid plates leads to unreasonable gaps and overlaps in full-fit reconstructions. Extension within Hudson Bay, or large strike-slip motions within Greenland, has been suggested as possible explanations. To address these issues, we investigate the full-fit configuration of Greenland and North America using an approach that considers continental deformation in a quantitative manner, in contrast to traditional models that treat continents as rigid blocks. This new method has been applied in this region to derive new poles of rotation for full-fit plate reconstruction. This method takes in to account the landward limit of thinning and extension in continental crust of the rift margins. We first generate a crustal thickness map using a gravity inversion method, calibrated against all available crustal thickness information from seismic refraction profiles and receiver functions from onshore seismic stations. We also define the extent of the limit of stretched continental crust along each margin. The continental-oceanic boundary (COB) is located using interpreted seismic profiles and revising COBs previously proposed for both margins. Restoration of COBs was accomplished by generating small circle motion paths between UCCL and COB lines. Crustal thickness was extracted along each profile to calculate its length before subjected to stretching. Major corrections in the extent of stretched continental crust, and it's pre-rift thickness were taken into account to achieve the best fitting restored COBs. We also tested models in which the crustal thickness grid was revised to account for the amount of igneous material, ascribed to the influence of the Iceland Plume, added to the lower crust in the Davis Strait. We tested end-member restorations considering the transitional crust as oceanic or continental according to our interpretation of previously studied seismic lines in this region. Fitting the margins and computing total-fit Euler poles was carried out by two different methods: a Visual fitting technique with GPlates software and the quantitative least-squares Hellinger methodology. Conjugate Precambrian bedrock units and structural features onshore of both margins were then correlated and the scenario that showed the maximum compatibility with these observations was most highly ranked. The proposition of the Ungava fault zone in the Davis Strait as a leaky transform fault partly resolves problems in this region in alternative reconstruction scenarios, reducing overlap in the Davis Strait and gaps in the Labrador Sea. These more robust plate reconstructions form the basis for generating topological deforming meshes that represent the kinematic evolution of Greenland-North America rifting.

Hosseinpour, M.; Müller, R.; Williams, S.

2012-12-01

185

Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

1993-01-01

186

PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997-1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during 1997-1999 ranged from 0.24 to 62000 ng/g (dry weight) and decreased exponentially with distance from the contaminated beach. Given this gradient, spatial trends of PCBs in the food web were examined over four zones, according to distance from the contaminated beach: within 1.5 km--zone one, 1.5-4.5 km--zone two, 4.5-7.5 km--zone three, and greater than 7.5 km--zone four. PCB concentrations in a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), decreased significantly from zone one to zone two, three, four, and distant Labrador reference sites. PCB concentrations in the eggs of a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle) were as high as 48000 ng/g during 1997-1999 and average concentrations in zones one and two were 84 and 13 times higher than in zone four. Marine invertebrates closely reflected the concentrations of PCBs in the associated sediment. In contrast to the benthic-based food web, anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) showed no evidence of PCB accumulation from the contaminated sediments. Relatively high PCB concentrations were discovered in some great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) but appear to relate more to their high trophic level than sampling location. Those species that fed on or near the seabed and had limited foraging ranges were strongly influenced by the local contamination. Total PCB concentrations in the benthic-based food web were significantly higher than background levels for a distance of at least 7.5 km from the contaminated beach. This area is small in the context of widely distributed contamination from long-range transport but the area's high concentrations are comparable to levels associated with adverse effects elsewhere. Our findings should be useful to better assess the environmental impacts of PCB contamination at other coastal sites in the Arctic. PMID:16085280

Kuzyk, Z A; Stow, J P; Burgess, N M; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

2005-12-01

187

Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of < ~2 at 48-70% wt. % SiO2, in the ~10 km wide Oligocene Hidden Bay pluton on southern Adak Island and the 10 km wide Miocene Kagalaska pluton to the north on eastern Adak and the adjacent Kagalaska Island. Although small compared to most continental plutons, similarities in intrusive units, mineralogy and chemistry suggest common formation processes. The Aleutian calc-alkaline plutonic rocks mainly differ from continental plutons in having more oceanic like isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703-0.7033; Epsilon Nd = 9-7.8) and LIL (e.g., higher K/Rb) ratios. The Adak region plutons differ from Tertiary plutons on Unalaska Island further east in being more K-rich and in having a more oxidized and lower-temperature mineralogy. From a regional perspective, the Adak area plutons intrude Eocene/Oligocene Finger Bay Formation mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30.9 Ma and indicate an ~ 4 Ma intrusion history. Biotite Ar/Ar ages for Kagalaska gabbro and granodiorite samples range from 14.7 to 13.9 Ma. The new ages are consistent with the plutons being related to several eruptive centers and forming during the waning stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

2014-05-01

188

Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

Burns, Emily

1993-01-01

189

A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers.

2013-01-01

190

Entire Island of Crete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features.

1973-01-01

191

Floating islands of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey abounds in both natural as well as cultural richness. Especially the natural assets located in developing regions have an important role to play in the economic life of such areas. The floating islands are one of these assets and have become an important research subject lately. Turkey is considered as a heaven of floating islands. Almost all geographical regions

Ihsan Bulut

2011-01-01

192

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

193

Back to Treasure Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

Shriki, Atara

2011-01-01

194

Parris Island Auditorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine Corps recruits at a ceremony at the Parris Island Auditorium. The auditorium is part of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in Parris Island, South Carolina. Over one million men and women have trained at the depot since 1915 and served all over the world.

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

195

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

196

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

197

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N131; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

2010-08-18

198

The Erythroblastic Island  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastic islands are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These islands consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic island is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the macrophages provide nutrients, proliferative and survival signals to the erythroblasts, and phagocytose extruded erythroblast nuclei at the conclusion of erythroid maturation. There is also accumulating evidence for the role of macrophages in promoting enucleation itself. The central macrophages are identified by their unique immunophenotypic signature. Their pronounced adhesive properties, ability for avid endocytosis, lack of respiratory bursts, and consequent release of toxic oxidative species, make them perfectly adapted to function as nurse cells. Both macrophages and erythroblasts display adhesive interactions that maintain island integrity, and elucidating these details is an area of intense interest and investigation. Such interactions enable regulatory feedback within islands via cross talk between cells and also trigger intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression. An additional control mechanism for cellular growth within the erythroblastic islands is through the modulation of apoptosis via feedback loops between mature and immature erythroblasts and between macrophages and immature erythroblasts. The focus of this chapter is to outline the mechanisms by which erythroblastic islands aid erythropoiesis, review the historical data surrounding their discovery, and highlight important unanswered questions.

Manwani, Deepa; Bieker, James J.

2011-01-01

199

How Islands Form  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on island formation through water level changes, coral growth, or volcanism. Through class demonstrations, worksheets, and research, students learn the different ways islands form as well as how different lifeforms develop on the islands. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

200

Younger Dryas and Holocene oceanography of the western Labrador Sea region based on foraminifera and sediment proxies from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical analyses from three marine sediment cores from Placentia Bay on the southwest coast of Newfoundland captured the evolving surface and subsurface environment of the eastern Labrador Sea during the late glacial and Holocene. The area, which is today located in the boundary zone between the Arctic Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream in the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea was during the early part of the Younger Dryas (13.0-12.3 cal. kyr BP) dominated by cold, Arctic conditions and heavy sea-ice cover linked to a strong Polar Water component of the Inner Labrador Current. In the later part of the Younger Dryas (12.3-11.5 kyr BP) the influence of the Labrador Current (LC) became less pronounced resulting in more unstable conditions with varying sea-ice cover and increased influence of Gulf Stream water, presumably linked to an increased strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The earliest Holocene (11.5-10.4 kyr BP) saw slightly warmer subsurface conditions in Placentia Bay and increased productivity, presumably caused by a decreased southward transport of Polar Water via the LC. The onset of a strong AMOC caused the northward movement of the frontal zone between the Subpolar Gyre and the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre in the western North Atlantic region to closer proximity to the southern coast of Newfoundland compared to previously. From ca. 10.4-9.65 kyr BP increased bottom-current speeds and the presence of species often found in connection to oceanic fronts, suggest a further strengthening of the AMOC causing inflow of Atlantic-source water into Placentia Bay. This tendency was further strengthened at 9.65-7.3 kyr BP, which saw a relatively strong inflow of Atlantic-source Gulf Stream water into Placentia Bay, evidenced by high frequencies of Cassidulina neoteretis. This inflow of Atlantic was however temporarily halted around 8.2 kyr BP, when a short-lived, extreme peak in Globobulimina auriculata arctica suggests reduced bottom-water stratification. This may have been caused by an increased freshwater release from the Canadian Arctic, linked to the well-known 8.2-kyr event. Around 7.3 kyr BP, the inflow of warmer subsurface waters decreased, when subsurface waters of Placentia Bay returned to relatively cold, subarctic conditions. An enhanced influx of lower-saline water is inferred both by the presence of Elphidium bartletti, indicating an increased flux of meltwater from the Arctic entering Placentia Bay. This fresher water was likely transported by the Labrador Current and strong northerly winds. This scenario was again interrupted around ca 4.4 kyr BP, when higher C. neoteretis again suggest increase influx of Gulf Stream water, a tendency that continued until today, although with possibly slightly better mixing of LC and GS water after ~2.7 kyr BP. This decrease in the strength of the LC, may be linked to a decreased southward flow of LC water due to decreased meltwater release from the Canadian Arctic or due to a shift to a generally more negative Northern Annular Mode.

Sheldon, Christina; Pearce, Christof; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Reynisson, Njáll F.; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Juncker Hansen, Mette

2014-05-01

201

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

2010-01-01

202

230Th vs. 14C age of a pre-YD deep coral from Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep coral specimen (Desmophyllum cristagalli) raised from the top of Orphan Knoll (50°25.57N ; 46°22.05W ; appr. depth 1700 m), i.e., at the bottom of the modern Labrador Sea Water mass, has been used to investigate the suitability of such material to document DR 14C values from comparative AMS-14C and 230Th-age measurements. Analyses have been performed along a transect from bottom to top of the colony. Calibrated 14C ages have been calculated using the 400 yr standard marine correction. ......U ppm.........234U/238U.......Age 230Th.....Calib Age 1...2,628±0,022...1,144±0,010...14507±399...13462±40 2...2,531±0,020...1,117±0,012...14588±301 3...2,718±0,022...1,145±0,019...13928±288 4...3,278±0,025...1,141±0,016...18535±740 5...3,600±0,029...1,155±0,044...12727±729...13339±42 6...4,256±0,028...1,296±0,010...14709±226 7...3,436±0,022...1,130±0,009...16860±332 8...3,521±0,024...1,137±0,010...17491±271...13398±21 From the above numbers, the following inferences have been made: 1. Such corals develop very rapidly as indicated by the narrow range of 14C-ages yielded by the study specimen. 2. They do not constitute closed systems with respect to U (as illustrated by the strong U-enrichment of samples 4 to 8); this confirms earlier observations made by Pons-Branchu et al. (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 2005). 3. The uranium diagenetically incorporated into the skeleton occasionally shows departure from the isotopic composition of marine uranium (e.g., samples 6 or 5), suggesting U-relocation from embedding sediment with variable 234U excesses (or deficit). The lowermost samples (with a narrow range of U content) may possibly provide a reasonable estimate for the 230Th age of the coral (ca. 14000-14500). If true, this age would indicate a high DR value (600-1000) during this time interval, at intermediate depths of the Labrador Sea. It is concluded from the study that, despite strong initial expectations with respect to their use for the setting of coupled 230Th-14C ages, such deep-water corals are unlikely to provide reliable U-series ages due to post- mortem U-mobility in their skeleton. In view of their relatively fast growth rates, of the fact that they do not precipitate aragonite/calcite in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water (e.g., Adkins et al., 2003. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67), their overall suitability for paleoceanography studies seems limited.

Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

2006-12-01

203

Charge Islands Through Tunneling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge 'islands'. This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insigh...

D. C. Robinson

2002-01-01

204

Island Watershed Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

Benson, Rod

2003-01-01

205

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

206

Mysteries of Apo Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive game about shark biodiversity, learners investigate some strange things happening on Apo Island, in the Philippines. Learners collect clues to identify the animal species that attacked their boat's propeller.

Aquarium, Shedd; Educational Web Adventures (Eduweb)

2006-01-01

207

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)

2007-09-21

208

Long Island Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dedicated librarians at the Stony Brook University Library have created this most excellent research guide and digital archive that covers all things Long Island. On their homepage, visitors can use the Long Island Documents area to view recently acquired items from key figures in local (and national) history, such as George Clinton, James Jay, and Benjamin Tallmadge. Also on the site is the Books, Pamphlets, and Journals area. Here visitors can make their way through key documents, such as "Early Long Island: A Colonial Study" and "The Evolution of Long Island: A Story of Land and Sea." Also, the site pays tribute to a very exciting new acquisition: several letters from George Washington, donated by Dr. Henry Laufer, a history enthusiast. This site is a tremendously valuable resource and one that will serve as a model to other institutions seeking to do similar work.

2012-08-24

209

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

210

Progress in Pacific islands.  

PubMed

The article announces the formation of family planning associations on the Tonga, Tahiti, Gilbert and Ellice Island groups. The administrative structures of the Associations are briefly described and organizational methods and directions to involve all islands of a particular groups are reported. All of the territories are within the area served by the South Pacific Commission which has set up a family planning seminar for the areas involved. PMID:12305000

1970-02-01

211

Black Island telecommunications upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Black Island telecommunications upgrade Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 22, 1993 File : opp93107 OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT SECTION 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 22, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Black Island Telecommunications Facility Upgrade) To: Director, Office of Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Section Safety and Health Officer Electronics Engineer Facilities Engineering Projects ...

212

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Gardiner, Lisa; Universe, Windows T.

213

Absorption and fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in the waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Bay, and the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated for the first time in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), Baffin Bay (BB), and Labrador Sea (LS) as part of the International Polar Year Canada's Three Oceans project (C3O). The dynamics and composition of absorbing DOM (i.e., colored DOM, or CDOM) and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) were evaluated in several distinct water masses occupying the three regions: surface waters, Arctic outflow waters, West Greenland Intermediate waters (WGIW), upper Labrador Sea waters (uLSW), and Bottom Baffin Deep Water (BBDW). Four fluorescent components were identified by applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to 522 excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra: three humic-like and one protein-like. The FDOM in surface waters of the CAA and BB differed considerably in character from those of the LS, with higher fluorescence intensity in the former. The fluorescence intensities of the two terrestrial humic-like components (C1 and C3) were linearly correlated with apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the CAA Arctic outflow and the WGIW whereas only humic-like C3 was significantly correlated with AOU in uLSW. These findings suggest that the humic-like components were produced in situ as organic matter was bio-oxidized. The slopes of the linear relationship between humic-like intensity and AOU were significantly greater in the WGIW relative to the Arctic outflow waters, which implies that FDOM in the Arctic-derived deeper layer was less prone to mineralization.

Guéguen, Céline; Cuss, Chad W.; Cassels, Chase J.; Carmack, Eddy C.

2014-03-01

214

Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis. Figure Principal component analysis of scattered region of x-ray fluorescence spectra of Labrador dog nails, demonstrating the differentiation towards dogs with high and low Cu liver levels (respectively positive and negative PC2 values) reflecting hepatitis, as well as gender (PC1: negative values for female and positive values for males)

Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Rothuizen, Jan

2008-01-01

215

Detrital carbonate-rich sediments, northwestern Labrador Sea: Implications for ice-sheet dynamics and iceberg rafting (Heinrich) events in the North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the bed of the central and eastern sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was underlain by Paleozoic carbonates. We propose that pulses of detrital carbonate-rich sediments in two cores from the northwestern Labrador Sea reflect episodes when an ice stream from the Hudson Strait extended to the shelf break and delivered sediment onto the slope and deep-sea plain. Atomic mass spectroscopy 14C dating of planktonic foraminifera in cores HU75-009-IV-55 (2.4 km water depth) and HU87-033-009 (1.4 km water depth and 150 km north-northwest), indicates that the youngest event occurred between ca.14 and 15 ka and another occurred between 19 and 21 ka. The two carbonate intervals in northwestern Labrador Sea cores are coeval with Heinrich events 1 and 2 in the eastern North Atlantic (lat 45°-50°N, long 20°W), where they are associated with an increase in lithic fragments and a drastic reduction in the numbers of foraminifera. These changes have been linked with the massive production of icebergs associated with ice-sheet surges. Our evidence indicates that Heinrich events 1 and 2 are associated with the dynamics of the Hudson Strait ice stream and denote considerable glaciological instability.

Andrews, J. T.; Tedesco, K.

1992-12-01

216

Heron Island, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

2002-01-01

217

Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously indicates that the Alisida is not unique. Global island chains other than the Alisida may better serve disciplines other than those of hydrology and geology.

Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

2002-01-01

218

Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25, identified in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice, has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover. We tested the reliability of this biomarker as a sea ice proxy against observational sea ice data (sea ice concentrations from the global HadISST1 database) and against a more established sea ice proxy (sea ice diatom abundance in sediments) in the South-West (SW) Labrador Sea. Furthermore, our study location at the southern margin of Arctic sea ice drift provided a new environmental setting in which to further test the novel PIP25 index. Our two study sites are located North-East (NE) and South-East (SE) of Newfoundland where box cores covering the last ca 100-150 years were collected. IP25 concentrations are nearly an order of magnitude higher and sea ice diatoms more abundant in sediments from NE of Newfoundland, where sea ice prevails 2-4 months per year compared to the sediments SE of Newfoundland, where conditions are generally ice-free year round. The IP25 fluxes NE of Newfoundland agree well with multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) trends in the study area, which in previous studies have been shown to affect the climatic and sea ice conditions in the region. When assessed against observational sea ice data, IP25 appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sea ice variability in this setting compared to sea ice diatoms and proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing low-frequency variability in past sea ice concentrations. The PIP25 index results clearly differ from the observed sea ice data underlining that caution needs to be exercised when using the index in different environmental settings.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis G.; Hanhijärvi, Sami; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Schmidt, Sabine; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Andersen, Morten L.; Hill, Brian; Kuijpers, Antoon

2013-11-01

219

High-Resolution Magnetostratigraphy of Core MD99-2236 (Cartwright Saddle, Offshore Labrador) Since the Last Deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of a long and well-dated (18 AMS 14C dates) piston core (MD99-2236) sampled offshore Labrador (Cartwright Saddle) on board the R/V Marion Dufresne II in 1999 were analyzed at high- resolution in order to reconstruct the geomagnetic field behavior and to characterize several detrital carbonate events. The Natural, Anhysteretic, Isothermal and Saturated Isothemal Remanent Magnetizations were studied by progressives stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization at 1 cm intervals on u-channel samples using a cryogenic magnetometer at the Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER). Hysteresis curves were also determined with an alternating gradient force magnetometer in order to characterize the magnetic mineralogy and grain size. The results indicate that the NRM is characterized by a strong, stable and single component magnetization most likely carried low coercivity minerals such as magnetite in the pseudo-single domain grain size range. The component inclination and declination were calculated by principal component analysis and exhibit maximum angular deviation values generally lower than 5°, highlighting well-defined directional data, except for some specific intervals characterized by higher carbonate content and multi-domain grains. Moreover, the component inclinations vary around the expected inclination (70.3°) for the latitude of the coring site based on a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model. Component inclination and declination are presented and compared with other high-resolution paleomagnetic records from Eastern Canada, Iceland (MD99-2322 and -2269) and Europe. This comparison reveals that the sediments recorded coherent paleomagnetic secular variations (PSV), especially from 8 to 14 ka, where sedimentation rates are higher, the data of high quality and where previously published high-resolution RPI and PSV records for this period are rare. In addition, relative paleointensity (RPI) proxies were constructed by normalizing the NRM by the ARM. The quality of these proxies will be assessed and comparison with previously published RPI records will be presented. Finally, the ongoing rock-magnetic measurements performed in the detrital carbonate layers will be discussed.

St-Onge, M.; Guillaume, S.; Jennings, A.; Andrews, J. T.

2009-05-01

220

Modification and Application of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for the Communication of Drinking Water Quality Data in Newfoundland and Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), drinking water quality monitoring is conducted by the provincial government on all public water supply systems and results are communicated to communities on a quarterly basis. This paper describes the application of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) as a communica- tions tool for reporting the drinking water

Amir Ali Khan; Renée Paterson; Haseen Khan

221

Island of Luzon, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

1990-01-01

222

Long Island Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

Anders, R.

2013-05-01

223

Geology Fieldnotes: Buck Island Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site covers the geology of Buck Island Reef National Monument in the Virgin Islands. It discusses coral reef formation and characteristics, as well as the history of Buck Island. There are links for maps, visitor information, and more details about this monument.

224

Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3), far right, Hall of Transportation (Building 2), middle, and The Administration Building (Building 1), far left, Port of Trade Winds is in foreground, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

225

Introduction to Sea Island Folklife.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the economic activity, language, world view, kinship patterns, and religion of contemporary Sea Islanders in order to illustrate the Islands' cultural conservatism and, thus, their appropriateness for the study of Africanism in the United States. (GC)

Twining, Mary A.; Baird, Keith E.

1980-01-01

226

Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

1984-01-01

227

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

228

Adaptation and diversification on islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other

Jonathan B. Losos; Robert E. Ricklefs

2009-01-01

229

Magnetic-island formation  

SciTech Connect

The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

Boozer, A.H.

1983-08-01

230

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

2010-07-20

231

Building the intelligent island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IT2000 project, Singapore's national information technology (IT) effort to create the intelligent island, is introduced. The motivation for Singapore's government and other parties in taking an active role in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) is outlined, and a strategic framework for coordinating the development of different aspects of the NII is presented. The architectural framework of

Juzar Motiwalla; Michael Yap; L. H. Ngoh

1993-01-01

232

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

233

Parris Island, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entrance to the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in Parris Island, South Carolina. Training of Marine Corps recruits began here in 1915. The base has been training recruits for every major U.S. conflict of the 20th and 21st century.

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

234

Island groin flap.  

PubMed

An island groin flap was used for satisfactory reconstruction of defects in the anterior thigh, lower abdomen, or perineal regions in 9 patients. This flap has several advantages: simple operation, wide range of coverage, large rotation arc, direct closure of the donor site, and no sacrifice of muscle. Comparison with tensor fascia lata and other musculocutaneous flaps is made. PMID:4091467

Ohtsuka, H; Nakaoka, H; Saeki, N; Miki, Y

1985-08-01

235

Three Mile Island revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the

B. L. Lipford; N. M. Cole; T. J. Friderichs

1991-01-01

236

Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

1988-01-01

237

Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

Ford, M.

2012-12-01

238

Sediment sources of northern Québec and Labrador glacial deposits and the northeastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during ice-rafting events of the last glacial cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Provenance studies of anomalously high-flux layers of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) in North Atlantic sediments of the last glacial cycle show evidence for massive iceberg discharges coming from the Hudson Strait region of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). Although these so-called Heinrich events (H events) are commonly thought to be associated with abrupt drawdown of the LIS interior, uncertainties remain regarding the sector(s) of this multi-domed ice sheet that conveyed ice through Hudson Strait. In Northern Québec and Labrador (NQL), large-scale patterns of glacial lineations indicate massive ice flows towards Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait that could reflect the participation of the Labrador-Québec ice dome in H events. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by constraining the source of NQL glacial deposits, which provide an estimate of the provenance characteristics of IRD originating from this sector. Specifically, we use 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of detrital hornblende grains in 25 till samples distributed along a latitudinal transect (lat. 58°) extending east and west of Ungava Bay. The data show that tills located west and southwest of the Ungava Bay region are largely dominated by hornblende grains with Archean ages (>2.6 Ga), while tills located east of Ungava Bay are characterized by grains with early Paleoproterozoic ages (2.0-1.8 Ga), although most samples contain a few Archean-age grains. IRD derived from the NQL region should thus be characterized by a large proportion of Archean-age detrital grains, which contrasts significantly with the predominant Paleoproterozoic 40Ar/ 39Ar ages (1.8-1.6 Ga) typically reported for the dominant age population of hornblende grains in H layers. Comparisons with IRD through the last glacial cycle from a western North Atlantic core off Newfoundland do not show evidence for any prominent ice-rafted event with the provenance characteristics of NQL glacial deposits, thereby suggesting that significant ice-calving event(s) from the Labrador-Québec sector may have been limited throughout that interval. Although these results tend to point towards a relative stability of this ice dome during H events, our study also indicates that further provenance work is required on IRD proximal to the Hudson Strait mouth in order to constrain with a greater confidence the sector(s) of the LIS that fed ice into Hudson Strait during H events. Alternatively, these results and other paleogeographic considerations tend to support models suggesting that part of the Ungava Bay glacial lineations could be associated with a Late-Glacial ice flow across Hudson Strait.

Roy, Martin; Hemming, Sidney R.; Parent, Michel

2009-12-01

239

Adapting remotely sensed snow data for daily flow modeling on the Upper Humber River, Newfoundland and Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigated the use of remotely sensed snow information to help improve flood forecasting in western Newfoundland's Humber River Basin. Flood forecasting on the Humber River is important because of the large population settlements within the Humber Valley. In this research, two types of remotely sensed snow data were considered for analysis: (1) snow cover (or snow extent) and (2) snow water equivalent (SWE). The majority of this thesis focuses on the remotely sensed snow cover data. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra snow cover images were acquired over the Humber Valley watershed throughout the snowmelt period, from March to June, for the years 2000 to 2009. MODIS is an optical sensor on NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. Its daily temporal data are advantageous and the data are free and easily accessible. Daily snow cover data were extracted from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) daily snow product, specifically MOD10A1: a product derived from MODIS data, using a custom EASI script run in PCI Geomatica. PCI Geomatica is a robust remote sensing and image processing software. One major obstacle, regarding the acquisition of MODIS imagery over the Humber Valley watershed, is the presence of over 50% cloud cover for 80% of the days on average from March to June every year. This was a concern for data collection: affecting the sample size of acquired data and the accuracy of the snow cover data. When cloud cover is high there is a greater chance that it may be misclassified as snow and/or snow is misclassified as cloud cover. For this reason, a cloud-cover threshold was determined. The Rango-Martinec snowmelt runoff model, a widely used degree-day model which incorporates snow cover data as a direct input, was evaluated. It was found that the next day's flow is highly dependent on the previous day's flow and less dependent on the meteorological data: rainfall, snow cover, and temperature. The results from the snowmelt runoff model using the snow cover data provided very good final Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.85 for the calibration stage and 0.81 for the validation stage, but a consistent one-day lag of the modeled flow values was also observed. Although these results were not superior to currently employed flood forecasting models for the Upper Humber (because of a one-day lag in the modeled flows), the methodology developed herein may be useful for other river basins in NL where the flows are dominated by snowmelt during the spring such as the Exploits River Basin located in central NL. Remotely sensed snow water equivalent (SWE) data obtained from an advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E), aboard the Aqua satellite, was also investigated for daily flow modeling applications. SWE often provide a better estimate of snowmelt than snow cover but this data had several disadvantages in the Humber River Basin. The major obstacles included large spatial resolution (25 km), data inaccuracy for wet snow, boreal forest, mountainous regions, and time step irregularities. Extremely large variances in the SWE data rendered the information inaccurate and ineffective for streamflow forecasting on Newfoundland and Labrador's Humber River. This research makes significant contributions to the field of hydrology providing a valuable methodology in adapting remotely sensed snow data to daily flow simulation and will be helpful to local authorities.

Tom, Melissa

240

Paleoceanography of marine isotope stage 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) in the Labrador Sea based on palynological, microfaunal and isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have documented the paleoceanography of marine isotope stage (MIS) 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) at IODP Site 1305 off southwest Greenland in the Labrador Sea, based on dinocyst and foraminifer populations in addition to isotopic measurements in planktonic foraminiferal shells. The planktonic foraminifer assemblages are dominated by the mesopelagic species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral (Nps). Current interpretations of Nps dominance would thus point to a polar type environment. However, dinocyst assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Bitectatodinium tepikiense, which rather indicate temperate-subpolar environnement conditions in the photic zone. Assuming that Nps ecological requirements were unchanged, reconciling the two observations lead to hypothesize a strong stratification of the surface water layer over a subsurface water mass, with Nps ocupying the pycnocline in between. We tentatively applied the modern analogue technique (MAT) to reconstruct surface water conditions from the dinocyst assemblages. Good analogues are found in the modern dinocyst database (n=1492), notably along the southeast Canadian margins and northwest European margins. They indicate a low salinity in the surface waters (32-34.5), a large seasonal amplitude of temperatures with cool winters (3-6° C) and mild summer (10-15° C). Stable isotope measurements in Nps point to ?18O ranging 1.5-2.2o throughout most of the interval, thus significantly lower than those measured during the Holocene (>2.2o at this very site. Benthic isotopic values (~3.2o are in accordance with the global stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (Paleoceanography, 2005). This suggests the presence of relatively warm water intermediate mass in between the bottom and surface water masses. The isotopic, micropaleontological and dinocyst results together show that conditions were unfavorable for convection and intermediate or deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during this interval.

Aubry, Aurelie; de Vernal, Anne; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

2014-05-01

241

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

242

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2002-01-10

243

Charge Islands Through Tunneling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

Robinson, Daryl C.

2002-01-01

244

Leyte Island, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991, three weeks prior to the taking of this photo can still be seen on Leyte, (10.5N, 125.0E). Flash floods and mud slides triggered by the heavy rainfall and aggravated by logging operations on the mountain slopes, added to the general destruction caused by the storm. Fresh water runoff (lens) into the ocean are still evident as numerous bright semi circles around the island perimeter.

1991-01-01

245

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

246

Kodiak Island, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

2002-01-01

247

Animal Island Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an island and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.

2011-01-01

248

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

1999-01-01

249

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that âÂÂâ¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

250

77 FR 71531 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside...movement in portions of Lake Erie during the annual Kelley's...Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History and Information On June 5...Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island,...

2012-12-03

251

75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The...

2010-10-07

252

77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...

2012-06-12

253

75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R4-R-2010-N051; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges...environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...

2010-05-21

254

77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...

2012-08-24

255

Island studies for Helias Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the NESCOIL code, a method analogous to the procedure of Cary and Hanson was developed to eliminate islands and more generally to control the size and phase of islands. The method was applied to Helias stellerator vacuum fields in order to determine configurations with a dense set of flux surfaces in the plasma region and an island chain at the boundary which may serve as a basis for a divertor concept.

Merkel, Peter

1990-03-01

256

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

2002-11-01

257

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

258

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed. PMID:16884021

Khan, R A; Evans, L

2006-06-01

259

Urban heat island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

Kim, Hongsuk H.

1991-01-01

260

Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature.

Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

1988-01-01

261

76 FR 16636 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs, Lee County, FL; Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R4-R-2010-N240; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...for the environmental assessment for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...notice, we finalize the CCP process for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay,...

2011-03-24

262

Southern elephant seals breeding at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population survey of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758) was conducted at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during the 2001 breeding season. Two breeding sites were identified, one of which had not been previously re? ported. The largest breeding site was located at Duthoit Point, with a total of 128 females, 111 pups and 7 weanlings distributed

Alejandro R. CARLINI; Sebastián POLJAK; Ricardo CASAUX; Gustavo Adolfo DANERI; Miguel GASCO

263

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Yow, Donald M.

264

Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans 4 Steps to Manage ... want to learn more about controlling the disease. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Diabetes (from the Office ...

265

Cactaceæ in the Galapagos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN my notice (NATURE, p. 623) of Dr. Baur's botanical collections from the Galapagos Islands, I intended to add a few words respecting the Cactaceæ, but forgot it at the last moment. This natural order of plants forms the most conspicuous feature in the vegetation of some of the islands, as may be seen in the excellent views illustrating the

W. Botting Hemsley

1895-01-01

266

Inbreeding and Extinction: Island Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island populations are more prone to extinction than mainland populations, with island endemic species having higher extinction rates than nonendemic species. Inbreeding depression is one possible expla- nation for this. Insular populations are expected to suffer increased inbreeding relative to mainland popula- tions due to bottlenecks at foundation and to lower subsequent population sizes. Inbreeding coefficients for 182 nonendemic and

Richard Frankham

1998-01-01

267

Drawdown Episodes of the Labrador-Quebec Ice Dome Through Ungava Bay During Heinrich Events? Insights From the Sediment Sources of Ice Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial terrains surrounding the Ungava Bay region are characterized by abundant drumlins, crag-and-tails, and other lineations indicating convergent ice flow towards the bay. These geomorphologic features have been interpreted to represent a complex network of fast-flowing ice (ice streams), which drained the eastern sector (Labrador-Quebec ice dome) of the Laurentide ice sheet at some time during the last glacial cycle. It was recently proposed that the Ungava Bay ice streams may be responsible for the massive iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic that are at the origin of Heinrich events (e.g. Jansson et al., Boreas, v. 32, p. 256, 2003). Several other provenance studies have attributed the characteristic high detrital carbonate content of these anomalously thick layers of ice rafted deposits (IRD) to a calving ice margin that overrode the carbonate-floored Hudson Bay/Strait, while lead isotopes and 40Ar/39Ar ages measured on feldspar and hornblende grains have identified the rock-source area of Heinrich layers as being the Paleoproterozoic Churchill province of the Canadian Shield. Although the Laurentide ice sheet was unequivocally the main contributor of detrital material to Heinrich layers, the exact sector of the Laurentide ice sheet that collapsed and drained through Hudson Strait has yet to be identified, and is currently ascribed to the broader Hudson Bay/Strait region. Here we evaluate the possible contribution of the Labrador-Quebec ice dome to these iceberg discharges by documenting the provenance of glacial sediments (tills) representing the catchment (source) area of the Ungava Bay ice streams. Specifically, we used the 40Ar/39Ar fusion method to date about 10 individual hornblende grains in 13 samples distributed along a latitudinal transect (lat. 58°) extending east and west of Ungava Bay. We also date hornblende grains from IRD and bounding sediments in a North Atlantic deep-sea core (Orphan Knoll) to evaluate whether the provenance signature of Ungava Bay glacial deposits can be recognized in sediments spanning the time interval comprised between H4 to H0. The results show that most tills located east of Ungava Bay are characterized by grains with early Paleoproterozoic ages (2.0 to 1.8 Ga), with a few till samples containing a small population of grains with Archean ages (>2.6 Ga). Tills west of Ungava Bay are largely dominated by Archean-age grains. These results contrast with the predominant late Paleoproterozoic 40Ar/39Ar ages (1.8 to 1.6 Ga) that characterize hornblende grains in typical Heinrich layers, thereby indicating that drawdown episodes of the Labrador-Quebec ice dome through Ungava Bay during Heinrich events are unlikely. Hornblende grains from marine deposits are currently being analyzed and the results should provide information on when these ice streams were active during the last glaciation.

Roy, M.; Hemming, S. R.; Parent, M.; Machlus, M.

2007-12-01

268

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

269

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

270

Central island tongue flap.  

PubMed

Pedicled tongue flaps have proved to be an effective method of repairing defects due to tissue loss in the oral cavity. Their central position, mobility, and excellent blood supply make their use feasible in a variety of sites. This paper describes the use and applications of central island tongue flaps to reconstruct defects of anterior floor of the mouth. This procedure was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University Hanover, introducing an improved surgical method and presenting the actual operation performed in our department. This method is considered superior for resurfacing the anterior floor of mouth defects because it is easy to perform and results in recovery of function and cosmetics. PMID:9927907

Shibahara, T; Noma, H; Fujikawa, M; Miyao, T; Ishikawa, M; Takasaki, Y

1998-08-01

271

'King George Island' Brushed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

2006-01-01

272

Marte Valles Crater 'Island'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

273

SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

274

75 FR 63500 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: The islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas, including Water Island for Public Assistance. All islands within the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands are...

2010-10-15

275

75 FR 71453 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: The islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas, including Water Island for Public Assistance. All islands in the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands are...

2010-11-23

276

Global Collembola on Deception Island  

PubMed Central

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

277

PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software  

PubMed Central

The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

2012-01-01

278

Global Collembola on Deception Island.  

PubMed

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

279

Will the increased military low-level flying activity in Labrador be detrimental to the hearing of humans in the region?  

PubMed

The Government of Canada has directed the Department of National Defence to encourage our NATO allies to increase use of their facilities at Goose Bay, Labrador. This has already resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of military flying in the area, and more is projected. Much of the flying is done at very low altitude. The aboriginal people in the region (the Innu and, to a lesser extent, the Inuit) are demanding a halt to low-level military flying, and their representatives claim that the noise from the low-flying jet aircraft can cause hearing loss and ear disease. A survey on the ground in the area measured noise levels up to 127.7 dBA with very brief exposure levels. A task force commission to look at the problem concluded that occasionally low-level subsonic overflights might produce noise levels that were potentially damaging to hearing, but that the probability of this happening is at present very low because of the low frequency of flights. This might change if the frequency of flights increases. PMID:2921789

Baxter, J D; West, R; Miller, A

1989-02-01

280

Benthic foraminifera as palaeo sea-ice indicators in the subarctic realm - examples from the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminifera are found in a wide range of environments and may at times be one of few proxies available for the study of palaeoenvironmental conditions. However, the response of benthic foraminifera to changing sea-ice conditions is not well understood. This paper discusses benthic foraminifera as potential sea-ice proxies, with special emphasis on their use in shelf regions of the sub-arctic realm. Four marine sediment records from the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay region serve as examples; in all four records independent sea-ice proxy will be used for testing the foraminiferal response to changing sea ice conditions. This test suggests that 1) Benthic foraminifera provide information on variations in sea-ice cover, but they are not direct proxies for sea-ice cover and no true sea-ice species has yet been identified. 2) Foraminifera mainly respond to the surplus of food often available at sea-ice edges. 3) Dominance of agglutinated foraminifera may suggest corrosive bottom-water conditions which may at times be linked to seasonal sea-ice cover.

Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

2013-11-01

281

Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July - August 1990 joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with 'background' air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forest region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region.

Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R. W.; Klemm, K.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L. A.

1994-01-01

282

9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of...the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of...Northern Mariana Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

2010-01-01

283

Paleomagnetic study of Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleomagnetic study was carried out on recent volcanic rocks exposed on Deception Island (63.0°S, 60.6°W), Antarctica. Sampling comprised all stratigraphic units exposed on the island, which include basaltic, andesitic and trachytic lavas, basaltic dykes and pyroclastic flows. Following stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures, consistent characteristic remanence directions were determined at 21 sites, using principal-component analysis. The overall

Andrés Baraldo; Augusto E. Rapalini; Harald Böhnel; Mabel Mena

2003-01-01

284

Barrier-island aggradation via inlet migration: Mustang Island, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After establishing its present location around 9.5 ka, Mustang Island aggraded, stacking over 20 m of barrier-island sand in the same location. Throughout Mustang Island's history, tidal inlets shifted within nearly the same location from 7.5 ka to the present, leaving 10-15 m thick deposits of clean, well-sorted, quartz sand deposited within only a few centuries. These deposits lack some of the sedimentary features normally associated with tidal inlets, such as tidal couplets and shell hash. The lack of such features is attributed to the uniform nature of the deposits cut by the inlets during the island's relatively long period of aggradation. Mustang Island was able to maintain an aggradation character throughout most of the Holocene due to the sediment eroded from three sources: Pleistocene headlands, the transgressive Colorado River delta of Texas, and the OIS 3 shoreline of the central-Texas shelf. Each of these sources was exposed to waves and accompanying longshore drift during the island's early history when sea level rose quickly, but was flooded or capped by transgressive muds by the time sea-level rise slowed during the middle Holocene.

Simms, Alexander R.; Anderson, John B.; Blum, Michael

2006-05-01

285

Flow Regimes of Nonlinear Heat Island Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous laboratory and numerical experiments show that the nonlinear heat island circulation has two different flow regimes: One has two maximums of updraft at both edges of the heat island (type E), while the other has a single maximum of updraft at the center of the island (type C). Our theoretical consideration shows that the heat island circulation is principally

Hiroshi Niino; Atsushi Mori; Takehiko Satomura; Sayaka Akiba

2006-01-01

286

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Halbert, Massy; Lyon, Jim; Yasutake, Mike; Lyon

287

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

288

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

289

Oil Spill Threatens Galapagos Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, the aging Ecuadorean tanker "Jessica" ran aground on San Cristobal Island, threatening the delicate ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands, famous as the location for much of Charles Darwin's key research. The Galapagos, 97 percent of which is a national park, is perhaps the last complete and preserved island archipelago. The captain of the ship has since accepted responsibility for misjudging his entry into the bay and running the ship aground, spilling approximately 160,000 gallons of oil. Efforts continue to refloat the ship and remove the 10,000 gallons left inside. Fortunately, favorable winds and currents have limited the amount of oil washing up on the Galapagos Islands, but the long-term effects remain to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

290

Eugene Island Block 330 field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eugene Island Block 330 field ranks third in cumulative hydrocarbon production on the federal Outer Continental Shelf of the United States and at peak production was the largest O.C.S. oil-producing field. This giant field, located offshore Louisiana, covers parts of seven blocks in the Eugene Island area, South Addition. The field was discovered by the Pennzoil 1, OCS-G 2115

D. S. Holland; D. R. Lammlein; J. B. Leedy

1988-01-01

291

Invasive rodent eradication on islands.  

PubMed

Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response programs. PMID:17883491

Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie

2007-10-01

292

Three Mile Island revisited  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the margin to failure of the lower head are of interest to the nuclear industry. In early 1988 the owner and operator of the TMI facility, had completed a large portion of the defueling work in the reactor core region and was preparing to remove the lower structural internals in order to defuel the area within the lower head. At that point the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (NRC-Res) in Washington, D.C., initiated a project to remove metallurgical specimens from the reactor vessel's lower head region. The goal was to determine the extent of damage to the pressure-retaining boundary in the lower head and to learn what happened during the accident.

Lipford, B.L.; Cole, N.M.; Friderichs, T.J. (MPR Associates Inc., Washington, DC (US))

1991-01-01

293

Developing and Applying a Transportation Model for Aquidneck Island, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on Aquidneck Island in the State of Rhode Island. The research project has two primary objectives. First, the project builds the foundation for coordinated transportation and land use planning on Aquidneck Island using TransC...

F. Atash K. Woodward J. Boyce S. Eisenbeiser

2004-01-01

294

76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N222; 10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan,...

2011-04-08

295

78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the...

2013-10-25

296

Seasonal and depth-dependent variations in the size and lipid contents of stage 5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus in the waters of the Newfoundland Shelf and the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the variation in energy reserves of individual C5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus from the Newfoundland continental shelf and the Labrador Sea collected from surface and overwintering (or bottom) depths prior to, during and after the expected timing of the onset of diapause. Overall, the trend was for a decreasing average prosome length as the year progressed for all locations although the decline was smallest in the Labrador Sea and greatest in the deep waters of the continental shelf. The size of the oil sac was closely linked to the weight of the copepodite but the form of this relationship showed substantial variations with depth and season. We show a clear increase in the relative oil sac volume for C. finmarchicus between late spring and late summer, by which time some animals had descended to diapause depths. The progressive decrease in oil sac volume of animals sampled at depth in the Labrador Sea between September and December suggests a significant loss of energy reserves during diapause. From the distribution of volumes and body sizes in December we estimate that 23-53% of individuals would not be able to meet the energetic cost of moulting and early gonad development. Overall, some of our observations appear to invalidate earlier hypotheses concerning the governing role of lipids in the life history of C. finmarchicus. However, assessment of the factors that influence entry into dormancy should be based on the relative probabilities of alternative strategies for successful reproduction (e.g. entering dormancy vs. continuing into a second generation).

Pepin, Pierre; Head, Erica J. H.

2009-06-01

297

One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility  

SciTech Connect

Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

Malloy, M.G.

1997-11-01

298

Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July-August 1990 joint US-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper troposphere/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forested region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region. 71 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R.W.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, K.; Klemm, O. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)] [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Gregory, G.L.; Anderson, B. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Barrie, L.A. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)] [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)

1994-01-20

299

Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland.  

PubMed

The need to obtain ocean color essential climate variables (OC-ECVs) using hyperspectral technology has gained increased interest in recent years. Assessing ocean color on a large scale in high latitude environments using satellite remote sensing is constrained by polar environmental conditions. Nevertheless, on a small scale we can assess ocean color using above-water and in-water remote sensing. Unfortunately, above-water remote sensing can only determine apparent optical properties leaving the sea surface and is susceptible to near surface environmental conditions for example sky and sunglint. Consequently, we have to rely on accurate in-water remote sensing as it can provide both synoptic inherent and apparent optical properties of seawater. We use normalized water leaving radiance LWN or the equivalent remote sensing reflectance RRS from 27 stations to compare the differences in above-water and in-water OC-ECVs. Analysis of above-water and in-water RRS spectra provided very good match-ups (R2 > 0.97, MSE < 1.8*10(-7)) for all stations. The unbiased percent differences (UPD) between above-water and in-water approaches were determined at common OC-ECVs spectral bands (410, 440, 490, 510 and 555) nm and the classic band ratio (490/555) nm. The spectral average UPD ranged (5 - 110) % and band ratio UPD ranged (0 - 12) %, the latter showing that the 5% uncertainty threshold for ocean color radiometric products is attainable. UPD analysis of these stations West of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait and West of Iceland also suggests that the differences observed are likely a result of environmental and instrumental perturbations. PMID:23842380

Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Zielinski, Oliver

2013-07-01

300

Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.  

PubMed

Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 ?mol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 ?mol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

2014-06-01

301

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).  

PubMed

Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

302

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs.

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

303

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

304

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

305

The Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

2002-01-01

306

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Goodwin, Mel

307

Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

2002-05-01

308

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

309

21. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. ORIGINAL HORIZONTAL SHAFTING OF GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATORS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 160, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

310

Predictions of Island Nucleation: Etch Pits on Si(001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleation and growth of islands during deposition or etching produces subtle correlations between island size and separation, which control the island size distribution [1]. These correlations develop early on, motivating detailed analysis of the island nucleation regime. Once a \\

J. W. Evans; J. B. Hannon; M. C. Bartelt; G. L. Kellogg

2000-01-01

311

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

312

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

313

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

314

9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

315

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

316

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

317

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

318

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

319

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

320

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

321

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

322

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

323

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

324

Pleistocene Glaciation on St. George, Pribilof Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small ice cap (covering about 12 square kilometers) and at least two--probably four--cirque glaciers (each covering less than 1 square kilometer) occurred on St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, probably during the Illinoian Glaciation. Snowbanks persis...

D. M. Hopkins T. Einarsson

1966-01-01

325

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

326

Recovery Plan for Big Island Plant Cluster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian Islands are classified as a distinct floristic region by phytogeographers because oftheir unique flora (Takhtajan 1986). Plants ancestral to Hawaii arrived by long distance dispersal, colonizing the islands at a rate of about one species per ...

1996-01-01

327

Bidding the CpG island goodbye  

PubMed Central

Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands.

2013-01-01

328

Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized catastrophic floods that came through Ares Valles. The Story In symbolism only, these guppy-shaped islands and current-like flutes of land beside them may conjure up a mental image of a flowing Martian river. This picture would only be half-right. Scientifically, no fish ever swam this channel, but these landforms do reveal that catastrophic floods of rushing water probably patterned the land in just this way. Geologists who study flood areas believe that a tremendous force of moving water probably carved both the islands and the small, parallel, 'current-like' ridges around them. The blunt end of the islands (the 'heads' of the 'fish') are probably ancient impact craters that posed obstacles to the water as it rushed down the channel in torrents. Because a crater is resistant to erosion, it creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water makes its way downstream, the crater's interference with the water flow is reduced, so the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins at the narrow end of the island (the 'tail' of the 'fish'). Therefore, from this information, you can tell that the water flowed from the southeast to the northwest. As a rule of thumb for the future, you can say that the narrow end of the island points downstream. The result may be the island behind the crater, but geologists disagree about the exact process by which the island forms. Some scientists argue that the erosive power of the water is directed outward, leaving the area behind, or in the lee of, the obstacle relatively untouched. Other scientists argue that the water slows when it encounters the crater obstacle, and small particles of sand and 'dirt' drop out of the water and are deposited in the lee. There's another small associated uncertainty too. Look closely at the edges of the islands and notice how the land is terraced. These ledges might mark the height of the water at various times during the flood . . . or they might be an indication that layering occurred. It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the stream

2002-01-01

329

The Holocene Isolation of Dalma Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalma Island can be broadly defined as an emergent salt diapir formed through the halokinetic emplacement of the Precambrian-Cambrian Hormuz Complex. The outline of the island, as seen today, has been much modified by anthropogenic dredge-and-fill activities. The lithofacies of Dalma Island can be subdivided into three distinct geological and geographical provinces. The core of the island is dominated by

Stephen Lokier

2010-01-01

330

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A...

2013-07-01

331

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

2013-07-01

332

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line...

2013-07-01

333

50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix E to Part 622...622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622âCaribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1 of...

2013-10-01

334

46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

2013-10-01

335

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deception Island is the largest volcano in the actively extending Bransfield Basin, a marginal basin situated behind the extinct South Shetland Islands arc. Deception Island has been well studied but its submerged flanks have not. A multibeam bathymetry survey was conducted around the island in 2005. Data from the flooded caldera show no evidence for recent localized resurgence. The gently-sloped

A. H. Barclay; W. S. D. Wilcock; J. M. Ibáñez

2009-01-01

336

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and...Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at...

2013-07-01

337

33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

2013-07-01

338

33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

2013-07-01

339

Economic Impact of Block Island Race Week.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Block Island, an area of 11 square miles lies 15 miles off the Rhode Island Coast. Biennially since 1965, the Storm Trysail Club of New York has sponsored a week of yacht races at Block Island. The event, which takes place in the third week of June, comes...

J. F. Farrell

1973-01-01

340

Sustainable use of groundwater in Atoll Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources in small islands, such as atoll islands, are limited and threatened by climate change such as changes in precipitation and sea level rise. Groundwater is the main water resources in many atoll islands, and the freshwater in aquifers in coral atolls, where the average elevations are a few meters above the sea level, exists as lenses f1oating on

M. Taniguchi; S. Nakada; Y. Umezawa; H. Yamano

2010-01-01

341

MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

342

40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432...Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925...

2013-07-01

343

Concerns generated by islanding [electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss islanding operation and to provide end-users with items to consider when determining distributed generation plant and equipment design requirements. Islanding is operating an electric generating plant without an external voltage and frequency reference. Operating in parallel is the opposite of islanding. This article attempts to describe the valid concerns that grid operators

P. L. Villenueve

2004-01-01

344

JASON Project: Flying over the Channel Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By using Landsat-7-ETM+ data and USGS DEM Elevation data, we are able to take a virtual tour of the Channel Islands and the coast of California. For more information on the Channel Islands, please visit (http:--www.channel.islands.national-park.com).

Snodgrass, Stuart; Williams, Darrel

2003-01-09

345

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife...Hunting and Fishing § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have...refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife Refuge A....

2013-10-01

346

Chasing land crabs on Christmas Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Christmas Island, or 'Kiritimati', is the world's largest coral atoll. It is located in the Line Island group, some 3240 km (2015 miles) from Tarawa, Kiribati's main island. About 4810 people (2002 fig- ures) live scattered around the atoll, mainly in four villages on the eastern side. The atoll covers 575 square km (222 square miles), but land resources are

Mecki Kronen

2007-01-01

347

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

348

Radiometric studies of the heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the 'heat island' in the atmospheric transmittance and in the contrast of thermal images was studied. The transmittance and contrast were calculated for a real atmospheric and for an atmosphere with a simulated heat island. As a result of these calculation, it was possible to verify that the influence of the heat island in the transmittance and

M. A. Lombardo; A. E. C. Pereira; G. C. Neto; L. A. V. Dias

1981-01-01

349

Heat island development in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the climatology of the near surface urban heat island of Mexico City, using hourly data from two recently installed automatic stations at a rural and an urban site. The results show that the nocturnal heat island was more frequent (75% of the time for the period examined) than daytime cases (25%). The maximum nocturnal heat island

Ernesto Jauregui

1997-01-01

350

The New Volcanic Island, Krakatoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a botanist or zoologist the birth of a new island from beneath the sea is an event of considerable interest. A number of questions occur to him and he will almost inevitably speculate as to the first forms of life to colonise it, and the date of their appearance. In Dr. W. Docters van Leeuwen's interesting letter, published in

W. S. Bristowe

1933-01-01

351

Three Mile Island population registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and

M. K. Goldhaber; G. K. Tokuhata; E. Digon; G. G. Caldwell; G. F. Stein; G. Lutz; D. Gur

2009-01-01

352

Chaos in easter island ecology.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems. PMID:21933513

Sprott, J C

2011-10-01

353

Filariasis Studies in Mindanao Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the endemic areas for malayan filariasis in the island of Mindanao by means of spot or selective surveys. Night blood smears were taken from individuals whose dwellings are located close to fresh water sw...

B. D. Cabrera

1969-01-01

354

UV - VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 144 is located in Virgin Islands NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, I...

355

The Manitoulin Island Space Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

Shaffer, Dianna

1991-01-01

356

Teledermatology on the Faroe Islands.  

PubMed

The use of teledermatology as an adjunct to conventional clinical dermatology on the Faroe Islands is described. The service is based on a nurse-led dermatological clinic, and teledermatology is combined with specialist visits for more complex diagnosis or procedures. PMID:18937650

Jemec, Gregor B E; Heidenheim, Michael; Dam, Tomas N; Vang, Edith

2008-09-01

357

Island Explorers Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes science curriculum facilitated through hands-on marine science activities correlated with the California Science Framework. Curriculum focuses on major ocean concepts and Catalina Island. Program involves overnight field trip to Wrigley Institute. Teacher training component is in development. Two student activities focusing on garibaldi and kelp are available on the site.

358

The Three Mile Island crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample

P. S. Houts; P. D. Cleary; T. W. Hu

1988-01-01

359

Soil Investigation on Banks Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soils of Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, are predominantly well-drained with many high arctic affinities. Because of the dry desert-like appearance of most of the soils, they are designated collectively as polar desert rather than tundra. Man...

J. C. F. Tedrow L. A. Douglas

1964-01-01

360

Floating Cities, Islands and States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-01-01

361

"This width of the territorial sea of the People?s Republic of China is twelve national miles. This provision applies to all Territories of the People?s Republic of China including the mainland China and offshore islands Taiwan (separated from the mainland and offshore islands by high seas) and its surrounding islands the Pongo Archipelago the Dongsha Islands the Lisha islands the Zhongsha Islands the Nasha Islands and other islands belonging to China."  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: "This width of the territorial sea of the People?s Republic of China is twelve national miles. This provision applies to all Territories of the People?s Republic of China including the mainland China and offshore islands Taiwan (separated from the mainland and offshore islands by high seas) and its surrounding islands the Pongo Archipelago the Dongsha Islands the Lisha islands the Zhongsha Islands the Nasha Islands and other islands belonging to China." ?

362

Smoking rates in Pacific islands.  

PubMed

This study collected data on rates of cigarette smoking in the following Pacific Islands: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Tuvalu, and Western Samoa. The data were collected in 1975-81 as part of a diabetes-cardiovascular diseases survey. A large variation in the prevalence of smoking was found in the populations surveyed. 90% of men and 74% of women on Kiribati were daily smokers compared with 38% of men and 19% of women on the Cook Islands and only 4% of the female population of Fiji. There was no association between age and the prevalence of smoking. Smoking tended to be more common in rural areas than urban areas and was higher among men than women in all populations studied. For both men and women, the prevalence of smoking was higher among lower income groups and those who reported moderate or heavy alcohol consumption. There was no clear association between smoking and marital status. Overall, the data on the prevalence of cigarette smoking indicate that this has become a significant public health problem in Pacific island communities. The data further suggest that the prevalence of smoking differs markedly in culturally and ethnically different populations. Somewhat unexpected was the greater proportion of smokers among traditional communities in rural areas compared with urban areas. This finding can be explained in part by the widespread practice of cultivating tobacco in many rural areas of the Pacific. It is recommended that a reliable survey of smoking patterns in the Pacific islands and prospective surveys that correlate the results of such a study with the distribution of cardiovascular diseases and cancer be conducted. PMID:3490322

Tuomilehto, J; Zimmet, P; Taylor, R; Bennet, P; Wolf, E; Kankaanpää, J

1986-01-01

363

Using multiple sulfur isotopes to link biological isotope fractionation in a sedimentary protolith to a magmatic Ni-sulfide deposit: Voisey's Bay Ni deposit, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that crustal contamination is required for the formation of significant magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits. Either the addition of external S or SiO2 promote early sulfide saturation. The most direct indicator of S addition by this contaminant is S isotopes. However, the traditional use of ?34S values is inadequate in deposits where Archean sedimentary sulfides incorporated into these deposits might not have significantly different ?34S values from those of mantle S. Even in sediments that have variable ?34S values, ?34S signature can be reset to magmatic values by equilibrating large amounts of silicate magma with initial sulfide melt. However, sedimentary rocks contain isotope evidence of biological fractionation processes in the relationship between ?33S and ?34S values. We used multiple S isotope data to constrain the relationship between ?33S and ?34S values, identify biological S isotope fractionation in the metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Tasiuyak Gneiss, and compare this relationship to that in the Voisey's Bay magmatic Ni-deposit. The Voisey's Bay Ni-sulfide deposit, Labrador is hosted by a troctolitic conduit system. The Voisey's Bay intrusion is a part of the Nain plutonic suite and intruded at approximately 1.3 Ga along the boundary between the Proterozoic Tasiuyak Gneiss of the Churchill province and Archean gneisses of the Nain province. The general model suggests assimilation of a large amount of sulfidic Tasiuyak gneiss, leading to sulfur saturation prior to emplacement, even though the Tasiuyak gneiss does not have a high concentration of sulfur. High-temperature equilibrium relationships are not present in our measured ?33S and ?34S values from the Voisey's Bay deposit. Instead they indicate that a kinetic process is responsible for S isotope fractionations in the mineralization and troctolite, similar to that recorded by the Tasiuyak gneiss. The observed relationship between ?33S and ?34S values is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction, in agreement with the previously interpreted marine sedimentary protolith to the Tasiuyak gneiss. This relationship has apparently been inherited by the troctolite and the mineralization through assimilation of the Tasiuyak gneiss, despite the equilibration of the sulfide melt with a very large amount of silicate magma, resetting the ?34S values in the deposit to magmatic, or nearly magmatic, values.

Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Wing, B. A.

2012-12-01

364

Fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility and its role in REE ore formation: Evidence from the Strange Lake rare metal deposit, Québec-Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegmatites and adjacent subsolvus granites (two alkali feldspars) of the Mid-Proterozoic Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) host potentially economic concentrations of high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), zirconium and niobium. Previous studies have proposed that these concentrations were the result of a combination of extreme fractionation of a peralkaline granitic magma and later hydrothermal remobilization. However, the recent discovery of melt inclusions which, after heating to 900 or 950 °C, quench to immiscible fluoride and silicate glasses, suggests an additional mechanism of HFSE concentration. Crystallized melt inclusions are common in quartz phenocrysts of the early hypersolvus and transsolvus granite. After heating, four types of inclusions were discerned. Type 1 inclusions quench to a single silicate glass containing a high concentration of Zr, Nb and Ti. Quenching of Type 2 inclusions produces a Zr, Nb, Ti-rich silicate glass containing a globule of calcium-rich fluoride glass with a high concentration of the REE. The third inclusion type is similar to Type 2, except that the calcium-rich fluoride glass contains a globule of REE-fluoride glass (up to 50 wt.% total REE). Type 4 inclusions contain calcium-fluoride glass with multiple silicate globules. We propose that during or soon after emplacement, the early granitic magma exsolved a calcium fluoride melt into which rare earth elements (REE) partitioned preferentially. The conjugate silicate melt was consequently depleted in Ca and the REE, and enriched in Zr, Nb and Ti. Crystallization of the fluoride melt occurred late in the crystallization history of the silicate magma allowing it to accumulate in the volatile-rich residual magma that formed the pegmatites. This played a major role in the extreme enrichment of the pegmatites in Ca, F and REE. Crystallization of the pegmatites proceeded inwards from an outer zone in which feldspars, quartz, arfvedsonite and zirconosilicate minerals dominate to a core where the immiscible fluoride liquid collected and crystallized fluorite and REE minerals. Fluid exsolved from the silicate melt reacted with the products of both the silicate and fluoride melts, remobilizing most of the HFSE including the REE. This study reports a rare example of silicate-fluoride melt immiscibility and the first in which such immiscibility played a role in concentrating the REE to potentially economic levels.

Vasyukova, Olga; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

2014-08-01

365

Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model more closely follows techniques employed by field geologists and is fundamental to the geologic interpretation of an area. Even so, an operational time cost/benefit analyses should be carefully considered in each situation, to determine when such comprehensive data collection would maximize the science return.Finally, it should be recognized that analogue deployments cannot faithfully model the time scales of robotic planetary missions. Analogue missions are limited by the difficulty and expense of fieldwork. Thus, analogue deployments should focus on smaller aspects of robotic missions and test components in a modular way (e.g., dropping communications constraints, limiting mission scope, focusing on a specific problem, spreading the mission over several field seasons, etc.).

Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

2013-07-01

366

Magic Size Effects for Heteroepitaxial Island Diffusion  

SciTech Connect

Activation energies for diffusion of small heteroepitaxial islands by nucleation and motion of a dislocation across the island are calculated using a Frenkel-Kontorova model. At {open_quote}{open_quote}magic island sizes{close_quote}{close_quote} the activation barriers for heteroepitaxial island diffuison are dramatically lowered. Total energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations using the embedded atom method confirm the existence of a rapid diffusion process for two-dimensional islands. A signature of this process is a strongly temperature dependent activation energy for diffusion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Hamilton, J.C. [Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1996-07-01

367

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

368

U–Pb geochronology of the eastern Hall Peninsula, southern Baffin Island, Canada: a northern link between the Archean of West Greenland and the Paleoproterozoic Torngat Orogen of northern Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corridor east of Iqaluit that crosses several regionally significant lithologic boundaries has been mapped and sampled for geochronology. Zircon, monazite and titanite were analysed by the isotope dilution U–Pb method to characterize igneous and metamorphic events, and Pb–Pb ages of detrital zircons were determined by laser ablation microprobe ICP-MS. Tonalitic gneisses at the eastern end of the corridor are

David J Scott

1999-01-01

369

Generalized water-table map of Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The map shows the altitude of water table surface above seal level in the glacial deposits that form Block Island. Because the sediments are only moderately permeable, the water table is close to the to the surface in most parts of the island, even in hilly areas. The map represents a generalized water-table configuration on the basis of data from many different sampling periods; because the data were collected at different times, they should not be used to determine a specific depth to water at a particular site. Water levels measured in 117 shallow wells (less than 35 feet deep) from June through September 1962 and from March through September 1988-90--periods when water levels were at about the same altitude above sea level--ranged from less than 1 to 24 feet below land surface and averaged about 6 feet below land surface.

Johnston, H. E.; Veeger, A. I.

1994-01-01

370

Hydrogeology and water resources of Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is present on Block Island as a lens of freshwater that overlies saltwater. Yields of 2 to 5 gallons per minute are obtainable throughout the island, and yields of 25 gallons per minute are possible at many wells. Annual water use during 1990 is estimated to have been 53 million gallons, of which approximately 17 million gallons was delivered from a water company at Sands Pond. Demand by water company customers from May through October averages 74,000 gallons per day. The sustainable yield of Sands Pond during the drought years estimated to be only 45,000 gallons per day. Withdrawal of the remaining 29,000 gallons per day from Fresh Pond, proposed as an alternative source, would produce an estimated water-level decline of less than 1 foot. Block Island consists of a Pleistocene moraine deposit that includes meltwater deposits, till, sediment-flow deposits, and glacially transported blocks of Cretaceous strata and pre-Late Wisconsinan glacial deposits. The water table is a subdued reflection of the land-surface topography and flow is generally from the central, topographic highs toward the coast. Layers of low hydraulic- conductivity material impede vertical flow, creating steep vertical gradients. No evidence of widespread ground-water contamination was found during this study. Nitrate concentrations were below Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels at each of the 83 sites sampled. No evidence of dissolved organic constituents was found in groundwater at the 10 sites sampled, and ground-water samples collected near the landfill showed no evidence of contamination from landfill leachate. Dissolved-iron concentrations exceeded the Federal Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level in groundwater at 26 of 76 wells sampled. High iron concentrations were found predominantly in the eastern and northern parts of the island and are attributed to the presence of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter in the aquifer.

Veeger, A. I.; Johnston, H. E.

1994-01-01

371

Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15

372

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed Central

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island.

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-01-01

373

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. PMID:12952621

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-08-01

374

Barrier Island Failure During Hurricane Katrina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical models of barrier-island response to storms predict that wave runup can periodically overtop an island and transport sand from its seaside to its bayside, forcing the island to migrate landward. While this process can destroy fixed human developments, the island survives with little net change in form or dimensions. In contrast, we find that Louisiana's Chandeleur Islands during Hurricane Katrina were not periodically overtopped by waves, but were continuously inundated by storm surge. When such inundation occurs locally on a barrier island, it can force the erosion of a narrow breach that connects sea and bay. However, little is known about the response of a barrier island when it is entirely submerged. Here, we show that the Chandeleur Islands approached complete failure, losing 84% of their surface area. Their Gulf of Mexico shorelines retreated landward an average of 268 m, the largest retreat ever reported for a storm. Sand was stripped from the islands, reducing their peak elevation from >6 m to <3 m and exposing them to further degradation and potential failure by future hurricanes of less intensity than Katrina. Further, the islands that survived Katrina were marsh remnants composed of mud and vegetation that relatively small waves diminished following the storm. The Chandeleur Islands are prone to failure because of their location on the Mississippi delta where small sand supply and large sea-level rise (induced locally by land subsidence) limit natural rebuilding of the islands following a storm. The response of the delta's barrier islands during Hurricane Katrina provides a warning of how the world's barrier islands might respond to storm-surge inundation should predictions of accelerated global sea level rise prove accurate.

Sallenger, A.; Howd, P.; Stockdon, H.; Wright, C. W.; Fauver, L.; Guy, K.

2006-12-01

375

Stranded on a Desert Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are stranded on a tropical desert island. At an abandoned science lab on the island, they explore the properties of different materials to determine which are best to construct a shelter, boat, and path to aid in their survival. The properties investigated are: magnetism, conductivity, opacity, buoyancy, and elasticity. Learners practice research techniques, must work together, and need to design within constraints. This lesson plan includes definitions of key words, scenario sheet, lab sheets,and handouts. This activity is the third in a four part series of pre/post activities (Matter, Matter, What's the Matter?) created for an exhibit on material science, but can be used on its own.

Houston, Children'S M.

2009-01-01

376

Okhotskia: International Kuril Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of the Kuril Archipelago." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal -- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University -- to view text and images describing project Objectives, Rationale and Scope, Anticipated Future Research, and more. Links are also provided to project Results (including IKIP databases, publications, and presentations) and Island Info including sections on Vascular Plants, Stoneflies, Nesting Birds, and many more. Additionally, a very nicely organized photo gallery features maps and many beautiful photographs taken by project participants during collecting expeditions to the Kuril Archipelago.

377

Pine Island Glacier Calving (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event. This series of images from the MISR instrument on the Terra satellite not only shows the crack expanding and the iceberg breakoff, but the seaward moving glacial flow in the parts of the Pine Island Glacier upstream of the crack.

Perkins, Lori; Mitchell, Horace; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2005-03-09

378

Case study in Reunion Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the status of a case study that is being carried in Reunion Island, France, to investigate the opportunity to use a point-to-point wireless power transmission link to deliver electricity to a small isolated village called Grand-Bassin. The different steps followed since this case study was first started are briefly reminded. The last stage consisting in the development of an indoor industrial prototype is presented. Perspectives are given towards the emergence of a semi-private organization whose first role would be to evaluate the viability of the concept of using WPT as a way to extend the conventional electricity grid in order to provide energy to remote places not only in Reunion Island, but in many places around the world. This organization would also have as a role, to head the industrial engineering and development of point-to-point WPT prototype equipment.

Celeste, A.; Jeanty, P.; Pignolet, G.

2004-02-01

379

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

380

Flora of the Marquesas Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology offers online access to taxonomic and geographical information on the vascular plants of the Marquesas Islands. An easy-to-use search tool retrieves plant checklists, which include species distribution and status information. Other features of this well-presented Web site include a searchable image gallery, curatorial information on collected specimens, a general account of the Marquesas, and some gorgeous panoramic photos. Look for additional features as the site develops.

381

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario;)

2004-11-01

382

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2013-04-01

383

77 FR 12323 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Buck Island Reef National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Buck Island Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands AGENCY: National Park Service...Buck Island Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands...for Buck Island Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands. [[Page 12324

2012-02-29

384

The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, Roanoke Island, located between the coast of North Carolina and the Outer Banks, became a refuge for escaped slaves, called contrabands or freedmen. This site, created by University of Virginia professor Patricia C. Click presents an account of the history and selected documents and maps of the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, as the community was known. Documents include letters from Superintendent of the Colony, Horace James, a minister and abolitionist from Massachusetts, and letters from Freedmen themselves. The documents have been transcribed and are in .pdf format, so users should not expect to see scanned versions of 19th century originals. The projects section includes seven projects for high school and college students, using historical materials at the site, and from other related Web sites. Professor Click has written a book, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island FreedmenâÂÂs Colony, 1862-1867, and the Preview section contains the table of contents and Chapter One. Links in the site refer to this book for more information; in the Maps section users are referred to its online ordering instructions for more information on the layout of the colony.

Click, Patricia C.

2001-01-01

385

Dense water formation around islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic constraints on the dense water formation rate and circulation resulting from cooling around an island are discussed. The domain under consideration consists of an island surrounded by a shelf, a continental slope, and a stratified ocean. Atmospheric cooling over the shelf forms a dense water that penetrates down the sloping bottom into the stratified basin. Strong azimuthal flows are generated over the sloping bottom as a result of thermal wind. Thermally direct and indirect mean overturning cells are also forced over the slope as a result of bands of convergent and divergent Reynolds stresses associated with the jets. The Coriolis force associated with the net mass flux into the downwelling region over the slope is balanced by these nonlinear terms, giving rise to a fundamentally different momentum budget than arises in semienclosed marginal seas subject to cooling. A similar momentum balance is found for cases with canyons and ridges around the island provided that the terms are considered in a coordinate system that follows the topography. Both eddy fluxes and the mean overturning cells are important for the radial heat flux, although the eddy fluxes typically dominate. The properties of the dense water formed over the shelf (temperature, diapycnal mass flux) are predicted well by application of baroclinic instability theory and simple heat and mass budgets. It is shown that each of these quantities depends only on a nondimensional number derived from environmental parameters such as the shelf depth, Coriolis parameter, offshore temperature field, and atmospheric forcing.

Spall, Michael A.

2013-05-01

386

Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.  

SciTech Connect

Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

Williams, Kelly Porter

2013-10-01

387

The island wind buoyancy connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent studies have suggested that the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is at least partially controlled by the Southern Ocean (SO) winds. The paradoxical implication is that a link exists between the global surface buoyancy flux to the ocean (which is needed for the density transformation between surface and deep water) and the SO winds. Although the dependency of buoyancy forcing on local wind is obvious, the global forcings are usually viewed independently with regard to their role as drivers of the global ocean circulation. The present idealized study is focused on understanding this wind buoyancy connection. In order to isolate and investigate the effect of SO winds on the overturning we have neglected other important key processes such as SO eddies.We present the wind buoyancy connection in the framework of a single gigantic island that lies between latitude bands free of continents (such as the land mass of the Americas). The unique geometry of a gigantic island on a sphere allows for a clear and insightful examination of the wind buoyancy connection. This is because it enables us to obtain analytical solutions and it circumvents the need to calculate the torque exerted on zonal sills adjacent to the island tips (e.g. the Bering Strait). The torque calculation is notoriously difficult and is avoided here by the clockwise integration, which goes twice through the western boundary of the island (in opposite directions) eliminating any unknown pressure torques.The link between SO winds and global buoyancy forcing is explored qualitatively, using salinity and temperature mixed dynamical-box models and a temperature slab model, and semiquantitatively, employing a reduced gravity model which includes parametrized thermodynamics. Our main finding is that, in all of these cases the island geometry implies that the stratification (and, hence, the air sea heat flux) can always adjust itself to allow the overturning forced by the wind. We find that, in the mixed dynamical-box models, the salinity and temperature differences between the boxes are inversely proportional to the MOC. In spite of the resulting smaller north south temperature difference, the meridional heat transport is enhanced.

de Boer, Agatha M.; Nof, Doron

2005-10-01

388

Island biogeography, the effects of taxonomic effort and the importance of island niche diversity to single-island endemic species.  

PubMed

Island biogeography theory is fundamentally reliant on measuring the number of species per island and hence has taxonomy at its foundation. Yet as a metric used in tests of the theory, island species richness (S) has varied with time according to the level of taxonomic effort (a function of the rate of finding and describing species). Studies using a derivative of S, single-island endemic species richness (SIE S), may be prone to change in taxonomic effort. Decreases or increases in species numbers resulting from taxonomic revision or increased sampling are likely to have a large effect on values of SIE S, as they tend to be smaller than total S for the same island. Using simple biogeography models, we analysed estimates of SIE S in plants, land snails, beetles, and fungi from comprehensive data sets for eight island groups, produced species accumulation curves and applied Bayesian regression over five time periods. Explanatory power differed across taxa, but area and island age were not always the best explanatory variables, and niche diversity appeared to be important. Changing levels of SIE S over time had different effects on models with different taxa and between island archipelagos. The results indicated that the taxonomic effort that determines SIE S is important. However, as this cannot often be quantified, we suggest Bayesian approaches should be more useful than frequentist methods in evaluating SIE S in island biogeography theory. Fundamentally, the article highlights the importance of taxonomy to theoretical biogeography. PMID:23985784

Gray, Alan; Cavers, Stephen

2014-01-01

389

Trace element composition of olivine - implications for the evolution of the olivine gabbro-troctolite-hosted Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mesoproterozoic Voisey's Bay intrusion is part of the Nain Plutonic Suite, which transects the 1.85 Ga collisional boundary between the Proterozoic Churchill Province and the Archean Nain Province in Eastern Labrador. The intrusion comprises a group of troctolitic to olivine gabbroic bodies linked by olivine gabbro dikes; together these rocks host the world-class Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit. Zones of massive and disseminated sulfide mineralization (Reid Brook, Discovery Hill, Mini-Ovoid and Ovoid) occur within a dike and at the entry line of this dike into a larger intrusion termed the Eastern Deeps [1, 2, 3]. At least two pulses of magma have generated the intrusion and the associated sulfide mineralization; an initial surge that achieved sulfide saturation by interacting with upper crustal rocks, and a later pulse of fresh, undepleted magma that forced the initial magma upwards and both remobilized the immiscible sulfide liquid and upgraded it in metal content [1, 2, 3]. Previous research [1, 2] has shown that the Ni content of olivine from the distinct sulfide-bearing host rocks is highly variable, and also indicative of both magma mixing and interaction of silicate magmas with sulfide. To further validate the significance of the olivine chemistry as a tracer for ore-forming petrological processes, we have determined the abundances of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn in olivines from the various mafic lithologies of the Eastern Deeps intrusion using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We present systematic variations in Mn, Co, Ni and Zn with Fo-content in olivines for both sulfide-free and sulfide-bearing zones. Olivines from mineralized and brecciated troctolitic/gabbroic zones display significantly higher Mn (up to 11,000 ppm) and Zn (up to 550 ppm) concentrations than those from nominally barren counterparts. The barren troctolite, broadly termed normal troctolite (NT), is a petrographically homogenous plagioclase and olivine cumulate. However, olivine compositional data establish the presence of "reef-like" horizons with, for instance, elevated Ni concentrations (up to 2,500 ppm), versus surrounding horizons where values of ? 1,500 ppm are predominant. These horizons correspond with deflections in the whole-rock MgO, Fe2O3 and MnO contents. If these horizons are widespread and traceable laterally within the intrusion it would imply that: (1) a "cryptic-layering" might be preserved in olivines from the otherwise homogenous NT - indicating either crystallization from an input of fresh, undepleted mafic magma, or an interaction of those olivines with a Ni-rich sulfide liquid [1, 2], (2) the high Mn and Zn concentrations, coupled with lower forsterite values, are probably a result of crystallization from a country rock-contaminated mafic magma, and therefore, might act as a mineral-based indicator for the assimilation of upper crustal material. These observations may assist in developing a signature for olivines that have been in contact with highly contaminated (and thus potentially sulfide saturated) magmas. [1] Li et al. (2000) Econ. Geol. 95, 771-799. [2] Li and Naldrett (1999) Lithos 47, 1-31. [3] Lightfoot and Naldrett (1999) GAC Vol. 13, 1-30.

Bulle, F.; Layne, G. D.

2011-12-01

390

A statistical model of magnetic islands in a current layer  

SciTech Connect

This letter describes a statistical model of the dynamics of magnetic islands in very large current layers that develop in space plasma. Two parameters characterize the island distribution: the flux psi contained in the island and the area A it encloses. The integrodifferential evolution equation for this distribution function is based on rules that govern the small-scale generation of secondary islands, the rates of island growth, and island merging. The numerical solutions of this equation produce island distributions relevant to the magnetosphere and solar corona. The solution of a differential equation for large islands explicitly shows the role merging plays in island growth.

Fermo, R. L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

2010-01-15

391

Boston Harbor Islands All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory: Discovering the Microwilderness of an Urban Island Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Boston Harbor Islands Partnership (BHIP) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard University collaborated to conduct the first phase of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, Boston, Massac...

B. D. Farrell J. J. Rykken

2013-01-01

392

Historic Furnishings Report: Raspberry Island Light Station, Apostle Islands. National Lakeshore, Bayfield, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report brings together information on the buildings, furnishings, and occupants of Raspberry Island Light Station in the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin. Topics included in the report are: An analysis of historic occupancy; Evidence of room use and furnish...

D. H. Wallace

1989-01-01

393

Solar and Atmospheric Radiation Data for Broughton Island, eastern Baffin Island, Canada, 1971-73.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three years partial record of radiation for Broughton Island reported here tends to support the thesis already demonstrated elsewhere for other climatological parameters that conditions on the eastern coast of Baffin Island and, implicitly, in Davis S...

J. D. Jacobs

1974-01-01

394

Radio Frequency Shielding Tests of System Technology Test Facility at Meck Island, Marshall Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of tests and inspections performed to verify the shielding integrity of the newly constructed Systems Technology Test Facility (STTF) on Meck Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands. Recommendations for improvement of th...

P. H. Nielsen

1977-01-01

395

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...drawn from the southernmost extremity of St. Catherines Island to Northeast Point on Blackbeard Island. (f) A line following the general trend of the seaward highwater shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line...

2009-07-01

396

Invasive aliens on tropical East Asian islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical East Asia (TEA) has numerous islands, both continental and oceanic. This study uses information on invasive aliens\\u000a in terrestrial habitats on these islands to test the generality of the continental-oceanic contrast in invasibility, assess\\u000a the conservation impacts of invasive species, and suggest ways to mitigate these. The continental islands of Hong Kong and\\u000a Singapore are worst-case scenarios for continental

Richard T. Corlett

2010-01-01

397

CpG islands and genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the estimated 45 000 CpG islands in the human genome, the overwhelming majority are found at the 5? ends of genes and their identification and cloning are proving very useful for finding and isolating genes. Recent work has shed light on the chromosomal distribution and origin of CpG islands. It has been shown unequivocally that CpG islands are concentrated

Sally H Cross; Adrian P Bird

1995-01-01

398

The Beetles of the Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided in collaboration by researchers at Montana State and Ohio State universities, this database of the Beetles of the Virgin Islands contains records for over 34,000 specimens of 489 beetle species. The database also offers mapping capabilities for identifying beetle collection locations. Query by Island, Family, or Specimen to find details for each species -- including scientific name, number of specimens in the database, islands where this species has been collected, and collecting methods.

1996-01-01

399

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

400

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

401

Ordering of strained islands during surface growth.  

PubMed

We study the morphological evolution of strained islands in growing crystal films by use of a continuum description including wetting, elasticity, and deposition. We report different nonlinear regimes following the elastic instability and tuned by the flux. Increasing the flux, we first find an annealinglike dynamics, then a slower but nonconventional ripening followed by a steady regime, while the island density continuously increases. The islands develop spatial correlations and ordering with a narrow two-peaked distance distribution and ridgelike clusters of islands at high flux. PMID:20365572

Aqua, Jean-Noël; Frisch, Thomas; Verga, Alberto

2010-02-01

402

Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.  

PubMed

We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes. PMID:16803325

Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

2006-06-01

403

Tracking Ecosystem Loss on East Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands: Recent Research and Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sensitive Ecosystems Inventory 2003-2004 disturbance mapping project for east Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, British Columbia, measured changes to the landscape over approximately a ten-year period. In 1993-1997, the Sensitive Ecosystems Inventory mapped seven different natural ecosystem types that were considered to be rare and sensitive on east Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, plus two other ecosystem

JAN KIRKBY; DAVID CAKE

404

An island approach to industrial ecology: towards sustainability in the island context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fields of study have employed geophysical islands in experimental design with a great deal of success. An island is a closed and bounded system in many respects and presents a manageable unit of study. The island microcosm has been the basis for significant advances in areas such as evolutionary biology, ecosystem ecology and physical anthropology. The same properties that

P. J. Deschenes; Marian Chertow

2004-01-01

405

Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

2013-01-01

406

RCN: SEAPRE: Seabird Islands and Introduced Predators: Impacts of Presence and Eradication on Island Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTELLECTUAL MERIT: Seabird islands (islands with large populations of seabirds) are crucial to the survival of native animals and plants due to the large subsidies provided by nutrient inputs of marine origin. Seabird predators have devastated seabird populations and drastically altered vegetation processes and ecosystem function all over the world. These predators are now being eradicated on hundreds of islands,

Christa Mulder; Wendy Anderson; Don Croll; Josh Donlan; Julie Ellis; Stephen Kress; Bernie Tershy; Alexander Wait; Peter Bellingham; Robbie McDonald; José Miguel Fariña; Dave Towns; Eric Vidal; David Wardle; Chris Wilcox

407

First record of Orobdella kawakatsuorum (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida: Erpobdelliformes) from Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Specimens of the genus Orobdella Oka, 1895 from Kunashir Island, the Kuril Islands, are identified as Orobdella kawakatsuorum Richardson, 1975. Mitochondrial tRNALeu and ND1 data confirm the species identification of the Kunashir specimens. This is the first record of the genus Orobdella from the Kuril Islands.

2014-01-01

408

Evaluating alternative rodenticides for island conservation: roof rat eradication from the San Jorge Islands, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced commensal rats (Rattus spp.) are a major contributor to the extinction and endangerment of island plants and animals. The use of the toxin brodifacoum to completely eradicate rats from islands is a powerful conservation tool. However, brodifacoum is toxic to animals other than rats and on some islands its use may not be feasible without prohibitively expensive mitigation. As

C. Josh Donlan; Gregg R. Howald; Bernie R. Tershy; Donald A. Croll

2003-01-01

409

Operation Ward's Island, A Guide to the Trees and Other Features of Ward's Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for teachers, students, and adults illustrates how it is possible to use Ward's Island as an outdoor laboratory. It contains a guide to 30 kinds of trees on the island, along with clearly drawn maps and illustrations. The guide helps the user to locate these trees along two nature trails. A section called "Ward's Island Roundup" briefly…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

410

The terrestrial arthropod fauna of the Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first detailed study of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the Byers Peninsula SSSI, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Fourteen micro-arthropod taxa (10 Acari, four Collembola) and two Diptera are recorded, including the first record of the mite Edwardzetes dentifer from the maritime Antarctic. The first record of the midge Belgica antarctica from neighbouring Snow Island is also

K. J. Richard; P. Convey; W. Block

1994-01-01

411

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

412

Dust and the Canary Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major dust storms are a frequent occurence over northwest Africa and the Sahara Desert. This image of a massive dust storm was aquired on February 11, 2001 by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). SeaWiFS has seen similar storms every year since its launch in August 1997. Of particular interest in this image are the eddies and waves on the lee side of the mountainous Canary Islands (center). Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

413

Eugene Island Block 330 field  

SciTech Connect

The Eugene Island Block 330 field ranks third in cumulative hydrocarbon production on the federal Outer Continental Shelf of the United States and at peak production was the largest O.C.S. oil-producing field. This giant field, located offshore Louisiana, covers parts of seven blocks in the Eugene Island area, South Addition. The field was discovered by the Pennzoil 1, OCS-G 2115 well, in March 1971. The field is a faulted, rollover anticline structure on the downthrown side of a large growth fault. Production is from more than 25 Pleistocene, delta-front sandstones sourced by deeply buried pre-Pleistocene shales. Trapping mechanisms are combinations of structural and stratigraphic varieties including four-way dip closure, fault closure, and facies changes. Over 100 separate oil and gas reservoirs occur with a complex spatial distribution. Reservoir energy results from a combination water-drive and gas expansion system. The field has experienced several phases of exploration and development. Initial mapping utilized reconnaissance seismic and lithofacies data. Over time, the data base has expanded to include 258 exploratory and development wells and three-dimensional seismic surveys. Ongoing evaluation has continually refined our geologic understanding and, although the field is mature, exploration and development continue.

Holland, D.S.; Lammlein, D.R.; Leedy, J.B.

1988-01-01

414

Rangiferine brucellosis on Baffin Island.  

PubMed

The standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from three populations on Baffin Island, Canada. During late winter from 1983 to 1986, sera from 17 of 40 North Baffin (43%), 11 of 33 Northeast Baffin (33%) and 12 of 82 South Baffin (15%) adult caribou had antibodies in the STAT at 1:50 or the CFT at 1:5. Seroprevalence increased as caribou matured with one (4%) of 25 calves, four (13%) of 31 yearlings, and 40 (26%) of 155 adult caribou being positive. However, seroprevalence did not differ with sex in any age class. Positive antibody titers were higher in adult females sampled in May, 3 to 4 wk before parturition, than in adult females sampled in late March and April. The strength of positive titers did not differ with the time of sampling among adult males. Pathologic signs of brucellosis were found in three (13%) of 23 caribou that were assumed to have active infections (caribou with CFT titers > 1:160). Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from 24 (60%) of 40 caribou from which lesions were submitted. Between 1986 and 1990, the annual incidence of reported human (Homo sapiens) cases averaged 3.4 (34:100,000) on Baffin Island. PMID:9249700

Ferguson, M A

1997-07-01

415

Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (< 150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs.

Goff, James; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Dominey-Howes, Dale; McAdoo, Brian; Cronin, Shane; Bonté-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, Scott; Horrocks, Mark; Cisternas, Marco; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Pelletier, Bernard; Jaffe, Bruce; Dudley, Walter

2011-07-01

416

Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sustainable fishing is on everyone's lips lately, but the Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) has been committed to "the highest level of economic and social benefits that is compatible with sustainable use of our tuna resources" since 1979. Visitors unfamiliar with how combating illegal fishing is accomplished should check out the "Monitoring, Control, Surveillance" link, which contains details about Operation Kurukuru, a recent surveillance operation. The operation was aimed at boats fishing without licenses or taking an amount of fish over the legal limit, such as the fishing vessel in Tuvalu that was found to have excessive shark fins onboard, and was thus fined $10,000 USD. Visitors might also like an article here that reports on a tuna data workshop in the Solomon Islands that addressed the role women could play as observers on fishing vessels to ensure proper catch data. As fishing vessels have typically had all male crews, employing a woman on the boat would require gender awareness measures and safety training, but the employment benefits for the women would be most welcome.

417

CONTEXT VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOEING RELATION BETWEEN BODIE ISLAND VIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOEING RELATION BETWEEN BODIE ISLAND VIP QUARTERS (LEFT) AND BODIE ISLAND LIFESAVING STATION (RIGHT) - Bodie Island Lifesaving Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

418

Benthic Substrate Classification Map: Gulf Islands National Seashore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to ...

D. Lavoie D. Twichell J. Flocks K. Rose

2013-01-01

419

82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City of Washington by Robert King Plate No. 1 - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

420

Recovery Act Invests $116,000 at Apostle Islands  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar checks out the island's photovoltaic solar panels. Solar panels are the sole source of electricity for the islands and are used to run the interior of the lighthouse on Michigan Island....

2009-08-10

421

Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the support documentation to the main report entitled the Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report, April 1995. The purpose of the study is to provide the Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency and Rhode Island ...

1995-01-01

422

6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

423

77 FR 45988 - Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...areas in the vicinity of Great Chebeague Island, Maine. This proposed action is necessary...and property surrounding Great Chebeague Island, improve the safety of anchored...

2012-08-02

424

30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

2009-07-01

425

30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

2010-07-01

426

32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section 935... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The...

2013-07-01

427

30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

2013-07-01

428

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216.85 Wildlife...AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated...

2013-10-01

429

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

2013-07-01

430

32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61 National... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial...

2013-07-01

431

8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE MAKING SIGN (STOP 5). NOTE WICKET MADE OF VINES IN FOREGROUND. - Jamestown Island Loop Road, Jamestown Island, Jamestown, James City County, VA

432

16. Photocopy of illustration from Rattray, Jeannette Edwards, Gardiner's Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of illustration from Rattray, Jeannette Edwards, Gardiner's Island, East Hampton, 1958; Photograph by Morton Pennypacker of painting MANOR HOUSE, GARDINER'S ISLAND, 1639 - Gardiner's Island Windmill, Napeague, Suffolk County, NY

433

33 CFR 117.977 - Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel...Requirements Texas § 117.977 Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel. The drawspan for the Pelican Island Causeway Drawbridge...

2010-07-01

434

33 CFR 117.977 - Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel...Requirements Texas § 117.977 Pelican Island Causeway, Galveston Channel. The drawspan for the Pelican Island Causeway Drawbridge...

2009-07-01

435

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN) Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN) Principal Investigator: F. Allan

436

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Isometric drawing, "early plan for Mare Island", 1870. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

437

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of ammunition depot from across Mare Island Strait; 1961. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

438

The Tsunami Response of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A linear, long-wave, finite difference model is applied to the Hawaiian Island chain to determine the spectral response at the islands for tsunamis incident from any one of a broad range of directions. The model employs an improved radiational condition f...

G. T. Hebenstreit R. O. Reid

1980-01-01

439

DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016  

EPA Science Inventory

The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

440

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

441

Overview of Pacific Island carbonate beach systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach systems in Pacific Islands are Holocene deposits of reef-dervied and terrigenous sediment. Thus, geologic setting is important in determining the success at which beach systems are established. Generally, older islands exhibit better beach system development. Although modern beach systems are composed of Holocene sediment, development of suitable accommodation space requires more geologic time.

Richmond, B. M.

2000-01-01

442

Contemporary patterns of Pacific Island mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The Pacific Island countries are at different stages of the demographic and epidemiological transitions. The availability of accurate and current mortality data is of vital importance for priority setting in health. Available mortality data generally underestimate death rates among both children and adults. In many Pacific Island populations, little is reliably known about levels and causes of death, particularly

Richard Taylor; Dale Bampton; Alan D Lopez

2005-01-01

443

Island wakes in shallow coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rattray Island, northeast Australia, is 1.5 km long, 300 m wide, and lies in well-mixed water approximately 25 m deep. Its long axis is inclined at about 60° into the direction of the dominant semidiurnal tidal current. The length of the wake in the lee of the island, as documented by aerial photographs and satellite imagery, appears to equal that

E. Wolanski; J. Imberger; M. L. Heron

1984-01-01

444

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode IslandâTSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

2013-07-01

445

ISLAND SUBSIDENCE, HOT SPOTS, AND LITHOSPHERIC THINNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling r%sults from several western Pacific atolls indicate the long-term subsidence of these islands is much more than would be expected from the cooling and thick- ening of the underlying lithosphere. This excess subsidence cannot be satisfactorily explained by isostatic adjustments to the weight of the volcano or the coral reef cap. It appears to be related to island formation

Robert S. Detrick; S. Thomas Crough

1978-01-01

446

Gal�pagos: Islands of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gal�pagos Islands are sometimes thought of as the birthplace of evolution. Not because evolution begins there, not because evolution occurs there and nowhere else, but because the results of evolution so visible. A visit to these islands in 1835 helpe

Baldwin, Carole C.

2000-01-01

447

Geology Fieldnotes: Virgin Islands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website discusses the geology of Virgin Islands National Park, examining the coral reefs that line this park, forests of the island, and the history of the area. There are maps and photos, and links to visitor information and additional resources.

448

40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin IslandsâSO2 Designated area Does not meet primary...

2013-07-01

449

Pacific Islander Youth Offenders in Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, the number of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders living in Utah grew 97%, with the fastest growing group within that category being Samoans, increasing at a rate of 188%. Pacific Islander youth are much more likely to be arrested for illegal acts than their Caucasian counterparts. This study presents preliminary data on issues relating to

Robin Davis

450

Genomic islands in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism for the evolution of microbial genomes. Pathogenicity islands — mobile genetic elements that contribute to rapid changes in virulence potential — are known to have contributed to genome evolution by horizontal gene transfer in many bacterial pathogens. Increasing evidence indicates that equivalent elements in non-pathogenic species — genomic islands — are important in

Ulrich Dobrindt; Bianca Hochhut; Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2004-01-01

451

Rorty's Liberal Utopia and Huxley's Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Richard Rorty controversially suggests that literature is more important for political progress in liberal society than political philosophy. Indeed, eschewing conventional choices, like Plato's Republic or Machiavelli's Prince, Rorty argues that the best introduction to political thought is Aldous Huxley's celebrated dystopian novel, Brave New World. Rorty, however, neglects Huxley's positive utopian work, Island. This is unfortunate because Island depicts

William M. Curtis

2011-01-01

452

Rorty's Liberal Utopia and Huxley's Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richard Rorty controversially suggests that literature is more important for political progress in liberal society than political philosophy. Indeed, eschewing conventional choices, like Plato's Republic or Machiavelli's Prince, Rorty argues that the best introduction to political thought is Aldous Huxley's celebrated dystopian novel, Brave New World. Rorty, however, neglects Huxley's positive utopian work, Island. This is unfortunate because Island depicts

William M. Curtis

2011-01-01

453

Assessing Tech Prep. A Rhode Island Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI), in collaboration with the Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, developed a consortium which introduced tech prep to over 75% of the high schools statewide. The Tech Prep Associate Degree (TPAD) Program provides students with a concrete program of study which begins in 11th…