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1

Response of Atlantic Puffins to a Decline in Capelin Abundance at the Gannet Islands, Labrador  

E-print Network

102 Response of Atlantic Puffins to a Decline in Capelin Abundance at the Gannet Islands, Labrador in a prolonged absence (at least 8 years) of the preferred prey for the Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica growth and productivity of Atlantic Puffins at the Gannet Islands, Labrador during 1996-1998 were

Jones, Ian L.

2

Response of Atlantic Puffins to a Decline in Capelin Abundance at the Gannet Islands, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eastern Canada during the early 1990s, a shift in the distribution of Capelin (Mallotus viUosus) re- sulted in a prolonged absence (at least 8 years) of the preferred prey for the Atlantic Puffin (Fratercuwarctica) breed- ing at Gannet Islands, Labrador. It has been documented that there is no suitable alternative prey to Capelin in the northwest Atlantic for seabirds,

SHAUNA M. BAiLLIEl; Ian L. Jones

2004-01-01

3

Parental roles of male and female thick-billed murres and razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador  

E-print Network

Parental roles of male and female thick-billed murres and razorbills at the Gannet Islands Institution, Washington, DC, USA) (Accepted: 4 January 2006) Summary We studied female and male parental roles in both species, with females providing more meals to chicks older than two weeks. Razorbill males spent

Jones, Ian L.

4

Peromyscus maniculatus, a possible reservoir host of Borrelia garinii from the Gannet Islands off Newfoundland and Labrador.  

PubMed

Thirty-five deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, were trapped on Gannet Cluster 2 (GC-2), one of a group of islands numbered by convention in the Gannet Island Archipelago, and examined for ectoparasites. One species each of Acari (Ixodes uriae) and Siphonaptera (Orchopeas leucopus) were recovered. Samples of mice favored males to females (3.4?1). Twenty-nine percent (10) of the mice were free of ectoparasites. Males were more heavily parasitized than females when both parasites were considered. No ticks were recovered from the female mice, while the males that were parasitized carried adult Ixodes uriae. These 2 ectoparasites parasitizing P. maniculatus, which is a known reservoir host for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), may carry B. garinii and their presence would have serious implications for the spread of this human pathogen northward in continental North America. PMID:21506809

Baggs, Eric M; Stack, Stephanie H; Finney-Crawley, Jean R; Simon, Neal P P

2011-10-01

5

Population structure, distribution patterns and precopulatory mate-guarding in the feather mite Alloptes Canestrini, 1879 (Acari: Analgoidea: Alloptidae) on auks (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather mites are ubiquitous avian ectoparasites whose population structure is expected to vary with degree of coloniality and other aspects of host bird species' ecology. We investigated aggregation . and infrapopulation structure of feather mites of the genus Alloptes Canestrini on four auk species (with different levels of nesting aggregations) breeding at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, Canada. Feather mite populations

Sabir B. Muzaffar; Ian L. Jones

2005-01-01

6

Age at First Return and Breeding of Razorbills (Alca torda) on the Gannet Islands, Labrador and Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick  

E-print Network

and Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick JENNIFER L. LAVERS 1, 2 , IAN L. JONES 1 AND ANTONY W. DIAMOND 3 1: University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia Internet: Jennifer.Lavers@csiro.au; Phone: 61 on average three weeks earlier than one-year-old birds. Age at first breeding was significantly lower on Ma

Jones, Ian L.

7

CORNERBROOK,NL,CANADAVol.9,Issue1 More than 17 basketball teams from across the island, Labrador  

E-print Network

than 17 basketball teams from across the island, Labrador and Nova Scotia gathered at Grenfell Campus more about playing sports at university level. 2 GRENFELL WARRIORS HOST HOOPFEST ON CAMPUS ABOVE@grenfell.mun.ca TASK FORCE TO REVIEW MUN SPORTS Memorial is reviewing the role competitive sports plays in the life

Oyet, Alwell

8

Understanding Regional Governance in Newfoundland and Labrador  

E-print Network

Organizations Kelly Vodden and Heather Hall with David Freshwater and the Research Team Draft September 2012, the Labrador Straits Development Corporation, Twillingate-New World Island Development Association

deYoung, Brad

9

Analyses of sex and individual differences in vocalizations of Australasian gannets using a dynamic time warping algorithm.  

PubMed

The study of the evolution of sexual differences in behavioral and morphological displays requires analyses of the extent of sexual dimorphism across various sensory modalities. In the seabird family Sulidae, boobies show dramatic sexual dimorphism in their vocalizations, and gannet calls have also been suggested to be dimorphic to human observers. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of sexually dimorphic calls in the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) through the first comprehensive description of its vocalizations recorded at two localities; Cape Kidnappers, where individuals were banded and sexed from DNA samples, and at the Muriwai gannetry, both on the North Island of New Zealand. Calls were first inspected using basic bioacoustic features to establish a library of call element types for general reference. Extensive multivariate tests, based on a dynamic time warping algorithm, subsequently revealed that no sexual differences could be detected in Australasian gannet calls. The analyses, however, indicated extensive and consistent vocal variation between individuals, particularly so in female gannets, which may serve to signal individual identity to conspecifics. This study generates predictions to identify whether differences in Australasian gannet vocalizations play perceptual and functional roles in the breeding and social biology of this long-lived biparental seabird species. PMID:22894237

Krull, C R; Ranjard, L; Landers, T J; Ismar, S M H; Matthews, J L; Hauber, M E

2012-08-01

10

ARCTIC FOX INFLUENCE ON A SEABIRD COMMUNITY IN LABRADOR: A NATURAL EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gannet Islands contain the single most important seabird colony in Lab- rador, both in terms of numbers and species diversity. In 1992, we discovered arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on these islands during the breeding season. Of five islands examined, two had resident foxes (in one case breeding), two had been visited by foxes earlier in the season, and one

T. R. BIRKHEAD; D. N. NETTLESHIP

1995-01-01

11

Natal and Breeding Dispersal of Razorbills (Alca torda ) in Eastern North America  

E-print Network

on Digges Island, Nunavut in 1982 was recaptured 24 years later as a breed- er on the Gannet Islands (1 and breeding site fidelity rates for the Gannet Islands, Labrador were high with 83% of young birds (N = 340, both between colonies on the same island and within islands in the Gannet Islands cluster. Regional

Jones, Ian L.

12

Pursuit plunging by northern gannets (Sula bassana) feeding on capelin (Mallotus villosus).  

PubMed Central

Northern gannets (Sula bassana) are considered to obtain prey usually by rapid, vertical, shallow plunge dives. In order to test this contention and investigate underwater foraging behaviour, we attached two types of data-logging systems to 11 parental northern gannets at Funk Island in the North-Wiest Atlantic. We documented, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, gannets performing long, flat-bottomed, U-shaped dives that involved underwater wing propulsion as well as rapid, shallow, V-shaped dives. The median and maximum dive depths and durations were 4.6 and 22.0 m and 8 and 38 s, respectively. Short, shallow dives were usually V-shaped and dives deeper than 8 m and longer than 10 s were usually U-shaped, including a period at constant depth (varying between 4 and 28s with median 8s). Diving occurred throughout the daylight period and deepest dives were performed during late morning. On the basis of motion sensors in the loggers and food collections from telemetered birds, we concluded that extended, deep dives were directed at deep schools of capelin, a small pelagic fish, and we hypothesized that V-shaped dives were aimed at larger, pelagic fishes and squids. Furthermore, these V-shaped dives allowed the birds to surprise their pelagic prey and this may be critical because the maximum swimming speeds of the prey species may exceed the maximum dive speeds of the birds. PMID:12233767

Garthe, S; Benvenuti, S; Montevecchi, W A

2000-01-01

13

Cretaceous-Tertiary paleobathymetry of Labrador and Baffin shelves, and its significance to evolution of Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The integrated micropaleontological and palynological analyses of 17 wells from offshore Labrador and southern Baffin Island allowed consistent assignments of biozones, ages, and depositional environments to the sections. Resolution attained is approximately at the stage level or finer. Interpretation of the foraminifera and palynomorphs from the Labrador Shelf indicates that the depositional environments were mainly neritic during the Early and early Late Cretaceous, changed to bathyal during the Maastrichtian to late Eocene, and returned to neritic during the Oligocene to Miocene. The sections drilled on the Baffin Shelf do not include Cretaceous sediments, but indicate bathyal environments from Paleocene to early Eocene, and neritic to nonmarine environments from late Eocene to Miocene. The Barremian to Campanian continental to neritic sediments from the Labrador Shelf correspond to the initial rifting phase of the Labrador-Greenland continental plate; whereas the Maastrichtian to late Eocene bathyal sediments correspond to the opening of the southern part of the Labrador Sea with the creation of oceanic crust. The Labrador Sea reached the Baffin shelf area during the Maastrichtian. The Oligocene to Miocene neritic to continental sediments of both the Labrador and Baffin Shelf areas correspond to the filling phase of the basin, with resulting buildup of the continental shelves and slopes.

Helenes, J.; Gradstein, F.

1988-03-01

14

Windscape and tortuosity shape the flight costs of northern gannets.  

PubMed

When animals move across a landscape, they alternate between active searching phases in areas with high prey density and commuting phases towards and in-between profitable feeding patches. Such active searching movements are more sinuous than travelling movements, and supposedly more costly in energy. Here we provide an empirical validation of this long-lasting assumption. To this end, we evaluated simultaneously energy expenditure and trajectory in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) using GPS loggers, dive recorders and three-dimensional accelerometers. Three behavioural states were determined from GPS data: foraging, when birds actively searched for prey (high tortuosity, medium speed); travelling, when birds were commuting (straight trajectory, high speed); and resting (straight trajectory, low speed). Overall dynamic body acceleration, calculated from acceleration data, was used as a proxy for energy expenditure during flight. The impact of windscape characteristics (wind force and direction) upon flight costs was also tested. Energy expenditure of northern gannets was higher during sinuous foraging flight than during more rectilinear travelling flight, demonstrating that turns are indeed costly. Yet wind force and direction also strongly shaped flight energy expenditure; within any behavioural state it was less costly to fly with the wind than against it, and less costly to fly with strong winds. Despite the major flight costs of wind action, birds did not fully optimize their flight track relative to wind direction, probably because of prey distributions relative to the coastline and wind predictability. Our study illustrates how both tortuosity and windscape shape the foraging costs of marine predators such as northern gannets. PMID:24622894

Amélineau, Françoise; Péron, Clara; Lescroël, Amélie; Authier, Matthieu; Provost, Pascal; Grémillet, David

2014-03-15

15

CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving.  

PubMed

Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode. PMID:23851321

Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

2013-09-01

16

Mercury, DDE, and PCB's in eggs from a Norwegian gannet colony  

SciTech Connect

Eggs taken from gannet nests in Norway were analyzed for mercury, DDE, and PCB's. Eggs collected in 1972 had mercury levels averaging 0.58 ppM, DDE levels averaging 2.1 ppM, and PCB levels averaging 7.7 ppM. While 1978 egg samples yielded lower DDE and PCB concentrations (0.66 ppM and 3.5 ppM respectively), mercury levels increased to 0.80 ppM. DDE levels were too low to affect eggshell thickness of gannet eggs. (14 references, 1 table)

Fimreite, N.; Kveseth, N.; Brevik, E.M.

1980-01-01

17

Mercury and organochlorines in eggs from a Norwegian gannet colony  

SciTech Connect

The materials for this study consisted of addled eggs that were collected shortly after the laying season and stored frozen until analysis took place. The collection site is located near Nordmjele at 69/sup 0/ 08' N in northern Norway. Eggs were analyzed for DDE, PCBs and HCB by a gas chromatographic method described by BJERK and SUNDBY (1970). The PCBs were determined via pattern recognition using the commercial PCB standard Aroclor 1254, and the sum of peaks numbers 7, 8, and 10 was used (JENSEN 1972). Analysis for total mercury by flameless atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry followed the procedure of HATCH and OTT (1968). Results show a significant decrease in DDE as well as PCBs levels had taken place between the years 1972 and 1978. The 1979 data support the hypothesis that this indicates a trend as the average DDE and PCBs concentrations dropped further by 33 and 43 per cent, respectively. Only the eggs collected in 1979 were analyzed for HCB. The concentrations were very low (0.033 +/- 0.0018 ppm). The average mercury levels increased from 0.58 ppm in 1972 to 0.80 ppm in 1978 and then dropped to 0.36 ppm the following year. The present levels of DDE, PCBs, and HCB are well below those that by experience have caused problems as, for example, eggshell thinning. The mercury concentrations come closer to such levels as 0.5 ppm of mercury in eggs have been associated with reproductive impairment in pheasants. However, since fish and seafood in general, which constitute the diet of gannets, are rich in selenium, a strong antagonist to mercury such concentrations are probably well within safe limits too.

Fimreite, N. (Telemark College, BO, Norway); Brevik, E.M.; Torp, R.

1982-01-01

18

Baffin Bay and Baffin Island, North Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summer is finally beginning to thaw Canada's Baffin Island (center) and the Labrador Sea (lower right). This MODIS image shows that a river of ice still remains in the Davis Strait, which connects the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay to the north.

2002-01-01

19

Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet.  

PubMed

Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Howland, Howard C; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E; Katzir, Gadi

2012-10-22

20

Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador  

SciTech Connect

Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

1980-08-01

21

Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

2014-09-01

22

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

23

Flight destinations and foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana) preying on a small forage fish in a low-Arctic ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied data loggers (temperature-depth and GPS-temperature-depth) on individual birds in combination with dietary sampling and a vessel survey of prey availability to assess the foraging behaviour of northern gannets ( Sula bassana, Linnaeus 1758) in a low-Arctic ecosystem in the NW Atlantic. We demonstrate that the gannets foraged almost exclusively on inshore and coastal aggregations of capelin. There was a strong correspondence between the distributions of capelin and foraging gannets, and gannets exhibited persistence in successive foraging trips to the same foraging areas. The diving activity of gannets was highest during the early morning and evening, when capelin are known to be primarily available in the upper water column. Most of the gannets dive depths were less than 5 m. Flight speeds recorded by GPS were 9% higher than those estimated by previous methods and were shown to benefit from tail wind. This study shows how a combination of ship-based surveys and individually tagged birds can help understanding predator-prey intersection in a three-dimensional space in the marine environment.

Garthe, Stefan; Montevecchi, William A.; Davoren, Gail K.

2007-02-01

24

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-10-15

25

ACTION CANADA PAPERS on Labrador Mining, Aboriginal Governance and Muskrat Falls  

E-print Network

of the Lower Churchill hydroelectric development. The papers appear in Labrador, Aboriginal governance in Labrador, and the possible development whose objective is to further develop the leadership capabilities

deYoung, Brad

26

The use of LANDSAT imagery to locate uncharted coastal features on the Labrador coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of several offshore islands, rocks and shoals on the Labrador Coast was performed, using LANDSAT imagery to assist in the location of uncharted hydrographic features. Several satellite coverages of the coast were studied prior to the survey, and suspected shoal points identified. Using map-derived control points and monocomparator measurements of the LANDSAT images, the positions of these points were determined by mathematical adjustment to an estimated position accuracy of 150 meters. As a result, on the survey, an uncharted island and eight uncharted drying rocks, which might easily have escaped detection from a survey ship, were verified and positioned. To check the accuracy of the coordinates derived from LANDSAT, three islands were positioned by standard ground survey methods. The positional differences, all less than 150 meters, are not plottable at the scale of the existing offshore charts. The LANDSAT positions were also used to control aerial photography of a shoal area for office compilation of a hydrographic chart.

Fleming, E. A.; Lelievre, D. D.

1977-01-01

27

Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

1982-09-01

28

The seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland current system in the Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

The Labrador Sea, as one of a few places of deep water formation, plays an important role in the Meridional Overturning Circulation. While the interior of the Labrador Sea, where the deepest convection takes place, is known ...

Rykova, Tatiana A

2010-01-01

29

Evolution of the Irminger Current anticyclones in the Labrador Sea from hydrographic data  

E-print Network

The continuous supply of heat and fresh water from the boundaries to the interior of the Labrador Sea plays an important role for the dynamics of the region and in particular, for the Labrador Sea Water formation. Thus, ...

Rykova, Tatiana

2006-01-01

30

Temporal and Spatial Scales of Labrador Sea Water Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labrador Sea Water is an intermediate water found at the same density and depth range in the North Atlantic as the Mediterranean water. It is formed by convection from the sea surface to depths greather than 2 km in winter in the Western Labrador Sea. The processes leading to deep convection begin with the formation of a 200 km scale cyclonic circulation about denser than average upper layer water in the Western Labrador Sea. This circulation pattern is hypothesized to be driven by an ocean/atmosphere heat exchange that has its maximum in this region. By early March, if deep convection is taking place, one sees that this body of denser upper waters penetrates to the top of the deep temperature/salinity maximum marking the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water. We note that the horizontal scale of this body is still 100-200 km normal to the coastline.

Clarke, R. A.

1984-01-01

31

Germacrone defends labrador tea from browsing by snowshoe hares.  

PubMed

Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), a slow-growing late successional evergreen, is highly unpalatable to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Germacrone, a sesquiterpene that is the major component of the essential oil ofL. groenlandicum, was shown by bioassay to be a potent antifeedant to hares. Its concentrations in leaves and intemodes of the plant are high enough to defendL. groenlandicum from hares. This chemical defense of Labrador tea from herbivory is consistent with the resource availability theory of antiherbivore defense. PMID:24263998

Reichardt, P B; Bryant, J P; Anderson, B J; Phillips, D; Clausen, T P; Meyer, M; Frisby, K

1990-06-01

32

Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.  

PubMed Central

To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region. Images PMID:7236572

Johnson, G J

1981-01-01

33

Did the Hudson Strait in Arctic Canada record the opening of the Labrador Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hudson Strait-Evans Strait-Foxe Channel is a major E-W trending composite topographic feature in Arctic Canada that connects Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin with the Labrador Sea. It corresponds to a ~1000 km long, WNW elongated body of water with maximal depths reaching 900 m in its eastern part. Based on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, the Hudson Strait comprises several fault-controlled sub-basins having a half graben geometry and corresponding to gravity lows on the Bouguer anomaly map. In the sub-basins, the sedimentary succession is thicker than the one preserved onshore (a few hundred metres) and reaches a maximum of ~ 2.6 km in the eastern part of the Hudson Strait, an estimate comparable with the maximum thickness documented in the Hudson Bay. Despite the low penetration of high-resolution seismic data, several angular unconformities have been documented locally. The lower part of the offshore succession unconformably overlies the Precambrian basement and correlates with Middle Ordovician to Silurian rocks exposed in nearby islands. The nature and age of the upper part of the succession remains poorly constrained even if a Mesozoic age has been proposed in the past. Phanerozoic strata generally dip less than 3° except in deformed zones characterized by open folds and down to basement faults, where strata dip locally at 10° or more. Faults are steeply dipping and generally have a clear geomorphological expression. Faults are oriented WNW and ENE, dip predominantly toward the north and record an extensional (or transtensional) tectonic event. Deformed zones characterized by open folds that trend parallel with the main faults attest of a subsequent episode of shortening. Forward modelling of satellite-derived gravity data indicates that interpreted sediment thickness alone cannot explain the entire negative anomaly found in sub-basins and that an additional source, possibly associated with the depth variation of the crust-mantle interface, contributes to the gravity signal. An attractive hypothesis would be to link tectonic structures (normal or transtensional faults and subsequent open folds) to Cretaceous - Paleocene rifting and seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea. However, a better understanding of the role and timing of the Ungava Fault zone which is located offshore, to the east of Baffin Island is crucial to test this hypothesis as this fault may kinematically decoupled the Labrador Sea from the Canadian landmass.

Pinet, Nicolas; Keating, Pierre; Lavoie, Denis

2013-04-01

34

Legislative Provisions for Special Education in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes legislative provisions supporting educational services for children with disabilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. It begins by providing educational history information and then reviews The Building Accessibility Act (1990), The Child, Youth and Family Services Act (1998), the Schools Act (1997), and the Human Rights Code…

Philpott, David; Nesbit, Wayne

2001-01-01

35

Hydrography of the Labrador Sea during Active Convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrographic structure of the Labrador Sea during wintertime convection is described. The cruise, part of the Deep Convection Experiment, took place in February-March 1997 amidst an extended period of strong forcing in an otherwise moderate winter. Because the water column was preconditioned by previous strong winters, the limited forcing was enough to cause convection to approximately 1500 m. The

Robert S. Pickart; Daniel J. Torres; R. Allyn Clarke

2002-01-01

36

Evolution of the Irminger Current Anticyclones in the Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

for the degree of Master of Science Abstract The continuous supply of heat and fresh water from the boundaries of properties between the boundary and interior. A significant fraction of heat and fresh water, needed displacement of 400-600 m. A number of eddies without a fresh water cap contained Labrador Sea Water from

Straneo, Fiamma

37

Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)); Berggren, W.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (USA)); Kaminski, M.A. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)); D'Lorio, M.A. (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Nepean, Ontario (Canada)); Cloetingh, S. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Griffiths, C.M. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway))

1990-05-01

38

Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island  

E-print Network

BRISBANE Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island Lady Musgrave Island Wilson Island Heron Island Great Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands

Wang, Yan

39

Germacrone defends labrador tea from browsing by snowshoe hares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), a slow-growing late successional evergreen, is highly unpalatable to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Germacrone, a sesquiterpene that is the major component of the essential oil ofL. groenlandicum, was shown by bioassay to be a potent antifeedant to hares. Its concentrations in leaves and intemodes of the plant are high enough to defendL. groenlandicum from hares. This

P. B. Reichardt; J. P. Bryant; B. J. Anderson; D. Phillips; T. P. Clausen; M. Meyer; K. Frisby

1990-01-01

40

Local Governance, Creativity and Regional Development in Newfoundland and Labrador Lessons for Policy and Practice from Two Projects  

E-print Network

Harris Centre of Regional Policy and Development Spencer Hall, Memorial UniversityLocal Governance, Creativity and Regional Development in Newfoundland and Labrador Lessons Development in Newfoundland and Labrador: Lessons for Policy and Practice from Two

deYoung, Brad

41

Impact of freshwater from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago on Labrador Sea Water formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of freshwater is analyzed in an eddy-permitting regional model of the sub-polar North Atlantic, focusing on the export of freshwater (in liquid form) through Davis Strait. The results show that in the model simulations there is a limited exchange of freshwater between the Labrador shelf and the interior of the Labrador Sea. Very little of the freshwater exported

Paul G. Myers

2005-01-01

42

Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: Ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events  

E-print Network

Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: Ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events, respectively, indicate that during the time period from 160,000 to 10,000 years BP, ice rafting events in the Labrador Sea were accompanied by rapid variations in deep and surface water circulation. Twelve ice-rafting

Born, Andreas

43

Geomorphological reconstruction of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Labrador sector formed one of three major domes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last (Wisconsinan) glaciation. Reconstruction of its evolution is important because it modulated atmospheric and oceanic circulation over 1–100ka time scales. This paper reports new geomorphological evidence of ice flow, which is used to reconstruct glimpses of the behaviour of the Labrador Sector during its

Chris D. Clark; Jane K. Knight; James T. Gray

2000-01-01

44

Heat and Freshwater Transport through the Central Labrador Sea* Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

Heat and Freshwater Transport through the Central Labrador Sea* F. STRANEO Department of Physical of Labrador Sea Water (LSW), and in the heat and freshwater transport through the central Labrador Sea surface heat loss to the atmosphere and partially offsets the surface freshwater accumulation due

Straneo, Fiamma

45

Surface buoyant plumes from melting icebergs in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) conducts annual surveys in the Labrador Sea along the repeat hydrography line AR7W. The occupation of the AR7W line in May 2013 was followed by the experiment aimed at resolving the imprint of melting drifting icebergs on the upper layer thermohaline characteristics in the Labrador Sea. We present high-resolution observations around two icebergs conducted with the towed undulating platform Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP). The first iceberg drifted in relatively warm water of Atlantic origin (~2.5-3.1 °C) off Greenland, while the second iceberg was on the Labrador shelf in cold water below 0 °C. Both icebergs had a lengthscale of O(100 m). In both cases surface buoyant plumes fed by melt water and attached to the iceberg were observed. The plumes were evident in the anomalous thermohaline characteristics of the seawater. Their density anomalies were sufficiently strong to produce visible frontal structures, which imply a development of the intrinsic dynamics associated with a plume. The first plume formed over a time interval of ~10 h, while the second plume formed over several days and extended for more than 1 km (tenfold the iceberg's size). Strong vertical displacements of the pycnocline were observed near the second iceberg. They are interpreted as the internal wave wake. This interpretation is based on the temporal scale of these oscillations (local buoyancy frequency), as well as on the spatial orientation of these waves with respect to the iceberg drift relative to the pycnocline. The observed internal waves partially overlapped with the plume and affected its structure. The saline seawater splashing by swell contributed to the surface melting of the icebergs. Scaling analysis of the second plume suggests that it could be in the “rotational” dynamic regime with recirculating anticyclonic flow.

Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Yashayaev, Igor

2014-09-01

46

Organic contaminants in isolated lakes of southern Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

From 1980 to 1984, the Water Quality Branch of Environment Canada studied the chemical quality of the aquatic ecosystems straddling the Labrador and Quebec border in northeastern Canada. The object of the work was to get baseline information on the aquatic resources of potential hydroelectric development sites. One result from this work was the discovery of measurable levels of organic contaminants in areas isolated from any major human activity. The purpose of this report is to describe results from the survey of the five transboundary basins and, to place the results in the perspective of other work.

Lockerbie, D.M.; Clair, T.A.

1988-10-01

47

Recent anthropogenic and climatic history of Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study aimed at reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions of a poorly known and documented subarctic region, the Nunatsiavut (northern Labrador). A multiproxy approach was chosen, using fossil dinoflagellate cysts, diatoms and pollen from sediment cores taken into three fjords (Nachvak 59°N, Saglek 58.5°N, and Anaktalak 56.5°N). It allowed estimating terrestrial and marine influences in each fjord and documenting the recent history of human activities of the southern fjords (Saglek and Anaktalak). Fossil pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages allowed depicting the climate history of the region over the last ~200-300 years. In contrast to the general warming trend observed in the arctic and subarctic Canada since the beginning of the Industrial Era, the Nunatsiavut has experienced relative climate stability over this period. Fossil pollen data show a shift of the tree limit to the south illustrating the cooling of terrestrial conditions. Our reconstructions suggest that the Labrador region has remained climatically stable over the last ~150-300 years, with just a slight cooling trend of the reconstructed sea surface temperatures, only perceptible in Saglek and Anaktalak fjords.

Richerol, Thomas; Pienitz, Reinhard; Rochon, André

2014-09-01

48

Seaglider observations of vertical velocity in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five Seagliders spent a combined total of over 24 months in the Labrador Sea between 2003-2005. The hydrographic observations made by Seagliders can then be used to estimate vertical water velocities, in stratified regimes (observing internal waves), and mixed regimes (including wintertime mixed layers during deep convection exceeding 1000m deep). Across the seasons and from shelf seas to deep water, the vertical velocity regimes will be described, with particular focus on the velocity measurements during deep convection (Jan-Feb). New results from the high-resolution hydrographic measurements show striking horizontal density variability over tens of kilometers, containing sufficient buoyancy to restratify the region to the degree of stratification observed by Argo floats in April. Concurrently, the vertical velocity measurements show narrow, fast, downwelling plumes between broader and somewhat slower upwelling regions. These new measurements offer a compelling snapshot of deep convection, in both hydrography and vertical velocity, at unprecendented resolution.

Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Rhines, Peter B.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Harcourt, Ramsey R.

2013-04-01

49

Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

1985-01-01

50

Coupled Sea Ice–Ocean-State Estimation in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay  

E-print Network

Sea ice variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection, mode-water formation, and the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation. Historically, quantifying the relationship ...

Fenty, Ian

51

State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model  

E-print Network

Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...

Fenty, Ian Gouverneur

2010-01-01

52

Instabilities in the Labrador Sea water mass structure during the last climatic cycle  

E-print Network

Hillaire-Marcel and Guy Bilodeau Abstract: In the modern Labrador Sea, the North Atlantic deep water of the North Atlantic deep water, respectively. A drastically different structure characterized the glacial

Long, Bernard

53

Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements  

PubMed

The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000 m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations of the ocean currents that lead to this distribution of Labrador Sea water have, however, been difficult and therefore scarce. We have used more than 200 subsurface floats to measure directly basin-wide horizontal velocities at various depths in the Labrador and Irminger seas. We observe unanticipated recirculations of the mid-depth (approximately 700 m) cyclonic boundary currents in both basins, leading to an anticyclonic flow in the interior of the Labrador basin. About 40% of the floats from the region of deep convection left the basin within one year and were rapidly transported in the anticyclonic flow to the Irminger basin, and also eastwards into the subpolar gyre. Surprisingly, the float tracks did not clearly depict the deep western boundary current, which is the expected main pathway of Labrador Sea water in the thermohaline circulation. Rather, the flow along the boundary near Flemish Cap is dominated by eddies that transport water offshore. Our detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that we may have to revise our picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation. PMID:10993072

Lavender; Davis; Owens

2000-09-01

54

Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period.  

PubMed

The two main constituent water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean-North Atlantic Deep Water at the bottom and Labrador Sea Water at an intermediate level-are currently formed in the Nordic seas and the Labrador Sea, respectively. The rate of formation of these two water masses tightly governs the strength of the global ocean circulation and the associated heat transport across the North Atlantic Ocean. Numerical simulations have suggested a possible shut-down of Labrador Sea Water formation as a consequence of global warming. Here we use micropalaeontological data and stable isotope measurements in both planktonic and benthic foraminifera from deep Labrador Sea cores to investigate the density structure of the water column during the last interglacial period, which was thought to be about 2 degrees C warmer than present. Our results indicate that today's stratification between Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water never developed during the last interglacial period. Instead, a buoyant surface layer was present above a single water mass originating from the Nordic seas. Thus the present situation, with an active site of intermediate-water formation in the Labrador Sea, which settled some 7,000 years ago, has no analogue throughout the last climate cycle. PMID:11323666

Hillaire-Marcel, C; de Vernal, A; Bilodeau, G; Weaver, A J

2001-04-26

55

The Last Interglacial Labrador Sea: A Pervasive Millennial Oscillation In Surface Water Conditions Without Labrador Sea Water Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-proxy approach was developed to document secular to millenial changes of potential density in surface, mesopelagic, and bottom waters of the Labrador Sea, thus allowing to reconstruct situations when winter convection with intermediate or deep water formation occurred in the basin. This approach relies on dinocyst-transfer functions providing estimates of sea-surface temperature and salinity that are used to calibrate past-relationships between oxygen 18 contents in calcite and potential density gradients. The oxygen isotope compositions of epipelagic (Globigerina bul- loides), deeper-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, left coiling), and benthic (Uvigerina peregrina and Cibicides wuellerstorfi) foraminifera, then allow to extrap- olate density gradients between the corresponding water layers. This approach has been tested in surface sediments in reference to modern hydrographic conditions at several sites from the NW North Atlantic, then used to reconstruct past conditions from high resolution studies of cores raised from the southern Greenland Rise (off Cape Farewell). Results indicate that the modern-like regime established during the early Holocene and full developed after 7 ka only. It is marked by weak density gradi- ents between the surface and intermediate water masses, allowing winter convection down to a lower pycnocline between intermediate and deep-water masses, thus the formation of intermediate Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Contrasting with the middle to late Holocene situation, since the last interglacial and throughout the last climatic cycle, a single and dense water mass seems to have occupied the water column below a generally low-density surface water layer, thus preventing deep convection. There- fore, the production of LSW seems to be feature specific to the present interglacial interval that could soon cease to exist, due to global warming, as suggested by recent ocean model experiments and by the fact that it never occurred during the last inter- glacial. We think that the mechanism for the eventual shut-down in LSW formation involves an enhanced freshwater export from the Arctic into the Labrador Sea, as a consequence of both an enhanced hydrological cycle in a warmer mean climate, and a lesser sea-ice extend in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Both the last interglacial and the Holocene depict large amplitude millenial oscillations in surface water conditions and in density gradients with the underlying water mass. During the last 11 ka, six 1 of these oscillations are recorded, and those that occurred since ca. 7 ka BP probably resulted in large amplitude changes in LSW-production rate. These oscillations pos- sibly correspond to the Holocene "pervasive millennial cycle" observed by Bond and others in a few North Atlantic records. We hypothesize that they are related to sea ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean and to the relative routing of outflowing freshwaters through either the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or Fram Strait, into the North Atlantic. These oscillations would probably maintain after an eventual collapse of LSW forma- tion, as suggested by the last interglacial reconstructions, but their impact on future thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic is unclear. 2

Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.

56

Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945?m, 250?km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400?km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ?10 to 58?ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the?Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

Andrews, J. T.; Barber, D. C.; Jennings, A. E.; Eberl, D. D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M. E.; Stoner, J. S.

2012-01-01

57

Ice-sheet sourced juxtaposed turbidite systems in Labrador Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ice-sheet sourced Pleistocene turbidite systems of the Labrador Sea are different from non-glacially influenced systems in their facies distribution and depositional processes. Two large-scale sediment dispersal systems are juxtaposed, one mud-dominated and associated with the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), the other sand-dominated and forming a huge submarine braided sandplain. Co-existence of the two systems reflects grain-size separation of the coarse and fine fractions on an enormous scale, caused by sediment winnowing at the entrance points of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the sea (Hudson Strait, fiords) and involves a complex interplay of depositional and redepositional processes. The mud-rich NAMOC system is multisourced and represents a basinwide converging system of tributary canyons and channels. It focusses its sand load to the central trunk channel in basin centre, in the fashion of a "reverse" deep-sea fan. The sand plain received its sediment from the Hudson Strait by turbidity currents that were generated either by failure of glacial prodelta slopes at the ice margin, or by direct meltwater discharges with high bedload concentration. We speculate that the latter might have been related to subglacial-lake outburst flooding through the Hudson Strait, possibly associated with ice-rafting (Heinrich) events.

Hesse, R.; Klaucke, I.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Piper, D. J. W.

1997-01-01

58

Pollakiuria and stranguria in a Labrador retriever with penile HSA.  

PubMed

An approximately 8 yr old castrated male Labrador retriever presented for evaluation of weight loss, stranguria, and pollakiuria. Lysis of the proximal one-third of the os penis was diagnosed on abdominal radiographs, and a positive contrast urethrography revealed a smoothly marginated filling defect along the dorsal aspect of the urethra at the level of the radiographically observed osteolysis. Regional ultrasound revealed an echogenic mass at the proximal aspect of the os penis with a severely irregular and discontinuous periosteal surface. A penile hemangiosarcoma (HSA) was confirmed on histopathologic evaluation after a penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy were performed. Although HSA is a common malignant neoplasm in dogs, lysis of the os penis has not previously been documented. Adjunctive chemotherapy, although recommended, was declined, and the patient survived 236 days postoperatively. That survival time is considerably longer than the average survival time for patients with HSA, other than cutaneous forms of HSA. Although an uncommon presentation, HSA of the penis should be considered a differential diagnosis in older canines with signs of lower urinary tract disease, especially in breeds that have been documented to be predisposed to HSA. PMID:24446403

Fry, Joanna K; Burney, Derek; Hottinger, Heidi; Fabiani, Michelle; Feagin, Clint

2014-01-01

59

Response of the Labrador Sea to insolation forcing during the most recent five interglaciations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is connected to the global climate system via both winter water column convection and interactions with Greenland Ice Sheet. A chronology of Labrador Sea temperatures is therefore necessary to understand larger scale North Atlantic climate. Here, we report northeast Labrador Sea near-surface ocean temperatures for the most recent five interglaciations. We estimate temperatures using planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral), picked from Eirik Drift sediment core MD99-2227, located to the south of Greenland. Preliminary data from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 and 5e suggest that Labrador Sea near-surface ocean temperatures did not correlate proportionately with boreal summer insolation, with MIS 5e temperatures being no warmer than MIS 1. To investigate whether this relationship between temperature and insolation existed for other interglaciations, we will examine Mg/Ca-derived temperatures for MIS 7, 9, and 11, which represent a range in boreal summer insolation values. This record will improve our ability to predict the response of the Labrador Sea to future increases in radiative forcing and attendant melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

Winsor, K.; Carlson, A. E.; Klinkhammer, G. P.; Welke, B.; Hoffman, J.

2013-12-01

60

Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador

Anderson, Kirk David

2007-01-01

61

The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

2012-12-01

62

Canine hip and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

This paper examines the outcomes from recent genetic analyses of hip and elbow scores from British Veterinary Association (BVA)/UK Kennel Club (KC) screening programmes targeted at reducing the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) and elbow dysplasia in UK Labrador retrievers. The analyses made use of 25,243 hip scores and 3613 elbow scores. Heritabilities (± standard error) for hip score, analysed on a log scale, and for elbow score were 0.35±0.02 and 0.19±0.04, respectively, with a genetic correlation of 0.41±0.09. For both hip and elbow scores, there was a near perfect genetic correlation between the left and right joint; analysis of hip score showed a predictive benefit of using the total of left and right scores rather than worst score and the benefit of using all component scores rather than their aggregate score. Downward genetic trends were observed in both hip and elbow scores, although the latter was consistent with it being correlated to response to genetic change in hip score. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) offered substantial benefits in accuracy and hence genetic progress when compared to the use of phenotypes for both hip and elbow scores. There are major opportunities for improving selection against elbow dysplasia through the use of bivariate evaluations, although progress against dysplasia would be improved by more widespread elbow scoring. The studies highlighted a number of ways in which data recording for addressing complex traits may be improved in the future. Ongoing advances in genomic technology may be utilised for increasing the rate of genetic progress in selection against HD and for complex diseases in general, through the use of genomic evaluations. PMID:21737322

Woolliams, J A; Lewis, T W; Blott, S C

2011-08-01

63

Interannual to multidecadal modes of Labrador climate variability inferred from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of Labrador is uniquely influenced by Labrador Sea atmosphere-ocean dynamics and related sea surface temperature, sea ice and atmospheric fluctuations in the northwest Atlantic. Here we describe composite ring width and maximum latewood density white spruce records averaged over five (four for density) treeline sites in northern Labrador, spanning the past four centuries. These records correlate significantly with surface air and sea surface temperature records for the northwest Atlantic as well as with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Temperatures over Labrador appear to have been influenced by climate processes operating on interannual to multidecadal time scales over the length of the tree-ring record. The ring width composite reveals a significant (>99% level) mode of variation centered at around 40-60 years which appears to be robust over the full length of record and may correspond to multidecadal modes identified in model and instrumental studies of North Atlantic climate. The density composite indicates significant peaks at about 21-24, 9 and 2-3 years, which generally correspond to spectral modes identified for the NAO. This density series also shows a significant (>99% level) mode of variation at 3.6 years, which is statistically coherent with the winter (DJF) Southern Oscillation Index. This mode decreases in amplitude in the 1800s period of the Little Ice Age, one of the lowest growth periods in the Labrador tree-ring series as well as other northern temperature proxies. This period was also a time of diminished solar activity and several major volcanic events, including the eruption of Tambora in 1815. The ensuing summer of 1816 was the coldest over the past four centuries as inferred from the Labrador density composite. Hardships suffered by Labrador Inuit resulting from the extreme cold period of 1816-17 are mentioned in Moravian mission records. Archaeological and ethnohistorical data also document shifts in the subsistence practices and settlement patterns of Labrador Inuit throughout the 1800s. Many of the cultural changes have been attributed to the effects of European settlement of the region, but may also be a response to the severe climatic conditions during this time.

D'Arrigo, R.; Buckley, B.; Kaplan, S.; Woollett, J.

2002-09-01

64

Attracting and Retaining Immigrants to Newfoundland and Labrador: Dr. Lan Gien and Dr. Rebecca Law  

E-print Network

Attracting and Retaining Immigrants to Newfoundland and Labrador: Dr. Lan Gien and Dr. Rebecca Law under the Harris Centre's Immigration Research Fund. The intellectual property vests with the author(s). For more information about the Immigration Research Fund or to obtain hard copies of this report, please

deYoung, Brad

65

HUNTING FOR SECURITY: CHANGES IN THE EXPLOITATION OF MARINE BIRDS IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American wildlife exploitation, as exemplified in the seabird and seaduck hunts of Newfoundland and Labrador, was a basic means of food security in coastal communities. Patterns of need and exploitation changed radically since the arrival of Europeans who perceived abundant and inexhaustible wildlife populations. These perspectives often combined with adversarial approaches of securing livelihoods by \\

W. A. Montevecchi; H. Chaffey; C. Burke

66

Natural and forced air temperature variability in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of Labrador air temperatures over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate variability and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of variability and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air temperature variability for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate variability in Labrador air temperature. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the variability in annual Labrador air temperatures over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air temperature response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.

Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.

2014-08-01

67

Mg\\/Ca Ratios in Coralline Red Algae as Temperature Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine ecosystems and fishery productivity in the Northwestern Atlantic have been considerably affected by regional climate and oceanographic changes. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC). The cold LC originates

G. Gamboa; S. Hetzinger; J. Halfar; T. Zack; B. Kunz; W. Adey

2009-01-01

68

Matriculating Eastward: Maritime Student Migration to Newfoundland & Labrador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, the number of both out-of-province Canadian and international students enrolled at Memorial University of Newfoundland has increased substantially. During this period, the enrollment levels of students from the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island have undergone an increase of approximately ten-fold.…

Kirby, Dale; Greene, Melanie; Bourgeois, Monique; Sharpe, Dennis

2011-01-01

69

Effect of freshwater from the West Greenland Current on the winter deep convection in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of mesoscale eddies on the deep convection in the Labrador Sea is examined by using a realistically configured eddy-resolving ice-ocean model. The near-surface boundary current flowing into the Labrador Sea is realistically simulated, namely the West Greenland Current which carries upper/onshore fresh and lower/offshore warm water, and eddies separating from these boundary currents with cold/fresh water atop warm/salty water are also well reproduced. The modeled convection is confined to the southwestern Labrador Sea as observed, and its depth and width are reproduced better than in previous modeling studies. Although previous modeling studies demonstrated only the importance of eddy-induced heat transport in inhibition of deep convection over the central to northern Labrador Sea, our study found that the eddy-induced transport of near-surface fresh water also significantly contributes.

Kawasaki, T.; Hasumi, H.

2014-03-01

70

Changes of the deep circulation and erosional inputs in the Labrador Sea over the late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of Labrador Sea Water has been one of the main contributors to the Atlantic thermohaline circulation influences the strength of NADW formation. In addition, the Labrador Sea has received weathering inputs of highly variable strength and sources. A high resolution downcore record recovered from south of Greenland (core MD99-2227) together with surface sediment samples from western part of Labrador Sea provides detailed information on deep sea and surface water circulation and through the Latest Quaternary. Radiogenic Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes are used as proxies for changes in water mass mixing and weathering inputs. Nd isotope data produced by leaching early sedimentary ferromanganese coatings reflect seawater compositions and show a pronounced trend towards less radiogenic values from the LGM to 12 kyr and then became less radiogenic again through the Holocene, which was most likely either linked to enhanced erosional input in the course of the retreat of the Laurentide Ice sheet or indicates enhanced contributions of a highly unradiogenic water mass such as Labrador Sea Water or diminished contributions of radiogenic Denmark Strait Overflow water. A major change in isotopic composition at 12 kyr towards more radiogenic isotope compositions is also observed in the leached 208,207,206Pb/204Pb data. Most notably, there was a pronounced change in the Pb isotope compositions at 8 kyr as well, which is not reflected by Nd or Hf isotope data and which reflects a major change in source provenance of the weathering inputs, most likely linked to the 8.2 kyr event, during which glacially dammed lakes Agassiz and Ojibway rapidly drained into the North Atlantic. This interpretation will be compared to the evidence from the radiogenic isotope evolution of the detrital fraction and of the clays. In contrast, with time leached Hf isotope data appear to be too radiogenic for Labrador Seawater but also show a marked unradiogenic peak at 12 kyr pointing to a strong influence of coatings preformed on land and in rivers. This is supported by the Hf isotope data being well above the seawater array when plotted against Nd isotopes. Based on the obtained data we reconstruct changes in the weathering inputs into the Labrador Sea and its current system, which has important implications for the reconstruction of the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and of North Atlantic Deep Water.

Filippova, A.; Frank, M.; Kienast, M.; Hillarie-Marcel, C.

2013-12-01

71

Rare-earth elements and Nd and Pb isotopes as source indicators for Labrador Sea clay-size sediments during Heinrich event 2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elemental abundances and Nd and Pb isotope ratios were determined on samples from the carbonate-free, clay-size fractions of sediments from intervals above, within, and below Heinrich event 2 (H-2) in core HU87-9 from the Northwest Labrador Sea slope. In HU87-9, rare-earth element (REE) distributions and elemental concentrations within the H-2 event are distinct from those outside this event, ??Nd(0) and 206Pb/204Pb data also indicate different values for sediments deposited within and outside the H-2 event. Comparisons of REE patterns from the H-2 interval with those from bedrock units in Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and Labrador indicate that the Lake Harbour Group (LHG), which crops out on the north side of the Hudson Strait, is the most probable bedrock source of the clay-size fraction found within the H-2 interval in HU87-9. The Tasiuyak Gneiss (TG) and Lac Lomier Complex (LLC) have REE patterns (including a negative Eu anomaly) similar to those found in H-2 sediments; however, the La/Yb ratios of these units are smaller than those associated with H-2 sediments. The Nd and Pb isotope data support and complement REE-based interpretations of provenance; i.e., the Nd-Pb signatures of sediments deposited at the HU87-9 site during the H-2 event are similar to Nd-Pb signatures obtained on diamicts from the western end of Hudson Strait. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Benson, L.; Barber, D.; Andrews, J. T.; Taylor, H.; Lamothe, P.

2003-01-01

72

Linking the 8.2 ka Event and its Freshwater Forcing in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in (delta)18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that approx. 3 C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an 1.0 % decrease in western Labrador Sea (delta)18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic (delta)18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, C.

2012-01-01

73

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory: Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment Data Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory conveys its goal to improve the understanding of the Labrador Sea deep convective process and the reliability of parametric representations used in large scale models. Students can find a brief introduction to the convective process and its impacts on world climate. Researchers can find links to datasets organized by contributor, type of data, and by the number of the dataset. The website furnishes maps of the locations of the velocity, T and S, and meteorological measurements as well as the floaters and drifters and the model and ice data. Visitors can find links to references, manuscripts, homepages of groups and individuals working on the Labrador Sea, and related data sources.

74

Geomagnetic paleointensity and environmental record from Labrador Sea core MD95-2024: global marine sediment and ice core chronostratigraphy for the last 110 kyr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piston core MD95-2024 from the Labrador Rise provides a continuous record of rapidly deposited detrital layers denoting Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) instability. The core also provides a high-resolution record of geomagnetic paleointensity, that is consistent with, but at higher temporal resolution than previous Labrador Sea records. Correlation to the Greenland Summit ice cores (GRIP\\/GISP2) is achieved by assuming that Labrador

J. S. Stoner; J. E. T. Channell; C. Hillaire-Marcel; C. Kissel

2000-01-01

75

Estimating aircraft SAR response characteristics and approximating ocean wave spectra in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data processing methods employed to compute estimates of two-dimensional wave height-variance spectra from the ocean imagery obtained in the Labrador Sea by a C-band airborne SAR system are described. The SAR spectra are compared for high and low altitude geometries with large and small elevation angles. A surface contour radar and a radar ocean wave spectrometer aboard an aircraft are used to verify the surface wave spectrum.

Tilley, D. G.

1988-01-01

76

The effects of clearcutting on snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus) relative abundance in central Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of clearcutting on snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) relative abundance, we surveyed pellets in 1m2 circular plots and, vegetation and browse surveys in 4.5m2 circular plots among four different aged clearcut (30, 20, 10, 5 years post-harvest) and mature forests (>150 years old) in central Labrador, Canada. Data were modelled at three grain sizes: transect (4400m2), plot

Tina L. Newbury; Neal P. P. Simon

2005-01-01

77

Labrador Sea convection and subpolar North Atlantic Deep Water export in the SODA assimilation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador Sea convection was most intense and reached the greatest depths in the early 1990s, followed by weaker, shallower, and more variable convection after 1995. The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) version 2.0.2\\/2.0.4 assimilation model is used to explore convective activity in the North Atlantic Ocean for the period from 1992 to 2007. Hydrographic conditions, which are relatively well observed

Friedrich A. Schott; Lothar Stramma; Benjamin S. Giese; Rainer Zantopp

2009-01-01

78

Late onset centronuclear myopathy with severe atrophy in an adult Labrador retriever  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year-old male Labrador retriever was presented with five-month history of tetraparesis with severe atrophy in the limbs. Prior to this five-month period, the dog had been healthy. At gross necropsy several muscles were atrophic reflecting decreased muscle mass. Histologically, there were atrophic type I and type II fibres, angulated type IIC fibres and an elevated oxidative activity that showed

Juan D. García-Martínez; Miguel A. Rivero; Octavio López-Albors; Alberto Arencibia; José M. Vázquez; Ignacio Ayala; Francisco Gil

2012-01-01

79

Late onset centronuclear myopathy with severe atrophy in an adult Labrador retriever  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-year-old male Labrador retriever was presented with five-month history of tetraparesis with severe atrophy in the limbs. Prior to this five-month period, the dog had been healthy. At gross necropsy several muscles were atrophic reflecting decreased muscle mass. Histologically, there were atrophic type I and type II fibres, angulated type IIC fibres and an elevated oxidative activity that showed

Juan D. García-Martínez; Miguel A. Rivero; Octavio López-Albors; Alberto Arencibia; José M. Vázquez; Ignacio Ayala; Francisco Gil

2011-01-01

80

D-penicillamine treatment of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

d-penicillamine is effectively used in the lifelong treatment of copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers and Wilson's disease in humans. A complex form of copper-associated hepatitis has recently been characterized in the Labrador retriever. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of d-penicillamine treatment for copper-associated hepatitis in this breed, to study the effects on hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate parameters to predict optimal duration of treatment. Forty-three client owned Labrador retrievers that were diagnosed with increased hepatic copper were treated with d-penicillamine and underwent at least one follow-up examination including a liver biopsy for histopathological scoring of inflammatory lesions. Hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations were determined in the initial and follow-up biopsies by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The influence of initial hepatic copper concentration, sex, age, d-penicillamine formulation and the occurrence of side effects were investigated for their influence on hepatic copper concentration after a certain period of treatment by generalized mixed modelling. d-penicillamine proved to be effective in reducing hepatic copper concentration and associated inflammatory lesions. Parameters derived from the model can be used to estimate the necessary duration of d-penicillamine treatment for Labrador retrievers with increased hepatic copper concentration. Continuous, lifelong d-penicillamine treatment is not recommended in this breed, as there may be a risk for hepatic copper and zinc deficiency. PMID:23375251

Fieten, Hille; Dirksen, Karen; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Winter, Esther A; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

2013-06-01

81

Centronuclear Myopathy in Labrador Retrievers: A Recent Founder Mutation in the PTPLA Gene Has Rapidly Disseminated Worldwide  

PubMed Central

Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are inherited congenital disorders characterized by an excessive number of internalized nuclei. In humans, CNM results from ?70 mutations in three major genes from the myotubularin, dynamin and amphiphysin families. Analysis of animal models with altered expression of these genes revealed common defects in all forms of CNM, paving the way for unified pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms. Despite these efforts, some CNM cases remain genetically unresolved. We previously identified an autosomal recessive form of CNM in French Labrador retrievers from an experimental pedigree, and showed that a loss-of-function mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLA) gene segregated with CNM. Around the world, client-owned Labrador retrievers with a similar clinical presentation and histopathological changes in muscle biopsies have been described. We hypothesized that these Labradors share the same PTPLAcnm mutation. Genotyping of an international panel of 7,426 Labradors led to the identification of PTPLAcnm carriers in 13 countries. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the PTPLAcnm allele resulted from a single and recent mutational event that may have rapidly disseminated through the extensive use of popular sires. PTPLA-deficient Labradors will help define the integrated role of PTPLA in the existing CNM gene network. They will be valuable complementary large animal models to test innovative therapies in CNM. PMID:23071563

Guillaud, Laurent; Fender, Marilyn; Pele, Manuel; Bilzer, Thomas; Olby, Natasha; Penderis, Jacques; Shelton, G. Diane; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Barthelemy, Ines; Aubin-Houzelstein, Genevieve; Blot, Stephane; Hitte, Christophe; Tiret, Laurent

2012-01-01

82

Changes in the Western Boundary Undercurrent outflow since the Last Glacial Maximum, from smectite\\/illite ratios in deep Labrador Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution mineralogical studies were performed on late glacial and deglacial sediments from two deep piston cores from the Labrador Sea, located at the inlet (SW Greenland Rise) and outlet (Labrador Rise) of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC) gyre. At the two sites, smectites transported from the eastern Iceland and Irminger basins by the WBUC are observed. Clay mineral changes are

Nathalie Fagel; Claude Hillaire-Marcel; Christian Robert

1997-01-01

83

What causes the location of the air-sea turbulent heat flux maximum over the Labrador Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Labrador Sea is a region of climatic importance as a result of the occurrence of oceanic wintertime convection, a process that is integral to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. This process requires large air-sea heat fluxes that result in a loss of surface buoyancy, triggering convective overturning of the water column. The Labrador Sea wintertime turbulent heat flux maximum is situated downstream of the ice edge, a location previously thought to be causal. Here we show that there is considerable similarity in the characteristics of the regional mean atmospheric circulation and high heat flux events over the Labrador Sea during early winter, when the ice is situated to the north, and midwinter, when it is near the region of maximum heat loss. This suggests that other factors, including the topography of the nearby upstream and downstream landmasses, contribute to the location of the heat flux maximum.

Moore, G. W. K.; Pickart, R. S.; Renfrew, I. A.; Vâge, Kjetil

2014-05-01

84

The interannual variability of the surface eddy kinetic energy in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of the surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Labrador Sea is investigated with a suite of numerical integrations using a regional ocean model. Simulations are performed over the period 1980-2001 and are compared to satellite observations over the last 9 years. The surface EKE pattern in the basin is dominated by a region along the West coast of Greenland where eddies, mainly anticyclonic, are formed by instability of the main currents flowing over the continental slope, consistent with previous idealized results. Here the interannual changes are linked to the shear of the incoming boundary current system imposed as boundary condition to the model domain. The highly variable strength of the East Greenland current at the northeast boundary, derived from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis, strongly influences the vortex formation. In the center of the Labrador Sea, where deep convection occurs, a statistically significant portion of the modeled interannual surface EKE variability is correlated with the local atmospheric forcing, and both heat and wind fluxes play an important role and can be adopted as predictors at a lag of 2-3 months. The Arctic Oscillation index can also be used as a remote indicator of the atmospheric fluxes, but with lower skill than local measurements. In contrast the North Atlantic Oscillation index does not correlate significantly with the surface EKE at intraseasonal and interannual scales. The analysis of altimeter data over the 1993-2001 supports the existence of this asymmetry between the regime locally forced by the atmosphere in the central basin, and the regime remotely forced by the incoming boundary current along the west Greenland coast. Those results have important implications for monitoring and predicting the surface eddy kinetic energy variability in the Labrador Sea.

Luo, Hao; Bracco, Annalisa; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele

2011-11-01

85

Northerly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND  

E-print Network

of the Chicago Loop, is a peninsula sur- rounded by Lake Michigan and Burnham Harbor. The four teams were groupedNortherly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs CUPPA FALL 2005 NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs

Illinois at Chicago, University of

86

Distribution, thickness and origin of Heinrich layer 3 in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Heinrich layer 3 (HL-3) in the northwest Labrador Sea has been debated in the literature. Calypso giant piston core MD99-2233, five new standard piston cores, and re-interpretation of 34 cores from previous cruises confirm the presence of HL-3 in the Labrador Sea. It is identified by high total carbonate concentration (up to 45%), an increase in coarse fraction content, and lighter ? 18O values in polar species planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (left-coiling) as low as 3.1‰. The age of HL-3 of ˜27 ka was bracketed in the various cores by about 50 14C-accelerator mass spectrometer dates. Where it is present in ice-proximal regions, it consists of nepheloid-flow deposits at the base and mud turbidites at the top. The thickness of HL-3 varies between 4.8 m (proximal to Hudson Strait) and 0.9 m (distal), decreasing rapidly seaward. On the upper continental slope, HL-3 was too deeply buried to be sampled. Elsewhere, HL-3 is absent in some cores, probably due to slumping or erosion associated with sandy turbidity currents or debris flows.

Rashid, Harunur; Hesse, Reinhard; Piper, David J. W.

2003-01-01

87

Newfoundland and Labrador: 80/20 staffing model pilot in a long-term care facility.  

PubMed

This project, based in Newfoundland and Labrador's Central Regional Health Authority, is the first application of an 80/20 staffing model to a long-term care facility in Canada. The model allows nurse participants to spend 20% of their paid time pursuing a professional development activity instead of providing direct patient care. Newfoundland and Labrador has the highest aging demographic in Canada owing, in part, to the out-migration of younger adults. Recruiting and retaining nurses to work in long-term care in the province is difficult; at the same time, the increasing acuity of long-term care residents and their complex care needs mean that nurses must assume greater leadership roles in these facilities. This project set out to increase capacity for registered nurse (RN) leadership, training and support and to enhance the profile of long-term care as a place to work. Six RNs and one licensed practical nurse (LPN) participated and engaged in a range of professional development activities. Several of the participants are now pursuing further nursing educational activities. Central Health plans to continue a 90/10 model for one RN and one LPN per semester, with the timeframe to be determined. The model will be evaluated and, if it is deemed successful, the feasibility of implementing it in other sites throughout the region will be explored. PMID:22398477

Stuckless, Trudy; Power, Margaret

2012-03-01

88

Contrasting trends in North Atlantic deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas during the Holocene  

E-print Network

deep-water formation is studied in a 9,000-year long simulation with a coupled climate model the experiment, deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas is reduced due to an enhanced influx of sea ice from formation of intermediate water takes place that is known as Labrador Sea Water (LSW). The rate of deep-water

Renssen, Hans

89

Rapid Holocene Deglaciation of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet ANDERS E. CARLSON* AND PETER U. CLARK  

E-print Network

Rapid Holocene Deglaciation of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet ANDERS E. CARLSON, in final form 31 January 2007) ABSTRACT Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) following the Last.6 and 6.5 cal ka BP. 1. Introduction The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was the largest of the former Northern

90

Late Quaternary history of contourite drifts and variations in Labrador Current flow, Flemish Pass, offshore eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contourite drifts of alternating sand and mud, shaped by the Labrador Current, formed during the late Quaternary in Flemish Pass seaward of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The drifts preserve a record of Labrador Current flow variations through the last glacial maximum. A high-resolution seismic profile and a transect of four cores were collected across Beothuk drift on the southeast side of Flemish Pass. Downcore and lateral trends in grain size and sedimentation rate provide evidence that, between 16 and 13 ka, sediment was partitioned across Beothuk drift and the adjacent Flemish Pass floor by a strong current flow but, from 29 to 16 ka, sedimentation was more of a blanketing style, represented by draped reflections interpreted as being due to a weaker current. The data poorly resolve the low sedimentation rates since 13 ka, but the modern Labrador Current in Flemish Pass is the strongest it has been in at least the past 29 ka. Pre-29 ka current flow is interpreted based on reflection architecture in seismic profiles. A prominent drift on the southwestern side of Flemish Pass formed above a mid-Miocene erosion surface, but was buried by a mass-transport deposit after the penultimate glacial maximum and after drift deposition switched to eastern Flemish Pass. These findings illustrate the temporal complexity of drift sedimentation and provide the first detailed proxy for Labrador Current flow since the last glacial maximum.

Marshall, Nicole R.; Piper, David J. W.; Saint-Ange, Francky; Campbell, D. Calvin

2014-10-01

91

Bahama Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This beautiful photograph from space shows the contrast between islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water of the Bahamas (25.0N, 76.5E). The Bahama Islands of Nassau (the smaller island) and Eleuthera are at the edge of the Bahama Bank where the water is shallow revealing the bottom in pale blue detail contrasted to the dark depths of the Exuma Sound where the bottom is over a thousand feet deep.

1983-01-01

92

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

93

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around the Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea Dorthe Paulsen (1), Antoon Kuijpers (2), Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz (3) and Tove Nielsen (2) 1) Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K 2) Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgde 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. 3) Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C The southern end of the Davis Strait, the comparatively shallow-water area separating the Labrador Sea from the Baffin Bay, is cut by two deep submarine canyons of west Greenland, on the western and eastern side of the Fylla Banke, respectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate Late Pleistocene sedimentary processes governing the area of the two canyons in order to test if gravity flows or ocean currents are the most important factors governing canyon sedimentary processes in this region. Furthermore, an account is given on the formation of the two canyons in order to explain the significant difference between them. The study was carried out based on seismic profiles combined with bathymetric information, and a single sidescan sonar profile from one of the canyons (western canyon). Sedimentary information and an age model are derived from of a 5-m long gravity core (TTR13-AT-479G) collected from the mouth of the western canyon (southern end). The data indicates that the sedimentary regime is today highly affected by northward transport of the ocean currents and that gravity flows (southward from shallower to deep waters) are only of limited significance today. The deep southern end of the canyons are influenced by the upper parts of the deep North Atlantic Deep Water, but the majority of the sediment transport is linked to the strong northward flow of the lower parts of the West Greenland Current. For comparison the sediment transport is held up against earlier studies from the Davis Strait area, where 2D seismic profiles were carried out several places of the west coast of Greenland. These studies are from a contourite drift complex at the Davis Strait and north of Labrador Sea. A further possible process operating in maintaining active sediment transport through the canyon may be the cascading of dense winter water formed on the West Greenland shelf.

Paulsen, Dorthe; Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Nielsen, Tove

2014-05-01

94

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

95

Siberian Islands  

... East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May ... Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is ...

2013-04-16

96

Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

97

The succession of ice-flow patterns in north-central Québec-Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Québec-Labrador, Canada, is one of the postulated dispersal centres of the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet, and also contains an unusually complex and rich glacial geological record. A reliable reconstruction of glaciation history represented by this record would improve our comprehension of the dynamics of the eastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, such as the evolution of the basal thermal regime and the timing of enhanced ice flow into Ungava Bay. We mapped glacial landforms over a 200,000 km 2 area using aerial photographs, and conducted a detailed field-based survey of the central part of the area to establish the relative age of crosscutting glacial-geological features. The position of the last ice remnant was south of Ungava Bay, well north of what has commonly been perceived as the location for this dispersal centre. Southward (radial) flow from a northward migrating and predominantly cold-based dispersal centre was the last glacial event in north-central Québec-Labrador. A widespread occurrence of older ice flow traces towards the southwest was detected. In some areas, large drumlins, formed during this ice-flow event, occur in alignment with landforms formed during the last deglaciation. This older southwestward flow is, however, overprinted by, and therefore predates, traces of northward convergent flow into Ungava Bay (Ungava Bay flow), traces of a northeastward flow event, and in some areas, traces of the deglacial flow event. Flutes and glacial striae indicating ice flow towards northeast are superimposed on the Ungava Bay flow. The northeastward ice-flow system has been recognised across the mapped area, and because of its direction and regional significance, we infer formation approximately during the Last Glacial Maximum.

Jansson, Krister N.; Kleman, Johan; Marchant, David R.

2002-02-01

98

A COLQ Missense Mutation in Labrador Retrievers Having Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by skeletal muscle weakness caused by disruption of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). CMSs are rarely encountered in veterinary medicine, and causative mutations have only been identified in Old Danish Pointing Dogs and Brahman cattle to date. Herein, we characterize a novel CMS in 2 Labrador Retriever littermates with an early onset of marked generalized muscle weakness. Because the sire and dam share 2 recent common ancestors, CMS is likely the result of recessive alleles inherited identical by descent (IBD). Genome-wide SNP profiles generated from the Illumina HD array for 9 nuclear family members were used to determine genomic inheritance patterns in chromosomal regions encompassing 18 functional candidate genes. SNP haplotypes spanning 3 genes were consistent with autosomal recessive transmission, and microsatellite data showed that only the segment encompassing COLQ was inherited IBD. COLQ encodes the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for termination of signal transduction in the NMJ. Sequences from COLQ revealed a variant in exon 14 (c.1010T>C) that results in the substitution of a conserved amino acid (I337T) within the C-terminal domain. Both affected puppies were homozygous for this variant, and 16 relatives were heterozygous, while 288 unrelated Labrador Retrievers and 112 dogs of other breeds were wild-type. A recent study in which 2 human CMS patients were found to be homozygous for an identical COLQ mutation (c.1010T>C; I337T) provides further evidence that this mutation is pathogenic. This report describes the first COLQ mutation in canine CMS and demonstrates the utility of SNP profiles from nuclear family members for the identification of private mutations. PMID:25166616

Rinz, Caitlin J; Levine, Jonathan; Minor, Katie M; Humphries, Hammon D; Lara, Renee; Starr-Moss, Alison N; Guo, Ling T; Williams, D Colette; Shelton, G Diane; Clark, Leigh Anne

2014-01-01

99

Carbon Cycle Dynamics in the Labrador Sea During the Spring to Summer Phytoplankton Bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is a region of intense physical and biological activity. This area is a globally significant site of air-sea CO2 flux, deep water formation, and perhaps organic carbon export. It is therefore important to characterize these processes and the interplay between them. We report here the carbon cycle dynamics during the summer 2004 phytoplankton bloom observed from a 70-day Air-Sea Interaction Buoy (ASIS) deployment in the Labrador Sea. Physical and biogeochemical properties were measured at multiple depths in the upper 35 m by autonomous pCO2, PAR, Chl-a fluorescence, beam-c, optical backscatter, CTD, and ADCP sensors. Using the in situ pCO2, air-sea flux of CO2 and net community metabolism (NCM) are estimated. Our findings indicate that during the main phytoplankton bloom, temperature and NCM drive large opposing trends in seawater pCO2. Changes in particulate organic carbon, obtained from beam-C and optical backscatter, provide a linkage between the observed CO2 drawdown and organic carbon production. This connection may allow inference on the less-understood flux of organic carbon in this region thus providing a link between air-sea CO2 flux and carbon export. Evaluation of net community production in the context of mixed layer depth and compensation irradiance reveals a general adherence to the classic Critical Depth Hypothesis. ADCP backscatter reveals an intriguing relationship between magnitude and phase of diel pCO2 cycling in the upper 10 m, presumably driven by zooplankton migration.

Martz, T.; Degrandpre, M.; Strutton, P.; McGillis, W.; Drennan, W.

2006-12-01

100

A COLQ Missense Mutation in Labrador Retrievers Having Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by skeletal muscle weakness caused by disruption of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). CMSs are rarely encountered in veterinary medicine, and causative mutations have only been identified in Old Danish Pointing Dogs and Brahman cattle to date. Herein, we characterize a novel CMS in 2 Labrador Retriever littermates with an early onset of marked generalized muscle weakness. Because the sire and dam share 2 recent common ancestors, CMS is likely the result of recessive alleles inherited identical by descent (IBD). Genome-wide SNP profiles generated from the Illumina HD array for 9 nuclear family members were used to determine genomic inheritance patterns in chromosomal regions encompassing 18 functional candidate genes. SNP haplotypes spanning 3 genes were consistent with autosomal recessive transmission, and microsatellite data showed that only the segment encompassing COLQ was inherited IBD. COLQ encodes the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for termination of signal transduction in the NMJ. Sequences from COLQ revealed a variant in exon 14 (c.1010T>C) that results in the substitution of a conserved amino acid (I337T) within the C-terminal domain. Both affected puppies were homozygous for this variant, and 16 relatives were heterozygous, while 288 unrelated Labrador Retrievers and 112 dogs of other breeds were wild-type. A recent study in which 2 human CMS patients were found to be homozygous for an identical COLQ mutation (c.1010T>C; I337T) provides further evidence that this mutation is pathogenic. This report describes the first COLQ mutation in canine CMS and demonstrates the utility of SNP profiles from nuclear family members for the identification of private mutations. PMID:25166616

Rinz, Caitlin J.; Levine, Jonathan; Minor, Katie M.; Humphries, Hammon D.; Lara, Renee; Starr-Moss, Alison N.; Guo, Ling T.; Williams, D. Colette; Shelton, G. Diane; Clark, Leigh Anne

2014-01-01

101

Examining the Sedimentary and Paleoclimate Signature of Late Holocene Sedimentary Deposits in Okak Bay, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations suggest there is a high potential for significant sea surface warming of the northwest North Atlantic Ocean in response to rising anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas concentrations. This continued warming may ultimately result in the shutdown of oceanic convection in the North Atlantic, continuing a history of strong climate shifts for this region throughout the Holocene. In this context, we have undertaken a study of climate proxies preserved in sediment cores from the northwest Atlantic coast to investigate the hypothesized sea surface warming and quantify local late Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the North Atlantic region. To address these objectives, piston and gravity cores have been collected in Okak Bay, a fjord-like bay on the Labrador coast of Canada. The bay receives water from the Labrador Sea (in the North Atlantic), is near the present latitudinal tree line, and is adjacent to a now abandoned community site long inhabited by both European and pre-contact settlers. As a result, this location contains a record of terrestrial and marine environmental change, and anthropogenic influence at the subarctic boundary. To date, cores have been analyzed for physical properties and x-ray fluorescence elemental data, and imaged using x-radiographic techniques. Age models are being developed using Pb-210/Cs-137 and C-14 geochronology, while palynological investigations are ongoing. Our data and a preliminary age model based on regional data suggest: 1) a trend towards increasing terrestrial sediment input to the Bay throughout the latest Holocene, 2) periods of high magnitude variability between terrestrial and marine derived deposition, particularly between 700 and 200 BP, and 3) tree/shrub genera Betula and Alnus dominated the landscape around 4 kBP, while surface sediments contain a much higher abundance of conifer genera (i.e. Picea) and dinoflagellate cysts.

Bambrick Banks, J.; Bentley, S. J.; Warny, S.

2013-12-01

102

Freshwater export from the Labrador Current to the North Atlantic Current at the Tail of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical hydrographic data, spanning the period 1896-2006, are used to examine the annual mean and seasonal variations in the distribution of freshwater along and across the shelf/slope boundary along the Labrador and Newfoundland Shelves and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Particular attention is paid to the export of freshwater along the eastern Grand Banks, between Flemish Cap and the Tail of the Grand Banks, as this has long been identified as a preferential region for the loss of mass and freshwater from the boundary. The data are combined into isopycnally averaged long-term annual and monthly mean gridded property fields and the evolving distribution of fresh arctic-origin water is analyzed in fields of salinity anomaly, expressed as departures from the "central water" temperature-salinity relation of the Gulf Stream. The climatology confirms that cold/fresh northern-source waters are advected offshore within the retroflecting Labrador Current along the full length of the boundary between Flemish Cap and the Tail of the Grand Banks. In fact, it is estimated that most of the equatorward baroclinic transport at the boundary must retroflect back toward the north in order to explain the annual mean distribution of salinity in the climatology. While the retroflection of the Labrador Current appears seasonally robust, the freshwater distribution within the retroflection region varies in response to (1) the freshness of the water available for export which is set by the arrival and rapid flushing of the seasonal freshwater pulse at the boundary, (2) seasonal buoyancy forcing at the surface which alters the vertical stratification across the retroflection region, restricting certain isopycnal export pathways, and (3) the density structure along the eastern Grand Banks, which defines the progressive retroflection of the Labrador Current.

Fratantoni, Paula S.; McCartney, Michael S.

2010-02-01

103

An Extreme Cold-Air Outbreak over the Labrador Sea: Roll Vortices and Air–Sea Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational data from two research aircraft flights are presented. The flights were planned to investigate the air-sea interaction during an extreme cold-air outbreak, associated with the passage of a synoptic-scale low pressure system over the Labrador Sea during 8 February 1997. This is the first such aircraft-based investigation in this remote region. Both high-level dropsonde and low-level flight-level data were

Ian A. Renfrew; G. W. K. Moore

1999-01-01

104

Asymmetrical turbid surface-plume deposition near ice-outlets of the Pleistocene Laurentide ice sheet in the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice-sheet drainage of glacial detritus into the sea involves size fractionation by ice-margin winnowing on a giant scale\\u000a caused by the lower density of meltwater entering cold seawater. Despite its load of suspended sediment, the fresh water rises\\u000a to or stays at the sea surface forming turbid surface plumes, whereas the coarse-grained sediment forms bed load. On the Labrador\\u000a Slope

Reinhard Hesse; Saeed Khodabakhsh; Ingo Klaucke; William B. F. Ryan

1997-01-01

105

Diatom and Chrysophyte Algal Response to Long-Term PCB Contamination from a Point-Source in Northern Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term response of diatom and chrysophyte communities to local PCB contamination was examined in an impacted and referencelake in northern Labrador. Beginning in the late 1950s, lake Saglek-2 (SK-2) received direct inputs of the contaminant in runoff, leaving a record of rising PCB concentrations in lake sediments. An examination of sediment samples spanning the past~ 150 yr revealed chrysophyte

Andrew M. Paterson; Alexandra A. Betts-Piper; John P. Smol; Barbara A. Zeeb

2003-01-01

106

PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997–1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during

Z. A. Kuzyk; J. P. Stow; N. M. Burgess; S. M. Solomon; K. J. Reimer

2005-01-01

107

Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals. PMID:24273070

Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

2014-03-01

108

Typical power budget and possible energy source for Autonomous Oceanographic Network (AOSN) Labrador Sea Experiment (LSE). Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Autonomous Oceanographic Network (AOSN) Labrador Sea Experiment (LSE) will be held in the Labrador Sea at a seawater depth of 3000 - 3500 meters. The total system will consist of a number of AUVs which will operate from a set of moorings within a defined area. Each mooring will be placed on the seafloor. The docking stations will be placed in the water column at 1000-2000 meters water depth. Each AUV will have at least one possible docking station to charge batteries and to transfer data. This report will show two different load pattern examples for the AOSN LSE, and the implications upon the power budget of the mooring. The possible use of a seawater battery and its implications upon the system will be discussed. A preliminary design of the sizes and weights of a seawater battery for this application is also included. Energy delivery to an experiment like the AOSN LSE with the use of a seawater battery is feasible both technically and within the time span of the AOSN project. The environment of the Labrador Sea is well documented and seems suitable to accommodate a seawater battery. Due to the large water depths involved and the simplicity of the system, and the lack of any large pressure housings the seawater battery seems like a good candidate both in respect to costs and feasibility.

Henriksen, H.

1996-06-01

109

On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

2013-07-01

110

Prevalence of childhood eczema and food sensitization in the First Nations reserve of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background The Mushua Innu of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada seem to have a high rate of childhood eczema. Anecdotally this problem seems to be more common now than 20 years ago. There has been speculation that this could be related to food sensitization that may have arisen coincident with a move away from a traditional Innu diet. We undertook to assess the prevalence and severity of pediatric eczema in Natuashish (population 792), and investigate the level of sensitization to common food antigens. Methods Over a three-month period we performed a population survey of all children in the community from the ages of 2–12 inclusive. The one-year prevalence of eczema was assessed using the United Kingdom Working Party’s diagnostic criteria, and graded on the Nottingham Severity Scale. All children with eczema and twice as many age/sex matched controls were offered complete blood counts, total IgE, and food specific IgE levels for egg white, cow’s milk protein and wheat. Results One hundred and eighty two (95% of the eligible children) were assessed. Of the 182 children examined eczema was diagnosed in 30 (16.5%) - 22 females and 8 males. The majority of children with eczema (20/30) were classified as being in the moderate and severe category. Of the 22 with eczema and 40 controls who consented to venipuncture all but 3 had IgE levels above the lab's reference range. Food specific antibody assays showed that 32, 23, and 5 percent of children with eczema were sensitized to egg, milk, and wheat respectively. None of the controls were sensitized. Conclusions The children of Natuashish, Labrador have a high rate of eczema, much of it graded as moderate or severe. IgE levels were markedly elevated in children with and without eczema, with average values at least ten-fold higher than other populations. There is no evidence of an unusual amount of sensitization to egg, milk or wheat. PMID:24649812

2014-01-01

111

Mg/Ca Ratios in Coralline Red Algae as Temperature Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystems and fishery productivity in the Northwestern Atlantic have been considerably affected by regional climate and oceanographic changes. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC). The cold LC originates in the Labrador Sea and flows southbound along the Eastern Canadian coastline causing an important cooling effect on marine waters off the Canadian Atlantic provinces. Although interdecadal and interannual variability of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the LC system have been documented, a long-term pattern has not been identified. In order to better understand the observed ecosystem changes and their relationship with climate variability in the Northwestern Atlantic, a century-scale reconstruction of spatial and temporal variations of the LC is needed. This, however, requires reliable long-term and high-resolution SST records, which are not available from short instrumental observations. Here we present the first century-scale SST reconstructions from the Northwest Atlantic using long-lived coralline red algae. Coralline red algae have a high-Mg calcite skeleton, live in shallow water worldwide and develop annual growth bands. It has previously been demonstrated that subannual resolution SSTs can be obtained from coralline red algal Mg/Ca ratios, a commonly used paleotemperature proxy. Specimens of the long-lived coralline red algae Clathromorphum compactum were collected alive in August 2008 along a latitudinal transect spanning the southern extent of LC flow in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This collection is supplemented with specimens from the same region collected in the 1960's. In order to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of the LC, selected samples of C. compactum were analyzed for Mg/Ca using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Mg/Ca ratios range from 0.048 to 0.138 (measured in weight %) and relate to water temperatures of -1 to 16°C. Age models were established by comparing annual growth increments (average increment width 350 microns/year) with Mg/Ca cycles. This yielded subannually-resolved Mg/Ca-based SST reconstructions spanning the past century.

Gamboa, G.; Hetzinger, S.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Kunz, B.; Adey, W.

2009-05-01

112

Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer isotope data from the same minerals indicate that the syenite and ore have initial Nd within a single ?Nd unit. This combined with their field relationship to the foliation and the microtextures observed in thin section suggests that the REE minerals experienced syndeformational growth from a hydrothermal fluid, acting on both host and ore, where REEs in aqueous hard ligand complexes became saturated in silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate minerals through the changing T, P and chemical conditions brought on by deformation.

Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

2012-12-01

113

Availability of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi to Black Spruce above the Present Treeline in Eastern Labrador  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host+) and the other half were free of host plants (host?). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host? soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

2013-01-01

114

Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

2013-01-01

115

Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-01-01

116

Two loci on chromosome 5 are associated with serum IgE levels in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response. PMID:22720065

Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Béatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Ake; Andersson, Göran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

2012-01-01

117

Two Loci on Chromosome 5 Are Associated with Serum IgE Levels in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response. PMID:22720065

Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Beatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T.; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Ake; Andersson, Goran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

2012-01-01

118

Assessing the impact of genomic selection against hip dysplasia in the Labrador Retriever dog  

PubMed Central

Many purebred dogs exhibit a higher prevalence of inherited diseases compared with non-purebred dogs. One of the most popular breeds in the UK is the Labrador Retriever, which has a high prevalence of hip dysplasia resulting in high costs for surgical operations and impaired animal welfare. Considering the many complications of highly managed populations, mainly due to breeder's conventions and the resulting population structure, is of great importance for the proper development of a strategy against the disease. In this study, we have compared the utilities and performances of both genomic and phenotypic selection against hip dysplasia in a simulated population with the characteristics of the British Veterinary Association and Kennel Club (BVA/KC) hip dysplasia scheme. The results confirm the potential benefits of genomic selection by showing a moderate increase of 1.15-fold (assuming a realistic accuracy of r2 = 0.5) in response to selection due to the higher accuracy (between 0.96- and 1.32-fold, considering 0.35 ? r2 ? 0.7) and more than a threefold increase when all the offspring in each litter are tested (between 3.25- and 4.55-fold, again considering 0.35 ? r2 ? 0.7). PMID:24134497

Sanchez-Molano, E; Woolliams, JA; Blott, SC; Wiener, P

2014-01-01

119

Thermal Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

120

Derivation of ?18O from sediment core log data: Implications for millennial-scale climate change in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment core logs from six sediment cores in the Labrador Sea show millennial-scale climate variability during the last glacial by recording all Heinrich events and several major Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. The same millennial-scale climate change is documented for surface water ?18O records of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (left coiled); hence the surface water ?18O record can be derived from sediment core logging by means of multiple linear regression, providing a paleoclimate proxy record at very high temporal resolution (70 years). For the Labrador Sea, sediment core logs contain important information about deepwater current velocities and also reflect the variable input of ice-rafted debris from different sources as inferred from grain-size analysis, the relation of density and P wave velocity, and magnetic susceptibility. For the last glacial, faster deepwater currents, which correspond to highs in sediment physical properties, occurred during iceberg discharge and lasted from several centuries to a few millennia. Those enhanced currents might have contributed to increased production of intermediate waters during times of reduced production of North Atlantic Deep Water. Hudson Strait might have acted as a major supplier of detrital carbonate only during lowered sea level (greater ice extent). During coldest atmospheric temperatures over Greenland, deepwater currents increased during iceberg discharge in the Labrador Sea, then surface water freshened shortly thereafter, while the abrupt atmospheric temperature rise happened after a larger time lag of ? 1 kyr. The correlation implies a strong link and common forcing for atmosphere, sea surface, and deep water during the last glacial at millennial timescales but decoupling at orbital timescales.

Weber, M. E.; Mayer, L. A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Bilodeau, G.; Rack, F.; Hiscott, R. N.; Aksu, A. E.

2001-10-01

121

Lipid [corrected] classes, fatty acids, and sterols in seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern labrador.  

PubMed

Seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern Labrador, was sampled for lipid classes, fatty acid, and sterol composition. Gilbert Bay is a proposed Marine Protected Area, and the composition of seafood from this region is interesting from both human health and ecological perspectives. Analyses included four species of bivalves and flesh and liver samples from four fish species. Lipids from a locally isolated population of northern cod (Gadus morhua) were also compared to lipids from other cod populations. Lipid classes were analyzed by Chromarod/Iatroscan TLC-FID, fatty acids by GC, and sterols by GC-MS. Three cod populations had similar levels of total lipid per wet weight (0.6%) with triacylglycerols (TAG), sterols, and phospholipids comprising on average 13, 11, and 51%, respectively, of their total lipids. Fatty fish such as capelin and herring contained on average 8.4% lipid with 86% present as TAG. Fish livers from cod and herring showed opposite trends, with cod having elevated lipid (27%) and TAG (63%) and herring containing only 3.8% lipid and 20% TAG. Shellfish averaged 0.6% lipid; however, significant lipid class differences existed among species. Fatty acid analysis showed few significant differences in cod populations with on average 57% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and 24% saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cod livers had lower PUFA (34%) and elevated MUFA (44%) relative to flesh. Bivalves averaged 25% SFA, 18% MUFA, and 57% PUFA, whereas scallop adductor muscle had the highest PUFA levels (63%). Bivalves contained 20 different sterols with cholesterol present as the major sterol (19-39%). trans-22-Dehydrocholesterol, brassicasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, and campesterol individually accounted for >10% in at least one species. High levels of PUFA and non-cholesterol sterols observed in Gilbert Bay seafood demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition. PMID:15264928

Copeman, Louise A; Parrish, Christopher C

2004-07-28

122

Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde  

E-print Network

Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 2 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands 1 Introduction Introduction

Verschelde, Jan

123

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

âÂÂThe RockâÂÂ, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay AreaâÂÂs most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâÂÂs best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of AmericaâÂÂs most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from AlcatrazâÂÂs past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous âÂÂBattle of Alcatrazâ and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

124

Fylla Bank: structure and evolution of a normal-to-shear rifted margin in the northern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cenozoic seafloor spreading between Greenland and North America is generally considered a major right-stepping ridge-transform-ridge system between NW-SE trending spreading ridge segments in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The ridges were linked by N-S/NNE-SSW trending transform motions in the Davis Strait, in particular expressed by the ˜1000-km-long Ungava Fault Zone. Fylla Bank, part of the southern West Greenland continental margin, is located in the northernmost Labrador Sea at the transition between the normal and shear rifting regimes of the Labrador Sea and Davis Strait. As such, the Bank may be compared with the Demerara Plateau, part of the French Guinea-Northeast Brazil continental margin. Seismic reflection interpretations presented in this study show that Fylla Bank is situated above an extensive basin complex, herein referred to as Fylla Structural Complex, which contains an up to 5-km-thick Cretaceous-Cenozoic sedimentary succession above an inferred pre-Cretaceous basement. Seismic mapping of basement structures show that the complex is dominated by NNW-/NW-striking rift basins in its southern part and NNE-striking rift basins in its northern part. The rift basins are interpreted to be the result of an initial late-Early Cretaceous rift phase, which mainly resulted in the formation of the NNW-/NW-striking structures, and a subsequent early Campanian rift phase, mainly resulting in the formation of large NNE-striking rotated fault blocks. Resumed rifting in the early Cenozoic deepened the NNE-striking rift basins. The NNE-oriented structures have previously been interpreted to initiate during the latest Cretaceous. However, this study suggests that they initiated transfer faults already during the late-Early Cretaceous rift phase and possibly correlate with along-strike discontinuities in oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea to define margin segmentation in southern West Greenland, including the borders of Fylla Bank. A structural-kinematic model presented here thus suggests that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic poly-phase rifting to some extent was controlled by pre-existing crustal fabric. Combined with an interpreted interplay between normal stresses in the Labrador Sea and oblique-shear stresses in the Davis Strait, this resulted in a very complex structural-tectonic evolution and the formation of several distinct structural styles. The seismic interpretations are supported by maps of the Moho topography and crustal thickness which were compiled from results of pseudo-3-D gravity modelling. The maps show minimum crustal thicknesses (11 km) and maximum Moho uplifts in areas where the NNW-/NW- and NNE-striking structures interact. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between Moho topography, crustal attenuation, rift-enforced thermal uplift and erosion, and post-rift subsidence in the area. This is interpreted to be a result of thermally controlled basin dynamics.

Døssing, Arne

2011-11-01

125

Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by direct assimilation of early Archean crustal rocks and/or by fluids that have interacted with such crust. Adjacent anorthositic rocks also show variable ??{lunate}Nd some as low as -14.7, implying larger degrees if crustal assimilation, perhaps by parental magmas during lower crustal ponding prior to emplacement. These contamination effects preclude straightforward determination of the isotopic character of mantle sources for both BLI and the anorthositic rocks. ?? 1992.

Ashwal, L. D.; Wiebe, R. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Snyder, D.

1992-01-01

126

Mg/Ca ratios in coralline red algae as temperature proxies for reconstructing Labrador Current variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and oceanographic changes in the Northwestern Atlantic have recently had a dramatic impact on ecosystems and fishery yields. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC) flowing along the Eastern Canadian coastline. Although interdecadal and interannual variability of SST and salinity in the LC system have been documented, a clear cyclic pattern has not been identified. In order to better understand the observed ecosystem changes and predict future changes in LC flow, a spatial and temporal reconstruction of the LC is needed. This, however, requires reliable long-term and high-resolution temperature records, which are not available from short instrumental observations. Our research is therefore concerned with establishing century-scale sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Northwest Atlantic using long-lived coralline red algae. Coralline red algae have a high-Mg calcite skeleton, live in shallow water worldwide and develop annual growth bands. It has previously been demonstrated that subannual resolution SST information can be obtained from coralline red algal Mg/Ca ratios, a commonly used paleotemperature proxy. Specimens of the long-lived coralline red algae Clathromorphum compactum were collected alive in August 2008 along a latitudinal transect spanning the southern extent of LC flow in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This collection is supplemented with specimens from the same region collected in the 1960's. In order to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of the LC, selected samples of C. compactum were analyzed for Mg/Ca using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Age models were established for all specimens by counting annual growth increments, which average 350 microns/year. Mg/Ca ratios range from 0.055 to 0.138 (measured in weight %) and relate to water temperatures of -1 to 10°C. An integration of observed element cycles and age model data yields Mg/Ca-based SST reconstructions dating back to the industrial revolution. Multidecadal spatial correlations of our C. compactum records with satellite-derived sea-surface temperatures clearly indicate the influence of a LC signature on the Mg/Ca time series and highlight the value of the algae as a proxy to resolve large-scale and long-term LC variability.

Gamboa, G.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Hetzinger, S.; Adey, W.

2009-04-01

127

Severe lymphocytic-plasmacytic and atrophic gastritis, as well as, predominantly eosinophilic, severe enteritis, in a 19-month-old Labrador retriever  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 19-month-old, male, Labrador retriever was presented with a history of chronic vomiting. Blood analysis and abdominal ultrasononography could not rule out the possibility of gastrointestinal inflammation. Histologic examination of endoscopic gastrointestinal biopsies confirmed severe lymphocytic-plasmacytic and atrophic gastritis, as well as, predominantly eosinophilic, severe enteritis. PMID:15884651

2005-01-01

128

ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters I50 (1997) ISI-160 Distribution of 230Thin the Labrador Sea and its relation ito  

E-print Network

, such as 231Pa, 26Al and "Be. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. Ke.vwords: Labrador Sea: thorium 1. Introduction Elsevier Science B.V. AI1 rights reserved. PI/ SOO12-821X(97)00081-2 #12;152 S.B. Moran et d

129

"Borrowed Black": A Labrador Fantasy from the Book by Ellen Bryan Obed, Adapted for Stage by Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. Cue Sheet for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Borrowed Black: A Labrador Fantasy," by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven reproducible activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) The Story (orienting students to the characters and places…

Brown, Victoria

130

Detrital carbonate-rich sediments, northwestern Labrador Sea: Implications for ice-sheet dynamics and iceberg rafting (Heinrich) events in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the bed of the central and eastern sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was underlain by Paleozoic carbonates. We propose that pulses of detrital carbonate-rich sediments in two cores from the northwestern Labrador Sea reflect episodes when an ice stream from the Hudson Strait extended to the shelf break and delivered sediment onto the slope and deep-sea plain.

J. T. Andrews; K. Tedesco

1992-01-01

131

The connection between Labrador Sea buoyancy loss, deep western boundary current strength, and Gulf Stream path in an ocean circulation model  

E-print Network

The connection between Labrador Sea buoyancy loss, deep western boundary current strength, and Gulf buoyancy forcing is explored in a global, non-eddy resolving ocean general circulation model. Increased buoyancy forcing strengthens the deep western boundary current, the northern recirculation gyre

Jochum, Markus

132

Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (approximately 1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywackes-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al2O3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and sigma Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% as FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO2 contents of source rocks by approximately 5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO2 contents approximately 45 wt% and the other approximately 65 wt%, and was the source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance II that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO2 contents approximately 65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher PCO2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe3+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the sigma Fe/Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt% organic C, but are extremely depleted in sigma Fe (<1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (approximately l ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (approximately 0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the approximately 1.9 Ga atmosphere-ocean system was anoxic. Depletion of these elements from the Ramah Group sediments

Hayashi, K. I.; Fujisawa, H.; Holland, H. D.; Ohmoto, H.

1997-01-01

133

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties...assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife...

2010-08-18

134

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

135

Numerical simulation of deep convection and the response of drifters in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to predict fully turbulent nonhydrostatic oceanic flow fields for deep convection in the subpolar seas. The rotational dependence of the dynamics of mixed layers dominated by free convection is examined for two distinct regimes. The first regime corresponds to rotating tank laboratory experiments where the surface forcing is steady, the equation of state is linear, the rotational axis is vertical, and there is no entrainment. The second regime corresponds to realistic winter conditions in the Labrador Sea, with episodic storm forcing, inclined planetary rotation vector, a full equation of state, and entrainment. The dominant governing nondimensional parameter is the natural Rossby number, Ro* = w*/( fH), where w* is the free convection velocity scale, f is the Coriolis parameter, and H is the mixed layer depth. In both regimes, the layer-averaged rms vertical velocity scales as wrms~w* Ro*r for Ro* < 1, and wrms ~ w* for Ro* > 1. In the first regime, p ? 1/8, and in the second regime, p is a constant between 1/10 and 1/8, depending on wind forcing. The rotational scale dependence of entrainment can be described in terms of w *3E, the rate of work done on entrained fluid, integrated over the depth H. Where fluid is entrained, it is found that w *3 E~w*3 Ro *r for Ro* < 1, where r ~ 3 p. The response of Lagrangian and semi-Lagrangian isobaric drifters to convection is simulated by modeling the motion of virtual drifters in tandem with the LES solution. The systematic and random errors inherent in float measurements are evaluated by comparing the statistics of the model-predicted Eulerian fields to the time series of virtual measurements along ensembles of model drifter trajectories. The simulations of idealized drifters demonstrate that the Lagrangian drifters can resolve the vertical Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE), the heat flux, and the integral scales of the convecting plumes. Contrasted with the Lagrangian drifters, isobaric drifter measurements of convection are biased. Constrained to a fixed depth, these drifters seek out convergence zones, where both the vertical velocity and temperature differ on the average from their mean Eulerian values. The apparent heat flux is significantly reduced from the actual heat flux, and the bias in vertical velocity can exceed 1 km/day.

Harcourt, Ramsey Reed

1999-09-01

136

Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposurexlevel of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact.

Howse, Dana [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., Canada A1B 3V6 (Canada); Gautrin, Denyse [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Neis, Barbara [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., A1B 3V6 (Canada)]. E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Horth-Susin, Lise [Valley Regional Hospital, Kentville, NS, B4N 5E3 (Canada); Jong, Michael [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University and Health Labrador Corporation, Happy Valley, NL, AOP 1EO (Canada); Swanson, Mark C. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

2006-06-15

137

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

138

Oceanographic regimes in the northwest Labrador Sea since Marine Isotope Stage 3 based on dinocyst and stable isotope proxy records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity in the northwest Labrador Sea and infer upper water column structure, we applied the modern analogue technique to dinocyst assemblages in combination with stable isotope data from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral (Npl) in a piston core raised off Hudson Strait (HU2008-029-004PC). Three oceanographic regimes were identified, broadly corresponding to the "glacial", "late deglacial" and "post-glacial" intervals. The site remained apparently under the direct influence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) margin until ~12.2 cal ka BP. It did not record the Bølling-Allerød warming and weakly recorded the Younger Dryas event. The "glacial" regime thus lasted until ~12.2 cal ka BP and is characterized by sparse dinocysts in the sedimentary record indicating nearly perennial sea ice. Under the "deglacial" regime (ca. 12.2-8.3 cal ka BP), increased productivity and dinocyst assemblage compositions are interpreted as responses to an increased North Atlantic water inflow. Warm summer (~11° C) and low winter SSTs, sea ice cover during about 3.5 months per year, and low salinity (~28) suggest the persistence of a strongly stratified surface water layer caused by continuous meltwater supplies from the LIS. Following the final drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz through Hudson Strait (dated here at ~ 8.3 cal ka BP), and the subsequent LIS collapse, increased salinity (up to ~35) was accompanied by a reduced seasonality with increased winter (~3.8° C) and decreased summer (~8.6° C) SSTs. This weakened stratification of the surface water layer allowed for winter convection and Labrador Sea Water formation, as shown by increased ?13CNpl values in response to higher ventilation rates of the resulting intermediate water layer.

Gibb, Olivia; de Vernal, Anne; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

2013-04-01

139

Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization.  

PubMed

In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average H(E)= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise F(ST)= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

2012-05-01

140

Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization  

PubMed Central

In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

2012-01-01

141

Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

1986-01-01

142

Wind, current and swell influences on the ice extent and flux in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area as observed in the LIMEX '87 experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents data collected by airborne and satellite instruments during the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment, that demonstrate the effects of oceanic and atmospheric processes on the ice conditions in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area. Special consideration is given to the development of algorithms for extracting information from SAR data. It is shown that SAR data can be used to monitor ice extent, determine ice motion, locate shear zones, monitor the penetration of swell into the ice, estimate floe sizes, and establish the dimensions of the ice velocity zones. It is also shown that the complex interaction of the ice cover with winds, currents, swell, and coastlines is similar to the dynamics established for a number of sites in both polar regions.

Argus, Susan Digby; Carsey, Frank; Holt, Benjamin

1988-01-01

143

Sea-ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal Arctic climate cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent ice data sets from the Greenland and Labrador Seas have been analyzed for the purpose of characterizing interannual and decadal time scale sea-ice extent anomalies during this century. Sea-ice concentration data for the 1953–1984 period revealed the presence of a large positive anomaly in the Greenland Sea during the 1960s which coincided with the “great salinity anomaly”, an

L. A. Mysak; D. K. Manak; R. F. Marsden

1990-01-01

144

Warming and salinification of Labrador Sea Water and deep waters in the subpolar North Atlantic at 60°N in 1997–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative estimate of the temperature and salinity variations in the Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the Iceland-Scotland Overflow\\u000a Water (ISOW), and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is given on the basis of the analysis of repeated observations\\u000a over a transatlantic section along 60°N in 1997, 2002, 2004, and 2006. The changes distinguished in the research evidence\\u000a strong warming and

A. A. Sarafanov; A. V. Sokov; A. S. Falina

2009-01-01

145

Sea surface pCO2 and carbon export during the Labrador Sea spring-summer bloom: An in situ mass balance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report depth-resolved in situ time series of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and other carbon-related parameters spanning the development and decline of a high-latitude phytoplankton bloom. A suite of sensors was deployed on a mooring in the Labrador Sea from June to August 2004. The study became quasi-Lagrangian when the mooring broke free in late June. Measured parameters

Todd R. Martz; Michael D. DeGrandpre; Peter G. Strutton; Wade R. McGillis; William M. Drennan

2009-01-01

146

Bouvet Island near Antarctica  

... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-16

147

Canary Island Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

1989-01-01

148

Island Fox Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)

2010-05-03

149

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

150

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

151

Diomede Islands, Bering Straight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

152

PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997-1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during 1997-1999 ranged from 0.24 to 62000 ng/g (dry weight) and decreased exponentially with distance from the contaminated beach. Given this gradient, spatial trends of PCBs in the food web were examined over four zones, according to distance from the contaminated beach: within 1.5 km--zone one, 1.5-4.5 km--zone two, 4.5-7.5 km--zone three, and greater than 7.5 km--zone four. PCB concentrations in a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), decreased significantly from zone one to zone two, three, four, and distant Labrador reference sites. PCB concentrations in the eggs of a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle) were as high as 48000 ng/g during 1997-1999 and average concentrations in zones one and two were 84 and 13 times higher than in zone four. Marine invertebrates closely reflected the concentrations of PCBs in the associated sediment. In contrast to the benthic-based food web, anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) showed no evidence of PCB accumulation from the contaminated sediments. Relatively high PCB concentrations were discovered in some great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) but appear to relate more to their high trophic level than sampling location. Those species that fed on or near the seabed and had limited foraging ranges were strongly influenced by the local contamination. Total PCB concentrations in the benthic-based food web were significantly higher than background levels for a distance of at least 7.5 km from the contaminated beach. This area is small in the context of widely distributed contamination from long-range transport but the area's high concentrations are comparable to levels associated with adverse effects elsewhere. Our findings should be useful to better assess the environmental impacts of PCB contamination at other coastal sites in the Arctic. PMID:16085280

Kuzyk, Z A; Stow, J P; Burgess, N M; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

2005-12-01

153

78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba...require an assessment of potential costs and benefits under section 6(a...Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club,...

2013-09-25

154

Seasonal changes in abundance and gonotrophic age of host-seeking Tabanidae (Diptera) from a subarctic Labrador peatland.  

PubMed

Canopy and Malaise traps continuously sampled host-seeking female tabanids throughout the 1990 and 1991 flight seasons at Iron Arm Fen in subarctic Labrador. A total of 19,426 tabanids representing 3 genera and 18 species was collected. Subsamples of each daily catch were dissected to determine gonotrophic age. Horse flies (mainly Hybomitra spp.) accounted for 96% of all tabanids; the remainder were deer flies (Chrysops spp.). Hybomitra arpadi (Szilady) and Hybomitra aequetincta (Becker) were the dominant species, comprising 60.6 and 24.8% of collections, respectively. They were also among the 1st species to emerge (in early July) and persisted for the entire flight season (until mid-August). Seasonal abundance for each species varied between the 2 yr of study. Both H. arpadi and H. aequetincta were obligately anautogenous at Iron Arm Fen. Seasonal changes in the gonotrophic age structure of host-seeking females of these species indicated a mid-July emergence peak in 1990 and an early July peak in 1991. Among the other tabanid species collected at Iron Arm Fen, Hybomitra lurida (Fallen) and Hybomitra zonalis (Kirby) were facultatively autogenous, whereas Hybomitra pechumani (Teskey & Thomas), Hybomitra hearlei (Philip), Hybomitra frontalis (Walker), Hybomitra astuta (Osten Sacken), Chrysops zinzalus (Philip), and Chrysops nigripes Zetterstedt were obligately autogenous during their 1st ovarian cycle. PMID:9775606

McElligott, P E; Lewis, D J

1998-09-01

155

A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers. PMID:23844590

2013-01-01

156

A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. Conclusion The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL. PMID:24690512

2014-01-01

157

Younger Dryas and Holocene oceanography of the western Labrador Sea region based on foraminifera and sediment proxies from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical analyses from three marine sediment cores from Placentia Bay on the southwest coast of Newfoundland captured the evolving surface and subsurface environment of the eastern Labrador Sea during the late glacial and Holocene. The area, which is today located in the boundary zone between the Arctic Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream in the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea was during the early part of the Younger Dryas (13.0-12.3 cal. kyr BP) dominated by cold, Arctic conditions and heavy sea-ice cover linked to a strong Polar Water component of the Inner Labrador Current. In the later part of the Younger Dryas (12.3-11.5 kyr BP) the influence of the Labrador Current (LC) became less pronounced resulting in more unstable conditions with varying sea-ice cover and increased influence of Gulf Stream water, presumably linked to an increased strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The earliest Holocene (11.5-10.4 kyr BP) saw slightly warmer subsurface conditions in Placentia Bay and increased productivity, presumably caused by a decreased southward transport of Polar Water via the LC. The onset of a strong AMOC caused the northward movement of the frontal zone between the Subpolar Gyre and the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre in the western North Atlantic region to closer proximity to the southern coast of Newfoundland compared to previously. From ca. 10.4-9.65 kyr BP increased bottom-current speeds and the presence of species often found in connection to oceanic fronts, suggest a further strengthening of the AMOC causing inflow of Atlantic-source water into Placentia Bay. This tendency was further strengthened at 9.65-7.3 kyr BP, which saw a relatively strong inflow of Atlantic-source Gulf Stream water into Placentia Bay, evidenced by high frequencies of Cassidulina neoteretis. This inflow of Atlantic was however temporarily halted around 8.2 kyr BP, when a short-lived, extreme peak in Globobulimina auriculata arctica suggests reduced bottom-water stratification. This may have been caused by an increased freshwater release from the Canadian Arctic, linked to the well-known 8.2-kyr event. Around 7.3 kyr BP, the inflow of warmer subsurface waters decreased, when subsurface waters of Placentia Bay returned to relatively cold, subarctic conditions. An enhanced influx of lower-saline water is inferred both by the presence of Elphidium bartletti, indicating an increased flux of meltwater from the Arctic entering Placentia Bay. This fresher water was likely transported by the Labrador Current and strong northerly winds. This scenario was again interrupted around ca 4.4 kyr BP, when higher C. neoteretis again suggest increase influx of Gulf Stream water, a tendency that continued until today, although with possibly slightly better mixing of LC and GS water after ~2.7 kyr BP. This decrease in the strength of the LC, may be linked to a decreased southward flow of LC water due to decreased meltwater release from the Canadian Arctic or due to a shift to a generally more negative Northern Annular Mode.

Sheldon, Christina; Pearce, Christof; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Reynisson, Njáll F.; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Juncker Hansen, Mette

2014-05-01

158

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

159

Multi-proxy insights into last interglacial (MIS 5e) conditions in the southern Labrador Sea: Consistencies and inconsistencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last interglacial (Marine Isotopic Stage or MIS 5e) sediments from the Gloria Drift in the southernmost Labrador Sea (Core HU91-045-91; 53.33N 45.26W) were studied for their dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) content and their planktic foraminiferal assemblages and isotopic compositions. While both microfossil groups clearly reveal the occurrence of typical interglacial conditions in the area, they also reflect a slightly different evolution of the MIS 5e surface water conditions. The dinocyst assemblages are dominated by the cold-temperate species Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus, with the secondary assemblages being composed by temperate oceanic Impagidinium species and the cosmopolitan species Operculodinium centrocarpum. The latter species shows a steady increase during the first half of MIS 5e, mirrored by a gradual decline of the polar planktic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s). Still, reconstructed temperatures from the application of the modern analogue technique for this interval are fairly stable, albeit that those reconstructed from the dinocyst assemblages (~10 and 17 °C for winter and summer, respectively) exceed those reconstructed from the planktic foraminiferal assemblages (~5.5 and 9.5 °C) as well as modern values (~5.5 and 10.6 °C) by several degrees. This apparent inconsistency might be partly explained by distinct conditions within the respective water depth habitats of these micro-organisms, but other factors likely intervened, such as an offset in their respective seasonal production time and/or mixing of the fossil assemblages through advection from slightly distinct production areas. The early MIS 5e trend ended abruptly with a marked event characterized by a peak of Turborotalita quinqueloba, the quasi-disappearance of dinocysts, and a divergent shift of the stable oxygen isotope values in the polar and subpolar foraminifer species. This might hint towards a possible meltwater-related perturbation of the prevailing upper ocean conditions.

Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas; Retailleau, Sophie; de Vernal, Anne; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

2013-04-01

160

Genome Wide Analysis Indicates Genes for Basement Membrane and Cartilage Matrix Proteins as Candidates for Hip Dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a ?2 statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001). Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia. PMID:24498183

Lavrijsen, Ineke C. M.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Martin, Alan J.; Harris, Stephen J.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Hazewinkel, Herman A. W.

2014-01-01

161

Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of < ~2 at 48-70% wt. % SiO2, in the ~10 km wide Oligocene Hidden Bay pluton on southern Adak Island and the 10 km wide Miocene Kagalaska pluton to the north on eastern Adak and the adjacent Kagalaska Island. Although small compared to most continental plutons, similarities in intrusive units, mineralogy and chemistry suggest common formation processes. The Aleutian calc-alkaline plutonic rocks mainly differ from continental plutons in having more oceanic like isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703-0.7033; Epsilon Nd = 9-7.8) and LIL (e.g., higher K/Rb) ratios. The Adak region plutons differ from Tertiary plutons on Unalaska Island further east in being more K-rich and in having a more oxidized and lower-temperature mineralogy. From a regional perspective, the Adak area plutons intrude Eocene/Oligocene Finger Bay Formation mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30.9 Ma and indicate an ~ 4 Ma intrusion history. Biotite Ar/Ar ages for Kagalaska gabbro and granodiorite samples range from 14.7 to 13.9 Ma. The new ages are consistent with the plutons being related to several eruptive centers and forming during the waning stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

2014-05-01

162

DIPLOMARBEIT Islands of Music  

E-print Network

musical genres. Mountains and hills on these islands represent sub-genres. The islands are situated perceptually very different genres are separated by deep sea. The pieces of music from the collection raw music data (e.g. MP3s) without any further information such as which genres the pieces of music

Rauber,Andreas

163

DIPLOMARBEIT Islands of Music  

E-print Network

musical genres. Mountains and hills on these islands represent sub-genres. The islands are situated perceptually very di#11;erent genres are separated by deep sea. The pieces of music from the collection raw music data (e.g. MP3s) without any further information such as which genres the pieces of music

Rauber,Andreas

164

Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic island sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original island sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.

165

76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993). Specifically...airspace area for Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the...

2011-01-14

166

The Erythroblastic Island  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastic islands are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These islands consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic island is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the macrophages provide nutrients, proliferative and survival signals to the erythroblasts, and phagocytose extruded erythroblast nuclei at the conclusion of erythroid maturation. There is also accumulating evidence for the role of macrophages in promoting enucleation itself. The central macrophages are identified by their unique immunophenotypic signature. Their pronounced adhesive properties, ability for avid endocytosis, lack of respiratory bursts, and consequent release of toxic oxidative species, make them perfectly adapted to function as nurse cells. Both macrophages and erythroblasts display adhesive interactions that maintain island integrity, and elucidating these details is an area of intense interest and investigation. Such interactions enable regulatory feedback within islands via cross talk between cells and also trigger intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression. An additional control mechanism for cellular growth within the erythroblastic islands is through the modulation of apoptosis via feedback loops between mature and immature erythroblasts and between macrophages and immature erythroblasts. The focus of this chapter is to outline the mechanisms by which erythroblastic islands aid erythropoiesis, review the historical data surrounding their discovery, and highlight important unanswered questions. PMID:18282516

Manwani, Deepa; Bieker, James J.

2011-01-01

167

Absorption and fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in the waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Bay, and the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated for the first time in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), Baffin Bay (BB), and Labrador Sea (LS) as part of the International Polar Year Canada's Three Oceans project (C3O). The dynamics and composition of absorbing DOM (i.e., colored DOM, or CDOM) and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) were evaluated in several distinct water masses occupying the three regions: surface waters, Arctic outflow waters, West Greenland Intermediate waters (WGIW), upper Labrador Sea waters (uLSW), and Bottom Baffin Deep Water (BBDW). Four fluorescent components were identified by applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to 522 excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra: three humic-like and one protein-like. The FDOM in surface waters of the CAA and BB differed considerably in character from those of the LS, with higher fluorescence intensity in the former. The fluorescence intensities of the two terrestrial humic-like components (C1 and C3) were linearly correlated with apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the CAA Arctic outflow and the WGIW whereas only humic-like C3 was significantly correlated with AOU in uLSW. These findings suggest that the humic-like components were produced in situ as organic matter was bio-oxidized. The slopes of the linear relationship between humic-like intensity and AOU were significantly greater in the WGIW relative to the Arctic outflow waters, which implies that FDOM in the Arctic-derived deeper layer was less prone to mineralization.

Guéguen, Céline; Cuss, Chad W.; Cassels, Chase J.; Carmack, Eddy C.

2014-03-01

168

Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis. Figure Principal component analysis of scattered region of x-ray fluorescence spectra of Labrador dog nails, demonstrating the differentiation towards dogs with high and low Cu liver levels (respectively positive and negative PC2 values) reflecting hepatitis, as well as gender (PC1: negative values for female and positive values for males) PMID:18264701

Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Rothuizen, Jan

2008-01-01

169

Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25, identified in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice, has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover. We tested the reliability of this biomarker as a sea ice proxy against observational sea ice data (sea ice concentrations from the global HadISST1 database) and against a more established sea ice proxy (sea ice diatom abundance in sediments) in the South-West (SW) Labrador Sea. Furthermore, our study location at the southern margin of Arctic sea ice drift provided a new environmental setting in which to further test the novel PIP25 index. Our two study sites are located North-East (NE) and South-East (SE) of Newfoundland where box cores covering the last ca 100-150 years were collected. IP25 concentrations are nearly an order of magnitude higher and sea ice diatoms more abundant in sediments from NE of Newfoundland, where sea ice prevails 2-4 months per year compared to the sediments SE of Newfoundland, where conditions are generally ice-free year round. The IP25 fluxes NE of Newfoundland agree well with multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) trends in the study area, which in previous studies have been shown to affect the climatic and sea ice conditions in the region. When assessed against observational sea ice data, IP25 appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sea ice variability in this setting compared to sea ice diatoms and proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing low-frequency variability in past sea ice concentrations. The PIP25 index results clearly differ from the observed sea ice data underlining that caution needs to be exercised when using the index in different environmental settings.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis G.; Hanhijärvi, Sami; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Schmidt, Sabine; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Andersen, Morten L.; Hill, Brian; Kuijpers, Antoon

2013-11-01

170

Wide-angle seismic imaging of a Mesoproterozoic anorthosite complex: The Nain Plutonic Suite in Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mesoproterozoic Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) of Labrador (Canada), one of the largest anorogenic plutonic terranes, was studied by a refraction/wide-angle seismic experiment. Four ocean bottom seismometers and 18 land stations were deployed along a 330-km profile and recorded air gun shots from the easternmost 160 km with the NPS located in the center of the line at the suture of the Nain and Churchill Provinces. P and S wave velocity models were developed by forward modeling of travel times and amplitudes. Upper and middle crustal P wave velocities outside and beneath the NPS range from 5.9 to 6.5 km/s, lower crustal P wave velocities range from 6.55 to 7.0 km/s. Within the anorthositic rocks, velocities are as high as 6.8 km/s, and reflections define the base of the NPS to be 8 km deep in the SE Churchill Province and 11 km in the Nain Province, a variation that may be the result of lateral density changes within the country rocks or the anorthosites. The total crustal thickness is 39 km west of the NPS but is only 32-34 km beneath the NPS, some 5 km less than Nain Province crust distal from the NPS. The inferred crustal thinning is possibly related to anatexis of the lowermost crust by a thermal plume that generated the plutonism. The Poisson's ratios are 0.275 within the anorthosite plutons, 0.27 in the upper and middle crust, and 0.285 in the lower crust. These values are some 0.03 higher than in the Archean Nain crust distal to the NPS, indicating a higher plagioclase content at all crustal levels as result of the plutonism. We postulate that a crustal root, similar to the root observed farther north in the Torngat Orogen, was completely removed by anatexis and the silicic and basic magmas probably ascended to midcrustal levels along preexisting zones of weakness at the Nain-Churchill boundary.

Funck, Thomas; Louden, Keith E.; Reid, Ian D.

2000-11-01

171

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

172

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)

2007-09-21

173

Heat Island Effect  

MedlinePLUS

... is part of a community's energy, air quality, water, or sustainability effort. Activities to reduce heat islands range from voluntary initiatives, such as cool pavement demonstration projects, to policy actions, such as requiring cool roofs via building ...

174

Mapping Staten Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Staten Island has been in the news recently due to the severity of the damage wrought by Hurricane Sandy. For those wishing to know more about the history of this venerable community, this website is a gem. Mapping Staten Island is part of an in situ exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York that looks at the geography and history of Staten Island. The exhibit examines the borough's historical transformation through maps, government documents, and newspapers. By clicking on the Explore the Maps section, visitors can use a graphic interface that overlays dozens of historic maps, including an 1845 land use map and a 1781 chart and harbor map of the area, on the contemporary geography of Staten Island. Also, visitors can use the scroll bar near the bottom of the page to look at the maps in a chronological fashion.

175

Photographs of Tinian Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of photographs depicts the 509th Composite Bomb Group on Tinian Island in the Pacific, the crews of the Enola Gay and Bock's Car, and actual atomic bombs that were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Griffith, Christopher

176

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Gardiner, Lisa; Universe, Windows T.

177

Black Island telecommunications upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Black Island telecommunications upgrade Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 22, 1993 File : opp93107 OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT SECTION 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 22, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Black Island Telecommunications Facility Upgrade) To: Director, Office of Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Section Safety and Health Officer Electronics Engineer Facilities Engineering Projects ...

178

Galveston Island and erosion  

E-print Network

protection. The 1970's and 1980's have seen the building of two new beachfront condominiums on East Beach and extensive housing subdivisions on west Galveston Island. Homecr aft Land Development (an affiliate of U. S. Homes), Mitchell Development Inc... problems in the future. Erosion is an old, continuing phenomenon on Galveston Island but most people do not seem concerned about it until they are directly im- pacted. PREVIOUS STUDIES I1any early studies concerning erosion and shoreline protection...

Bolleter, Jim Mason

2012-06-07

179

Development of Pabelokan Island  

SciTech Connect

Pertamina and Iiapco has an expanding complex of offshore production platforms in the S.E. Sumatra contract area of the Java Sea. One of the requirements for this complex is a treatment facility for water to be used in secondary recovery operations. Because of the water quality required, the water treatment system is substantially larger than that normally used off shore. Instead of constructing one or more platforms for the treatment system, a small coral island named Pabelokan Island has been utilized for this purpose. Although the water treatment system is the primary reason for the base, other facilities were co-located to centralize electric power generation, living quarters and recreation facilities, and facilities for storage and maintenance of offshore equipment. Future plans for the island include a gas-liquids recovery system. This work describes the island facilities, and provides a case study in responsible planning and construction techniques in the development of a coral island for use as an offshore base. The experience gained should be useful in the planning of other coral islands for similar purpose.

Powell, D.R.

1982-01-01

180

Conservation of the Island Spotted Skunk and Island Fox in a Recovering Island Ecosystenl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review available information on the ecolo­ gy of island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae) on Santa Cruz Island, with a focus on recent research, and present new infonnation on distribution and abundance. Our objective is to evaluate the present and future status of skunks and foxes in the context of ongoing island recov­

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

181

Grain shape variation and sedimentary processes of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments in Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

of Arctic water inasses ? contour following cur- rent and in-basin turbidity current plaved the inain role in the deposition of Baffin Bay sediments during thc carly to middle Miocene tiine: pelagic clepositiou linked to the Viest Greenland Ciirrent (XVGC... the late Pliocene to Pleistocene. The Precambrian crystalline metamorphic rocks in the surrounding areas: Greenland, Baffin Island and Northeastern Canada. , provided most of the sedimentary sources for the turbidites in the two basins. The Paleozoic...

Shan, Yongtang

2012-06-07

182

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom ........................................................................ 1 1.2 OVERVIEW OF ISLANDS .................................................................................................... 3 1.5 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLANDS

183

Heron Island, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

2002-01-01

184

Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will also investigate the conditions necessary for a barrier island attractor similar to those found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to become unstable.

Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

2012-12-01

185

Paleoceanography of marine isotope stage 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) in the Labrador Sea based on palynological, microfaunal and isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have documented the paleoceanography of marine isotope stage (MIS) 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) at IODP Site 1305 off southwest Greenland in the Labrador Sea, based on dinocyst and foraminifer populations in addition to isotopic measurements in planktonic foraminiferal shells. The planktonic foraminifer assemblages are dominated by the mesopelagic species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral (Nps). Current interpretations of Nps dominance would thus point to a polar type environment. However, dinocyst assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Bitectatodinium tepikiense, which rather indicate temperate-subpolar environnement conditions in the photic zone. Assuming that Nps ecological requirements were unchanged, reconciling the two observations lead to hypothesize a strong stratification of the surface water layer over a subsurface water mass, with Nps ocupying the pycnocline in between. We tentatively applied the modern analogue technique (MAT) to reconstruct surface water conditions from the dinocyst assemblages. Good analogues are found in the modern dinocyst database (n=1492), notably along the southeast Canadian margins and northwest European margins. They indicate a low salinity in the surface waters (32-34.5), a large seasonal amplitude of temperatures with cool winters (3-6° C) and mild summer (10-15° C). Stable isotope measurements in Nps point to ?18O ranging 1.5-2.2o throughout most of the interval, thus significantly lower than those measured during the Holocene (>2.2o at this very site. Benthic isotopic values (~3.2o are in accordance with the global stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (Paleoceanography, 2005). This suggests the presence of relatively warm water intermediate mass in between the bottom and surface water masses. The isotopic, micropaleontological and dinocyst results together show that conditions were unfavorable for convection and intermediate or deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during this interval.

Aubry, Aurelie; de Vernal, Anne; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

2014-05-01

186

Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously indicates that the Alisida is not unique. Global island chains other than the Alisida may better serve disciplines other than those of hydrology and geology.

Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

2002-01-01

187

76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties...assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife...

2011-04-08

188

Long Island Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

Anders, R.

2013-05-01

189

Reassembling island ecosystems: the case of Lord Howe Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic species that invade remote islands, usually following human settlement, have had catastrophic effects on native biota. However, on islands it is increasingly feasible to eradicate key exotic species allowing extant native species to recover in situ or to return naturally. The practice of marooning threatened species on islands where the threat is absent, irrespective of whether the threatened species

I. Hutton; J. P. Parkes; A. R. E. Sinclair

2007-01-01

190

Controlling summer heat islands: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A workshop was held on the energy and pollution implications of summertime urban heat islands and the potential to control them. The presentations, papers, and discussions fell into four broad categories: (1) the potential to conserve energy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and slow global warming by reducing summer heat islands; (2) the use of computer models to understand and simulate the heat island phenomenon; (3) measurements of heat islands; and (4) the design and implementation of heat island mitigation strategies. On the afternoon of the second day of the workshop, the participants divided into three workgroups. Group 1 discussed research needs to better quantify the effect of heat island mitigation on energy use. Group 2 discussed future research on the characterization and modeling of heat islands. And Group 3 discussed the development of a manual that would present to policy makers our current knowledge of techniques to mitigate heat islands and thereby save energy. This Proceedings documents the presentations and outcome of the Workshop.

Garbesi, K.; Akbari, H.; Martien, P. (eds.)

1989-11-01

191

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista  

E-print Network

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara§ P. P´erez-Lantero ¶ J. Urrutia I S is called an island of S, if I2 is the intersection of S and a convex set C. An island of S is monochromatic a monochromatic4 island of maximum cardinality. The previous best running time for this problem was O(n3 log n)5

Díaz-Báñez, José Miguel

192

Urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of an urban heat island was investigated by the use of Landsat\\/Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington, DC. By combining the derived spectral albedos and temperatures, surface energy composites of five surface categories were analysed. The results indicate that urban heating is attributable to a large excess in heat from the rapidly heating

H. H. Kim

1992-01-01

193

Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

1988-01-01

194

URBAN EXTENTS Falkland Islands  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS BRAZIL CHILE PARAGUAY URUGUAY GRUMPv1 Falkland Islands A t l a n t i c O c e a n P Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Population Density. Palisades, NY: CIESIN Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries

Columbia University

195

GREEN HOMES LONG ISLAND  

E-print Network

energy bill, reduce your carbon footprint... at little or no cost to you. #12;A Message From Supervisor energy-efficient and reduce our community's carbon footprint. Why do we call it Long Island Green Homes to yourevery day. By making basic improvements to yourevery day home, you can reduce your carbon footprint

Kammen, Daniel M.

196

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

2010-07-20

197

Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

198

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

199

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

200

The Falkland Island Fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review in the current number of NATURE of Mr. Renshaw's ``Some Mammalian Types,'' reference is made to the ``Antarctic wolf of the Falkland Islands exterminated by the sheep farmers in self defence.'' Might I be permitted to add a word on this subject in correction of an erroneous impression current among many naturalists with regard to this animal?

R. N. Rudmose-Brown

1906-01-01

201

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

202

Adaptation and diversification on islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other

Jonathan B. Losos; Robert E. Ricklefs

2009-01-01

203

Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

1984-01-01

204

Costly island for Arctic drilling  

SciTech Connect

The largest artificial island in the frigid Beaufort Sea was recently completed. The $140-million teardrop-shaped island, the largest of 17 built in the Beaufort Sea, sits in 50-ft. of water, 20 miles northwest of the Prudhoe Bay oil fields on Alaska's North Slope. The problems encountered in constructing the island are discussed.

Not Available

1983-12-01

205

OCEANIC ISLANDS: MODELS OF DIVERSITY  

E-print Network

OCEANIC ISLANDS: MODELS OF DIVERSITY Rosemary G. Gillespie University of California, Berkeley I. Introduction II. Characteristics of Biodiversity III. Island Dynamics IV. Species Loss V. The Future of Biodiversity on Oceanic Islands GLOSSARY adaptive radiation Evolution of ecological and phe- notypic diversity

Gillespie, Rosemary

206

Turk Islands DominicaDominica  

E-print Network

® Martinique Caracas Turk Islands Aruba S t. Kitts Trinidad Caracas Guadeloupe DominicaDominica Antigua Turk Islands Barbados Grenada Aruba Barbuda S t. Kitts Montserrat Anguilla S t. Croix Trinidad S S E R ANTILLE S GR E ATE R ANTILLE S 20° 5° at 15N = 535 km (863 mi) (750 nm) Virgin Islands Original

207

Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

Ford, M.

2012-12-01

208

Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Shaing, K. C. [University of Wisconsin

2006-02-01

209

Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A. [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2006-02-15

210

Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed. PMID:16884021

Khan, R A; Evans, L

2006-06-01

211

LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

Sallenger, Jr. , Asbury, H.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John, R.

1987-01-01

212

FIRST COMPLETE MIGRATION CYCLES FOR JUVENILE BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) FROM LABRADOR DAWN K. LAING AND DAVID M. Brad Arian Science and Conservation Centre, McGill University, 2i, ii i Laheshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented complete annual migratory cycles for five hatch-year Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from central Labrador, Canada. We attached backpack-mounted Platform Transmitter Ter- minals (PTT) to track hatch-year eagle movements from their natal areas. The median departure date from natal areas was 26 October 2002, with the earliest departure occurring on 7 October 2002 and the latest on 12 November

TONY E. CHUBBS

213

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

214

Animal Island Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an island and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.

2011-01-01

215

Charge Islands Through Tunneling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

Robinson, Daryl C.

2002-01-01

216

Kodiak Island, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

2002-01-01

217

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that âÂÂâ¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

218

Glacially-megalineated limestone terrain of Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada; onset zone of the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anticosti is a large elongate island (240 km long, 60 km wide) in eastern Canada within the northern part of a deep water trough (Gulf of St. Lawrence) that terminates at the Atlantic continental shelf edge. The island's Pleistocene glaciological significance is that its long axis lay transverse to ice from the Quebec and Labrador sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moving south from the relatively high-standing Canadian Shield. Recent glaciological reconstructions place a fast-flowing ice stream along the axis of the Gulf of St. Lawrence but supporting geologic evidence in terms of recognizing its hard-bedded onset zone and downstream streamlined soft bed is limited. Anticosti Island consists of gently southward-dipping limestone plains composed of Ordovician and Silurian limestones (Vaureal, Becscie and Jupiter formations) with north-facing escarpments transverse to regional ice flow. Glacial deposits are largely absent and limestone plains in the higher central plateau of the island retain a relict apparently ‘preglacial’ drainage system consisting of deeply-incised dendritic bedrock valleys. In contrast, the bedrock geomorphology of the lower lying western and eastern limestone plains of the island is strikingly different having been extensively modified by glacial erosion. Escarpments are glacially megalineated with a distinct ‘zig-zag’ planform reflecting northward-projecting bullet-shaped ‘noses’ (identified as rock drumlins) up to 2 km wide at their base and 4 km in length with rare megagrooved upper surfaces. Drumlins are separated by southward-closing, funnel-shaped ‘through valleys’ where former dendritic valleys have been extensively altered by the streaming of basal ice through gaps in the escarpments. Glacially-megalineated bedrock terrain such as on the western and eastern flanks of Anticosti Island is elsewhere associated with the hard-bedded onset zones of fast flowing ice streams and provides important ground truth for the postulated Laurentian Channel Ice Stream (LCIS) within the Gulf of St. Lawrence sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

Eyles, Nick; Putkinen, Niko

2014-03-01

219

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista  

E-print Network

Computing Optimal Islands C. Bautista J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara P. P´erez-Lantero § J. Urrutia¶ I S is called an island of S, if I is the intersection of S and a convex set C. In this paper we give an O(n3 )-time algorithm to find a monochromatic island of maximum cardinality. Our approach also optimizes other

Urrutia, Jorge

220

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2003 ­ February 29, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts.................................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 11 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

221

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2003 ­ August 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

222

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island September 1, 2003 ­ November 30, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

223

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island June 1, 2004 ­ August 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts...................................................................................................................... 9 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distribution

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

224

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects.  

PubMed

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies. PMID:22661792

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A

2010-06-01

225

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

PubMed Central

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

2012-01-01

226

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

227

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

2002-11-01

228

Pathogenicity islands: the tip of the iceberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity islands represent distinct genetic elements encoding virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenicity islands belong to the class of genomic islands, which are common genetic elements sharing a set of unifying features. Genomic islands have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In recent years many different genomic islands have been discovered in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic

Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2001-01-01

229

Three Mile Island assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the accident which occurred at Three Mile Island Unit Two (TMI-2) near Middletown, Pennsylvania, including the radioactivity released, consequences of off-site releases, and subsequent cleanup activities. Population dose estimates are presented from exposure to ⁸⁸Kr, ¹³³Xe, \\/sup 133m\\/Xe, ¹³⁵Xe, \\/sup 135m\\/Xe, and ¹³¹I. Based on animal studies and careful calculations, the health effects group has determined that

Daniels

1983-01-01

230

Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature.

Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

1988-01-01

231

Urban heat island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

Kim, Hongsuk H.

1991-01-01

232

Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three main volcanoes which make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.

1992-01-01

233

Islands in the landscape  

E-print Network

The string theory landscape consists of many metastable de Sitter vacua, populated by eternal inflation. Tunneling between these vacua gives rise to a dynamical system, which asymptotically settles down to an equilibrium state. We investigate the effects of sinks to anti-de Sitter space, and show how their existence can change probabilities in the landscape. Sinks can disturb the thermal occupation numbers that would otherwise exist in the landscape and may cause regions that were previously in thermal contact to be divided into separate, thermally isolated islands.

T. Clifton; Andrei Linde; Navin Sivanandam

2007-01-10

234

Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp(®) ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C. PMID:25320380

Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

2014-10-01

235

PRIBILOF ISLAND ALEUT COMMUNITY St. George Island / Traditional Council  

E-print Network

PRIBILOF ISLAND ALEUT COMMUNITY 01 St. George Island / Traditional Council P.O. BOX 940 ST. GEORGE Traditional Council is a federally recognized tribal government by the United States Government, and WHEREAS, the St. George Traditional Council is the governing body of the St. George Tribe, and WHEREAS

236

Open Sea -Cayman IslandsOpen Sea -Cayman Islands 0 50 100 150 20025  

E-print Network

Open Sea - Cayman IslandsOpen Sea - Cayman Islands 0 50 100 150 20025 Kilometers Cayman Islands Exclusive Economic Zone - Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Cuba Jamaica Honduras #12;Coral Reefs - Grand CaymanCoral Reefs - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity Action Plan www

Exeter, University of

237

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Yow, Donald M.

238

Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Islander Americans Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life ... the disease. PDF Version (1,036 KB) * Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Diabetes (from the Office on ...

239

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

2014-07-01

240

40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and...

2014-07-01

241

Solar energy for Beaver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beaver Island is the largest of a string of islands extending into Lake Michigan from Michigan's upper peninsula. About 12 miles long and 5 miles across at its widest point, it has been permanently inhabited for over 150 years. It presently has about 350 year-round residents, but the population swells to over 1500 in the summer. In the fall of

Heins

2009-01-01

242

Ellis Island: The Immigrants' Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson where the students participate in a simulation of the process at Ellis Island in order to understand the feelings people underwent during immigration. Explains that the students choose and research a character, either fictional or a relative, and act out the experience of entering Ellis Island. (CMK)

Koman, Rita G.

1999-01-01

243

Rethinking Easter Island's ecological catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) has become a paragon for prehistoric human induced ecological catastrophe and cultural collapse. A popular narrative recounts an obsession for monumental statuary that led to the island's ecological devastation and the collapse of the ancient civilization. Scholars offer this story as a parable of today's global environmental problems. In this paper, I review new and emerging

Terry L. Hunt

2007-01-01

244

Controlling summer heat islands: Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop was held on the energy and pollution implications of summertime urban heat islands and the potential to control them. The presentations, papers, and discussions fell into four broad categories: (1) the potential to conserve energy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and slow global warming by reducing summer heat islands; (2) the use of computer models to understand and simulate the

K. Garbesi; H. Akbari; P. Martien

1989-01-01

245

The Theory of Island Biogeography  

E-print Network

The Theory of Island Biogeography Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson The young biologists" dominated by the collection of data. In The Theory of Island Biogeography they set out to change that by devel- oping a general mathema- tical theory that would make sense of a key ecological problem

Landweber, Laura

246

Volcanic Island Appears Near Tonga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volcano known as Home Reef is now believed to be the source of a small island that appeared recently in Tonga, accordingto scientists from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program who had initially placed the location of the eruption and resulting island at nearby Metis Shoal. Mariners onboard the yacht Maiken

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-11-01

247

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

248

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

249

Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

250

Muklu Island. [Muklu Island is an artificial island used as an offshore drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

Mukluk Island, emerging from 48 ft of water, is destined to become the largest and most expensive artificial island in the Alaska Beaufort Sea. The field is believed to contain geologic structures similar to those at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska's megagiant oil field to the southeast. After completion Mukluk will measure 350 ft above water. Five test wells will drill to determine the structures reserves.

Not Available

1983-10-01

251

State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.  

PubMed

In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

2003-08-01

252

Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

Pepin, Pierre

2013-05-01

253

Terrestrial ecosystem recovery following removal of a PCB point source at a former pole vault line radar station in Northern Labrador.  

PubMed

Saglek Bay (LAB-2), located on the northeast coast of Labrador is a former Polevault station that was operated by the U.S. Air Force from 1953 to 1971 when it was abandoned. An environmental assessment carried out in 1996 determined that the site was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with concentrations in soils far exceeding the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) regulation of 50 ?g/g in three areas of the site (Beach, Site Summit, Antenna Hill). This led to remediation work carried out between 1999 and 2004 to remove and/or isolate all PCB-contaminated soil exceeding 50 ?g/g and to further remediate parts of the site to <5 ?g/g PCBs. In this study, spatial and temporal trends of PCB concentrations in soil, vegetation (Betula glandulosa and Salix spp.), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were investigated over a period of fourteen (1997-2011) years in an effort to track ecosystem recovery following the removal of the PCB point sources. The data collected shows that PCB levels in vegetation samples are approximately four times lower in 2011 than pre-remediation in 1997. Similarly, PCB concentrations in deer mice in 2011 are approximately three times lower than those measured in 1997/98. Spatial trends in vegetation and deer mice continue to demonstrate that areas close to the former point sources of PCBs have higher PCB concentrations than those further away (and higher than background levels) and these residual PCB levels are not likely to decrease in the foreseeable future given the persistent nature of PCBs in general in the environment, and in particular in cold climates. PMID:23712118

Ficko, Sarah A; Luttmer, Carol; Zeeb, Barbara A; Reimer, Kenneth

2013-09-01

254

Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk. PMID:24160559

Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhon Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S; Mclaughlin, John R

2014-03-28

255

Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July-August 1990 joint US-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper troposphere/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forested region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region. 71 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R.W.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, K.; Klemm, O. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)] [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Gregory, G.L.; Anderson, B. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Barrie, L.A. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)] [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)

1994-01-20

256

Facial scarification and tattooing on Santa Catalina Island (Solomon Islands).  

PubMed

Ritual scarification is the culturally sanctioned process of incising the skin to achieve patterned scars. Scarification was practiced widely by traditional societies, but the encroachment of Western cultural expectations has made the practice increasingly uncommon. Ritual tattooing has a meaningful place in many traditional societies. Ritual scarification and tattooing are still found on Santa Catalina Island, an isolated member of the Solomon Islands in the south-west Pacific. PMID:9347234

Mammen, L; Norton, S A

1997-10-01

257

Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices  

E-print Network

Highlights Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices Notes from the Office Manners, Culture, & Grammar TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! Islands of Adventure is a theme park in Orlando: The cost of transportation is $20 for a seat on the bus. Islands of Adventure tickets cost $92. What

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

258

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Theme Park at the Universal Studios Orlando Resort. Islands of Adventure is a wonderful world of fantasyHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun This Saturday, February 7th, the ELI is headed to Islands of Adventure

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

259

Long Island Solar Farm Project Overview  

E-print Network

and construct arrays ~ 2 years of output (88,000 MWh equivalent) Long Island Solar Farm #12;Other PollutantsLong Island Solar Farm #12;Project Overview The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a 32-megawatt solar photovoltaic power plant built through a collaboration including BP Solar, the Long Island Power

Ohta, Shigemi

260

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

261

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2005 ­ May 31, 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by Christopher N. Elkinton Anthony L. Rogers Anthony F. Ellis

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

262

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island December 1, 2004 ­ February 28, 2005 Prepared for Massachusetts Anthony F. Ellis April 13, 2005 Renewable Energy Research Laboratory University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

263

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2003 ­ May 31, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by James F. Manwell Anthony F. Ellis Christopher N. Elkinton

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

264

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2004 ­ May 31, 2004 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by James F. Manwell Anthony F. Ellis Christopher N. Elkinton

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

265

No Company Is An Island  

E-print Network

No company is an island. Utilities and their industrial customers are discovering that collaboration can breed opportunity while isolation can lead to ruin. Inter company relationships have changed over recent years and HL&P and its customers...

Maddox, A.

266

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Halbert, Massy; Lyon, Jim; Yasutake, Mike; Lyon

267

Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island biogeography K. C. Burns1,2 *, Jenny Berg1 , Ada Bialynicka-Birula1 , Sabrina Kratchmer1 in a temperate island archipelago. The theory of island biogeography (ToIB) predicts that island area affects

268

URBAN HEAT ISLAND  

E-print Network

We are all familiar with the fact that cities are generally warmer than the surrounding, more rural areas. We see it referenced most nights in our television weather reports. It is especially significant on nights with clear skies and light winds which favor radiational cooling. This is most significant in the rural areas but in the city, the excess heat absorbed during the day and the local heat sources maintain higher nighttime readings. During the days or nights with strong winds and clouds the differences are minimized due to mixing and the advective cooling of the city by the winds. Because of this relative warmth, a city may be referred to as an urban heat island. The reason the city is warmer than the country comes down to a difference between the energy gains and losses of each region. There are a number of factors that contribute to the relative warmth of cities according to Ackerman: During the day in rural areas, the solar energy absorbed near the ground evaporates water from the vegetation and soil. Thus, while there is a net solar energy gain, this is compensated to some degree by evaporative cooling. In cities, where there is less vegetation, the buildings, streets and sidewalks absorb the

unknown authors

269

URBAN HEAT ISLAND  

E-print Network

We are all familiar with the fact that cities are generally warmer than the surrounding, more rural areas. We see it referenced most nights in our television weather reports. It is especially significant on nights with clear skies and light winds which favor radiational cooling. This is most significant in the rural areas but in the city, the excess heat absorbed during the day and the local heat sources maintain higher nighttime readings. During the days or nights with strong winds and clouds the differences are minimzed due to mixing and the advective cooling of the city by the winds. Because of this relative warmth, a city may be referred to as an urban heat island. The reason the city is warmer than the country comes down to a difference between the energy gains and losses of each region. There are a number of factors that contribute to the relative warmth of cities according to Ackerman: During the day in rural areas, the solar energy absorbed near the ground evaporates water from the vegetation and soil. Thus, while there is a net solar energy gain, this is compensated to some degree by evaporative cooling. In cities, where there is less vegetation, the buildings, streets and sidewalks absorb the

unknown authors

270

Urban heat islands in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 1954–1983 surface temperature from 42 Chinese urban (average population 1.7*106) and rural (average population 1.5*105) station pairs to study the urban heat island effects. Despite the fact that the rural stations are not true rural stations, the magnitude of the heat islands was calculated to average 0.23 °C over the thirty-year period with a minimum value during the

Wei-Chyung Wang; Zhaomei Zengl; Thomas R. Karl

1990-01-01

271

Eugene Island Block 330 field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eugene Island Block 330 field ranks third in cumulative hydrocarbon production on the federal Outer Continental Shelf of the United States and at peak production was the largest O.C.S. oil-producing field. This giant field, located offshore Louisiana, covers parts of seven blocks in the Eugene Island area, South Addition. The field was discovered by the Pennzoil 1, OCS-G 2115

D. S. Holland; D. R. Lammlein; J. B. Leedy

1988-01-01

272

Magnetic island formation in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

Yoshikawa, S.

1989-04-01

273

Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

2014-09-01

274

A 750-kyr detrital-layer stratigraphy for the North Atlantic (IODP Sites U1302-U1303, Orphan Knoll, Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1302-U1303, drilled on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), preserve a record of detrital layers and other proxies of hydrographic change that extend the record of ice-sheet/ocean interactions through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (?18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), and an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (wt.% > 106 ?m). The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich (H) layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~ 2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~ 3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 16 and have near-synchronous analogs at Site U1302/03. Detrital layers at Site U1302/03 are distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. We distinguish Heinrich-like layers associated with IRD from detrital layers marked by multiple detrital-layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to lofted sediment derived from drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). The prominent detrital layers at Sites U1302/03 and U1308 can be correlated to millennial scale features in the Chinese speleothem (monsoon) record over the last 400 kyr, implying a link between monsoon precipitation and Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) instability. The detrital-layer stratigraphy at Site U1302/03 provides a long record of LIS dynamics against which other terrestrial and marine records can be compared.

Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Röhl, U.

2012-02-01

275

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

276

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

277

One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility  

SciTech Connect

Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

Malloy, M.G.

1997-11-01

278

Propagation of Big Island eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using satellite altimetry data, we have observed a series of anticyclonic eddies as they form at the Big Island of Hawaii and have tracked them as they move away from the island. While similar eddies have been observed near the Hawaiian Islands in previous studies, the fate of the anticyclonic eddies has previously been unclear. The eddies that we observed initially propagated to the southwest but consistently changed propagation direction to the northwest later in their lifetimes. This was intriguing to us, as theoretically, the decay of isolated anticyclonic eddies on a ? plane should cause them to continually move toward the southwest. Such isolated eddy dynamics are unable to account for the observed change to northwestward eddy propagation, and the presence of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current turns out to be important to the Big Island eddy dynamics. The eddies are not passively advected by the North Equatorial Current; rather, the mean flow changes the propagation characteristics of the eddies. An existing theory that includes meridionally varying, purely zonal mean flow is shown to account for the observed propagation of the Big Island eddies if the zonal variation of the mean flow is considered.

Holland, Christina L.; Mitchum, Gary T.

2001-01-01

279

The American Experience: Coney Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before Lawrence Ferlinghetti entitled his famous book of Beat poems A Coney Island of the Mind, the amusement park located on "a tiny spit of land at the foot of Brooklyn, NY" had come to represent a quintessential American desire for mechanized, manic fun. This companion site to the PBS airing this week of the American Experience provides a history of the amusement park, a substantial essay on the history of roller coasters, an enhanced transcript of the broadcast (available July 26), a gallery of Coney Island images, historical film clips of the park in action, a teacher's guide (which was not yet available when we visited), and an essay comparing Coney Island to the Internet. Watch out for that first hyperlink!

280

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

281

Rotating Accelerator-Mode Islands  

E-print Network

The existence of rotating accelerator-mode islands (RAIs), performing quasiregular motion in rotational resonances of order $m>1$ of the standard map, is firmly established by an accurate numerical analysis of all the known data. It is found that many accelerator-mode islands for relatively small nonintegrability parameter $K$ are RAIs visiting resonances of different orders $m\\leq 3$. For sufficiently large $K$, one finds also ``pure'' RAIs visiting only resonances of the {\\em same} order, $m=2$ or $m=3$. RAIs, even quite small ones, are shown to exhibit sufficient stickiness to produce an anomalous chaotic transport. The RAIs are basically different in nature from accelerator-mode islands in resonances of the ``forced'' standard map which was extensively studied recently in the context of quantum accelerator modes.

Oded Barash; Itzhack Dana

2006-12-24

282

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

283

U–Pb geochronology of the eastern Hall Peninsula, southern Baffin Island, Canada: a northern link between the Archean of West Greenland and the Paleoproterozoic Torngat Orogen of northern Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corridor east of Iqaluit that crosses several regionally significant lithologic boundaries has been mapped and sampled for geochronology. Zircon, monazite and titanite were analysed by the isotope dilution U–Pb method to characterize igneous and metamorphic events, and Pb–Pb ages of detrital zircons were determined by laser ablation microprobe ICP-MS. Tonalitic gneisses at the eastern end of the corridor are

David J Scott

1999-01-01

284

The Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

2002-01-01

285

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Goodwin, Mel

286

Pacific Islands The National Bycatch Report: Pacific Islands Region  

E-print Network

Reduction Success Stories Annual incidental take limits for two species of sea turtles (leatherback loggerhead and leatherback sea turtle bycatch. Circle hooks are also used by many participants in the Hawaii turtles) bycatch estimates were available for 2 fisheries and 23 species/groups in 2005. Pacific Islands

287

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

288

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

289

Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... but they are twice as likely to have stomach cancer. Although Asian/Pacific Islander women are 30% less ... are almost three times as likely to have stomach cancer. Both Asian/Pacific Islander men and women have ...

290

Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Pacific Islander individuals in the United States. States with the largest Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations in 2011 were Hawaii (359,000) and California (329,000) . The Native ...

291

WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING OVERHANGS (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

292

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST CORNER FROM ACROSS TARMAC (12/25/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

293

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LOBBY OF BUILDING (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

294

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST SIDE SHOWING FLAG, GUN, ENGINES (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

295

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER FROM BEHIND CONTROL TOWER (12/28/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

296

SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST AT WEST FAÇADE WITH SCALE POLE (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

297

75 FR 77889 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands have been designated as adversely...this major disaster: The island of St. Croix for Public Assistance. All islands in the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands are eligible to...

2010-12-14

298

Flooding of regular islands by chaotic states  

E-print Network

We introduce a criterion for the existence of regular states in systems with a mixed phase space. If this condition is not fulfilled chaotic eigenstates substantially extend into a regular island. Wave packets started in the chaotic sea progressively flood the island. The extent of flooding by eigenstates and wave packets increases logarithmically with the size of the chaotic sea and the time, respectively. This new effect can be observed for island chains with just 10 islands.

A. Bäcker; R. Ketzmerick; A. G. Monastra

2004-09-14

299

Islands geologi frn Tertir till recent  

E-print Network

1 Islands geologi från Tertiär till recent #12;2 Islands geologi från Tertiär till recent Erik Sturkell Framsidan: Riftzonen på norra Island. En graben som går igenom Dalfjall som ligger inom Kraflas vulkansystem. Bilden är tagen från riksväg 1 norrut. © Erik Sturkell #12;3 Innehållsförteckning Island i

Ingólfsson, �lafur

300

Computing Maximal Islands C. Bautista-Santiago  

E-print Network

Computing Maximal Islands C. Bautista-Santiago J.M. D´iaz-B´a~nez D. Lara P. P´erez-Lantero § J, an island I(S, C) S is the inter- section of S and a convex region C. We study the problem of finding a maximal island according to cer- tain criterium. For instance, a largest monochromatic island I(S, C

Urrutia, Jorge

301

46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section...Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn...thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.2? N....

2010-10-01

302

Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated at the extreme margin of the Indo-West Pacific biotic province, the four islands of the isolated Pitcairn Group hold interest for biogeographers and archaeologists alike. Human settlement may have been as early as the 8th century AD for the uplifted limestone island of Henderson, the most pristine island of its kind. An archaeological survey of the Pitcairn Islands is

MARSHALL I. WEISLER

1995-01-01

303

How can endemic proboscideans help us understand the “island rule”? A case study of Mediterranean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain size-change processes in terrestrial vertebrates on islands and in island-like ecosystems. Extinct endemic insular proboscideans are especially appropriate subjects for investigating this issue, given the frequency with which proboscideans colonised islands, and the multiple patterns in size reduction experienced by endemic taxa on different islands, as well as on a single one. To

Maria Rita Palombo

2007-01-01

304

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands  

E-print Network

plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel radially from one side of an islandTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatricka magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid

Fitzpatrick, Richard

305

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I -Isolated islands  

E-print Network

. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel ra- dially from one sideTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I - Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid veloc

Fitzpatrick, Richard

306

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2013-07-01

307

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2012-07-01

308

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2010-07-01

309

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons...

2011-07-01

310

A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands  

E-print Network

Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands Rebekah Shirley , Christopher Jones, Daniel Kammen Energy and Resources Group, University xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions

Kammen, Daniel M.

311

The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands  

E-print Network

The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands by Joseph ^ Corresponding author: e-mail, jpedlosky@whoi.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT The flow around planetary scale islands is examined when the island possesses a topographic skirt representing a steep continental shelf. The model

Pedlosky, Joseph

312

Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

2002-05-01

313

Long Island Sound Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resource Center is a central clearinghouse for an ongoing web project to provide access to information and data related to the Long Island Sound. Visitors can learn about scientific research, access data, view interactive maps, search literature related to the Sound, browse a directory of organizations and information sources, or look for locations to access the Sound.

314

UV - VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 144 is located in Virgin Islands NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, I...

315

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

316

The Virgin Islands robotic telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Etelman Observatory of the University of the Virgin Islands is the southernmost and easternmost optical observatory in the United States. The observatory is located at an elevation of 420 meters on the island of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. The site has exceptionally good seeing (frequently better than 1 arc-second), dark skies, and the ability to reach deep into the southern hemisphere and to plug the northern-hemisphere longitude gap between the US and Europe. Astronomers at the College of Charleston, South Carolina State University, and the University of the Virgin Islands have formed a consortium to refurbish the facility, conduct detailed site surveys, purchase a 0.5-meter telescope and instrumentation, and operate the facility robotically. The telescope, instrumentation, and dome have all been installed, and we are remotely obtaining commissioning observations. Our operations mode (manual, remote-controlled, or fully robotic) will simultaneously support our research, participation in multi-site campaigns, and the educational and outreach missions of our institutions. Further details are available at http://astro.uvi.edu/.

Neff, J. E.

2004-10-01

317

Chaos in easter island ecology.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems. PMID:21933513

Sprott, J C

2011-10-01

318

Sipuncula from Hainan Island (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sipunculans from shallow depths ranging from 0 to 44 m, collected by two Chinese-German expeditions to Hainan Island (China) during the years 1990 and 1992, are recorded. Seventeen species in eight genera and five families are recognized from the total 271 individuals collected. An analysis of the sipunculan literature has shown that 10 of these species are new records for

S. Pagola-Carte; J. I. Saiz-Salinas

2000-01-01

319

Birds are islands for parasites.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

2014-08-01

320

The formation of island ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island ecosystems are formed from the same generic building blocks as continental ecosystems. These can be reduced to five: (1) the terrestrial habitat (soil-parent material and topography), (2) the regional and local climate, (3) the regional biota with differential restrictions of accessibility, (4) the ecological roles assumed by the species including their potential for adaptation, and (5) the overriding dimensions

Dieter Mueller-Dombois

1992-01-01

321

Heat island development in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the climatology of the near surface urban heat island of Mexico City, using hourly data from two recently installed automatic stations at a rural and an urban site. The results show that the nocturnal heat island was more frequent (75% of the time for the period examined) than daytime cases (25%). The maximum nocturnal heat island

Ernesto Jauregui

1997-01-01

322

Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

323

MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

324

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

ELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! On Saturday, September 15th, we will be headed to Universal StudiosHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners The' Islands of Adventure. We will meet at the TRiP office in Reitz Union at 8:00am. We will return

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

325

The island-mainland species turnover relationship.  

PubMed

Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts. PMID:22874754

Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

2012-10-01

326

Pacific Islands Monograph Series Style Guidelines  

E-print Network

1 Pacific Islands Monograph Series Style Guidelines Abbreviations and Acronyms Omit periods. Spell Tabai, the president; former President Clinton Capitalize Islanders when referring to people of the Pacific Islands Names of institutions, agreements, and the like are capitalized when the full title

327

Fur Seal Industry of the Pribilof Islands,  

E-print Network

Fur Seal Industry of the Pribilof Islands, 1786-1965 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Circular 275 #12;AVERAGE VALUE OF PRIBILOF ISLANDS Seal Industry of the Pribilof Islands, 1786-1965 By FRANCIS RILEY Circular 275 Washington, D.C. October

328

Big islands in dispersing billiardlike potentials.  

E-print Network

Big islands in dispersing billiard­like potentials. Vered Rom­Kedar The Department of Applied Abstract We derive a rigorous estimate of the size of islands (in both phase space and parameter space as a parameter ffl ! 0, islands of poly­ nomial size in ffl appear. This suggests that the loss of ergodicity via

329

40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432 Protection...Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925...

2014-07-01

330

SUPERLATTICES OF ATOMS, MOLECULES AND ISLANDS  

E-print Network

SUPERLATTICES OF ATOMS, MOLECULES AND ISLANDS H. BRUNE Institut de Physique des Nanostructures quantum dots, and metallic islands, by means of self-assembly during atomic-beam growth on single crystal stabilize ordered superlattices, and vertical correlations of growth sequences of buried islands

Brune, Harald

331

COMPUTATIONAL PREDICTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GENOMIC ISLANDS  

E-print Network

COMPUTATIONAL PREDICTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GENOMIC ISLANDS: INSIGHTS INTO BACTERIAL islands: insights into bacterial pathogenicity Examining Committee: Chair: Dr. Paul C.H. Li Associate of British Columbia Date Defended/Approved: Thursday April 16, 2009 #12;iii ABSTRACT Genomic islands (GIs

Hammerton, James

332

Observation of energetic electrons within magnetic islands  

E-print Network

LETTERS Observation of energetic electrons within magnetic islands L.-J. CHEN1 *, A. BHATTACHARJEE1 suggests that volume- filling contracting magnetic islands formed during reconnection can produce a large electrons and magnetic islands during reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The results indicate

Loss, Daniel

333

Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

Benz, Richard

334

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

335

The Bahamas Bahamian Conservation Biology: Andros Island  

E-print Network

The Bahamas Bahamian Conservation Biology: Andros Island Summer Study Abroad TENTATIVE DATES: July_abroad@ncsu.edu http://studyabroad.ncsu.edu Explore the biodiversity of Andros, the largest island of the Bahamas from Ft. Lauderdale to Andros Island Note: Travel to Ft. Lauderdale and personal expenses

Langerhans, Brian

336

The Bahamas Bahamian Conservation Biology: Andros Island  

E-print Network

The Bahamas Bahamian Conservation Biology: Andros Island Summer Study Abroad DATES: May 31 - June_abroad@ncsu.edu http://studyabroad.ncsu.edu Explore the biodiversity of Andros, the largest island of the Bahamas: Travel to Andros Island and personal expenses are not included APPLY: Apply online at http

Langerhans, Brian

337

Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP  

E-print Network

Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP YANG island-scale circulations over the island of Hawaii during the Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP, 11 July

Chen, Yi-Leng

338

Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,  

E-print Network

of seed dispersing birds and mammals, and the Ficus fruit characters in¯uencing mode of colonization observed fruiting. Thirty-six vertebrate species occurring on Long Island are identi®ed as potential seed and fruit bats with generally smaller, red ®gs produced throughout the vertical structure of the forest

339

Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

2007-12-12

340

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

341

Nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through three-dimensional finite element modeling, it is demonstrated that the nanoindentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands is strongly dependent on the shape of the nano-island and the depth of indentation. For indentations that are relatively deep (i.e., greater than 5% of the height of the islands), the substrate's elastic and plastic properties have a strong influence on the indentation response of piezoelectric nano-islands with substrate plasticity resulting in a significant reduction in the mechanical and electrical indentation stiffness. The predictions of the finite element models compare well with experiments on nano-islands of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate.

Cheng, Guang; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Venkatesh, T. A.

2014-09-01

342

Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

343

Generalized water-table map of Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The map shows the altitude of water table surface above seal level in the glacial deposits that form Block Island. Because the sediments are only moderately permeable, the water table is close to the to the surface in most parts of the island, even in hilly areas. The map represents a generalized water-table configuration on the basis of data from many different sampling periods; because the data were collected at different times, they should not be used to determine a specific depth to water at a particular site. Water levels measured in 117 shallow wells (less than 35 feet deep) from June through September 1962 and from March through September 1988-90--periods when water levels were at about the same altitude above sea level--ranged from less than 1 to 24 feet below land surface and averaged about 6 feet below land surface.

Johnston, H.E.; Veeger, A.I.

1994-01-01

344

Hydrogeology and water resources of Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is present on Block Island as a lens of freshwater that overlies saltwater. Yields of 2 to 5 gallons per minute are obtainable throughout the island, and yields of 25 gallons per minute are possible at many wells. Annual water use during 1990 is estimated to have been 53 million gallons, of which approximately 17 million gallons was delivered from a water company at Sands Pond. Demand by water company customers from May through October averages 74,000 gallons per day. The sustainable yield of Sands Pond during the drought years estimated to be only 45,000 gallons per day. Withdrawal of the remaining 29,000 gallons per day from Fresh Pond, proposed as an alternative source, would produce an estimated water-level decline of less than 1 foot. Block Island consists of a Pleistocene moraine deposit that includes meltwater deposits, till, sediment-flow deposits, and glacially transported blocks of Cretaceous strata and pre-Late Wisconsinan glacial deposits. The water table is a subdued reflection of the land-surface topography and flow is generally from the central, topographic highs toward the coast. Layers of low hydraulic- conductivity material impede vertical flow, creating steep vertical gradients. No evidence of widespread ground-water contamination was found during this study. Nitrate concentrations were below Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels at each of the 83 sites sampled. No evidence of dissolved organic constituents was found in groundwater at the 10 sites sampled, and ground-water samples collected near the landfill showed no evidence of contamination from landfill leachate. Dissolved-iron concentrations exceeded the Federal Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level in groundwater at 26 of 76 wells sampled. High iron concentrations were found predominantly in the eastern and northern parts of the island and are attributed to the presence of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter in the aquifer.

Veeger, A.I.; Johnston, H.E.

1994-01-01

345

The island rule: made to be broken?  

PubMed Central

The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency. PMID:17986433

Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

2007-01-01

346

Barrier Island Failure During Hurricane Katrina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical models of barrier-island response to storms predict that wave runup can periodically overtop an island and transport sand from its seaside to its bayside, forcing the island to migrate landward. While this process can destroy fixed human developments, the island survives with little net change in form or dimensions. In contrast, we find that Louisiana's Chandeleur Islands during Hurricane Katrina were not periodically overtopped by waves, but were continuously inundated by storm surge. When such inundation occurs locally on a barrier island, it can force the erosion of a narrow breach that connects sea and bay. However, little is known about the response of a barrier island when it is entirely submerged. Here, we show that the Chandeleur Islands approached complete failure, losing 84% of their surface area. Their Gulf of Mexico shorelines retreated landward an average of 268 m, the largest retreat ever reported for a storm. Sand was stripped from the islands, reducing their peak elevation from >6 m to <3 m and exposing them to further degradation and potential failure by future hurricanes of less intensity than Katrina. Further, the islands that survived Katrina were marsh remnants composed of mud and vegetation that relatively small waves diminished following the storm. The Chandeleur Islands are prone to failure because of their location on the Mississippi delta where small sand supply and large sea-level rise (induced locally by land subsidence) limit natural rebuilding of the islands following a storm. The response of the delta's barrier islands during Hurricane Katrina provides a warning of how the world's barrier islands might respond to storm-surge inundation should predictions of accelerated global sea level rise prove accurate.

Sallenger, A.; Howd, P.; Stockdon, H.; Wright, C. W.; Fauver, L.; Guy, K.

2006-12-01

347

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario;)

2004-11-01

348

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

349

Tambora Caldera, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tambora caldera on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia (8.5S, 118.0E) is a large crater formed in 1815 when a huge volcanic eruption ejected millions of tons debris high into the atmosphere. The particulate matter was blown around the globe by winds, masking much of the Earth's surface from sunlight, lowering global temperatures. Snow fell in New England in June and freezes occurred in the summer of 1816 which became known as the year without a summer.

1988-01-01

350

The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, Roanoke Island, located between the coast of North Carolina and the Outer Banks, became a refuge for escaped slaves, called contrabands or freedmen. This site, created by University of Virginia professor Patricia C. Click presents an account of the history and selected documents and maps of the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, as the community was known. Documents include letters from Superintendent of the Colony, Horace James, a minister and abolitionist from Massachusetts, and letters from Freedmen themselves. The documents have been transcribed and are in .pdf format, so users should not expect to see scanned versions of 19th century originals. The projects section includes seven projects for high school and college students, using historical materials at the site, and from other related Web sites. Professor Click has written a book, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island FreedmenâÂÂs Colony, 1862-1867, and the Preview section contains the table of contents and Chapter One. Links in the site refer to this book for more information; in the Maps section users are referred to its online ordering instructions for more information on the layout of the colony.

Click, Patricia C.

2001-01-01

351

Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Erythroblastic islands, the specialized niches in which erythroid precursors proliferate, differentiate, and enucleate, were first described 50 years ago by analysis of transmission electron micrographs of bone marrow. These hematopoietic subcompartments are composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. A hiatus of several decades followed, during which the importance of erythroblastic islands remained unrecognized as erythroid progenitors were shown to possess an autonomous differentiation program with a capacity to complete terminal differentiation in vitro in the presence of erythropoietin but without macrophages. However, as the extent of proliferation, differentiation, and enucleation efficiency documented in vivo could not be recapitulated in vitro, a resurgence of interest in erythroid niches has emerged. We now have an increased molecular understanding of processes operating within erythroid niches, including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, positive and negative regulatory feedback, and central macrophage function. These features of erythroblast islands represent important contributors to normal erythroid development, as well as altered erythropoiesis found in such diverse diseases as anemia of inflammation and chronic disease, myelodysplasia, thalassemia, and malarial anemia. Coupling of historical, current, and future insights will be essential to understand the tightly regulated production of red cells both in steady state and stress erythropoiesis. PMID:18650462

Chasis, Joel Anne; Mohandas, Narla

2008-08-01

352

Processes of barrier island erosion  

SciTech Connect

During 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the processes causing the extreme rates (up to 20 m/year) of erosion of Louisiana's barrier islands. These processes must be better understood in order to predict future erosion and to assess management and erosion mitigation plans. The study is divided into three parts: the geologic development of barrier islands, the critical processes leading to erosion, and applications of results. This paper provides an overview of the part of the study on critical processes. The process part includes modeling erosion of the barrier islands due to sea level rise, the net loss of sand offshore, gradients in longshore transport, and overwash. Evidence indicates that the low-lying barrier beaches on much of the Louisiana coast do not approach an equilibrium configuration. These beaches, which, in many places, are not protected by dunes, are overwashed even during moderate storms and apparently are not evolving to a configuration that limits overwash. As a result, even with stable sea level, the beaches will continue to overwash and migrate landward during storms. Commonly used methods of modeling beach response to rising sea level assume beaches approach an equilibrium configuration, hence applying these methods to coastal Louisiana is problematical.

Sallenger, A.H. Jr. (Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Williams, S.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1989-09-01

353

Floating Cities, Islands and States  

E-print Network

Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The best solution to this problem, however, is the provision of floating cities, islands, and states. The author idea is to use for floating cities, islands, and states a cheap floating platform created from a natural ice field taken from the Arctic or Antarctic oceans. These cheap platforms protected by air-film (bottom and sides) and a conventional insulating cover (top) and having a cooling system can exist for an unlimited time. They can be increased in number or size at any time, float in warm oceans, travel to different continents and countries, serve as artificial airports, harbors and other marine improvements, as well as floating cities and industrial bases for virtually any use. Author researches and computes parameters of these ice floating platforms, other methods of building such floating territory, compares them and shows that the offered method is the most cheap and efficient means of ocean colonization.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-04-04

354

Island biology: looking towards the future.  

PubMed

Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

2014-10-01

355

Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.  

SciTech Connect

Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

Williams, Kelly Porter

2013-10-01

356

Miocene structure of Mustang Island, Mustang Island East Addition and part of Matagorda Island, Outer Continental Shelf areas, Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

MIOCENE STRUCTURE OF MUSTANG ISLAND, MUSTANG ISLAND EAST ADDITION AND PART OF MATAGORDA ISLAND, OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AREAS, GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by ROBERT KASANDE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AdtM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Geophysics MIOCENE STRUCTURE OF MUSTANG ISLAND, MUSTANG ISLAND EAST ADDITION AND PART OF MATAGORDA ISLAND, OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AREAS, GULF...

Kasande, Robert

2012-06-07

357

A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Poyé, A.; Benkadda, S.; Yagi, M.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

2014-09-01

358

The urban heat island of Milan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Heat island contribution to the 148 year temperature series of Milan is evaluated by comparing Milan urban series with Milan\\u000a airport series and with other European and North Hemispheric series. The heat island trend is then compared with the growth\\u000a of the city radius and finally two relations between the city radius and the efffects of the heat island are

P. Bacci; M. Maugeri

1992-01-01

359

A photographic guide to some vascular plants of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

E-print Network

National Wildlife Refuge, is the second largest island in the Rat Island group of the western Aleutian disturbance, and the introduction of non-native Arctic foxes (introduced 1825, eradicated 1987) and Norway

Jones, Ian L.

360

Solar and Atmospheric Radiation Data for Broughton Island, eastern Baffin Island, Canada, 1971-73.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three years partial record of radiation for Broughton Island reported here tends to support the thesis already demonstrated elsewhere for other climatological parameters that conditions on the eastern coast of Baffin Island and, implicitly, in Davis S...

J. D. Jacobs

1974-01-01

361

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

362

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

363

Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

2010-01-01

364

Crustal Thickness Beneath Ocean Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the thickness of the Earth's crust beneath about two dozen of the GDSN or GEOSCOPE stations located on ocean islands by stacking moveout-corrected high-quality P-to-S receiver functions (RFs). The RFs were filtered in the 0.05-0.5 Hz frequency bands to compress strong noises that are common for ocean island stations. Given the small (less than 2 s) time separation between the direct P and the P-to-S converted phase from the Moho, the PSmS phase, which has a negative polarity and can be clearly observed at almost all the stations, is used for the stacking. Preliminary resulting thickness at each of the stations is as follows: AFI (12.4 km), AIS (13.6), ASCN (9.6), BBSR (9.9), BORG (9.4), CRZF (6.6), GUMO (8.0), HNR (8.0), HOPE (19.0), KIP (13.0), MSEY (10.7), MSVF (15.1), NOUC (15.1), PAF (8.9), POHA (17.0), PPT (12.3), PTCN (10.4), RAR (12.8), RER (13.8), RPN (9.3), SEY (14.9), SHEL (17.5), TBT (14.1), XMAS (11.8). Crustal thickness at some of the stations has been measured previously, and our results are in general agreement with those measurements. Possible age-dependence of the resulting thickness and geological implications in the understanding of plume-lithosphere interactions and formation of ocean islands will be presented.

Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Cullers, R. L.

2005-12-01

365

Northwest Sumatra and Offshore Islands Field Survey after the December  

E-print Network

Northwest Sumatra and Offshore Islands Field Survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on the west coast of northern and central Sumatra and offshore islands 3­4 months after the 26 December 2004 Islands, and included 22 sites in Aceh province in Sumatra and on Simeulue Island, Nias Island, the Banyak

366

REGULAR ARTICLES Islands of accelerator modes and homoclinic tangles  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLES Islands of accelerator modes and homoclinic tangles Vered Rom Islands are divided according to their phase space structure--resonant islands and tangle islands modes of the standard map and of the web map are necessarily of the tangle island category

367

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

368

RCN: SEAPRE: Seabird Islands and Introduced Predators: Impacts of Presence and Eradication on Island Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTELLECTUAL MERIT: Seabird islands (islands with large populations of seabirds) are crucial to the survival of native animals and plants due to the large subsidies provided by nutrient inputs of marine origin. Seabird predators have devastated seabird populations and drastically altered vegetation processes and ecosystem function all over the world. These predators are now being eradicated on hundreds of islands,

Christa Mulder; Wendy Anderson; Don Croll; Josh Donlan; Julie Ellis; Stephen Kress; Bernie Tershy; Alexander Wait; Peter Bellingham; Robbie McDonald; José Miguel Fariña; Dave Towns; Eric Vidal; David Wardle; Chris Wilcox

369

Hematology and Serum Chemistry of the Island Spotted Skunk on Santa Cruz Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined serum biochemis- try and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet sea- son). One parameter, glucose, significantly

Kevin R. Crooks; D. K. Garcelon; Cheryl A. Scott; Jeffery T. Wilcox; Steven F. Timm; Dirk H. Van

2003-01-01

370

Operation Ward's Island, A Guide to the Trees and Other Features of Ward's Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for teachers, students, and adults illustrates how it is possible to use Ward's Island as an outdoor laboratory. It contains a guide to 30 kinds of trees on the island, along with clearly drawn maps and illustrations. The guide helps the user to locate these trees along two nature trails. A section called "Ward's Island Roundup" briefly…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

371

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

...19.2? W. across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island. (e) A line formed by the centerline of the highway bridge between Hunting Island and Fripp Island. (f) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity...

2014-07-01

372

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands  

E-print Network

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands A.H. BARCLAY1 *, W.S.D. WILCOCK2 and J.M. IBA´ N~ EZ3 1 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory@ldeo.columbia.edu Abstract: Deception Island is the largest volcano in the actively extending Bransfield Basin, a marginal

Wilcock, William

373

Gl'italiani del Rhode Island (The Italians of Rhode Island). Ethnic Heritage Studies Program of Rhode Island, Appendix D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reader on Italians in Rhode Island, which provides ethnic material for Italian language courses at level three of high school or at third semester of college, is presented. Contents are as follows: a history of the Italians in Rhode Island; a profile of the lives of some of the prominent members of the Italian community; and an anthology of…

Trivelli, Remo J.

374

Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael, M.; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

2011-01-01

375

Rangiferine brucellosis on Baffin Island.  

PubMed

The standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from three populations on Baffin Island, Canada. During late winter from 1983 to 1986, sera from 17 of 40 North Baffin (43%), 11 of 33 Northeast Baffin (33%) and 12 of 82 South Baffin (15%) adult caribou had antibodies in the STAT at 1:50 or the CFT at 1:5. Seroprevalence increased as caribou matured with one (4%) of 25 calves, four (13%) of 31 yearlings, and 40 (26%) of 155 adult caribou being positive. However, seroprevalence did not differ with sex in any age class. Positive antibody titers were higher in adult females sampled in May, 3 to 4 wk before parturition, than in adult females sampled in late March and April. The strength of positive titers did not differ with the time of sampling among adult males. Pathologic signs of brucellosis were found in three (13%) of 23 caribou that were assumed to have active infections (caribou with CFT titers > 1:160). Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from 24 (60%) of 40 caribou from which lesions were submitted. Between 1986 and 1990, the annual incidence of reported human (Homo sapiens) cases averaged 3.4 (34:100,000) on Baffin Island. PMID:9249700

Ferguson, M A

1997-07-01

376

A review of the contributions of fisheries and climate variability to contrasting dynamics in two Arcto-boreal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Persistent high productivity in the Barents Sea and collapse on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the North Atlantic and adjacent seas have been fished intensively for years, and many are now severely depleted. In order to promote recovery and sustainable harvesting, it is essential to understand factors that have contributed to the declines and to variability in rates of recovery. Considerable insight may be gleaned by comparing and contrasting the histories of the Northeast Arctic (NEA) cod in the Barents Sea - Svalbard area of the northeast Atlantic and the “northern cod” on the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) shelf in the northwest Atlantic. These two stocks, which were among the 3 largest cod stocks during the middle of the 20th century, are Arcto-boreal, and have many species of prey and predators in common. The biomass of NEA cod has varied considerably over time, and in 2009 was a little above 60% of its maximum observed level, which occurred in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In contrast, the biomass of NL cod decreased steadily from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increased somewhat during the 1980s, and crashed during the early 1990s to an extremely low level, at which it remained for a decade before showing recent indications of improvement. Although both stocks were influenced by similar changes in harvesting strategies and environmental circumstances, both biotic and abiotic, there are two events which stand out as being particularly influential. First, crises developed in the management of both stocks in the late 1980s. For NEA cod, the crisis was environmental, caused by the collapse of capelin (Mallotus villosus), the main food for adult cod, whereas for NL cod the crisis was caused by a sudden large reduction in scientific perception of stock size. The difference in response to these crises strongly influenced subsequent stock dynamics. Catches of NEA cod were reduced considerably, preventing severe overharvesting of the cod that at that time experienced low productivity, whereas catches of NL cod were reduced only a little, contributing to escalating fishing mortality. The second event followed directly upon the first. The North Atlantic Oscillation index, which had been increasingly positive since the early 1970s, became strongly so during the early 1990s, creating favourable environmental conditions (warm water) in the Barents Sea and highly unfavourable conditions (cold water and extensive ice cover) on the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The NEA stock recovered quickly, whereas the NL stock collapsed. The NEA cod has remained highly productive to this date, whereas the NL cod remained very unproductive for a decade, primarily because of high mortality, most of which appears to have been natural.

Lilly, George R.; Nakken, Odd; Brattey, John

2013-07-01

377

33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80.1102 ...LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island. [CGD...

2010-07-01

378

33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80.1102 ...LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island. [CGD...

2013-07-01

379

33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80.1102 ...LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island. [CGD...

2012-07-01

380

33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80.1102 ...LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island. [CGD...

2011-07-01

381

Contradiction and grammar : the case of weak islands  

E-print Network

This thesis is about weak islands. Weak islands are contexts that are transparent to some but not all operator-variable dependencies. For this reason, they are also sometimes called selective islands. Some paradigmatic ...

Abrusán, Márta

2007-01-01

382

CONTEXT VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOEING RELATION BETWEEN BODIE ISLAND VIP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXT VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOEING RELATION BETWEEN BODIE ISLAND VIP QUARTERS (LEFT) AND BODIE ISLAND LIFESAVING STATION (RIGHT) - Bodie Island Lifesaving Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

383

40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354 Section 81.354 Protection of...Status Designations § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

2014-07-01

384

Recovery Act Invests $116,000 at Apostle Islands  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar checks out the island's photovoltaic solar panels. Solar panels are the sole source of electricity for the islands and are used to run the interior of the lighthouse on Michigan Island....

2009-08-10

385

Energy management systems for islanded industrial facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

For completely islanded industrial facilities, a stable and robust power system is absolutely essential. Such facilities are not able to rely on an interconnection to a utility grid to provide stability or act as a safety net in the event of large, on-site generation disturbances. Knowing the ramifications of operating an islanded facility, Saudi Aramco has taken great care to

Musaab M. Almulla; M. A. Fazil; N. C. Seeley

2009-01-01

386

Urban Heat Island Circulation in Göteborg, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study of the Urban Heat Island Circulation (UHIC) in Göteborg, Sweden. Observations and recordings have been carried out from 1981 to 1986 during winter nights with anticyclonic weather conditions. The UHIC develops in general at a large negative net radiation balance, when the heat island intensity is at least 2.5°C, the wind speed less than 3

I. Eliasson; B. Holmer

1990-01-01

387

Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation  

E-print Network

Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office agency thereof. #12;A Comparison of Hawaii's Inter-Island Maritime Transportation of Solid Versus Liquid of Honolulu Advertiser ISO Tank Container, courtesy of Hawaii Intermodal Tank Transport Petroleum products

388

Tin diselenide quantum-sized island films  

SciTech Connect

Island films based on the intermediate phases forming in Ge-Se and Sn-Se systems are prepared by the incongruent evaporation of film structures of a Sn{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} composition. The surface morphology of these structures is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of growth conditions on the size distribution of islands is established.

Kushkhov, A. R., E-mail: askerk@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology 'MISIS,' (Russian Federation); Gaev, D. S., E-mail: dahir@mail.ru [Kabardino-Balkarian State University (Russian Federation); Rabinovich, O. I., E-mail: olegr@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology 'MISIS,' (Russian Federation); Stolyarov, A. G. [Kabardino-Balkarian State University (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

389

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

390

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot May 1, 2003 ­ July 15, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts. Ellis Taylor Geer January 15, 2004 Renewable Energy Research Laboratory University of Massachusetts........................................................................................................................ 16 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 - Site location at Deer Island Parking Lot site................

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

391

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall August 18, 2003 ­ December 4, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts. Ellis Taylor Geer January 15, 2004 Renewable Energy Research Laboratory University of Massachusetts........................................................................................................................ 16 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 - Site location at Deer Island Outfall site. ......................

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

392

Rorty's Liberal Utopia and Huxley's Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Richard Rorty controversially suggests that literature is more important for political progress in liberal society than political philosophy. Indeed, eschewing conventional choices, like Plato's Republic or Machiavelli's Prince, Rorty argues that the best introduction to political thought is Aldous Huxley's celebrated dystopian novel, Brave New World. Rorty, however, neglects Huxley's positive utopian work, Island. This is unfortunate because Island depicts

William M. Curtis

2011-01-01

393

Rorty's Liberal Utopia and Huxley's Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richard Rorty controversially suggests that literature is more important for political progress in liberal society than political philosophy. Indeed, eschewing conventional choices, like Plato's Republic or Machiavelli's Prince, Rorty argues that the best introduction to political thought is Aldous Huxley's celebrated dystopian novel, Brave New World. Rorty, however, neglects Huxley's positive utopian work, Island. This is unfortunate because Island depicts

William M. Curtis

2011-01-01

394

Canary Islands—Origin and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses concerning the origin and evolution of the Canary Islands are discussed. An oceanic origin seems reasonable for the central and western islands, which are of central-volcanic type. A continental origin is suggested for Lanzarote and Fuerteventura; folded Mesozoic sedimentary rocks occur within their basement, and ostrich eggs from Upper Miocene calcarenites found on Lanzarote confirm the earlier existence of

Peter Rothe

1974-01-01

395

Booming and Crashing Populations and Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of Easter Island grew steadily for some time and then suddenly decreased dramatically; humans almost disappeared from the island. This is not the sort of behavior pre- dicted by the usual logistic dierential equation model of an iso- lated population or by the predator-prey model for a population using resources. We present a mathematical model that predicts this

Bill Basener; David S. Ross

2004-01-01

396

A recently extinct palm from Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former existence of palms on Easter Island has been demonstrated palynologically1,2, but the genus could not be determined from pollen morphology. We now report the discovery on the island of endocarps (shells) from palm fruits which appear to bethose of an extinct species related to the Chilean `wine palm', Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baillon. The endocarps, found in caves, have

J. Dransfield; J. R. Flenley; S. M. King; D. D. Harkness; S. Rapu

1984-01-01

397

The freshwater microcrustacea of Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Cladocera’, Copepod and Ostracod fauna of Easter Island amounts to only five species. Three of these are wide-ranging, and four are cyclic parthenogens or at least capable of parthenogenesis. Two, the Cladoceran Alona weinecki and the Ostracod Sarscypridopsis sp., are more interesting from a biogeographic point of view, because restricted (apart from Easter Island) to the subantarctic. It is

Henri J. Dumont; Koen Martens

1996-01-01

398

ARTICLE Anagenetic evolution in island plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Plants in islands have often evolved through adaptive radiation, providing the classical model of evolution of closely related species each with strikingly different morphological and ecological features and with low levels of genetic divergence. We emphasize the importance of an alternative (anagenetic) model of evolution, whereby a single island endemic evolves from a progenitor and slowly builds up genetic

Tod F. Stuessy; Gerhard Jakubowsky; Roberto Salguero Gomez; Martin Pfosser; Philipp M. Schluter; Tomas Fer; Byung-Yun Sun

399

Ascension Island, ecosystem construction and ecological fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To use the ecosystem on Green Mountain, Ascension Island, to illustrate aspects of ecosystem construction and function as well as possible mitigation of human caused global environmental change. Location Ascension Island, tropical south Atlantic. Main conclusions The cloud forest on Green Mountain is a man-made system that has produced a tropical forest without any coevolution between its constituent species.

David M. Wilkinson

400

DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016  

EPA Science Inventory

The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

401

URBAN HEAT ISLANDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid urbanization and industrialization have brought about microclimatic changes particularly with regard to its thermal structure. The well documented climatic modification of the city is urban heat island. The present paper discusses the nature and intensity of heat islands at Visakhapatnam, the tropical coastal city of South India. A detailed study was carried out with regard to urban heat

Suryadevara S. Devi

402

Urban heat island in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid urbanization and industrialization, urban heat island effect in Shanghai is increasing. Based on the observed data, image data, and statistic data, temporal variation and spatial distribution of urban heat island and its relationship with urbanization factors in Shanghai was analyzed in this study. The results indicated the UHI index between urban and rural area increased with a rate

Linli Cui; Jun Shi; Zhiqiang Gao

2007-01-01

403

Being Logical About Desert Island Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

To begin with, I refuse to be stranded on a desert island: sand without vegetation, hot sun, and salty water are just not conducive to good thinking. So let’s get into deserted tropical island mood, which is what everyone else has been doing. First, let’s wind time back to around 1978. This is important because our bodies can do without

Alex Borgida

2002-01-01

404

The Pacific Island Health Care Project  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

Person, Donald Ames

2014-01-01

405

Rhode Island Election Tickets: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhode Island was the first English colony in America to issue printed election ballots, with the first issued in the mid-1740s. This survey of Rhode Island election tickets, while not exhaustive, is representative of the use of tickets in elections spanning a period of over 150 years and documents state and local politics, political factions and election results from the

Russell J. DeSimone; Daniel C. Schofield

2007-01-01

406

Pacific Islander Youth Offenders in Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, the number of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders living in Utah grew 97%, with the fastest growing group within that category being Samoans, increasing at a rate of 188%. Pacific Islander youth are much more likely to be arrested for illegal acts than their Caucasian counterparts. This study presents preliminary data on issues relating to

Robin Davis

407

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, breast cancer advocates petitioned the United States Congress to investigate the high rates of breast cancer on Long Island in the state of New York. The resulting law led to the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) — more than ten research projects designed to study the possible causes of this increased incidence of cancer.

Deborah M. Winn

2005-01-01

408

Genomic islands in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism for the evolution of microbial genomes. Pathogenicity islands — mobile genetic elements that contribute to rapid changes in virulence potential — are known to have contributed to genome evolution by horizontal gene transfer in many bacterial pathogens. Increasing evidence indicates that equivalent elements in non-pathogenic species — genomic islands — are important in

Ulrich Dobrindt; Bianca Hochhut; Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2004-01-01

409

Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

Payne, Diana, Ed.

2009-01-01

410

The Vascular Flora Andros Island, Bahamas  

E-print Network

#12;The Vascular Flora of Andros Island, Bahamas by Daniel L. Nickrent University of Illinois and W on This Version of the Book The original edition of "Vascular Flora of Andros Island, Bahamas" by D. L. Nickrent differs from the original in that an index to common names of Andros plants was added. This list

Nickrent, Daniel L.

411

Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.  

PubMed

Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water. PMID:22048924

Vlahovi?, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

2012-10-01

412

SeaWinds - South Georgia Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

This large-scale view shows regions of high wind speed off both the eastern and western ends of islands, corresponding to 'corner accelerations' as the winds stream by the steep island topography. The lowest wind speeds are seen to be in the lee of the highest island topography.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

413

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1994-01-01

414

The Early Cambrian Bradore Formation of Southeastern Labrador and adjacent parts of Quebec: Architecture and genesis of clastic strata on an early Paleozoic wave-swept shallow marine shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strata of the Bradore Formation have been interpreted in terms of a marine transgression developed at the onset of spreading of Iapetus Ocean, with a basal member of fluvial origin, a middle member of lagoonal origin and an upper member of tidal-channel origin. In Labrador the formation rests directly on a low relief surface, developed on metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Orogen, with no well developed paleosoils. Re-examination of the architecture of pebbly sandstones in the basal (Blanc-Sablon) member indicate that these formed on an open, storm-influenced wave-swept shelf as part of a low relief sand sheet, with evidence of multiple accretionary events. Structure in sandstones in the middle (Crow Head) member is largely obscured by a high density of Skolithos linearis domichnia. Abundance of hummocky cross stratification indicates deepening, with a transition to an open, storm-influenced, shallow shelf. Large-scale cross stratification in the glauconite-bearing upper (L'Anse-au-Clair) member reflects shoaling, with a return to deposition of medium-scale marine sandwave complexes, with no clear evidence of any tidal signature. Strata of the Bradore Formation were at least partly lithified prior to deposition of reefal and platformal carbonates in the overlying Forteau Formation. Paleocurrent indicators in the upper and lower members suggests that during the initial drift phase of Iapetus this segment (St Lawrence Promontory) of the Laurentian margin was swept by both geostrophic and storm-influenced currents, largely oriented parallel to the paleocoastline.

Long, Darrel G. F.; Yip, Sze Shan

2009-03-01

415

Level Sets and Reversible Island Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level set approach applied to the modeling of epitaxial growth allows a description which is discrete (atomistic) in the height profile and continuous in the lateral dimensions. Therefore, virtues of continuum and discrete models can be combined. The feasibility of this approach in the case of homoepitaxial growth with irreversible aggregation has been successfully shown [1]. In this model, island boundaries evolve with a velocity that is obtained by solving the diffusion equation. Here we present an extension to the island dynamics model to include reversibility, i.e., the possibility of thermal detachment of atoms from island edges. As a consequence, islands do not always grow, and break-up of islands is explicitly allowed in our approach. We make no assumptions about a critical nucleus. Furthermore we will demonstrate that our model can be implemented with negligible additional computational cost against the irreversible case. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of island densities and island size distributions to those obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations will be given. We also will present preliminary results on simulations of Oswald ripening. [.5cm] [1] C. Ratsch, S. Chen, M. Kang, M.F. Gyure, and D.D. Vvedensky, Phys. Rev. B 61, R10598 (2000).

Petersen, Max; Ratsch, Christian; Caflisch, Russel; Zangwill, Andrew

2001-03-01

416

Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-28

417

Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to reduce nest predators, especially gulls and foxes, likely will have the greatest immediate benefit for island breeding black ducks.

Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

2002-01-01

418

Urban Heat Islands Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urban heat islands are "a critical environmental issue in many large cities. The consequences of UHIs are elevated temperature, increased pollution and related health risks, and higher energy consumption. Planners need to be able to identify and quantify urban heat islands with GIS and remote sensing." This lesson from iGETT includes a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, curriculum and other support documents and a series of data files. The lesson plan will be helpful for students looking at the issue of heat islands in the remote sensing context. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.

2012-03-12

419

Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

Vaughn, Charles R.

1993-01-01

420

Emergently Thermalized Islands in the Landscape  

E-print Network

In this note, we point out that in the eternal inflation driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it might be possible that some large and local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can stride over the barriers between different vacua and straightly create some islands with radiation and matter in new vacua. Then these thermalized islands will evolve with the standard cosmology. We show that such islands may be consistent with our observable universe, while has some distinctly observable signals, which may be tested in coming observations.

Yun-Song Piao

2007-06-12

421

Seal Island's 'superlatives' bring top honors  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the construction of Seal Island, a man-made drilling support island in the Alaska Beaufort Sea, was presented. Also included in the discussion was the construction of roads from the gravel borrow site, consisting of three miles of floating ice roads. The final ice thickness of the floating ice roads was 9 ft, and they required 47 days to build. Seal Island, built in 39 ft of water, was built between February 22 and April 8, 1982, and required 700,000 cubic yards of gravel. The total cost of the project was approximately $26 million.

Not Available

1983-04-01

422

Bimodal Island Size Distribution in Heteroepitaxial Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bimodal size distribution of two-dimensional islands is inferred during interface formation in heteroepitaxial growth of bismuth ferrite on (001) oriented SrTiO3 by sputter deposition. Features observed by in situ x-ray scattering are explained by a model where coalescence of islands determines the growth kinetics with negligible surface diffusion on SrTiO3. Small clusters maintain a compact shape as they coalesce, while clusters beyond a critical size impinge to form large irregular connected islands and a population of smaller clusters forms in the spaces between the larger ones.

Chinta, P. V.; Headrick, R. L.

2014-02-01

423

Habitat islands and the equilibrium theory of island biogeography: testing some predictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species-area data from a study of marsh birds are used to test five predictions generated by the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. Three predictions are supported: we found a significant species-area relationship, a non-zero level of turnover, and a variance-mean ratio of 0.5. One prediction is rejected: the extinction rates were not greater on small islands. The results of one test are equivocal: the number of species on each island was not always the same. As Gilbert (1980) suggests, a strong species-area relationship alone does not validate the theory. The avian communities we studied were on habitat islands, not true islands, and underwent complete extinction annually. Thus caution must be used before applying the theory to these and other habitat islands.

Brown, M.; Dinsmore, J.J.

1988-01-01

424

Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Location: 15.4 degree south latitude, 167.9 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 36.8 by 27.8 kilometers (22.9 by 17.3 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2005-01-01

425

Mid-Chesapeake Bay Island Ecosystem Restoration Project, Maryland  

E-print Network

subsidence, rising sea level, and wave action are causing valuable remote island habitats to be lost protection of existing island habitat by minimizing erosion of the existing remnant islands. Restoration Aquatic Vegetation (SAV)/shallow water habitat off the eastern shore of Barren Island. Sills constructed

US Army Corps of Engineers

426

Community-Scale Environmental Measures and Urban Heat Island  

E-print Network

Community-Scale Environmental Measures and Urban Heat Island Impacts Buildings End-Use Energy the urban heat island effect. Urban heat islands are areas that are hotter than the surrounding countryside the surrounding air temperature and, if deployed on a wide scale, can increase the heat island effect, adding

427

The Urban Heat Island: Linking Science, Society, and Technology  

E-print Network

The Urban Heat Island: Linking Science, Society, and Technology Living in the desert has always: · Investigate the Urban Heat Island phenomenon · Explore the impact of the Urban Heat Island on people and other will receive: · $400 per teacher as stipend for attending all four days · Urban Heat Island instructional unit

Hall, Sharon J.

428

Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies  

E-print Network

islands. Urban heat islands can be 2 ­ 10 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than the surrounding countryside vegetation is called heat island mitigation, which can lower urban temperatures. Having lower ambient using simulated urban heat island mitigation for August 5, 1997. As air temperature decreases, ozone

429

Study: Wealth Buys Rescue from Urban Heat Island  

E-print Network

Study: Wealth Buys Rescue from Urban Heat Island by Shaun McKinnon, The Arizona Republic Heat." The Heat Islands Scientists have long known about the effects of the urban heat island, a phenomenon, the heat island is most appar- ent in the urban core, the effects ebbing in the suburbs. What Ruddell

Hall, Sharon J.

430

Vegetation and flora of the Solander Islands, Southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solander Islands, south of South Island, hold 53 vascular plant species, mostly ferns, orchids, and composites with wind-borne propagules. One-third of the species on Big Solander Island are very rare, being either coastal or confined to a sheltered summit plateau. Peat covers the island, supporting Olearia lyallii and some Senecio stewartiae on the plateau, giving way to S. reinoldii

P. N. Johnson

1975-01-01

431

A global comparison of plant invasions on oceanic islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic islands have long been considered to be particularly vulnerable to biotic invasions, and much research has focused on invasive plants on oceanic islands. However, findings from individual islands have rarely been compared between islands within or between biogeographic regions. We present in this study the most comprehensive, standardized dataset to date on the global distribution of invasive plant species

Christoph Kueffer; Curtis C. Daehler; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Christophe Lavergne; Jean-Yves Meyer; Rüdiger Otto; Luís Silva

2010-01-01

432

Community Perceptions of Tourism: Bruny and Magnetic Islands, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism is increasingly perceived as important for island sustainability, though it also has impacts. Impacts on host communities have negative consequences on desired interactions with visitors, an important visitor appeal of islands. This paper uses social exchange and social representation theories to investigate island community perceptions of tourism development and impacts. The investigations highlight a diversity of island community perspectives,

Brent Moyle; W. Glen Croy; Betty Weiler

2010-01-01

433

Island biogeography: Effect of geographical isolation on species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island biogeography theory attempts to explain and predict among-island variation in species richness. However, two islands with the same number of species may still differ from each other considerably in their species composition. In this study the authors test the hypothesis that among-island variation in species composition is predictable and can be related to the corresponding differences in distance to

R. Kadmon; H. R. Pulliam

1993-01-01

434

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. MOTORIZED MACHINING EQUIPMENT USED IN MANUFACTURE OF MACHINE GUN PARTS. SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND IS A PRATT & WHITNEY VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE. DATED JANUARY 21, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

435

2. Photocopy of photograph. View, looking southeast, showing Shooters Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopy of photograph. View, looking southeast, showing Shooters Island with standard ship building plant in operation. Circa 1930 by Airmap Corporation of America. (Original in Staten Inland Historic Society, Staten Island, New York) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

436

One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

2011-01-01

437

Metromorphosis : evolution on the urban island  

E-print Network

Cities are very much alive. Like islands, they provide a natural testing ground for evolution. With more than half of the world's population living in urban areas now, the influence cities have on the planet's life is ...

Vezina, Kenrick (Kenrick Freitas)

2011-01-01

438

Low frequency electromagnetic scattering from an island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adopting a simple model, a formulation is presented for the scattering from a circular island surrounded by an otherwise smooth sea. Both the surface impedance and the height profile of the island are functions of the radial distance. Employing the electromagnetic compensation theorem, an expression for the mutual impedance between two small ground based vertical antennas is derived. To simplify the analysis these antennas are assumed to be located at distances that are large compared with the radius of the island. It is shown that the relative importance of the surface impedance and the height profile will depend on the scattering angle subtended, at the island center, by the directions to the source and receiving antennas. The results are relevant to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the earth-ionosphere waveguide at very low frequencies (VLF).

Wait, James R.

1992-04-01

439

A Survey of the Island Province.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews some of the findings of the 1984 survey of public attitudes toward the provincial education system conducted by Prince Edward Island's School System Review Commission and discusses some of the commission's resulting 94 recommendations for improvement. (PGD)

McDowell, Stirling

1985-01-01

440

ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island  

E-print Network

ANNUAL WIND DATA REPORT Thompson Island March 1, 2002 ­ February 28, 2003 Prepared for Massachusetts Technology Collaborative 75 North Drive Westborough, MA 01581 by James F. Manwell Anthony F. Ellis

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

441

WIND DATA REPORT Little Brewster Island, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Little Brewster Island, Massachusetts September 1, 2006 ­ November 30, 2006. Jaynes James F. Manwell Anthony L. Rogers Anthony F. Ellis 2/16/2007 Renewable Energy Research Laboratory

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

442

MILP formulation for islanding of power networks  

E-print Network

Mar 19, 2012 ... done intentionally under central control and not left to automatic safety devices. ... Integer programming has many applications in power systems, ..... Following separation of the network into islands, and given the limits on gen ...

2012-03-19

443

Pacific Islanders--Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

444

Solar School Program in Reunion Island  

E-print Network

system efficiency. In Réunion Island, the industrial engineering laboratory is involved in the regional solar school program. Its aim is to gather some local construction actors (city technical offices, architects, civil engineers, specialized university...

David, M.; Adelard, L.

2004-01-01

445

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.59 Rhode Island...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in...

2013-10-01

446

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.59 Rhode Island...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in...

2012-10-01

447

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.59 Rhode Island...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in...

2011-10-01

448

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.59 Rhode Island...following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in...

2010-10-01

449

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands. PMID:1340336

Oreihaka, E

1992-01-01

450

A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

Mammano, Nicholas J.

1980-01-01

451

US Virgin Islands renewable energy future  

E-print Network

The US Virgin Islands must face drastic changes to its electrical system. There are two problems with electricity production in the USVI-it's dirty and it's expensive. Nearly one hundred percent of the electricity in these ...

Oldfield, Brian (Brian K.)

2013-01-01

452

Island-induced bootstrap current on the saturation of a thin magnetic island in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that island-induced bootstrap current density, which results from the symmetry breaking of the vertical bar B vertical bar when an island is embedded in the equilibrium magnetic field B, modifies the evolution equation and the saturation level for a thin magnetic island in tokamaks. This modification is independent of the fraction of the equilibrium bootstrap current density. It is found that island-induced bootstrap current density increases the saturation level for modes with positive values of {delta}{sup '}. Here, {delta}{sup '} is the stability parameter for the linear tearing modes.

Shaing, K. C. [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2007-04-15

453

Hematology and serum chemistry of the island spotted skunk on Santa Cruz Island.  

PubMed

We determined serum biochemistry and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet season). One parameter, glucose, significantly differed with season, with higher levels during the wet season. Serum chemistry and hematologic profiles suggest that method of restraint (manual or chemical), as well as other methodologic details, may influence blood characteristics in the island spotted skunk. PMID:12910779

Crooks, Kevin R; Garcelon, D K; Scott, Cheryl A; Wilcox, Jeffery T; Timm, Steven F; Van Vuren, Dirk H

2003-04-01

454

Annealing of phosphorus-doped Ge islands on Si(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effect of phosphorus on the evolution of Ge islands on Si(001), phosphorus-doped islands were annealed in a H2 ambient and undoped islands were annealed in a PH3/H2 ambient. In both cases phosphorus stabilizes the island structure and reduces coarsening during annealing. The changes of island shape during annealing are consistent with phosphorus influencing the thermodynamic properties of the islands, while the slower decrease in the density of islands when phosphorus is present is consistent with phosphorus kinetically retarding surface diffusion of Ge atoms.

Kamins, T. I.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Ohlberg, D. A. A.; Williams, R. Stanley

2004-02-01

455

Coastal mesoscale changes on Matagorda Island  

E-print Network

Analysis Methods. Sediment Analysis Methods. Statistical Methods. 20 21 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 29 Along-shore Sedimentology. . Cross-shore Sedimentology. Profile Analysis. . . . . . . . Beach Slope Shoreface Width. . Dune Systems. 41 48... and dune environments can be identified, b) examine the sedimentological composition of the beach and dune systems. STUDY AREA Matagorda Island, second I'rom the east of Texas' five barrier islands, lies eight kilometers off the central Texas coast...

Lariscy, Kevin William

2012-06-07

456

Sustainable groundwater management in Kinmen Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinmen county is located in the southwest of Fujen province, China. It comprises Kinmen, Leiyu and other small islands. Its total area is around 150 km2. Kinmen is the largest island, and 95% of the population resides there. The average annual precipitation is 1072 mm. Rainfall is concentrated in a 5 month period from mid-April to mid-September. Water resources are

Chen-Wuing Liu; Chun-Nan Lin; Cheng-Shin Jang; Chan-Po Chen; Jen-Fu Chang; Chen-Chun Fan; Kuo-Hiang Lou

2006-01-01

457

Desalination and energy consumption in Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canary Islands represent an almost perfect model of reference in the field of the water desalination. Starting from the 1960s, many desalination plants have been built to provide fresh water from non-conventional sources; making it necessary to search from other sources of supply, like seawater or brackish groundwater.Desalination in the Canary Islands has contributed to the progress and development

J. Jaime Sadhwani; Jose M. Veza

2008-01-01

458

Clay Mineralogy of a Pleistocene Barrier Island, Skidaway Island, GA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dense blue clay underlies various marsh localities near the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SKIO). SKIO is located on a Pleistocene barrier island in Georgia. The clay is found in two cores drilled at the high marsh/maritime forest transition zone. It was recovered at a depth of one meter, below unconsolidated marsh sediment. A total of 12 clay samples were collected at 10cm intervals downcore beginning at 100cm, through the clay layer. The thickness of the clay layer is unknown due to core refusal at a heavily iron oxide mottled zone. Samples were examined for the presence of diatoms and foraminifera, neither of which were found to be present, thereby suggesting a non-marine environment, although dissolution may be a factor. Geochemical data also lacks a definite marine signature, thereby confirming the micropaleontological conclusions. Smectite, illite, and kaolinite were found throughout both cores with halloysite present only below a depth of roughly 120cm. These particular clay minerals have been identified in blue clays analyzed in the Carolina Bays of southern North Carolina. Halloysite is typically a metastable phase forming from the weathering of illite to kaolinite, thus the location of the halloysite found in these cores indicates more recent weathering of the parent illite at depth. This is unusual as weathering is normally thought to be more intense closer to the surface. Vermiculite, which is also part of the general weathering scheme of mica, was not identified in the cores based on the behavior of the samples after solvation in ethylene glycol and potassium-saturation. The observed clay assemblage is similar to that of North Carolina Carolina Bays. Carolina Bays are found from Virginia to Georgia, and are found to contain blue clays (Ingram et al., 1959). Morphologically, Carolina Bays are typically elliptical and while the study area is more rounded, this could be due to its modification by an active tidal system.

Shaffer, M.; Shackford, J. K.; Elliott, W. C.; Christensen, B. A.; Freile, D.; Hillier, C.; Horton, B. P.

2005-05-01

459

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Abstract This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

460

Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.  

PubMed

The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands. PMID:12269067

Johnson, G

1988-01-01

461

Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

1976-01-01

462

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: III -Influence of drift-wave resonances on island propagation  

E-print Network

magnetic islands. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel raTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: III - Influence of drift-wave resonances on island propagation Richard Fitzpatrick Institute for Fusion Studies Department of Physics University

Fitzpatrick, Richard

463

Utilization and sustainable development of island mountains in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island mountain utilization is a kind of mountain utilization. Although the islands cover little area, they can be used\\u000a as the base of marine development. The sustainable development of island mountains is of significance to marine development.\\u000a There are more than 6500 islands (including the South China Sea Islets) in China, and most of them are continental islands\\u000a which

Yaoguang Zhang; Yinkai Yang

1998-01-01

464

The hydrology of Hatteras Island, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a study of the groundwater hydrology and groundwater-surface-water interactions of barrier islands. Shallow groundwater is typically the sole source of freshwater on barrier islands. It is threatened by increasing coastal populations (both permanent and seasonal residents). Higher demand for groundwater may induce saltwater intrusion through overpumping. Water quality also is often threatened by inadequate waste-management practices and overwash. These factors combine to make understanding of barrier-island hydrology essential for continued development and ecological health of island communities. The hydraulic response of barrier islands is closely tied to island morphology and stratigraphy. The heterogeneity of barrier islands suggests that the underlying geologic framework is critical to barrier-island morphology. Other processes, such as spit growth, are usually imposed on an inherited geologic framework. Barrier islands typically support a freshwater aquifer that "floats" on an underlying saltwater aquifer. The height to which the water table rises depends on the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and the island geometry. In addition, tidal fluctuations, interdunal wetland drainage, and variable recharge rates affect island hydrology. The relative importance of each of these factors was tested with a series of numerical simulations, sensitivity analyses, and field measurements. Field data were collected from Hatteras Island in order to provide calibration data, constrain the shallow stratigraphy, and estimate aquifer parameters. Geophysical studies include borehole geophysics and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The Buxton Woods surficial aquifer is approximately 24.5 meters in thickness and contains upper and lower permeable zones separated by a semi-confining layer. Geophysical methods were used to constrain the shallow stratigraphy and the vertical geometry of the system. Borehole geophysics indicate the large-scale variations in stratigraphy. GPR surveys show several large-scale reflectors including (1) a low-permeability Pleistocene headland, and (2) a low-permeability unit that is interpreted to be a buried wetland. Steady-state simulations show that groundwater flow on barrier islands is not sensitive to tidal fluctuations but is highly sensitive to the rate of surface-water drainage. Moreover, water-table elevations are sensitive to permeability, but the size of the freshwater lens is not. The USGS finite-element model SUTRA was used to simulate more detailed groundwater flow problems. For this study SUTRA was modified to more accurately simulate groundwater-surface-water interaction by allowing the use of pressure-dependent aquifer sources and sinks. Fluctuating tidal boundary conditions at the edge of barrier islands were incorporated into the model using rating curves compiled from field data. Temporal and spatial variations in recharge rates were incorporated into the model using time-varying source terms. Temporal variations use constant rate, Gaussian distribution, exponential distribution, and lognormal distribution methods. Recharge fractions were determined by. transient model calibration. Predictive simulations of Hatteras Island conditions show that (1) a low-permeability layer, interpreted to be a buried wetland, raises water-table elevations; (2) changes in the rate of surface-water drainage greatly alter water-table elevations; (3) the effect of the proposed Buxton Wellfield on the Buxton Woods surficial aquifer depends greatly on recharge conditions; and (4) management of surface drain ages will greatly enhance the reliability of the aquifer. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Anderson, William Paul, Jr.

465

Title: Canadian Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Keywords (Subject): Contours, Digital Elevation

466

Title: Platinum Postal Suite Multiple Enhanced Postal Codes (MEP): Canada Data Creator /  

E-print Network

, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Keywords (Subject): Boundaries, Postal Codes, Multiple

467

Population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the California Channel Islands.  

PubMed

The loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), a songbird that hunts like a small raptor, maintains breeding populations on seven of the eight California Channel Islands. One of the two subspecies, L. l. anthonyi, was described as having breeding populations on six of the islands while a second subspecies, L. l. mearnsi, was described as being endemic to San Clemente Island. Previous genetic studies have demonstrated that the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike is well differentiated genetically from both L. l. anthonyi and mainland populations, despite the fact that birds from outside the population are regular visitors to the island. Those studies, however, did not include a comparison between San Clemente Island shrikes and the breeding population on Santa Catalina Island, the closest island to San Clemente. Here we use mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellites to investigate the population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the Channel Islands. We confirm the genetic distinctiveness of the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike and, u