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Sample records for gannet islands labrador

  1. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals. PMID:24361782

  2. Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and ?-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony. PMID:25449633

  3. Naskapi Tales from Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Lawrence, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These seven tales were collected in Davis Inlet, Labrador, during 1987-88 from the Naskapi, the most traditional of the Algonquin-speaking Indians. The tales describe origins or illuminate morals, several feature Tchakapesh, a hero-trickster. (SV)

  4. Energy Expenditure of Free-Ranging Chicks of the Cape Gannet Morus capensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, René A; Mullers, Ralf H E; Meijer, Haro A J; Underhill, Les G

    2015-01-01

    The Cape gannet Morus capensis, a large fish-eating seabird, is endemic to southern Africa. To study the energetics of nestling growth, we used the doubly labeled water technique to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) of nestlings, from hatchings to large partly feathered chicks (n = 17) at Malgas Island, Saldanha Bay, South Africa. At the same time, the growth rate of a large sample of chicks was measured (n = 338). These data, together with literature values on resting metabolic rate and body composition, were used to construct and partition the nestling energy budget. Nestling FMR (kJ d(-1)) increased with body mass according to FMR = 1.23m(0.923), r(2) = 0.944. Mass-specific FMR (FMRratio; kJ d(-1) g(-3/4)) was independent of chick age (r(2) = 0.20, P > 0.05); mean mass-specific FMR was 4.11 ± 1.28, n = 17. Peak daily-metabolized energy (DME), which represents the maximum rate at which parents must supply their nestlings, occurred at age 71 d and was 2,141 kJ d(-1). Between the ages 51 and 92 d (43% of the fledging period), the DME of Cape gannet chicks was equal to or surpassed 90% of adult FMR at the nest. Energy demand during this period of peak DME represented 58% of the total metabolized energy, which was estimated at 150.1 MJ for an average chick during a 97-d period, from hatching to fledging. Sensitivity analysis of the energy budget indicated that the model was robust; the biggest source of error (±15%) was for the mass-FMR equation used in the model. PMID:26052637

  5. Cretaceous-Tertiary paleobathymetry of Labrador and Baffin shelves, and its significance to evolution of Labrador Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Helenes, J.; Gradstein, F.

    1988-03-01

    The integrated micropaleontological and palynological analyses of 17 wells from offshore Labrador and southern Baffin Island allowed consistent assignments of biozones, ages, and depositional environments to the sections. Resolution attained is approximately at the stage level or finer. Interpretation of the foraminifera and palynomorphs from the Labrador Shelf indicates that the depositional environments were mainly neritic during the Early and early Late Cretaceous, changed to bathyal during the Maastrichtian to late Eocene, and returned to neritic during the Oligocene to Miocene. The sections drilled on the Baffin Shelf do not include Cretaceous sediments, but indicate bathyal environments from Paleocene to early Eocene, and neritic to nonmarine environments from late Eocene to Miocene. The Barremian to Campanian continental to neritic sediments from the Labrador Shelf correspond to the initial rifting phase of the Labrador-Greenland continental plate; whereas the Maastrichtian to late Eocene bathyal sediments correspond to the opening of the southern part of the Labrador Sea with the creation of oceanic crust. The Labrador Sea reached the Baffin shelf area during the Maastrichtian. The Oligocene to Miocene neritic to continental sediments of both the Labrador and Baffin Shelf areas correspond to the filling phase of the basin, with resulting buildup of the continental shelves and slopes.

  6. Windscape and tortuosity shape the flight costs of northern gannets.

    PubMed

    Amélineau, Françoise; Péron, Clara; Lescroël, Amélie; Authier, Matthieu; Provost, Pascal; Grémillet, David

    2014-03-15

    When animals move across a landscape, they alternate between active searching phases in areas with high prey density and commuting phases towards and in-between profitable feeding patches. Such active searching movements are more sinuous than travelling movements, and supposedly more costly in energy. Here we provide an empirical validation of this long-lasting assumption. To this end, we evaluated simultaneously energy expenditure and trajectory in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) using GPS loggers, dive recorders and three-dimensional accelerometers. Three behavioural states were determined from GPS data: foraging, when birds actively searched for prey (high tortuosity, medium speed); travelling, when birds were commuting (straight trajectory, high speed); and resting (straight trajectory, low speed). Overall dynamic body acceleration, calculated from acceleration data, was used as a proxy for energy expenditure during flight. The impact of windscape characteristics (wind force and direction) upon flight costs was also tested. Energy expenditure of northern gannets was higher during sinuous foraging flight than during more rectilinear travelling flight, demonstrating that turns are indeed costly. Yet wind force and direction also strongly shaped flight energy expenditure; within any behavioural state it was less costly to fly with the wind than against it, and less costly to fly with strong winds. Despite the major flight costs of wind action, birds did not fully optimize their flight track relative to wind direction, probably because of prey distributions relative to the coastline and wind predictability. Our study illustrates how both tortuosity and windscape shape the foraging costs of marine predators such as northern gannets. PMID:24622894

  7. Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne; Smith, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Newfoundland and Labrador and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. Agency coordination of services is…

  8. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  9. Effects of piscivory on the fatty acid proles and antioxidants of avian yolk: studies on eggs of the gannet, skua, pelican and

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    of the gannet, skua, pelican and cormorant Peter F. Surai1 , Gary R. Bortolotti2 , Andrea L. Fidgett3 , Jonathan content of the yolk were investigated in the northern gannet Morus bassanus, the great skua Catharacta skua, the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and the double-crested cormorant

  10. Gannet: A Batch-Processing Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid–Edited MR Spectroscopy Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Edden, Richard A.E.; Puts, Nicolaas A.J.; Harris, Ashley D.; Barker, Peter B.; Evans, C. John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the Gannet toolkit for the quantitative batch analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) -edited MRS data. Materials and Methods Using MEGA-PRESS editing and standard acquisition parameters, four MEGA-PRESS spectra were acquired in three brain regions in 10 healthy volunteers. These 120 datasets were processed without user intervention with Gannet, a Matlab-based tool that takes raw time-domain data input, processes it to generate the frequency-domain edited spectrum, and applies a simple modeling procedure to estimate GABA concentration relative to the creatine or, if provided, the unsuppressed water signal. A comparison of four modeling approaches is also presented. Results All data were successfully processed by Gannet. Coefficients of variation across subjects ranged from 11% for the occipital region to 17% for the dorsolateral prefrontal region. There was no clear difference in fitting performance between the simple Gaussian model used by Gannet and the other more complex models presented. Conclusion Gannet, the GABA Analysis Toolkit, can be used to process and quantify GABA-edited MRS spectra without user intervention. PMID:25548816

  11. Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet

    PubMed Central

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Howland, Howard C.; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E.; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-01-01

    Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

  12. Hypocortisolaemia in a Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K J; Herrtage, M E

    1998-02-01

    A four-year-old Labrador retriever was presented with lethargy and exercise intolerance. Clinical examination was unremarkable. A subnormal cortisol response to adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) was demonstrated (plasma cortisol concentrations before and after administration of ACTH were both below the detection limit of the assay) but plasma aldosterone concentrations were within the normal range. Endogenous plasma ACTH concentrations were high, indicating primary adrenocortical disease. Following glucocorticoid supplementation at a replacement dose (prednisolone 0.1 mg/kg) the dog made a full clinical recovery. PMID:9513891

  13. Prevalence and composition of fishing gear debris in the nests of northern gannets (Morus bassanus) are related to fishing effort.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Montevecchi, William A; Guse, Nils; Regular, Paul M; Garthe, Stefan; Rail, Jean-François

    2012-05-01

    Bycatch and indirect mortality associated with global fishing operations affect non-target species. Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) and other seabirds incorporate marine debris, much of it originating in fisheries, into their nests, at times resulting in entanglement. We compared the prevalence and composition of marine debris in nests at two gannet colonies in Newfoundland before and after a basin-wide ground fish closure in 1992, and at the species' largest colony in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where fishing effort is low. The proportion of nests with marine debris decreased following the fishery closure, and the proportion of nests with fishing gear was related exponentially to the number of gillnets set around breeding colonies. Assessing the composition of gannet nests could provide a useful index of the prevalence of fishing debris and could be used to assess entanglement risk of other animals in the marine environment over decadal scales. PMID:22469154

  14. Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

  15. The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

    2014-01-01

    Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

  16. Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador

    SciTech Connect

    Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

    1980-08-01

    Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

  17. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

  18. Aarvak,T. and ien, I.J. 1994. Dverggs Anser erythropus--en truet art i Norge. Vr Fuglefauna 17: 7080.

    E-print Network

    Afton, Alan D.

    White- fronted Geese Anser erythropus mapped by satellite telemetry. Bird Conservation International 13.C. 1861. Notes on the birds of the Falkland Islands. Ibis 1: 149­67. Abraham, K.F. 1980. Moult migration.L. 2000. Time-activity budgets of Harlequin Ducks molting in the Gannet Islands, Labrador. Condor 102: 703

  19. Excess Baggage for Birds: Inappropriate Placement of Tags on Gannets Changes Flight Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, Sylvie P.; Grundy, Edward; Friswell, Michael I.; Grogan, Adam; Votier, Stephen C.; Wilson, Rory P.

    2014-01-01

    Devices attached to flying birds can hugely enhance our understanding of their behavioural ecology for periods when they cannot be observed directly. For this, scientists routinely attach units to either birds' backs or their tails. However, inappropriate payload distribution is critical in aircraft and, since birds and planes are subject to the same laws of physics during flight, we considered aircraft aerodynamic constraints to explain flight patterns displayed by northern gannets Sula bassana equipped with (small ca. 14 g) tail- and back-mounted accelerometers and (larger ca. 30 g) tail-mounted GPS units. Tail-mounted GPS-fitted birds showed significantly higher cumulative numbers of flap-glide cycles and a higher pitch angle of the tail than accelerometer-equipped birds, indicating problems with balancing inappropriately placed weights with knock-on consequences relating to energy expenditure. These problems can be addressed by carefully choosing where to place tags on birds according to the mass of the tags and the lifestyle of the subject species. PMID:24671007

  20. Hemangiosarcoma in a geriatric Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Diya

    2012-08-01

    A geriatric Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute collapse. The dog was conscious but lethargic, tachypneic, tachycardic with weak femoral pulses, occasional pulse deficits, and pale mucous membranes. Radiography, ultrasonography, quick assessment tests, and a complete blood (cell) count (CBC)/biochemistry panel indicated internal hemorrhage and potential problems with hemostasis. The dog was euthanized. A necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Factor VIII-related antigen cell markers supported a diagnosis of splenic hemangiosarcoma. PMID:23372199

  1. The use of LANDSAT imagery to locate uncharted coastal features on the Labrador coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, E. A.; Lelievre, D. D.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of several offshore islands, rocks and shoals on the Labrador Coast was performed, using LANDSAT imagery to assist in the location of uncharted hydrographic features. Several satellite coverages of the coast were studied prior to the survey, and suspected shoal points identified. Using map-derived control points and monocomparator measurements of the LANDSAT images, the positions of these points were determined by mathematical adjustment to an estimated position accuracy of 150 meters. As a result, on the survey, an uncharted island and eight uncharted drying rocks, which might easily have escaped detection from a survey ship, were verified and positioned. To check the accuracy of the coordinates derived from LANDSAT, three islands were positioned by standard ground survey methods. The positional differences, all less than 150 meters, are not plottable at the scale of the existing offshore charts. The LANDSAT positions were also used to control aerial photography of a shoal area for office compilation of a hydrographic chart.

  2. Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

    1982-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

  3. Intrathoracic lipoma in a Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Miles, J; Clarke, D

    2001-01-01

    Pyrexia, granulocytosis and hyperglobulinaemia were the main clinical findings in an unusual case of intrathoracic lipoma in a 12-year-old male Labrador retriever. The response to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment was poor, prompting further investigation. Survey radiographs and ultrasonography revealed a cavitated, fluid-filled soft tissue mass in the right hemithorax, which was successfully removed resulting in rapid resolution of clinical signs. Lipomas are rare intrathoracic extrapulmonary tumours. Previously reported clinical signs are dyspnoea and coughing, attributed to the mass effect of the lipoma. The unusual presentation in this case was caused by necrosis of the lipoma, probably owing to torsion of the pedicle attaching it to the cranial mediastinum. PMID:11219820

  4. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  5. The seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland current system in the Labrador Sea

    E-print Network

    Rykova, Tatiana A

    2010-01-01

    The Labrador Sea, as one of a few places of deep water formation, plays an important role in the Meridional Overturning Circulation. While the interior of the Labrador Sea, where the deepest convection takes place, is known ...

  6. Evolution of the Irminger Current anticyclones in the Labrador Sea from hydrographic data

    E-print Network

    Rykova, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    The continuous supply of heat and fresh water from the boundaries to the interior of the Labrador Sea plays an important role for the dynamics of the region and in particular, for the Labrador Sea Water formation. Thus, ...

  7. Legislative Provisions for Special Education in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, David; Nesbit, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    This article describes legislative provisions supporting educational services for children with disabilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. It begins by providing educational history information and then reviews The Building Accessibility Act (1990), The Child, Youth and Family Services Act (1998), the Schools Act (1997), and the Human Rights Code…

  8. CES Case Competition: A Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courney, Bea; Etchegary, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Case Competition established by the Newfoundland and Labrador Chapter of the Canadian Evaluation Society based on the national Case Competition model. Describes the competition as an opportunity for students to gain skills, confidence, and contacts while working as teams. (SLD)

  9. Current Issues in Rural Education in Newfoundland and Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author has attempted to provide an overview of some of the issues and challenges confronting rural educators and parents in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. He has chosen to focus on three of the most pressing at this point in time: (1) declining enrollment and its consequences; (2) the continuing pressure on…

  10. Biooptical observations of the 2004 Labrador Sea phytoplankton bloom

    E-print Network

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Labrador Sea. In situ and satellite chlorophyll data show that chlorophyll levels in the 2004 bloom were at the upper end of those typically observed in this region. Satellite chlorophyll and profiling float dominated during the bloom. Chlorophyll/Cp and bbp/chlorophyll were correlated with carbon export

  11. Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. ); Berggren, W.A. ); Kaminski, M.A. ); D'Lorio, M.A. ); Cloetingh, S. ); Griffiths, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

  12. Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

  13. Biological effects of marine PCB contamination on black guillemot nestlings at Saglek, Labrador: liver biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Burgess, Neil M; Stow, Jason P; Fox, Glen A

    2003-01-01

    Black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) in Saglek Bay, Labrador have elevated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations due to marine sediment contamination around a former military site. We measured liver biomarkers and sigmaPCB concentrations in 31 nestlings from three PCB-exposure groups: Reference group (range: 15-46 ng/g liver, wet wt.), moderately exposed Islands group (24-150 ng/g), and highly exposed Beach group (170-6200 ng/g). Biomarker responses were dose-dependent and in some cases sex-dependent. Livers of female Beach nestlings were enlarged 36% relative to Reference females. In both sexes, Beach nestlings had liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities elevated 79% and liver retinol concentrations reduced 47%. Retinyl palmitate concentrations were reduced 50% but only among female nestlings. Island nestlings also exhibited EROD induction (57%) and reductions in retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations (28 and 58%, respectively). Liver lipid content increased with sigmaPCBs in both sexes, and correlated with liver mass in males. Malic enzyme activity and porphyrin concentrations showed little association with sigmaPCBs. Although similar associations between liver biomarkers and organochlorine exposure in fish-eating birds are well documented, typically exposures involve multiple contaminants and there is uncertainty about specific PCB effects. Our findings indicate that liver biomarkers respond to relatively low PCB exposures (approximately 73 ng/g liver) in guillemots. PMID:12739867

  14. Convection above the Labrador Continental Slope JRME CUNY AND PETER B. RHINES

    E-print Network

    Convection above the Labrador Continental Slope JÉRÔME CUNY AND PETER B. RHINES University convection takes place. Several moorings across the Labrador continental slope just north of Hamilton Bank, which has transited the perimeter of the basin above the upper continental slope. The circu- lation

  15. Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiler, Pearn P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

  16. Recent anthropogenic and climatic history of Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richerol, Thomas; Pienitz, Reinhard; Rochon, André

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions of a poorly known and documented subarctic region, the Nunatsiavut (northern Labrador). A multiproxy approach was chosen, using fossil dinoflagellate cysts, diatoms and pollen from sediment cores taken into three fjords (Nachvak 59°N, Saglek 58.5°N, and Anaktalak 56.5°N). It allowed estimating terrestrial and marine influences in each fjord and documenting the recent history of human activities of the southern fjords (Saglek and Anaktalak). Fossil pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages allowed depicting the climate history of the region over the last ~200-300 years. In contrast to the general warming trend observed in the arctic and subarctic Canada since the beginning of the Industrial Era, the Nunatsiavut has experienced relative climate stability over this period. Fossil pollen data show a shift of the tree limit to the south illustrating the cooling of terrestrial conditions. Our reconstructions suggest that the Labrador region has remained climatically stable over the last ~150-300 years, with just a slight cooling trend of the reconstructed sea surface temperatures, only perceptible in Saglek and Anaktalak fjords.

  17. Jets over Labrador and Quebec: noise effects on human health.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the noise from low-level flights over Labrador and Quebec is harmful to human health. DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: Search of MEDLINE for articles on the effect of noise, particularly impulse noise associated with low-level flights, and a search of the references from identified articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: The noise levels from low-level flights could affect hearing acuity. However, the more important consequences appear to be stress-mediated physiologic effects, especially cardiovascular ones, and psychologic distress, particularly in children. Subjective perception of control over the noise has been found to mitigate some physiologic effects. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to show that the noise from low-level flights is harmful to human health. PMID:2007238

  18. Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

    1985-01-01

    Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

  19. State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model

    E-print Network

    Fenty, Ian Gouverneur

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...

  20. Hydrographic Preconditioning for Seasonal Sea Ice Anomalies in the Labrador Sea

    E-print Network

    Fenty, Ian

    This study investigates the hydrographic processes involved in setting the maximum wintertime sea ice (SI) extent in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The analysis is based on an ocean and sea ice state estimate covering ...

  1. Coupled Sea Ice–Ocean-State Estimation in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay

    E-print Network

    Fenty, Ian

    Sea ice variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection, mode-water formation, and the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation. Historically, quantifying the relationship ...

  2. Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements

    PubMed

    Lavender; Davis; Owens

    2000-09-01

    The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000 m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations of the ocean currents that lead to this distribution of Labrador Sea water have, however, been difficult and therefore scarce. We have used more than 200 subsurface floats to measure directly basin-wide horizontal velocities at various depths in the Labrador and Irminger seas. We observe unanticipated recirculations of the mid-depth (approximately 700 m) cyclonic boundary currents in both basins, leading to an anticyclonic flow in the interior of the Labrador basin. About 40% of the floats from the region of deep convection left the basin within one year and were rapidly transported in the anticyclonic flow to the Irminger basin, and also eastwards into the subpolar gyre. Surprisingly, the float tracks did not clearly depict the deep western boundary current, which is the expected main pathway of Labrador Sea water in the thermohaline circulation. Rather, the flow along the boundary near Flemish Cap is dominated by eddies that transport water offshore. Our detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that we may have to revise our picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation. PMID:10993072

  3. Model simulations of mesoscale eddies and deep convection in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Demirov, Entcho; Zhang, Ying; Polomska-Harlick, Ania

    2014-07-01

    Deep convection in the Labrador Sea is confined within a small region in the southwest part of the basin. The strength of deep convection in this region is related to the local atmospheric and ocean characteristics, which favor processes of deep convection preconditioning and intense air-sea exchange during the winter season. In this study, we explored the effect of eddy-induced flux transport on the stratification of the Labrador Sea and the properties of deep convection. Simulations from an eddy-resolving ocean model are presented for the Labrador Sea. The general circulation was well simulated by the model, including the seasonal cycle of the deep Labrador Current. The simulated distribution of the surface eddy kinetic energy was also close to that derived from Topex-Poseidon satellite altimeter data, but with smaller magnitude. The energy transfer diagnostics indicated that Irminger rings are generated by both baroclinic and barotropic processes; however, when they propagate into the interior basin, the barotropic process also disperses them by converting the eddy energy to the mean flow. In contrast to eddy-permitting simulations, deep convection in the Labrador Sea was better represented in the eddy-resolving model regarding their lateral position. Further analysis indicated that the improvement might be due to the lateral eddy flux associated with the resolved Irminger rings in the eddy-resolving model, which contributes to a realistic position of the isopycnal dome in the Labrador Sea and correspondingly a realistic site of deep convection.

  4. The influence of meltwater on the Labrador Current in Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Piper, David J. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Labrador Current transports freshwater from the Arctic regions to the northern Atlantic and the freshwater flux can influence the meridional overturning circulation. The response of the Labrador Current to meltwater processes is unclear during the deglaciation of the ice sheets around the northwest Atlantic. This study utilized cores from Flemish Pass to monitor variations in the strength of the Labrador Current by using the sortable-silt proxy. The carbonate content, the amount of ice-rafted detritus and XRF chemical data were measured to identify the main meltwater events during the last deglaciation. This study observed a clear enhancement of the flow strength of the Labrador Current in Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas, with the greatest flow strength during the Younger Dryas event. The onset of the current enhancement was dated at ca 13 cal ka BP, which preceded the enhanced ice-rafted deposition in Hudson Strait by about one thousand years. The current enhancement in Flemish Pass during the Younger Dryas event corresponds to the freshening of the surface water. Thus meltwater preceding significant iceberg supply has an important effect on the Labrador Current in Heinrich events on the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin.

  5. The Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Learning with Aboriginal Students: Findings from a Study in Coastal Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, David; Sharpe, Dennis; Neville, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…

  6. Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kirk David

    2007-01-01

    What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador,…

  7. The harvest and management of migratory bird eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador.

    PubMed

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future. PMID:22961618

  8. The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

  9. Modelling the circulation and deep water formation in the Labrador Sea: sensitivity to Nordic Sea exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeschel, L.; Böning, C. W.

    2003-04-01

    Using an eddy-permitting model of the North Atlantic Ocean (part of the FLAME hierarchy) we investigate the impact of variable freshwater fluxes on the circulation, deep convection and the mixing between the boundary currents and the interior of the Labrador Sea. In this study, we use different forcing functions at the northern boundary (70N) to simulate variable freshwater (heat) exchanges with the Nordic Seas. In contrast to restoring to a climatology in a sponge layer, model versions with a prescribed streamfunction in an open boundary formulation give a better agreement with observational estimates of the circulation in this area. Varying the strength of the streamfunction at the northern boundary leads to fluctuations in the transport of the western boundary currents (East/West Greenland Current and Labrador Current) and thus to different freshwater budgets in the Labrador Sea.

  10. Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Pugh, C A; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Handel, I G; Summers, K M; Clements, D N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2-3cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog's exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health. PMID:26189582

  11. Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, C.A.; Bronsvoort, B.M.de C.; Handel, I.G.; Summers, K.M.; Clements, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2–3 cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog’s exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health. PMID:26189582

  12. Recurrence of Winter Convection in the Warming Labrador Sea and Associated Variability Downstream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashayaev, I.; Loder, J. W.; Morales Maqueda, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal to decadal variability of heat and fresh water content, strength and depth of winter convection, and water mass characteristics in the Labrador Sea are analysed using shipboard, profiling float and moored measurements. Episodes of strong basin-wide near-surface freshening occurred in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, starting off the Greenland coast, and then progressing into the western and central Labrador Sea. Possible causes of these salinity decreases include accelerated reductions in the Greenland and Arctic ice covers which increased the amount of melt water transported by the boundary current and diffused into the Sea's interior by lateral exchanges. The surface freshening observed in the Labrador Sea in 2012 is in agreement with the extreme Greenland ice sheet melt in the same year. Despite the Labrador Sea's recent warming and freshening, it continues to show signs of notable winter convection that reaches 1500 m and possibly even deeper. The two winters of the past decade and a half in which the Labrador Sea overturned to 1600 m were 2008 and 2014. Comparison of the heat losses to the atmosphere with internal ocean heat content changes for individual cooling seasons demonstrates a good agreement, suggesting that fall and winter atmospheric forcing was the primary factor in the variability of the depth and strength of convection in recent years. Downstream hydrographic variability in the Deep Western Boundary Current over the Scotian Slope and Rise is described from surveys and moored measurements during the past decade (in conjunction with the UK RAPID Climate Change program). Some anomalous water mass properties can be traced back to the Labrador Sea, but there are indications of multiple and complex pathways.

  13. 2 - 4 million years of sedimentary processes in the Labrador Sea: implication for North Atlantic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Saint-Ange, F.; Campbell, C.; Piper, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine sedimentary records from the western North Atlantic show that a significant portion of sediment deposited since the Pliocene originated from the Canadian Shield. In the Labrador Sea, previous studies have shown that bottom currents .strongly influenced sedimentation during the Pliocene, while during the Quaternary, intensification of turbidity current flows related to meltwater events were a dominant factor in supplying sediment to the basin and in the development of the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). Despite understanding this general pattern of sediment flux, details regarding the transfer of sediment from the Labrador Shelf to deep water and from the Labrador Sea to the North Atlantic remain poorly understood. Our study focuses on sedimentary processes occurring along the Labrador margin since the Pliocene and their consequences on the margin architecture, connection to the NAMOC, and role in sediment flux from the Labrador basin to the Sohm Abyssal Plain. Piston core and high resolution seismic data reveal that during the Pliocene to mid Pleistocene, widespread slope failures led to mass transport deposition along the entire Labrador continental slope. After the mid Pleistocene, sedimentation along the margin was dominated by the combined effects of glaciation and active bottom currents. On the shelf, prograded sedimentary wedges filled troughs and agraded till sheets form intervening banks. On the slope, stacked glaciogenic fans developed seaward of transverse troughs between 400 and 2800 mbsl. On the lower slope, seismic data show thick sediment drifts capped by glacio-marine mud. This unit is draped by well stratified sediment and marks a switch from a contourite dominated regime to a turbidite dominated regime. This shift occurred around 0.5 - 0.8 ka and correlates to the intensification of glaciations. Late Pleistocene sediments on the upper slope consist of stratified sediments related to proglacial plume fall-out. Coarse grained sediments, other than ice rafted detritus, by-passed the upper and middle slope and were transported to the lower slope and deep ocean. Seismic profiles and multibeam data along the Labrador Slope show a complex network of channels, with wide flat-bottomed channels off Saglek Bank to narrow channels off Cartwright Bank. The channels merge around 3000 mbsl to form single wide (~20 km) channels that eventually intersect, or flow parallel to the NAMOC. Rapid development of the NAMOC from the mid to late Pleistocene affected depositional patterns for sediment sourced from the Labrador margin. Downslope-transported sediment from the Labrador margin mostly tends to fill the basin or feed into NAMOC through tributary systems, whereas sediments derived from Hudson Strait feed the NAMOC and eventually the Sohm Abyssal plain. Sediment transported southward by the Western Boundary Undercurrent and Labrador Current likely reflect input along the margin, from Hudson Strait to Orphan Basin. Turbidite spill-over deposits are observed onlapping the continental margin of Labrador and Newfoundland as far south as Newfoundland Ridge.

  14. An Irminger Ring Mooring in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, A.

    2009-04-01

    In September 2007, a heavily instrumented mooring was deployed in the eastern Labrador Sea near 60.6N, 52.4W for two years to study the structure and evolution of warm Irminger Rings. The mooring was placed in the path of these rings, which drift southward from their formation site along the west coast of Greenland. The mooring has about nine Micro Cats and 8 acoustic current meters at depths between 100 and 3000 meters. Two carousels attached to the mooring at about 500 meters depth were loaded with 11 APEX profiling floats. A controller inside the carousels is programmed to release the floats, one at a time, into passing rings based on a time-dependent set of criteria. Initially, floats were released based on temperature and pressure, the latter an indication of the velocity associated with the passage of the core of a ring. Later, if only a few floats have been deployed, the criteria will be relaxed, and only a warm temperature anomaly will be required to release a float. If there are still floats in the carousels near the end of the deployment, they will be released at a prescribed time interval. After being released from the mooring, the floats are ballasted to "park" at 300 dbar and profile from 0-1000 dbar every five days. As of January 2009, five floats have released from the mooring, 2 by the dual T/P criteria, 2 by the T only criterion and 1 on a timer. A sixth float was released from the R/V Knorr during the mooring deployment cruise. So far, none of these floats have been strongly trapped in the core of an eddy, although there are frequent interactions with both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. One float observed a thick layer of cold, relatively fresh water near where the 2000-m isobath turns away from the Greenland slope during the spring of 2008 as it looped in and out of several cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies.

  15. Matriculating Eastward: Maritime Student Migration to Newfoundland & Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dale; Greene, Melanie; Bourgeois, Monique; Sharpe, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of both out-of-province Canadian and international students enrolled at Memorial University of Newfoundland has increased substantially. During this period, the enrollment levels of students from the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island have undergone an increase of approximately ten-fold.…

  16. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  17. Educational Psychologists' Perspectives on Their Professional Practice in Newfoundland and Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Joy, Rhonda M.

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology is in the midst of examination and potential change in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of published empirical research investigating educational psychology in the province. The current study surveyed educational psychologists from the four English districts in Newfoundland…

  18. Cerebellar granuloprival degeneration in an Australian kelpie and a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Huska, Jonathan; Gaitero, Luis; Snyman, Heindrich N; Foster, Robert A; Pumarola, Marti; Rodenas, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A 7-month-old Australian kelpie dog and a 14-month-old Labrador retriever dog were diagnosed with an uncommon form of cerebellar abiotrophy called cerebellar granuloprival degeneration. This was characterized by a loss of the granular neurons with relative sparing of the Purkinje neurons. PMID:23814302

  19. Cerebellar granuloprival degeneration in an Australian kelpie and a Labrador retriever dog

    PubMed Central

    Huska, Jonathan; Gaitero, Luis; Snyman, Heindrich N.; Foster, Robert A.; Pumarola, Marti; Rodenas, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A 7-month-old Australian kelpie dog and a 14-month-old Labrador retriever dog were diagnosed with an uncommon form of cerebellar abiotrophy called cerebellar granuloprival degeneration. This was characterized by a loss of the granular neurons with relative sparing of the Purkinje neurons. PMID:23814302

  20. Teacher Education and Development in Newfoundland and Labrador in a Time of Restructuring and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Florence

    2001-01-01

    Through reference to policy and research documents, this paper provides insight into how educational restructuring and reform are planned, presented, and implemented in Canada's Atlantic provinces, particularly Newfoundland and Labrador. It suggests that such reform and restructuring occur at the interface of a province's history, geography, and…

  1. Maintaining Quality Programming in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: A Case Study in Policy and Structural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Harold; Galway, Gerald; Collins, Alice

    2003-01-01

    Newfoundland and Labrador has many rural communities, low literacy rates, high unemployment, declining enrollment and population, and teacher shortages. Policy responses have been to consolidate schools, increase rural teacher pay, increase teacher recruitment, implement distance learning and distance professional development, intensify…

  2. Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea water from its source region to 26°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Erik; Baringer, Molly O.; Johns, William E.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Beal, Lisa M.; de Jong, M. Femke; van Aken, Hendrik M.

    2011-12-01

    More than two decades of hydrography on the Abaco line east of the Bahamas at 26°N reveals decadal variability in the salinity of classical Labrador Sea Water (cLSW), despite the long distance from its source region in the North Atlantic Ocean. Hydrographic time series from the Labrador Sea and from the Abaco line show a pronounced step-like decrease in salinity between 1985 and 1995 in the Labrador Sea and between 1995 and 2010 at the Abaco line, suggesting a time lag between the two locations of approximately 9 years. The amplitude of the anomaly at the Abaco line is 50% of the amplitude in the Labrador Sea. A similar time lag and reduction of amplitude is found in the high-resolution OFES model, in which salinity anomalies can be observed propagating through the Deep Western Boundary Current as well as through a broad interior pathway. On its way south to the Abaco line, the cLSW becomes 8 standard deviations saltier due to isopycnal mixing with Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW). Climatological data in the North Atlantic suggests that the mixing ratio of MOW to cLSW at the Abaco line is 1:4 and that no variability in MOW is required to explain the observed variability at the Abaco line. The data studied here suggest that decadal cLSW anomalies stay relatively coherent while getting advected, despite the important role of interior pathways.

  3. Grammar without Speech Production: The Case of Labrador Inuttitut Heritage Receptive Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherkina-Lieber, Marina; Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Johns, Alana

    2011-01-01

    We examine morphosyntactic knowledge of Labrador Inuttitut by Inuit receptive bilinguals (RBs)--heritage speakers who are capable of comprehension, but produce little or no speech. A grammaticality judgment study suggests that RBs possess sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations, though to a lesser degree than fluent bilinguals. Low-proficiency…

  4. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  5. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

  6. Clinical Phenotype of X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy in Labrador Retriever Puppies

    PubMed Central

    Snead, E.C.R.; Taylor, S.M.; van der Kooij, M.; Cosford, K.; Beggs, A.H.; Shelton, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seven male Labrador Retriever puppies from 3 different litters, born to clinically normal dams and sires, were evaluated for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsies identified a congenital myopathy with pathologic features consistent with myotubular myopathy. Further investigations identified a pathogenic mutation in the myotubularin gene, confirming that these puppies had X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). Objective To review the clinical phenotype, electrodiagnostic and laboratory features of XLMTM in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Results Male puppies with XLMTM were small and thin compared with their normal littermates. Generalized weakness and muscle atrophy were present by 7 weeks of age in some puppies and evident to most owners by 14 weeks of age. Affected puppies stood with an arched spine and low head carriage, and walked with a short, choppy stride. Muscle atrophy was severe and progressive. Patellar reflexes were absent. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction, and weakness of the masticatory muscles occurred in puppies surviving beyond 4 months of age. Serum creatine kinase activity was normal or only mildly increased. EMG findings were nonspecific and included positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials. Clinical signs progressed rapidly, with most affected puppies unable to walk within 3–4 weeks after clinical signs were first noticed. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Although initial clinical signs of XLMTM are similar to the phenotypically milder centronuclear myopathy in Labrador Retrievers, XLMTM is a rapidly progressive and fatal myopathy. Clinicians should be aware of these 2 distinct myopathies with similar clinical presentations in the Labrador retriever breed. PMID:25581576

  7. Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August 2004

    E-print Network

    Sussman, Mark

    University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 3 Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, University25th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, CANADA, 8-13 August Olson4 , and Peter MacNeice5 1 Naval Hydrodynamics Division, Science Applications International

  8. Natural and forced air temperature variability in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of Labrador air temperatures over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate variability and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of variability and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air temperature variability for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate variability in Labrador air temperature. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the variability in annual Labrador air temperatures over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air temperature response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.

  9. Labrador massif anorthosites: Chasing the liquids and their sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    2006-06-01

    Bulk analyses of plagioclase megacrysts in massif anorthosites contain enough information on the 11 major element oxides of common igneous rocks to retrieve their complete parent magma compositions. The necessary partition coefficients for this inversion process are generated from a core-drilled trapped liquid and a pure anorthosite autolith in the Anorthosite-Norite-Troctolite (ANT) Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) of Labrador. When applied to plagioclase megacrysts from five anorthositic intrusions in the NPS, the CIPW norms of the derived liquids correctly classify the parent liquids of dark plagioclase as olivine-normative and those of pale plagioclase as quartz-normative. Dark plagioclase megacrysts have higher An, lower K and some tetrahedral ferrous iron, compared to pale megacrysts. Experimental melts considered parental to the Lower Zone troctolites of the Kiglapait Layered Intrusion plot closely among the calculated olivine-normative liquids from the Nain anorthosites, lending further credibility to the inversions. The coupled nature of silica activity and oxygen fugacity for these and other anorthosite magma types permits a classification of massif anorthosites from melatroctolite to andesine norite based on silication and redox state, with potential for quantitative treatment. This treatment may also scale with the degree of crustal contamination experienced by ponded anorthositic magmas. Experimentally determined linear partitioning of plagioclase confirms a narrowing of the binary loop with high pressure, and allows retrieval of one unknown among pressure, temperature and liquid composition. These principles can be used for modeling the plagioclase component of liquids at their source, their intermediate storage sites, during ascent and at emplacement conditions. Experiments on a model Kiglapait bulk composition at high pressure suggest the separation of magma at 11 kbar from a spinel harzburgite source, with crystallization of olivine on ascent to saturation with plagioclase. Ponding of such high-temperature liquids in the lower or middle crust allows assimilation and silication leading to the noritic trend. Felsic suspensions leaving mafic crystals behind can account for anorthosite intrusions at upper levels. Lithospheric extension permits uplift of mantle melting regions to shallower depths, not to be confused with crust, as inferred for the Central North American Rift. Crustal melting appears to be neither necessary nor viable as a source of ANT (perhaps excluding monzonite) magmas. Origins and ideas: The array of anorthosite massifs in eastern North America is of a length scale equal to the volcanic Cameroon Line, which also has a heterogeneous distribution of ages on a very much shorter time scale. Precursor anorthosites far older than the commonly recognized Mesoproterozoic massifs must reflect a deep and revisited root cause of the anorthosite epoch, which may have begun near the time of origin of the Earth's inner core. A tectonically related superplume origin of massif anorthosite magmatism is appealing and has some credibility in paleogeographic reconstructions of Laurentia. It can also explain the apparent Al-Fe-rich nature of the ANT mantle source. The Mg#-An trends of two vastly different layered mafic intrusions, Bushveld and Kiglapait, are uncannily parallel, suggesting a fundamental, scale-independent, physicochemical behavior of large magma systems.

  10. Rare-earth elements and Nd and Pb isotopes as source indicators for Labrador Sea clay-size sediments during Heinrich event 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Barber, David; Andrews, John T.; Taylor, H.; Lamothe, P.

    2003-01-01

    Elemental abundances and Nd and Pb isotope ratios were determined on samples from the carbonate-free, clay-size fractions of sediments from intervals above, within, and below Heinrich event 2 (H-2) in core HU87-9 from the Northwest Labrador Sea slope. In HU87-9, rare-earth element (REE) distributions and elemental concentrations within the H-2 event are distinct from those outside this event, ??Nd(0) and 206Pb/204Pb data also indicate different values for sediments deposited within and outside the H-2 event. Comparisons of REE patterns from the H-2 interval with those from bedrock units in Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and Labrador indicate that the Lake Harbour Group (LHG), which crops out on the north side of the Hudson Strait, is the most probable bedrock source of the clay-size fraction found within the H-2 interval in HU87-9. The Tasiuyak Gneiss (TG) and Lac Lomier Complex (LLC) have REE patterns (including a negative Eu anomaly) similar to those found in H-2 sediments; however, the La/Yb ratios of these units are smaller than those associated with H-2 sediments. The Nd and Pb isotope data support and complement REE-based interpretations of provenance; i.e., the Nd-Pb signatures of sediments deposited at the HU87-9 site during the H-2 event are similar to Nd-Pb signatures obtained on diamicts from the western end of Hudson Strait. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Changes of the deep circulation and erosional inputs in the Labrador Sea over the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, A.; Frank, M.; Kienast, M.; Hillarie-Marcel, C.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of Labrador Sea Water has been one of the main contributors to the Atlantic thermohaline circulation influences the strength of NADW formation. In addition, the Labrador Sea has received weathering inputs of highly variable strength and sources. A high resolution downcore record recovered from south of Greenland (core MD99-2227) together with surface sediment samples from western part of Labrador Sea provides detailed information on deep sea and surface water circulation and through the Latest Quaternary. Radiogenic Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes are used as proxies for changes in water mass mixing and weathering inputs. Nd isotope data produced by leaching early sedimentary ferromanganese coatings reflect seawater compositions and show a pronounced trend towards less radiogenic values from the LGM to 12 kyr and then became less radiogenic again through the Holocene, which was most likely either linked to enhanced erosional input in the course of the retreat of the Laurentide Ice sheet or indicates enhanced contributions of a highly unradiogenic water mass such as Labrador Sea Water or diminished contributions of radiogenic Denmark Strait Overflow water. A major change in isotopic composition at 12 kyr towards more radiogenic isotope compositions is also observed in the leached 208,207,206Pb/204Pb data. Most notably, there was a pronounced change in the Pb isotope compositions at 8 kyr as well, which is not reflected by Nd or Hf isotope data and which reflects a major change in source provenance of the weathering inputs, most likely linked to the 8.2 kyr event, during which glacially dammed lakes Agassiz and Ojibway rapidly drained into the North Atlantic. This interpretation will be compared to the evidence from the radiogenic isotope evolution of the detrital fraction and of the clays. In contrast, with time leached Hf isotope data appear to be too radiogenic for Labrador Seawater but also show a marked unradiogenic peak at 12 kyr pointing to a strong influence of coatings preformed on land and in rivers. This is supported by the Hf isotope data being well above the seawater array when plotted against Nd isotopes. Based on the obtained data we reconstruct changes in the weathering inputs into the Labrador Sea and its current system, which has important implications for the reconstruction of the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and of North Atlantic Deep Water.

  12. NASOPHARYNGEAL FLORA IN HEALTH AND DURING RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN ISOLATED COMMUNITIES IN ALABAMA AND LABRADOR

    PubMed Central

    Burky, E. L.; Smillie, W. G.

    1929-01-01

    Studies of the bacterial flora of the nasopharynx were made in isolated communities in South Alabama and Labrador. The basic flora was determined in both communities. In Alabama an epidemic of common colds was studied. In Labrador cases of sporadic colds and an epidemic of tracheitis were studied. Gram-negative cocci were found in nearly all normal individuals in moderate numbers. In pathological states there was a suppression of these organisms. Staphylococci were found in small numbers in about half of the normal individuals. In pathological conditions they disappeared from most of those affected but were found in increased numbers in a few individuals. Pfeiffer bacilli were absent or present only in small numbers in normal individuals. During the epidemic of colds in Alabama there was an increase in the number of strains recovered and an increase in the relative numbers of the bacilli in each throat. The highest prevalence was found one month after the epidemic had reached its height. In Labrador a similar increase was coincident with an epidemic of tracheitis. During normal periods the majority of the Pfeiffer strains were of the para non-indol-forming type. During epidemic periods the strains recovered were largely true indol-forming B. Pfeifferi. Hemolytic streptococci were rarely found in normals. During disease prevalence periods they appeared in a small number of persons. In Alabama, indifferent streptococci resembled the hemolytic streptococci in their distribution. In Labrador they were found to be widely distributed in both health and disease and composed apparently a part of the normal flora. Green streptococci were found to be widely distributed in fairly large numbers both in health and disease. Intermediates, or organisms midway between green streptococci and pneumococci, were found in moderate numbers in each series of persons studied. Early in the Alabama epidemic they were present in large numbers in nearly all persons. Pneumococci were not found in Alabama in normal individuals. The epidemic of colds in Alabama was accompanied by a marked increase in the incidence of these organisms. In Labrador pneumococci seemed to be part of the normal flora as they were generally distributed throughout the community, in many instances comprising a large proportion of the flora of an individual's throat. The Labrador strains of pneumococci were avirulent. A variety of other organisms such as diphtheroids, Gram-negative rods, and Gram-positive cocci were found in small numbers in many individuals both in health and disease. PMID:19869652

  13. Quantitative Comparison of the Walk and Trot of Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers, Breeds with Different Performance Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Brittany Jean; Canapp, Sherman O; Zink, M. Christine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that breed differences of Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers would be reflected in the temporospatial characteristics of the walk and trot. Materials and Methods Twenty healthy Border Collies and 20 healthy Labrador Retrievers made three passes across a pressure sensing walkway system that recorded quantitative temporospatial information at a walk and a trot. The following variables were measured for each dog: velocity, total pressure index percentage (TPI%), ratio of weight borne on the thoracic vs. pelvic limbs (T/P TPI%), stance time percentage (ST%), and thoracic limb stride length (TSrL). Results The mean T/P TPI% for Border Collies at a walk and at a trot were significantly lower than for Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0003). Border Collies had a significantly lower ST% than Labrador Retrievers for the thoracic limbs and pelvic limbs at a walk (p = 0.0058 and 0.0003) and the trot (p = 0.0280 and 0.0448). There was no relationship between ST% and TSrL in Border Collies and an inverse correlation between ST% and TSrL in Labrador Retrievers (p = 0.0002). Discussion Key quantitative gait differences were identified in Border Collies and Labrador Retrievers, which could potentially provide each breed with an advantage for their working function. PMID:26689372

  14. Linking the 8.2 ka Event and its Freshwater Forcing in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in (delta)18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that approx. 3 C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an 1.0 % decrease in western Labrador Sea (delta)18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic (delta)18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

  15. On the mid-depth circulation in the Labrador and Irminger Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käse, R. H.; Biastoch, A.; Stammer, D. B.

    A numerical circulation model with 1/6° resolution and an accurate topography formulation explains details of the observed circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas that were recently revealed by Lavender et al. [2000]. We show that the recirculation pattern is established through a locally wind induced flow controlled by the bottom topography and enhanced through remote baroclinic forcing by the dense plume of Denmark Strait overflow water. The basic circulation is a robust feature in a hierarchy of model setups. It exists in the purely barotropic case driven by steady winds and is even maintained when realistic daily forcing is added. The narrow recirculation zone is manifested by a sea level depression spanning from the Denmark Strait across the Irminger into the Labrador Sea.

  16. Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

  17. Glucocorticoid-dependent hypoadrenocorticism with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia mimicking sepsis in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Snead, Elisabeth; Vargo, Cheryl; Myers, Sherry

    2011-10-01

    Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism (GDH) with immune-mediated-neutropenia (IMN) and -thrombocytopenia (IMT) were diagnosed in a 3-year-old Labrador retriever dog. Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism is rare and diagnostically challenging as clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities are often nonspecific. Immune-mediated cytopenias and other autoimmune disorders, as part of an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome have been reported with hypoadrenocorticism in humans. This is the first reported case of hypoadrenocorticism and bicytopenia in a dog. PMID:22467971

  18. Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus and Concurrent Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in a Labrador Retriever: Long-Term Management.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maria Saiz; Herrería-Bustillo, Vicente; Utset, Artur Font; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old, female, entire Labrador retriever presented with vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and stunted growth. Diagnostics revealed the presence of juvenile diabetes mellitus and concurrent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreatic histopathology showed severe pancreatic atrophy. Successful treatment was achieved with a combination of insulin and pancreatic enzymes. This report describes successful long-term treatment of juvenile diabetes mellitus and concurrent exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a dog. PMID:26535463

  19. Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4–5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3–4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  20. Reconstructing Holocene Laurentide Ice Sheet discharge and ocean temperature in the western Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Carlson, A. E.; Klinkhammer, G. P.; Haley, B.; Strasser, J.

    2010-12-01

    As recorded in Greenland ice core temperature ?18O records, the 8.2 ka Cold Event stands out as the largest abrupt climate anomaly in the Holocene, presumably forced by the drainage of Glacial Lake Agassiz into the Labrador Sea (~8.4 ka) after the collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) over Hudson Bay and attendant reduction in North Atlantic overturning strength. However, a prominent freshwater signal has yet to be clearly identified in the Labrador Sea, possibly due to the competing effect of temperature on foraminifera test ?18O. Existing ?18O records from the western Labrador Sea do show light anomalies between 9.5 and 8.6 ka, but increase at the start of the presumed lake drainage event ~8.4 ka. We will present new grain size, planktonic Mg/Ca-based temperature and ?18O of seawater records to reconstruct ice rafting, surface ocean temperature and concurrent LIS meltwater history, respectively, for the Labrador Sea through the Holocene. Our percent sand record suggests several ice rafting events (15-20 % sand) between 10 and 9 ka during the Noble Inlet LIS re-advance in Hudson Strait and a large peak in sand output (25-27 % sand) at ~8.4 ka coincident with the increase in foraminifera ?18O. We will test if cooling masked a large freshwater signal in foraminifera ?18O at the timing of the Lake Agassiz drainage, thereby providing insight into the sensitivity of the North Atlantic to climate perturbations and freshwater flux.

  1. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  2. Investigating Labrador Sea warmth during the mid-Pliocene optimum with Eirik Drift sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbey, D. B.; Winsor, K.; Carlson, A. E.; Mathias, A.; McKay, J. L.; Hatfield, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    As anthropogenic CO2 emissions continue to rise, the mid-Pliocene Optimum (3.3-3.0 Ma) is the most relevant analog to the present because it was the last time that atmospheric CO2 may have reached ~400 ppm. Proxy records suggest global warming in response to this atmospheric CO2 forcing, which is generally simulated by climate models. Unfortunately, no temperature estimates exist at present from the Labrador Sea for the mid-Pliocene. Here we create the first ?18O record of the Labrador Sea during the Pliocene, including the mid-Pliocene Optimum, using the planktonic foraminiferal species Globigerina bulloides in order to reconstruct paleotemperature. Changes in G. bulloides ?18O relative to Holocene ?18O will provide the first insight into the response of the Labrador Sea to mid-Pliocene Optimum CO2 concentrations. Our preliminary analysis of G. bulloides ?18O finds only 0-1° C of warming during the mid-Pliocene Optimum relative to the Holocene.

  3. Reference values of six-limb-lead electrocardiogram in conscious Labrador retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Gugjoo, Mudasir Bashir; Hoque, Mozammel; Saxena, Abhishek Chander; Zama, Malik Mohamed Sham-Suz

    2014-05-01

    Breed-wise standard electrocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation, which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, their electrocardiogram (ECG) values might be different from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the purpose of the present study was to determine the standard ECG of Labrador retrievers and to check effect of body weight, gender and breed upon different ECG parameters. Six-lead ECGs, three bipolar standard limb leads (I, II and III) and three augmented unipolar limb leads (aVR, aVL and aVF), were taken from 24 Labrador retrievers positioned in right lateral recumbency without any chemical restraint. Amplitude and duration of P wave and QRS complex, PR interval, QT interval and mean electrical axis and heart rate were measured in each recording. Non-significant effect of gender and body weight was seen on all the ECG waves. Deep Q waves in Leads I, II and aVF and variation in relation to QRS pattern were noted. It was concluded that retrievers had a specific shape of QRS complex which must be considered when evaluating a patient suspected of having cardiac disease. However, amplitude and durations of different ECG waves in all the six leads were statistically not affected by gender or body weight. PMID:26031002

  4. Acquisition of a visual discrimination and reversal learning task by Labrador retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L.; Gruen, Margaret E.; Sherman, Barbara L.; Case, Beth C.; Fish, Richard E.; Milgram, Norton W.; Dorman, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal cognitive ability is likely important for military working dogs (MWD) trained to detect explosives. An assessment of a dog’s ability to rapidly learn discriminations might be useful in the MWD selection process. In this study, visual discrimination and reversal tasks were used to assess cognitive performance in Labrador retrievers selected for an explosives detection program using a modified version of the Toronto General Testing Apparatus (TGTA), a system developed for assessing performance in a battery of neuropsychological tests in canines. The results of the current study revealed that, as previously found with beagles tested using the TGTA, Labrador retrievers (n=16) readily acquired both tasks, and learned the discrimination task significantly faster than the reversal task. The present study confirmed that the modified TGTA system is suitable for cognitive evaluations in Labrador retriever MWDs and can be used to further explore effects of sex, phenotype, age, and other factors in relation to canine cognition and learning, and may provide an additional screening tool for MWD selection. PMID:24277162

  5. Muscular dystrophy in a family of Labrador Retrievers with no muscle dystrophin and a mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Natassia M; Guo, Ling T; Estrela, Elicia; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana; Shelton, G Diane

    2015-05-01

    Animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy, most notably canine X-linked muscular dystrophy, play an important role in developing new therapies for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although the canine disease is a model of the human disease, the variable severity of clinical presentations in the canine may be problematic for pre-clinical trials, but also informative. Here we describe a family of Labrador Retrievers with three generations of male dogs having markedly increased serum creatine kinase activity, absence of membrane dystrophin, but with undetectable clinical signs of muscle weakness. Clinically normal young male Labrador Retriever puppies were evaluated prior to surgical neuter by screening laboratory blood work, including serum creatine kinase activity. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly increased in the absence of clinical signs of muscle weakness. Evaluation of muscle biopsies confirmed a dystrophic phenotype with both degeneration and regeneration. Further evaluations by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed the absence of muscle dystrophin. Although dystrophin was not identified in the muscles, we did not find any detectable deletions or duplications in the dystrophin gene. Sequencing is now ongoing to search for point mutations. Our findings in this family of Labrador Retriever dogs lend support to the hypothesis that, in exceptional situations, muscle with no dystrophin may be functional. Unlocking the secrets that protect these dogs from a severe clinical myopathy is a great challenge which may have important implications for future treatment of human muscular dystrophies. PMID:25813339

  6. Are rural general practitioner-obstetricians performing too many prenatal ultrasound examinations? Evidence from western Labrador.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E; Freake, D; Worrall, G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of prenatal ultrasonography (PNU) in western Labrador in 1994, assess the appropriateness of the ultrasound examinations according to current guidelines and determine whether there was any relation between number of PNU examinations and patient management and obstetric outcomes. DESIGN: Review of all obstetric charts and PNU requisition forms for all deliveries in one hospital in 1994. SETTING: Labrador City and Wabush, Newfoundland. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 103 singleton deliveries, and these mothers underwent a total of 225 PNU studies (mean 2.16 studies per delivery). More than half (53.3%) of the examinations were classified as inappropriate. There were no significant differences in the number of studies between low- and high-risk pregnancies or between uncomplicated deliveries and those in which induction or instrumental or operative delivery occurred, nor was there any relation between number of PNU examinations and maternal or neonatal outcome. CONCLUSION: Compared with PNU use as recommended by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, this type of examination was overused in Labrador City and Wabush, although the rate of use was comparable to that reported in other Canadian studies. This overuse was not associated with any identifiable effect on maternal or neonatal outcome or on the management of pregnancy and labour. More judicious use of PNU, in accordance with evidence-based guidelines, is recommended. PMID:9484254

  7. Geochemistry of the nain massif anorthosite, labrador: Magma diversity in five intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Suizhou; Morse, S. A.

    1993-08-01

    The petrography and major- and trace-element concentrations of the anorthositic Bird Lake Massif (BLM), Susie Brook Slab (SBS), Lister Massif (LM), Port Man vers Run (PMR), and Kikkertavak area (KIK) in the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS), Labrador, delineate the mineralogical and composition ranges of these large intrusions. From these, a variety of magmas and staging histories can be inferred. The BLM and SBS are mainly noritic anorthosites of the western region exposed along Tikkoatokhakh Bay (TIK). Tilting and stretching deformation distinguish SBS from BLM, but the two units show no mineralogical or chemical differences. The KIK and PMR intrusions are mainly troctolitic to noritic anorthosites of the eastern region, and they contain more mafic components than the TIK bodies. Chemically, all the anorthositic rocks are high in Ba, Sr, and the ratio K/Rb, and low in Zr, Rb, and Rb/Sr. The three plutonic bodies, BLM, SBS, and LM, along TIK are similar and can be clearly distinguished from KIK and PMR intrusions by element concentrations and ratios. Diagrams of element pairs show that each intrusion or group has its own evolutionary trend and variable style, indicating that they represent independent magma batches rather than fractionally related volumes of the same magma. REE patterns show light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion, and strong positive Eu anomalies, correlated with cumulus plagioclase. In chemical comparison with adjacent plutons, one PMR-chilled leucotroctolite, after subtraction of 18% cumulus plagioclase, is similar to the Kiglapait magma (KI); one melatroctolite in KIK is close to the comb-layered melatroctolite of the Snowflake zone in the Hettasch Intrusion (HI); and the average leucotroctolite and leuconorite in KIK are similar to the leucotroctolite unit and the upper leuconorite, respectively, at Paul Island (PI). Therefore, the magmas from PMR and KIK are similar to those of wellknown troctolitic bodies and their feldspar-rich cumulates. KIK differs from PMR in having somewhat higher An and Xmg values. All these lines of evidence show that at least three types of magma existed in the study area: sodic noritic magma accumulating plagioclase in TIK, troctolitic magma in KIK, and a magma similar to but more evolved than KIK in PMR. The methods used also illustrate the feasibility of characterizing magma compositions from diverse types of cumulates. Regional differences in modal and chemical composition occur in the NPS. Noritic compositions with pale plagioclase are located in the western and southern regions, and troctolitic compositions with darker plagioclase are located in the eastern region. A reasonably accurate boundary can now be drawn between the two regions, which differ in the nature of their transport from the mantle. In comparison with a primitive mantle composition, high Ba, Pb, K, Sr, Ti, and low Rb, Nb, Zr in the Nain anorthositic rocks are distinctive. These anomalies and the isotopic results of other investigators are consistent with mantle source enrichment followed by variable contamination during magma ponding at the base of the depleted crust.

  8. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... 18242). Anatahan Island is one of the Northern Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific. These islands are situated along the ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  9. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  10. An Investigation of Cancer Rates in the Argentia Region, Newfoundland and Labrador: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Godwin, Marshall; Peach, Mandy; Fortier, Jacqueline; Bornstein, Stephen; Buehler, Sharon; McCrate, Farah; Pike, Andrea; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Cullen, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Argentia region of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was home to a US naval base during a 40-year period between the 1940s and the 1990s. Activities on the base resulted in contamination of the soil and groundwater in the region with chemicals such as heavy metals and dioxins, and residents have expressed concern about higher rates of cancer in their community. This study investigated the rate of cancer diagnosis that is disproportionately high in the Argentia region. Methods. Cases of cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were obtained for the Argentia region, two comparison communities, and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates of cancer diagnosis were calculated and compared. The crude incidence rate was adjusted for differences in age demographics using census data, and age-standardized incidence rates were compared. Results. Although the Argentia region had a higher crude rate of cancer diagnosis, the age-standardized incidence rate did not differ significantly from the comparison communities or the provincial average. Argentia has an aging population, which may have influenced the perception of increased cancer diagnosis in the community. Conclusions. We did not detect an increased burden of cancer in the Argentia region. PMID:26633979

  11. The oceanic crustal structure at the extinct, slow to ultraslow Labrador Sea spreading center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delescluse, Matthias; Funck, Thomas; Dehler, Sonya A.; Louden, Keith E.; Watremez, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Two seismic refraction lines were acquired along and across the extinct Labrador Sea spreading center during the Seismic Investigations off Greenland, Newfoundland and Labrador 2009 cruise. We derived two P wave velocity models using both forward modeling (RAYINVR) and traveltime tomography inversion (Tomo2D) with good ray coverage down to the mantle. Slow-spreading Paleocene oceanic crust has a thickness of 5 km, while the Eocene crust created by ultraslow spreading is as thin as 3.5 km. The upper crustal velocity is affected by fracturation due to a dominant tectonic extension during the waning stage of spreading, with a velocity drop of 0.5 to 1 km/s when compared to Paleocene upper crustal velocities (5.2-6.0 km/s). The overall crustal structure is similar to active ultraslow-spreading centers like the Mohns Ridge or the South West Indian Ridge with lower crustal velocities of 6.0-7.0 km/s. An oceanic core complex is imaged on a 50 km long segment of the ridge perpendicular line with serpentinized peridotites (7.3-7.9 km/s) found 1.5 km below the basement. The second, ridge-parallel line also shows extremely thin crust in the extinct axial valley, where 8 km/s mantle velocity is imaged just 1.5 km below the basement. This thin crust is interpreted as crust formed by ultraslow spreading, which was thinned by tectonic extension.

  12. Age-related alterations to immune parameters in Labrador retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Blount, Daniel G; Pritchard, David I; Heaton, Paul R

    2005-12-15

    In order to assess age-related changes in the immune status of Labrador retriever dogs, leukocyte phenotypes, lymphocyte proliferative capacity, and serum antibody levels were measured in four cohorts of dogs, ranging from 2 to 10 years of age. Absolute numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ lymphocytes significantly decreased with increasing age. Relative percentages of lymphocytes and CD4 cells were significantly decreased, and relative percentages of granulocytes and CD8 cells significantly increased, with age. The CD4:CD8 ratio showed a significant age-related decrease. Proliferative responses of T-cells to mitogens in whole-blood cultures either increased (Concanavalin A) or remained the same (phytohemagglutinin) with age when data was normalised to allow for differences in responding cell number. Similarly, normalised data of proliferative response to anti-CD3 stimulation together with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate showed an age-related increase. Serum levels of total IgA significantly increased with age whereas total IgG levels remained unchanged. These observations illustrate a significant change to a number of immune parameters with age. However, further work is required to determine whether the differences reported here are sufficient to cause overt or functional immune senescence in Labrador retriever dogs. PMID:16105688

  13. Deep-Sea Research I 54 (2007) 510532 Formation and export of deep water in the Labrador and

    E-print Network

    Drange, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Deep-Sea Research I 54 (2007) 510­532 Formation and export of deep water in the Labrador online 31 January 2007 Abstract The influence of changes in the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre on the variability of the transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current

  14. The Inclusive Classroom - Can the Teachers Keep Up? A Comparison of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador Teachers' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Alan

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the results of a previous study on 725 Nova Scotia teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and confidence in their abilities with those of 287 teachers from Newfoundland & Labrador. No provincial differences in teachers' perceptions of inclusion were found despite differences in provincial policy/practice. (Contains…

  15. Heat and Freshwater Transport through the Central Labrador Sea* Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    E-print Network

    Straneo, Fiamma

    surface heat loss to the atmosphere and partially offsets the surface freshwater accumulation due of heat that occurs during the late 1990s. In years in which convection does not occur, restratification of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean, the Labrador Sea experiences a net annual heat loss to the atmosphere

  16. Canary Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  The Canary Islands     View Larger Image A multi-angle view of the Canary Islands in a dust storm, February 29, 2000. At left is a true-color ... available at JPL February 29, 2000 - Canary Islands during a dust storm. project:  MISR ...

  17. A shell-derived time history of bomb {sup 14}C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications

    SciTech Connect

    Weidman, C.R.; Jones, G.A.

    1993-08-15

    Bomb-produced radiocarbon has been used in the past as an important tracer of ocean circulation and as a valuable tool for calculating CO{sub 2} air-sea exchange. However, previous studies of the ocean`s time-varying bomb {sup 14}C record have been confined exclusively to analyzing banded corals, and thus their application has been limited to the lower latitudes. The first time history of bomb {sup 14}C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean is obtained from a 54-year-old mollusc specimen, (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica, which was collected live from Georges Bank (41{degrees}N) in 1990. The annual growth bands of its shell were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C using accelerator mass spectrometry, producing a {Delta}{sup 14}C time history from 1939 to 1990. The depleted condition of the Georges Bank bomb {sup 14}C signal relative to two coral-derived North Atlantic {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories suggests a significant deepwater source for the waters on Georges Bank. Supported by previous work linking the origin of waters on Georges Bank to the Labrador Sea, the {Delta}{sup 14}C budget on Georges Bank is modeled as Labrador Sea water, which largely becomes confined to the shelf and partially equilibrates with the atmosphere during a 1-year transit time from the Labrador Sea to Georges Bank. This model is also used to estimate a time history of bomb {sup 14}C for the Labrador Sea. Prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C values calculated for the surface Labrador Sea suggest that a greater inventory of bomb {sup 14}C has accumulated here than has previously been reported. Deduced variations in the ventilation and/or {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake rates in the Labrador Sea correspond with observed changes in surface salinity of the Labrador Sea, suggesting a reduction in deepwater formation during the late 1960s and 1970s. 59 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Examining the Sedimentary and Paleoclimate Signature of Late Holocene Sedimentary Deposits in Okak Bay, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambrick Banks, J.; Bentley, S. J.; Warny, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations suggest there is a high potential for significant sea surface warming of the northwest North Atlantic Ocean in response to rising anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas concentrations. This continued warming may ultimately result in the shutdown of oceanic convection in the North Atlantic, continuing a history of strong climate shifts for this region throughout the Holocene. In this context, we have undertaken a study of climate proxies preserved in sediment cores from the northwest Atlantic coast to investigate the hypothesized sea surface warming and quantify local late Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the North Atlantic region. To address these objectives, piston and gravity cores have been collected in Okak Bay, a fjord-like bay on the Labrador coast of Canada. The bay receives water from the Labrador Sea (in the North Atlantic), is near the present latitudinal tree line, and is adjacent to a now abandoned community site long inhabited by both European and pre-contact settlers. As a result, this location contains a record of terrestrial and marine environmental change, and anthropogenic influence at the subarctic boundary. To date, cores have been analyzed for physical properties and x-ray fluorescence elemental data, and imaged using x-radiographic techniques. Age models are being developed using Pb-210/Cs-137 and C-14 geochronology, while palynological investigations are ongoing. Our data and a preliminary age model based on regional data suggest: 1) a trend towards increasing terrestrial sediment input to the Bay throughout the latest Holocene, 2) periods of high magnitude variability between terrestrial and marine derived deposition, particularly between 700 and 200 BP, and 3) tree/shrub genera Betula and Alnus dominated the landscape around 4 kBP, while surface sediments contain a much higher abundance of conifer genera (i.e. Picea) and dinoflagellate cysts.

  1. Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

  2. Physiologic responses in healthy Labrador Retrievers during field trial training and competition.

    PubMed

    Steiss, J; Ahmad, H A; Cooper, P; Ledford, C

    2004-01-01

    Ten healthy Labrador Retrievers (4 females and 6 males aged 3-6.5 years [mean, 4.5 years]) training with a professional trainer were studied. The dogs were in training during the entire study. Dogs were monitored within 5 minutes after retrieving birds on land and in water on 2 consecutive days during training and on 2 consecutive days at the Atlanta Retriever Club Fall Field Trial. Baseline samples were taken in the morning on a separate day before the dogs were loaded onto a truck. Venous samples were analyzed with a portable blood analyzer. Measurements included hematocrit, sodium, potassium, chloride, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, lactate, blood pH, Pco2, Po2, HCO3, and TCO2 plus rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate. Ambient temperatures were recorded. Distances and times were estimated. Compared to baseline, significant increases occurred in rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, chloride, lactate, and pH postexercise (P < .05): sodium, potassium, BUN, Pco2, and TCO2 were significantly decreased postexercise. Blood pH was markedly higher after retrieves on land than after retrieves in water. Estimated mean speeds were 11.4 mph (18.3 km/h) during a triple retrieve on land and 5.6 mph (9.0 km/h) during a retrieve in water. Maximal ambient temperatures were 84-86 degrees F (29-30 degrees C). In summary, Labrador Retrievers training with a professional trainer had evidence of hyperthermia, respiratory alkalosis, hypocapnia, and mild metabolic acidosis monitored within 5 minutes postexercise during training and field trial competition when maximal ambient temperatures were 85 degrees F (29 degrees C). The results provide a baseline against which physiologic responses of dogs with poor performance can be compared. PMID:15058763

  3. Olfactory discrimination and generalization of ammonium nitrate and structurally related odorants in Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

    2015-11-01

    A critical aspect of canine explosive detection involves the animal's ability respond to novel, untrained odors based on prior experience with training odors. In the current study, adult Labrador retrievers (N = 15) were initially trained to discriminate between a rewarded odor (vanillin) and an unrewarded odor (ethanol) by manipulating scented objects with their nose in order to receive a food reward using a canine-adapted discrimination training apparatus. All dogs successfully learned this olfactory discrimination task (?80 % correct in a mean of 296 trials). Next, dogs were trained on an ammonium nitrate (AN, NH4NO3) olfactory discrimination task [acquired in 60-240 trials, with a mean (±SEM) number of trials to criterion of 120.0 ± 15.6] and then tested for their ability to respond to untrained ammonium- and/or nitrate-containing chemicals as well as variants of AN compounds. Dogs did not respond to sodium nitrate or ammonium sulfate compounds at rates significantly higher than chance (58.8 ± 4.5 and 57.7 ± 3.3 % correct, respectively). Transfer performance to fertilizer-grade AN, AN mixed in Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum was significantly higher than chance (66.7 ± 3.2, 73.3 ± 4.0, 68.9 ± 4.0 % correct, respectively); however, substantial individual differences were observed. Only 53, 60, and 64 % of dogs had a correct response rate with fertilizer-grade AN, AN and Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum, respectively, that were greater than chance. Our results suggest that dogs do not readily generalize from AN to similar AN-based odorants at reliable levels desired for explosive detection dogs and that performance varies significantly within Labrador retrievers selected for an explosive detection program. PMID:26160342

  4. Interannual transport variability of Upper Labrador Sea Water at Flemish Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsou, Eirini; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Serra, Nuno; Kieke, Dagmar; Schneider, Linn

    2015-07-01

    The transport of Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) at Flemish Cap (47°N/45°W) is investigated in the period 1960-2009 using the output from an 8 km resolution numerical ocean model. The average model transport of ULSW decreases southward from 6.7 Sv at 53°N to 4.5 Sv at 45°N due to interior pathways. The largest fraction of the total ULSW volume transport goes around Flemish Cap within the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC, 72%) but a significant part goes through Flemish Pass (20%). At interannual timescales, the variability at Flemish Pass shows a distinct behavior when compared to the variability in the DWBC and to the upstream fluctuations. A running correlation method is applied to obtain the connection of the transport variability at Flemish Pass with several quantities, representative for different physical mechanisms: (1) the North Atlantic Oscillation index, (2) the Ekman transport, (3) the rate of ULSW formation in the Labrador Sea, (4) the position of the North Atlantic Current (NAC) relative to the slope and (5) the averaged transport in the subpolar gyre. Weakened or strengthened transport of ULSW through Flemish Pass coincides with changes of the atmospheric forcing or with changes of the NAC`s position. Strong meandering of the NAC close to the DWBC reduces the transport off Flemish Cap, and the ULSW flow is "redirected" into the Flemish Pass, enhancing the transport there. In contrast, the transport variability in the DWBC is mainly caused by upstream fluctuations and changes according to the rate of ULSW formation.

  5. A COLQ Missense Mutation in Labrador Retrievers Having Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rinz, Caitlin J.; Levine, Jonathan; Minor, Katie M.; Humphries, Hammon D.; Lara, Renee; Starr-Moss, Alison N.; Guo, Ling T.; Williams, D. Colette; Shelton, G. Diane; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2014-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by skeletal muscle weakness caused by disruption of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). CMSs are rarely encountered in veterinary medicine, and causative mutations have only been identified in Old Danish Pointing Dogs and Brahman cattle to date. Herein, we characterize a novel CMS in 2 Labrador Retriever littermates with an early onset of marked generalized muscle weakness. Because the sire and dam share 2 recent common ancestors, CMS is likely the result of recessive alleles inherited identical by descent (IBD). Genome-wide SNP profiles generated from the Illumina HD array for 9 nuclear family members were used to determine genomic inheritance patterns in chromosomal regions encompassing 18 functional candidate genes. SNP haplotypes spanning 3 genes were consistent with autosomal recessive transmission, and microsatellite data showed that only the segment encompassing COLQ was inherited IBD. COLQ encodes the collagenous tail of acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for termination of signal transduction in the NMJ. Sequences from COLQ revealed a variant in exon 14 (c.1010T>C) that results in the substitution of a conserved amino acid (I337T) within the C-terminal domain. Both affected puppies were homozygous for this variant, and 16 relatives were heterozygous, while 288 unrelated Labrador Retrievers and 112 dogs of other breeds were wild-type. A recent study in which 2 human CMS patients were found to be homozygous for an identical COLQ mutation (c.1010T>C; I337T) provides further evidence that this mutation is pathogenic. This report describes the first COLQ mutation in canine CMS and demonstrates the utility of SNP profiles from nuclear family members for the identification of private mutations. PMID:25166616

  6. DMSP and DMS dynamics and microzooplankton grazing in the Labrador Sea: application of the dilution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Levasseur, Maurice; Cantin, Guy; Michaud, Sonia

    2000-12-01

    We adapted the dilution technique to study microzooplankton grazing of algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) vs. Chl a, and to estimate the impact of microzooplankton grazing on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Labrador Sea. Phytoplankton numbers were dominated by autotrophic nanoflagellates in the Labrador basin, but diatoms and colonial Phaeocystis pouchetii contributed significantly to phytomass at several high chlorophyll stations and on the Newfoundland and Greenland shelfs. Throughout the region, growth of algal Chl a and DMSP was generally high (0.2-1 d -1), but grazing rates were lower and more variable, characteristic of the early spring bloom period. Production and consumption of Chl a vs. DMSP followed no clear pattern, and sometimes diverged greatly, likely because of their differing distributions among algal prey taxa and size class. In several experiments where Phaeocystis was abundant, we observed DMS production proportional to grazing rate, and we found clear evidence of DMS production by this haptophyte following physical stress such as sparging or filtration. It is possible that grazing-activated DMSP cleavage by Phaeocystis contributes to grazer deterrence: protozoa and copepods apparently avoided healthy colonies (as judged by relative growth and grazing rates of Chl a and DMSP), and grazing of Phaeocystis was significant only at one station where cells were in poor condition. Although we hoped to examine selective grazing on or against DMSP-containing algal prey, the dilution technique cannot differentiate selective ingestion and varying digestion rates of Chl a and DMSP. We also found that the dilution method alone was poorly suited for assessing the impact of grazing on dissolved sulfur pools, because of rapid microbial consumption and the artifactual release of DMSP and DMS during filtration. Measuring and understanding the many processes affecting organosulfur cycling by the microbial food web in natural populations remain a technical challenge that will likely require a combination of techniques to address.

  7. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals. PMID:25725460

  8. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-03-01

    Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals. PMID:24273070

  10. On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

  11. A 1600-Year History of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Sachs, J.; Rosenthal, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Sediments in Emerald Basin, on the continental shelf off Halifax, N.S., accumulate at a rate of about 30 cm/thousand years. This rate is great enough to record century to millennial scale changes in the surface and deep (~230m) waters in the basin. In 1998 we cored Emerald Basin, and other locations in the nearby slope water system, in order to develop an ocean-climate history of the region using paleoceanographic techniques. The core top has a modern 14C age, and other 14C dates indicate approximately linear sedimentation rates to 1600 calendar years B.P. Today the continental shelf off Nova Scotia is bathed by a mixture of coastal and slope waters. This mixture varies on interannual to interdecadal timescales. For example, the work of Petrie and Drinkwater and others of the Bedford Institute clearly shows that during the very strong minimum phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 1960s, the Labrador Current was colder and fresher than today and intruded into Emerald Basin. Sea surface temperatures (SST) decreased by 1-2 degrees on an annual average basis, and bottom water temperatures dropped by about 4 degrees. We applied 5 proxies for seawater temperature changes to the sediments of Emerald Basin. Surface water temperature changes are reflected in the percent abundance of the polar planktonic foraminifer N. pachyderma (s.), in the oxygen isotope ratio (d18-O) of the shells of this species, and in the unsaturation ratio of alkenones produced by phytoplankton. Bottom water temperature changes are recorded by the d18-O of benthic forams, and by the Mg/Ca in their shells. All five of these proxies indicate the ocean warmed suddenly sometime in the past 150 years or so. The exact date is uncertain because 14C dating is inaccurate in recent centuries, but we believe this abrupt warming probably correlates with the ice melt layer evidence for warming in the ice caps of the Canadian Archipelago. This region is known to be one of the main source regions for the Labrador Current. Before this recent warming, SST was continually lower by 1-2 degrees, and bottom water was colder by about 6 degrees. These results suggest that there was no Medieval Warm Period off Nova Scotia. Because there is no evidence of Medieval warming in the Canadian archipelago, it seems likely that coastal waters from Baffin Bay to at least as far south as Nova Scotia were continually cold for ~1500 of the past 1600 years. The present hydrography on the Scotian Shelf may be strongly influenced by anthropogenic effects.

  12. Hudson Strait Provenance of Ice Rafted Detritus in Heinrich Event 3 in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, G. E.; Hemming, S. R.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2006-12-01

    Heinrich events in the glacial North Atlantic (particularly H1, H2, H4 and H5) left a dramatic imprint on the terrigenous composition of marine sediments as well as strong and abrupt signals of temperature, fresh water, and deep ocean convection changes. The terrigenous sediments in Heinrich events H1, H2, H4 and H5 are strongly dominated by provenance from Hudson Strait. Published data indicate that H3 in eastern North Atlantic cores does not have a prominent Hudson Strait character, nor is there a strong terrigenous flux anomaly. However, there are both a strong oxygen isotope anomaly indicating abundant fresh water input to the North Atlantic and an increase in the percentage of the polar forminifera species Neogloboquadrina Pachyderma (s.), indicating a decrease in sea surface temperatures. We seek to better understand H3 by studying the provenance of ice rafted detritus from core EW9303-GGC31 (50.57°N, 46.35°W, 1796m) at Orphan Knoll in the southern Labrador Sea. We will present lead isotope data from individual feldspar grains and Ar/Ar ages from individual hornblende grains from Orphan Knoll. This site captures the integrated signal from icebergs emerging from the Laurentide margin. These methods have been previously shown to be diagnostic, and the analysis of individual grains allows unmixing the sedimentary sources. At Orphan Knoll, H3 is dominated by detritus from Hudson Strait with compositions like the other Heinrich layers. Lead isotope analyses on individual feldspars show the characteristic composition of the Churchill province of the Canadian shield, consistent with the distribution of Ar/Ar ages of individual hornblende grains. Together, these data suggest that the Hudson Strait is the main contributor of detritus during H3 in the Labrador Sea. Given the similarity of the oxygen isotope anomaly in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the low terrigenous flux, we suggest that H3 also represents an important iceberg event from Hudson Strait, that for some reason was less enriched in terrigenous load. More detailed analysis will allow a better understanding of the contrasts between H3 and the other Heinrich events.

  13. Prevalence of childhood eczema and food sensitization in the First Nations reserve of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Mushua Innu of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada seem to have a high rate of childhood eczema. Anecdotally this problem seems to be more common now than 20 years ago. There has been speculation that this could be related to food sensitization that may have arisen coincident with a move away from a traditional Innu diet. We undertook to assess the prevalence and severity of pediatric eczema in Natuashish (population 792), and investigate the level of sensitization to common food antigens. Methods Over a three-month period we performed a population survey of all children in the community from the ages of 2–12 inclusive. The one-year prevalence of eczema was assessed using the United Kingdom Working Party’s diagnostic criteria, and graded on the Nottingham Severity Scale. All children with eczema and twice as many age/sex matched controls were offered complete blood counts, total IgE, and food specific IgE levels for egg white, cow’s milk protein and wheat. Results One hundred and eighty two (95% of the eligible children) were assessed. Of the 182 children examined eczema was diagnosed in 30 (16.5%) - 22 females and 8 males. The majority of children with eczema (20/30) were classified as being in the moderate and severe category. Of the 22 with eczema and 40 controls who consented to venipuncture all but 3 had IgE levels above the lab's reference range. Food specific antibody assays showed that 32, 23, and 5 percent of children with eczema were sensitized to egg, milk, and wheat respectively. None of the controls were sensitized. Conclusions The children of Natuashish, Labrador have a high rate of eczema, much of it graded as moderate or severe. IgE levels were markedly elevated in children with and without eczema, with average values at least ten-fold higher than other populations. There is no evidence of an unusual amount of sensitization to egg, milk or wheat. PMID:24649812

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of staphylococci isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci are normal commensals of the skin and mucosa, but are also opportunist pathogens. Meticillin-resistant (MR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Healthy humans and other animals harbour a variety of staphylococci, including MR-CoPS and MR-CoNS. The main aims of the study were to characterise the population and antimicrobial resistance profiles of staphylococci from healthy non-vet visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers in the UK. Results Nasal and perineal samples were collected from 73 Labrador retrievers; staphylococci isolated and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods. They were also confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), PCR of the nuc gene and PCR and sequencing of the tuf gene. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials. In total, 102 CoPS (S. pseudintermedius n?=?91, S. aureus n?=?11) and 334 CoNS isolates were detected from 99% of dogs in this study. In 52% of dogs CoNS only were detected, with both CoNS and CoPS detected in 43% dogs and CoPS only detected in 4% of dogs. Antimicrobial resistance was not common among CoPS, but at least one MDR-CoNS isolate was detected in 34% of dogs. MR-CoNS were detected from 42% of dogs but no MR-CoPS were isolated. S. epidermidis (52% of dogs) was the most common CoNS found followed by S. warneri (30%) and S. equorum (27%), with another 15 CoNS species isolated from ? 15% of dogs. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were detected in 44% and 8% of dogs respectively. Conclusions MR- and MDR-CoPS were rare. However a high prevalence of MR- and MDR-CoNS were found in these dogs, even though they had no prior antimicrobial treatment or admission to veterinary premises. These findings are of concern due to the potential for opportunistic infections, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from these bacteria to coagulase positive staphylococci. PMID:24423104

  15. Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer isotope data from the same minerals indicate that the syenite and ore have initial Nd within a single ?Nd unit. This combined with their field relationship to the foliation and the microtextures observed in thin section suggests that the REE minerals experienced syndeformational growth from a hydrothermal fluid, acting on both host and ore, where REEs in aqueous hard ligand complexes became saturated in silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate minerals through the changing T, P and chemical conditions brought on by deformation.

  16. Advection of North Atlantic Deep Water from the Labrador Sea to the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    Recently formed Labrador Seawater (LSW) and overflow water from Denmark Strait (DSOW) are main components of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Both exhibit a distinct chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) maximum. Here we use 25 years of CFC observations in the Atlantic to study the main features of the circulation of LSW and DSOW. From the CFC data, the age and fraction of young deep water are inferred. Due to the superior spatial data resolution compared to former attempts, regional differences in the spreading velocity and pathways of young deep water become evident, dependent on the regional circulation. The observed distributions of young LSW and DSOW showed that the DWBC is the fastest pathway to reach the southern hemisphere. The downstream decrease of the fractions of young LSW in the DWBC is slower compared to model studies. From 47°N to 42°N, DWBC transports of young LSW and DSOW decrease by 44% and 49%, respectively. At 26°N, the DWBC transport of young water is still 39% of the LSW formation rate and 44% of the DSOW overflow transport. Interior pathways also exist, especially in the subpolar North Atlantic and in the transition zone between the subpolar and subtropical gyre. Compared to DSOW, the distributions indicate a higher tendency for LSW to follow additional interior pathways. North of 45°N the major part of LSW is younger than 20 years. The general weakening of new LSW formation since the 1990s worked toward a homogenization between the LSW in the western and the eastern subpolar North Atlantic.

  17. Availability of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi to Black Spruce above the Present Treeline in Eastern Labrador

    PubMed Central

    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host+) and the other half were free of host plants (host?). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host? soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

  18. Magma evolution in the Nain Complex, Labrador, and implications for the origin of anorthosite

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of over 50 chilled margins of plutons and contemporaneous dikes in the anorthositic Nain Complex reveal a well-defined trend of liquid evolution along a plagioclase-olivine cotectic. Fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase has resulted in extreme enrichment of TiO/sub 2/ and FeO/sub T/ and depletion of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the more evolved compositions. The contemporaneous Harp Dikes and Seal Lake Volcanics of southern Labrador also fall along this trend. Although rare, other dikes in the Nain complex are very olivine-rich and the olivine is quench-textured. Modeling of major and trace elements indicates that the leucotroctolitic liquids can be derived from the melatroctolites by olivine removal, and that the more evolved cotectic liquids can be derived from the leucotroctolitic liquids by removal of o1 + plag in a 25:75 ratio. If the equilibrium saturation surface of plagioclase is ignored, continued olivine removal from the leucotroctolites is capable of producing compositions very similar to compositions of hypothesized anorthositic magmas. In the Nain Complex, field evidence for supersaturation of plagioclase is abundant. Since all of the compositions discussed above are low in normative diopside, it may be that such liquids are less capable of nucleating plagioclase than liquid with more normal diopside contents, thus permitting the supersaturation.

  19. Two loci on chromosome 5 are associated with serum IgE levels in Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Béatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Ake; Andersson, Göran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response. PMID:22720065

  20. Normal clinical electroretinography parameters for poodle, Labrador retriever, Thai ridgeback, and Thai Bangkaew

    PubMed Central

    Sussadee, Metita; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish normal electroretinogram (ERG) parameters using 56 normal eyes of four dog breeds common in Thailand: poodle, Labrador retriever, Thai ridgeback, and Thai Bangkaew. Standard ERG findings were bilaterally recorded using a handheld multi-species ERG unit with an ERG-jet lens electrode for 28 dogs under preanesthesia with diazepam, anesthesia with propofol, and anesthesia maintenance with isoflurane. There were significant differences in the mean values of ERG amplitudes and implicit times among the four dog breeds (p < 0.05) except for the b-wave implicit time of the photopic 30 Hz flicker response with 3 cd.s/m2 (p = 0.610). Out of the four breeds, Thai Bangkaew had the longest implicit time (p < 0.001) of scotopic low intensity responses, b-wave of scotopic standard intensity responses (3 cd.s/m2), a-wave of the higher intensity response (10 cd.s/m2), and a-wave of the photopic single flash response (3 cd.s/m2). For the b/a ratio, only the ratio of the Cone response was significantly different among the different breeds. In this summary, normal ERG parameters for four dog breeds were reported. Data from the investigation supported the hypothesis that determination of breed-specific limits of normality for ERG responses is necessary for individual clinics and laboratories. PMID:25269713

  1. Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

  2. Bermuda and Appalachian-Labrador rises: Common non-hotspot processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Other than the Corner Rise-New England seamounts and associated White Mountains, most postbreakup intraplate igneous activity and topographic uplift in the western North Atlantic and eastern North America do not readily conform to simple hotspot models. For examples, the Bermuda Rise trends normal to its predicted hotspot trace. On continental crust, Cretaceous-Eocene igneous activity is scattered along a northeast-trending belt {approximately}500-1,000 km west of and paralleling the continent-ocean boundary. Corresponding activity in the western Atlantic generated seamounts preferentially clustered in a belt {approximately}1,000 km east of the boundary. The Eocene volcanism on Bermuda is paired with coeval magmatism of the Shenandoah igneous province, and both magmatic belts are associated with northeast-trending topographic bulges - the Appalachian-Labrador Rise to the west and the Bermuda Rise (Eocene ) to the east. The above observations suggest the existence of paired asthenosphere upwelling, paralleling and controlled by the deep thermal contrast across the northeast-trending continental margin. Such convection geometry, apparently fixed to the North American plate rather than to hotspots, is consistent with recent convection models by B. Hager. The additional importance of plate-kinematic reorganizations (causing midplate stress enhancement) is suggested by episodic igneous activity ca. 90-100 Ma and 40-45 Ma.

  3. Rock magnetism and Paleomagnetism of Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Gwenaël; Gilder, Stuart; Marion, Cassandra; Osinski, Gordon; Pohl, Jean; Sylvester, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The 35.8±1.0 Ma Mistastin Lake impact structure (Labrador, Canada) is characterized by a dominantly anorthositic target, which makes it a good terrestrial analogue for a lunar highland crater. The 28 km-diameter Mistastin structure contains impact melt rocks whose thickness reaches up to 80 meters. We collected 116 oriented cores in melt lithologies from four locations around the crater. Rock magnetic analyses show that the remanent magnetization is carried both by Ti-rich and Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Microscopic observations show that the latter probably resulted from high-temperature oxidation of the Ti-rich titanomagnetite. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization initially removes a viscous overprint, and then isolates what appears to be a stable thermoremanent magnetization at higher unblocking temperatures and peak fields. The mean direction, assumed to be parallel to the ambient geomagnetic field at the time of the impact, is consistent with the 30 Ma polar wander path of North America. We also collected 25 cores from anorthosite and mangerite from the Mesoproterozoic basement (around 1400 Ma), in order to study the pressure and thermal effects of the impact on the magnetic remanence and rock magnetic properties. Saturation remanence and coercivity increase from the periphery to the centre of the crater. Most samples have remanent magnetization directions similar to those expected for the Mesoproterozoic. Only basement rocks from the South shore lying very close to the contact of the melt rocks have a magnetization parallel to that of the melt.

  4. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  5. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  6. Island Panoramic

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

  7. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  8. Island Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Sourish Dutta; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2009-04-29

    If the observed dark energy is a cosmological constant, the canonical state of the universe is de Sitter spacetime. In such a spacetime, quantum fluctuations that violate the null energy condition will create islands of matter that, if large enough, may resemble our observable universe. Phenomenological approaches to calculating density fluctuations yield a scale invariant spectrum with suitable amplitude. With time, the island of matter that is our observable universe, re-enters the cosmological constant sea.

  9. A Study of Education, Out-Migration of Young Adults, and the Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the Economies of Rural Communities in Newfoundland and Labrador [Avalon West School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jean; Handrigan, Rachel; Stone, Gordon; Downey, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    This research project is a study of education, out-migration of young adults, and the impact of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) on the education and economies of rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador. A qualitative study of Newfoundland and Labrador's rural schools were conducted from January to August 2001. This report…

  10. Geochemistry and Rb-sr geochronology of associated proterozoic peralkaline and subalkaline anorogenic granites from Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collerson, Kenneth D.

    1982-12-01

    Anorogenic granites of middle to late Proterozoic age in the Davis Inlet — Flowers Bay area of Labrador are subdivided on the basis of petrology and geochemistry into three coeval suites. Two of these are high-temperature anhydrous hypersolvus granites: a peralkaline aegirine-sodic-calcic to sodic amphibole-bearing suite and a non-alkaline fayalite-pyroxene-bearing suite. The third is a group of non-alkaline subsolvus hornblende-biotite-bearing granites. Associated with the hypersolvus peralkaline suite is a group of genetically related syenites and quartz syenites. The granites cut ca. 3,000 Ma old Archaean gneisses as well as Elsonian layered basic intrusions of the Nain Complex. One of these, a crudely layered mass which ranges in composition from gabbro to diorite and monzonite, appears to be related to the syenites. The peralkaline granites and some of the syenites are extremely enriched in the high field-strength elements such as Y, Zr, Nd, as well as Rb, Ga and Zn, and have low abundances of Ba, Sr and most of the transition elements. In contrast, the non-alkaline hypersolvus and subsolvus granites do not show the same degree of enrichment. Concentration of the highly charged cations in the peralkaline suite is believed to be the result of halogen-rich fluid activity during fractionation of the magma. The sodic evolution trend in the peralkaline suite is reflected mineralogically by the development of aegirine and aegirine-hedenbergite solid solutions, and by a spectacular amphibole compositional range from katophorite through winchite, richterite, riebeckite to arfvedsonite and ferro eckermannite. Accessory phases which are ubiquitous in these rocks include aenigmatite, astrophyllite, fluorite, monazite and zircon. The non-alkaline hypersolvus granites typically contain iron-rich phases such as fayalite, eulite, ferrosilite-hedenbergite, and annite rich biotite. In the subsolvus granites, amphiboles range in composition from edenite through common hornblende to actinolite and also coexist with annite-rich biotite. Whole-rock and mineral isotopic data for the different suites yield isochrons that are within error of ca. 1,260 Ma, but they have variable initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The initial 87Sr/86Sr of the syenites and peralkaline granites (0.7076±11) is significantly lower than the initial 87Sr/86Sr of the subsolvus granites (0.7138±22). These isotopic data provide further confirmation of the importance of a late Elsonian alkaline event in Labrador which can be correlated with Gardar igneous activity in south Greenland. The petrogenesis of the peralkaline suite is interpreted to reflect the effects of fractionation of anhydrous phases from mantle derived basic magma which was contaminated during ascent by radiogenic partial melts of crustal derivation. The non-alkaline hypersolvus and subsolvus granites are interpreted as crustal melts which formed under conditions of variable P_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}} in response to the same thermal event, and which subsequently experienced feldspar fractionation during crystallization.

  11. Comparing mercury concentrations across a thirty year time span in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr from Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, S; Dempson, J B; Power, M

    2015-03-15

    Anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from multiple sample sites in Labrador, Canada were used to investigate possible differences in total mercury concentration ([THg]) between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean [THg] of anadromous Arctic charr was 0.03 ?g/g wet weight (ww) in 1977-78 and 0.04 ?g/g ww in 2007-09, while mean concentrations in non-anadromous conspecifics were 0.18 ?g/g ww in 1977-78 and 0.14 ?g/g ww in 2007-09. After correcting for the effects of fish age and fork-length, there was no widespread difference in the mean [THg] of anadromous or non-anadromous fish between the two time periods. However, at individual sites sampled during both time periods, [THg] increased, decreased, or did not change. The mean age of sampled fish declined from 9.0 years in 1977-78 to 8.2 years in 2007-09 for anadromous fish, and from 11.7 years to 10.5 years in non-anadromous Arctic charr. Similarly, mean fork-lengths decreased from 450 mm to 417 mm in anadromous and from 402 mm to 335 mm in non-anadromous fish between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean annual temperature at four Labrador weather stations increased by 1.6°C to 2.9°C between the two sampling periods. The lack of an overall trend in anadromous or non-anadromous Arctic charr [THg] despite warming temperatures that favour increased mercury methylation suggests that regional changes in climate-driven factors have had limited impacts on mercury exposure in Labrador freshwater or marine fish. PMID:24373639

  12. Bio-optical observations of the 2004 Labrador Sea phytoplankton bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutton, Peter G.; Martz, Todd R.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; McGillis, Wade R.; Drennan, William M.; Boss, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    A unique time series of moored bio-optical measurements documented the 2004 spring-summer bloom in the southern Labrador Sea. In situ and satellite chlorophyll data show that chlorophyll levels in the 2004 bloom were at the upper end of those typically observed in this region. Satellite chlorophyll and profiling float temperature/salinity data show that the main bloom, which typically peaks in June/July, is often preceded by ephemeral mixed layer shoaling and a lesser, short-lived bloom in May; this was the case in 2004. The particulate backscatter to beam attenuation ratio (bbp[470 nm]/Cp[660 nm]) showed peaks in the relative abundance of small particles at bloom initiation and during the decline of the bloom, while larger particles dominated during the bloom. Chlorophyll/Cp and bbp/chlorophyll were correlated with carbon export and dominated by changes in the pigment per cell associated with lower light levels due to enhanced attenuation of solar radiation during the bloom. An NPZ (nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton) model captured the phytoplankton bloom and an early July peak in zooplankton. Moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data showed an additional mid-June peak in zooplankton biomass which was attributed to egg-laying copepods. The data reported here represent one of the few moored time series of Cp, bbp and chlorophyll extending over several months in an open ocean region. Interpretation of data sets such as this will become increasingly important as these deployments become more commonplace via ocean observing systems. Moreover, these data contribute to the understanding of biological-physical coupling in a biogeochemically important, yet poorly studied region.

  13. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  14. Biological responses to PCB exposure in shorthorn sculpin from Saglek Bay, Labrador.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Z A; Hodson, P V; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

    2005-12-01

    A local source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Saglek Bay, Labrador, has contaminated marine sediments and the coastal food web. As part of a larger assessment of ecological risks in the Bay, we evaluated biological responses to PCB concentrations in a northern fish species, the shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Biological endpoints, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver tissue, fish body condition, lipid content, and relative liver mass were examined in 35 sculpin collected during August-September 1999. Across a wide range of PCB concentrations (5.1-6920 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole fish excluding liver), sculpin showed significant EROD induction (as much as 25-fold in the most exposed group). Responses varied directly with PCB concentrations but there was also an apparent threshold for induction at about 50 ng/g ww (whole fish excluding liver). A strong relationship between sculpin PCB concentrations and the concentrations of PCBs in the marine sediments of Saglek Bay suggests that concentrations above this threshold can arise from very low concentrations in sediments (2.3 ng/g dry weight). Other biological endpoints did not show significant responses to PCB concentrations, nor were they related to the observed EROD activity. Although PCDF compounds were present in trace amounts (primarily 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF), mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted (coplanar) PCBs appeared to contribute the majority of the total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations. Overall, the results indicate that biological responses occur in shorthorn sculpin with relatively low PCB concentrations (approximately 50 ng/g), which are not unrealistic for even mildly contaminated areas in northern Canada. PMID:16168462

  15. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  16. Heinrich Events as Times of the Main Sediment Supply to the Labrador Sea during the Late Pleistocene Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, R.; Rashid, H.; Khodabakhsh, S.

    2004-05-01

    New evidence suggests that Heinrich events may have been times of the main sediment delivery to the Labrador Sea from the Late Pleistocene Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) attributing a hitherto unknown role to these phenomenal events besides their known capacity as intense iceberg and melt-water discharge episodes. The evidence comes from a distinct depositional facies of stacked graded mud layers containing ice-rafted debris (IRD). Deposition of this unusual facies requires the combination of two independent processes that operate in tandem at approximately the same speed, i.e. sediment lofting and ice rafting. Sediment lofting occurs with turbidity currents generated from fresh-water discharges into the sea. Settling of suspended sediment from the top or deposition from the bottom of the currents may lower the density below that of ambient sea-water causing the currents to lift up from their substrate either in part or as a whole through buoyancy reversal, as is well known from experiments. In the central Labrador Sea a huge sand-and gravel abyssal plain 700 km long, 100-120 km wide and 150 m thick on average has received its sediment from turbidity currents generated by melt-water discharges from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS. Comprising a volume of \\~104km3 sediment this is one of the largest sand bodies in the world. The fresh-water turbidity currents that transported the sand to the plain are prone to undergo fine-grained sediment lofting from their tops. The significance of the lofted fine-grained depositional facies arises from the fact that it is exclusively found in Heinrich layers. Through the lofted depositional facies a link is established between large sand and gravel transporting turbidity currents and Heinrich events. Heinrich events thus appear to be times when the main depositional activity in the Labrador Sea took place. The lofting hypothesis thus provides a conceptual frame for assumptions concerning the timing of glaciomarine sediment supply to the deep Labrador Basin that does not depend on sea-level changes but remains to be tested by deep-sea drilling.

  17. Happy Island

    E-print Network

    Larry McLerran

    2011-05-20

    I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, $N_c$ is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the $\\mu_B$-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

  18. Assateague Island is Changing

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    and deposition of sand toward the island interior--allows the barrier island to migrate or rollover westward barrier island oceanbaymainland barrier island oceanbaymainland barrier island oceanbaymainland Bay Ocean "Barrier islands such as Assateague will be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change and sea

  19. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  20. Fylla Bank: structure and evolution of a normal-to-shear rifted margin in the northern Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Døssing, Arne

    2011-11-01

    Cenozoic seafloor spreading between Greenland and North America is generally considered a major right-stepping ridge-transform-ridge system between NW-SE trending spreading ridge segments in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The ridges were linked by N-S/NNE-SSW trending transform motions in the Davis Strait, in particular expressed by the ˜1000-km-long Ungava Fault Zone. Fylla Bank, part of the southern West Greenland continental margin, is located in the northernmost Labrador Sea at the transition between the normal and shear rifting regimes of the Labrador Sea and Davis Strait. As such, the Bank may be compared with the Demerara Plateau, part of the French Guinea-Northeast Brazil continental margin. Seismic reflection interpretations presented in this study show that Fylla Bank is situated above an extensive basin complex, herein referred to as Fylla Structural Complex, which contains an up to 5-km-thick Cretaceous-Cenozoic sedimentary succession above an inferred pre-Cretaceous basement. Seismic mapping of basement structures show that the complex is dominated by NNW-/NW-striking rift basins in its southern part and NNE-striking rift basins in its northern part. The rift basins are interpreted to be the result of an initial late-Early Cretaceous rift phase, which mainly resulted in the formation of the NNW-/NW-striking structures, and a subsequent early Campanian rift phase, mainly resulting in the formation of large NNE-striking rotated fault blocks. Resumed rifting in the early Cenozoic deepened the NNE-striking rift basins. The NNE-oriented structures have previously been interpreted to initiate during the latest Cretaceous. However, this study suggests that they initiated transfer faults already during the late-Early Cretaceous rift phase and possibly correlate with along-strike discontinuities in oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea to define margin segmentation in southern West Greenland, including the borders of Fylla Bank. A structural-kinematic model presented here thus suggests that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic poly-phase rifting to some extent was controlled by pre-existing crustal fabric. Combined with an interpreted interplay between normal stresses in the Labrador Sea and oblique-shear stresses in the Davis Strait, this resulted in a very complex structural-tectonic evolution and the formation of several distinct structural styles. The seismic interpretations are supported by maps of the Moho topography and crustal thickness which were compiled from results of pseudo-3-D gravity modelling. The maps show minimum crustal thicknesses (11 km) and maximum Moho uplifts in areas where the NNW-/NW- and NNE-striking structures interact. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between Moho topography, crustal attenuation, rift-enforced thermal uplift and erosion, and post-rift subsidence in the area. This is interpreted to be a result of thermally controlled basin dynamics.

  1. Composition and heterogeneity of anorthositic impact melt at Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, Cassandra L.; Sylvester, Paul J.

    2010-03-01

    Anorthositic impact melt rocks, their target rocks (principally anorthosite, mangerite, granodiorite) and zircon clasts from the ˜36-Ma-old, 28-km-wide Mistastin Lake crater of northern Labrador (55°53'N; 63°18'W) have been examined in order to evaluate the scale and origin of compositional heterogeneities in impact melts produced in craters of moderate size. In particular we assess whether and, if so, how the initial composition of the impact melt was modified as it entrained mineral clasts derived from the underlying rocks over which it flowed when it moved away from the shock-induced, central melting zone. A secondary goal was to determine if zircon clasts in the impact melts are present in the proportions of their target rock sources and/or the substrate lithologies over which they flowed. Chemical compositions of bulk samples of 33 melt rocks and 14 target rocks were measured by XRF and SN-ICPMS. Matrix compositions of nine samples of impact melt rocks were determined by EPMA and LA-ICPMS. Zircon grains from four samples of target rock and zircon clasts from three samples of impact melt rock were measured for multi-element composition, U-Pb age and Hf-isotopic composition by LA-(MC)-ICPMS. The data reveal compositional heterogeneities in the impact melts on the scales of both bulk samples and matrices. Bulk samples can be divided into compositions with high and low concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE; Ti, Zr, Nb) and Fe, Ba, Ce and Y. High HFSE-type melt rocks formed when impact melt entrained large quantities of clasts from mangerite, which is rich in HFSE. Matrix compositions of bulk samples do not show the HFSE distinction but are affected by the introduction of low-temperature melts from the clasts to form dispersed, micron-scale silica-rich heterogeneities. The best estimate of sources of the initial impact melt is ˜73% anorthosite, ˜7% mangerite and ˜20% granodiorite, based on least-squares modeling of major-element compositions of the matrices of thinner flows. Zircon derived from anorthosite can be distinguished from zircon from mangerite and granodiorite by higher Nb/Ta and Eu/Eu* ratios and more negative initial ? Hf values. Zircon clasts >40 mm in size in the impact melt rocks are dominantly or exclusively derived from mangerite and granodiorite rather than from anorthosite. Because anorthosite was the principal source of impact melt at Mistastin, zircon may be a poor provenance indicator for anorthosite contributions to impact melts, particularly where grains smaller than 40 microns are not analyzed.

  2. Response to Natural Hazards: Multi-Level Governance Challenges in Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, N.; Tomblin, S.

    2009-04-01

    Newfoundland and Labrador's perspective on emergency measures in response to natural hazards is shaped by several factors. Climate, meteorology, and terrain are the dominant factors both in the occurrence of events and the responses to them. The economy, dominated by resource-based activities, is a significant influence in accentuating exposure to natural hazards. In this situation, the role of earth scientists is critical. However, effective input from geographers, geomorphologists, and climatologists requires an understanding of the governance regime. For emergency services, both formal public policy responses, informal mechanisms, and the interfacing that exists between public policy mechanisms and social forces are significant. In an era where more and more problems are considered as "interdependent", and require different governmental, social, and professional expertise forces to come together to address objectives, there is interest in exploring and analyzing patterns of communication, interactions and policy learning across inherited silos. A major political-policy struggle is the challenge of managing rural-urban differences in capacity and perspective. Another challenge involves finding ways for professions to merge their protocols and cultures. Embracing best practices associated with natural hazards and emergency preparedness is influenced by the power and independence of various groups involved. Critical events provide windows of opportunity for urging new approaches, but whether these become institutionalized or not normally depends on the interplay of ideas, interests, individuals, and institutions. In coping with natural hazards, renewing governance required finding new incentives to integrate across jurisdictions and disciplinary and governmental-society boundaries. Perception and response to natural hazards is very much connected with the historical-policy context. The pace of effective response indicates the impact of culture, capacity, institutions, and interests in the struggle to shift priorities, especially if these are being imposed externally. Emergency planning involves contestation, shifting priorities, building knowledge capacity, and merging policy and jurisdictional networks based on best practices. It requires renewing governance, coordinating planning, data collection, building infrastructure and establishing a common vision where different interests can work together to promote common values and objectives. However, emergency planning is difficult to change and reform based on a common vision and approach, because the inherited formal and informal structures tend to be very complex multi-disciplinary systems. Not only does this pose difficulties in renewing governance, establishing clear lines of authority, and responsibility across jurisdictions, it is very difficult for previously unrecognized groups to participate. Natural hazard researchers, unfortunately, frequently fit into this latter category.

  3. Dynamic sedimentation of Paleoproterozoic continental margin iron formation, Labrador Trough, Canada: Paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, P. K.; Anderson, S. L.; Hiatt, E. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Sokoman Formation (ca. 1.88 Ga) of the Labrador Trough, eastern Canada, is a ca. 100-m-thick succession of interbedded iron formation and fine-grained, terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks. Detailed examination of drill cores and outcrops indicates a dynamic paleoshelf where an oxygen-stratified water column, coastal upwelling of hydrothermally derived Fe and Si, as well as tide- and storm-generated currents controlled lithofacies character. Vertical and lateral facies stacking patterns record deposition through two relative sea-level cycles that produced seven distinct lithofacies comprising two unconformity-bounded sequences. Sequence 1 reflects deposition of hematitic peritidal iron formation as deep as the upper shoreface. Sequence 2 is truncated by later erosion and encompasses the change to deeper-water accumulation of magnetite and Fe silicate-rich iron formation. The character and lateral distribution of redox-sensitive facies indicate that iron formation accumulation was controlled as much by shelf hydraulics as oxygen levels. The development of a suboxic surface ocean is interpreted to reflect photosynthetic oxygen production from a combination of peritidal stromatolites and cyanobacterial phytoplankton that flourished in nutrient-rich, upwelled waters offshore. Deposition of other continental margin iron formations also occurred on Paleoproterozoic shelves that were favorably positioned for coastal upwelling. Variability between iron formations reflects intrinsic factors such as shelf profile, fluvial contribution, eolian input, evaporation rates, and coastal current systems, which influenced upwelling dynamics and the delivery of Fe, Si, and nutrients. Aridity onshore was a primary depositional control since it governed the transport and type of diluting terrigenous clastics as well as evaporative precipitation along the coastline. As in the Phanerozoic, unconformities, and transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces frame iron formation sequences, but with important differences. The absence of trace and body fossils as well as lack of terrestrial vegetation can make the recognition of these surfaces difficult. Transgressive surfaces can also be easily mistaken for Phanerozoic-style maximum flooding surfaces since stratigraphic condensation was restricted to inboard environments during ravinement. Outboard the accumulation of fresh precipitates increased sedimentation to produce a maximum flooding surface not usually marked by a prominent depositional hiatus. Understanding these differences is essential for establishing an accurate sequence stratigraphic framework. Such context is the backdrop for properly interpreting the sedimentology, oceanography, microbial ecology, and geochemistry of continental margin iron formations.

  4. Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wiebe, R.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Snyder, D.

    1992-01-01

    Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by direct assimilation of early Archean crustal rocks and/or by fluids that have interacted with such crust. Adjacent anorthositic rocks also show variable ??{lunate}Nd some as low as -14.7, implying larger degrees if crustal assimilation, perhaps by parental magmas during lower crustal ponding prior to emplacement. These contamination effects preclude straightforward determination of the isotopic character of mantle sources for both BLI and the anorthositic rocks. ?? 1992.

  5. Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of a Falling Stage Sandy Fjord Delta, Goose River, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingerland, R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Royce, J.; Burpee, A.; Cederberg, J.; Caldwell, R.; Nijhuis, A.; McGuffin, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment size and degree of cohesion are thought to exert a strong control on the morphodynamic processes, planform shape and clinoform stratigraphy of deltas. To test model predictions concerning these two parameters, we present a morphometric and stratigraphic analysis of a sandy delta formed where the Goose River flows into Goose Bay at the western end of Lake Melville, Labrador. Goose River delta sediments consist of arkosic, heavy-mineral-rich sand (D50 = 225 to 600 microns) with very little silt and clay, placing this delta at the coarser-grained, non-cohesive end of the spectrum. The delta started to form approx. 7000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated and post-glacial rebound created a relative base level fall of approximately 4 mm/yr. The current tidal range in Goose Bay averages 0.5 m, and the average wave height is negligible. Results from our 2012 field season show that the delta planform consists of two moribund lobes at elevations of ~ 5 m and ~ 2 m and a presently active delta at sea level. Aerial photography from 1951 to 2012 show there has been surprisingly little progradation despite active channel change at the six-month timescale and an assumed base level fall of 244 mm during that period. A topographic section along a dipline consists of three treads and two clinoform risers. The bottomset tread is a virtually featureless fjord bottom at ~35 m from which a first clinoform rises to a second tread at ~-15 m. The second tread is a sandy platform onto which an upper clinoform downlaps. This upper sandy clinoform ranges in dip from 9 to 17 dg. and passes into the topset at an elevation of ~ -1 m. The topset consists of braid-like trapezoidal unit bars that in GPR show little evidence of wave, alongshore current, or ice reworking, even though they are submerged at higher high tides. The planform, bar geometries and facies, and clinoform dips and dip-directions are remarkably consistent with model predictions from Delft3d.

  6. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. "Borrowed Black": A Labrador Fantasy from the Book by Ellen Bryan Obed, Adapted for Stage by Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Borrowed Black: A Labrador Fantasy," by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven reproducible activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) The Story (orienting students to the characters and places…

  8. A 1600-year history of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia Received: 11 June 2002 / Accepted: 3 January 2003 / Published online: 8 April 2003

    E-print Network

    Sachs, Julian P.

    A 1600-year history of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia Received: 11 June 2002 / Accepted: 3 Basin, on the conti- nental margin off Nova Scotia, has a modern 14 C age at the top, and other 14 C that there was no Medieval Warm Period in the coastal waters off Nova Scotia. Because there is also no evidence of medieval

  9. Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K. I.; Fujisawa, H.; Holland, H. D.; Ohmoto, H.

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (approximately 1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywackes-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al2O3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and sigma Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% as FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO2 contents of source rocks by approximately 5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO2 contents approximately 45 wt% and the other approximately 65 wt%, and was the source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance II that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO2 contents approximately 65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher PCO2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe3+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the sigma Fe/Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt% organic C, but are extremely depleted in sigma Fe (<1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (approximately l ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (approximately 0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the approximately 1.9 Ga atmosphere-ocean system was anoxic. Depletion of these elements from the Ramah Group sediments

  10. Geochemistry of ˜1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Holland, Heinrich D.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1997-10-01

    Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (˜1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywacke-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO 2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al 20 3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and ?Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% vs FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO 2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO 2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO 2 contents of source rocks by ˜5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO 2 contents ˜45 wt% and the other ˜65 wt%, and was the source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah Group, except for black shales of the Nullataktok Formation. The black shales were apparently derived from Provenance 11 that was comprised mostly of felsic rocks with SiO 2 contents ˜65 wt%. Comparing the compositions of the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks and their source rocks, we have recognized that several major elements, especially Ca and Mg, were lost almost entirely from the source rocks during weathering and sedimentation. Sodium and potassium were also leached almost entirely during the weathering of the source rocks. However, significant amounts of Na were added to the black shales and K to all the rock types during diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism. The intensity of weathering of source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments was much higher than that of typical Phanerozoic sediments, possibly because of a higher Pco 2 in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Compared to the source rock values, the Fe2+/Ti ratios of many of the graywackes and gray shales of the Ramah Group are higher, the Fe 2+/Ti ratios are lower, and the ?Fe/ Ti ratios are the same. Such characteristics of the Fe geochemistry indicate that these sedimentary rocks are comprised of soils formed by weathering of source rocks under an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The atmosphere about 1.9 Ga was, therefore, oxygen rich. Typical black shales of Phanerozoic age exhibit positive correlations between the organic C contents and the concentrations of S, U, and Mo, because these elements are enriched in oxygenated seawater and are removed from seawater by organic matter in sediments. However, such correlations are not found in the Ramah Group sediments. Black shales of the Ramah Group contain 1.7-2.8 wt%o organic C, but are extremely depleted in ?Fe (< 1 wt% as FeO), S (<0.3 wt%), U (˜1 ppm), Mo (<5 ppm), Ni (<2 ppm), and Co (˜0 ppm). This lack of correlation, however, does not imply that the ˜1.9 Ga atmosphere-ocean system was anoxic. Depletion of these elements from the Ramah Group sediments may have occurred during diagenesis.

  11. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  12. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  13. Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, Dana; Gautrin, Denyse; Neis, Barbara . E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre; Horth-Susin, Lise; Jong, Michael; Swanson, Mark C.

    2006-06-15

    Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposurexlevel of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact.

  14. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  15. Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

    2012-01-01

    In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

  16. Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Tropical Rain Forest 5 Linear Algebra Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 5 / 26 #12Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands

  17. Assessment of cardiac function using global and regional left ventricular endomyocardial and epimyocardial peak systolic strain and strain rate in healthy Labrador retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Carnabuci, C; Hanås, S; Ljungvall, I; Tidholm, A; Bussadori, C; Häggström, J; Höglund, K

    2013-08-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is based on tracking of natural acoustic myocardial markers. The study aimed at quantifying global and regional endomyocardial and epimyocardial left ventricular longitudinal, circumferential and radial peak systolic strain and strain rate, including feasibility and variability; and assessing synchronicity and torsion, in healthy dogs. Cineloops were acquired from left apical 4-chamber, basal and apical right parasternal short-axis views in 22 healthy Labrador retrievers. A general epimyocardial to endomyocardial strain gradient was found. Strain was higher at apex compared to base. A strain longitudinal base to apex gradient was found. Left ventricular synchronicity could be assessed in all dogs and torsion in 1/3. Short axis apical view had highest variability. Dog and operator contributed most to overall variance. In conclusion, STE allows assessment of myocardial function in healthy Labrador retrievers. A longitudinal base to apex gradient was found and a new synchronicity index for use in dogs was introduced. PMID:23481140

  18. On the formation of ultra-thick sedimentary basins on rifted margins: a comparison of the Scotian and Labrador margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, K.; Funck, T.

    2003-12-01

    Sedimentary basins that form on rifted continental margins exhibit a great variety of shapes and sizes. In particular, the total sediment thickness can vary significantly and in certain sub-basins can approach 15-20 km. The deeper structure of these ultra-thick basins is typically not well resolved by seismic reflection profiles due to poor penetration within the thickest parts of the basin. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles can help resolve these deeper features. We compare two such sub-basins that occur on the eastern Canadian margins, where reflection and refraction profiles are able to define the complete sedimentary and crustal structures: the Sable sub-basin on the northeast Nova Scotian margin and the Hopedale sub-basin on the central Labrador margin. We compare the development of these basins by converting the sediment refraction velocities to density and back-stripping assuming local isostasy. Although these basins formed during completely different episodes of rifting on different types of continental crust, we find a surprising similarity in the characteristics of crustal thinning across each margin, especially for the lower crust. Initial thinning of the crust by 50-60% occurs within 50 km followed by more gradual thinning over the subsequent 100 km. This leaves a tongue of lower continental crust extending 150 km seaward of the unstretched continental crust. This outer region becomes the location of the thickest initial sediment deposition, followed by up-building and out-building of the shelf. The local form of this deposition differs between the two margins: with much larger syn- and immediately post-rift sediments on the Scotian margin and thicker recent deposition on the Labrador margin, probably controlled by the local availability of sediment fill. Comparison with previous models of rifting based on borehole observations for the Scotia margin compare well with the overall width of the rifting (150 km), but our results suggest more rapid initial crustal thinning. By comparison, the conjugate margins of SW Greenland and Morocco are much narrower, do not have the broad region of thinned lower continental crust and have much smaller sediment thicknesses primarily located seaward of the continental shelf and slope. These features are all evidence for asymmetric rifting during late stages of extension.

  19. PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Z A; Stow, J P; Burgess, N M; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

    2005-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997-1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during 1997-1999 ranged from 0.24 to 62000 ng/g (dry weight) and decreased exponentially with distance from the contaminated beach. Given this gradient, spatial trends of PCBs in the food web were examined over four zones, according to distance from the contaminated beach: within 1.5 km--zone one, 1.5-4.5 km--zone two, 4.5-7.5 km--zone three, and greater than 7.5 km--zone four. PCB concentrations in a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), decreased significantly from zone one to zone two, three, four, and distant Labrador reference sites. PCB concentrations in the eggs of a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle) were as high as 48000 ng/g during 1997-1999 and average concentrations in zones one and two were 84 and 13 times higher than in zone four. Marine invertebrates closely reflected the concentrations of PCBs in the associated sediment. In contrast to the benthic-based food web, anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) showed no evidence of PCB accumulation from the contaminated sediments. Relatively high PCB concentrations were discovered in some great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) but appear to relate more to their high trophic level than sampling location. Those species that fed on or near the seabed and had limited foraging ranges were strongly influenced by the local contamination. Total PCB concentrations in the benthic-based food web were significantly higher than background levels for a distance of at least 7.5 km from the contaminated beach. This area is small in the context of widely distributed contamination from long-range transport but the area's high concentrations are comparable to levels associated with adverse effects elsewhere. Our findings should be useful to better assess the environmental impacts of PCB contamination at other coastal sites in the Arctic. PMID:16085280

  20. Investigating the Effects of Climatic Change and Fire Dynamics on Peatland C Accumulation in Coastal Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Lesser, D.; Bourakovsky, A.; Hamley, C.; Adams, C.; Westervelt, A.; Camill, P.; Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude Canadian peatlands store a significant stock of soil carbon that has the potential to become mobilized to the atmosphere if climate warming leads to changes in the net balance of plant productivity and decomposition. We completed a detailed study of C accumulation rates from the sediment record in coastal eastern Canada to help to determine the relative impacts of regional climate vs. local processes, such as hydrology and fire disturbance, on rates of C storage. Seven cores from subarctic peatlands in Labrador were analyzed to determine the influence of fires on carbon storage over the past 8,000 years, specifically over known warm periods. Calibrated radiocarbon dates, bulk density, and percent carbon were used to calculate carbon accumulation rates. Areal charcoal concentration was used as a proxy for fire severity. Carbon accumulation rates appear to be most strongly controlled by changing regional climatic regimes. From 8,000 cal yr BP to the present, rates of accumulation averaged 23.1 ± 6.7 gC m-2 yr-1. C accumulation rates were highest during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, 6,000 - 4,000 cal yr BP), averaging 29.6 ± 2.4 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to 22.7 ± 3.7 and 15.9 ± 2.9 g C m-2 yr-1 before and after the HTM, respectively. Samples containing macroscopic charcoal had an average concentration of 0.62 mm2 cm-3 with a maximum concentration found of 3.51 mm2 cm-3. Consistently low charcoal concentrations indicate that fire was neither common nor severe in these wetter peatlands, implying that fires have historically not been a significant control on C accumulation in Labrador, likely due to the high net moisture of the region. Our work supports a growing body of evidence from high latitude peatlands suggesting that future warming conditions, in the absence of shifts in disturbance regimes, could lead to greater soil C sequestration.

  1. Diagenetic alteration of magnetic minerals in Labrador Sea sediments (IODP Sites U1305, U1306, and U1307)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Noriko; Ishikawa, Naoto; Torii, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    In order to reveal the potential effects of early diagenesis on magnetic minerals in deep-sea sediments, we studied early diagenetic zones and magnetic mineral characteristics of Lower Pliocene hemipelagic sediment samples from IODP Sites U1305, U1306, and U1307 on Eirik Drift, Labrador Sea. All samples analyzed were unlithified silty clay sediments recovered by a piston corer from depths down to 200 meters composite depth (mcd). Based on shipboard interstitial-water geochemistry, we divided the sediment column from each site into six early diagenetic zones. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was present at all analyzed depths, whereas maghemite (?Fe2O3) was found only above the iron reduction zone. We attribute this to associated changes in interstitial redox conditions, which induced preferential dissolution of maghemitized surfaces on magnetite grains. Mineral magnetic results indicate a general down-hole change in mean grain size of magnetic minerals. At Site U1307, which has relatively low organic carbon contents, the diagenetic zones occur at greater depths than at the other studies sites. This suggests that interstitial oxygen levels at this site remained high enough to degrade organic matter through oxic bacterial activity, and that detrital magnetic minerals have been preserved even at depth.

  2. Effects-based marine ecological risk assessment at a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated site in Saglek, Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Stow, Jason P; Burgess, Neil M; Solomon, Steve M; Sheldon, Tom A; Reimer, Ken J

    2013-02-01

    Although the presence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Arctic marine environments has been well documented, the implications for the health of biota are poorly understood. In the present study, multiple lines of evidence, including site-specific effects data, were used to assess PCB-related risks to marine biota at a contaminated military site in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, from 1997 to 1999. Risks were evaluated for three components of the ecosystem: benthic invertebrates, a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), and a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle). Average sediment PCB concentrations exceeded the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline level by 41-fold. However, sediment toxicity testing and a benthic community survey showed no evidence of adverse effects. In contrast, shorthorn sculpin and black guillemot PCB exposures (measured as sum of 55 congeners) were elevated enough to pose risks to survival or reproduction. Based on the collective evidence, the authors estimated that risks were posed by sediment PCB concentrations greater than 77?ng/g dry weight for black guillemots and 750?ng/g dry weight for shorthorn sculpins. The present study, along with two parallel studies, provided information to support the management decisions concerning potential remedial action on the contaminated sediments. This ecological risk assessment describes the steps and rationale taken to evaluate the risk posed by an area of PCB-contaminated marine sediments in an otherwise relatively pristine northern coastal environment. PMID:23147987

  3. Spectral decomposition of deep flow variability at the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and the Labrador Sea Western Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Nuno; Käse, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Almost two decades of observed transports in the subpolar deep branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning are available. However, the time series - especially in the Denmark Strait and Labrador Sea - show gaps of considerable length. Linear or polynomial interpolation can introduce spurious periodicity at long periods . By using Statistical Singular Analysis (SSA) techniques, it should be possible to interpolate over data gaps in a spectrally consistent way. We apply gap filling and forecasting techniques to three time series of observations of the deep AMOC with different characteristics. This allows us to restrict the spectral comparsion between the data at most energetic spectral bands. The method is first tested by introducing artificial gaps in a model timeseries and then comparing the gap-filled results with those of the known original series. Since the Faroe Bank Channel observations do not have gaps longer than one month, the procedure is repeated with real observations and applied to the series with longer gaps. Since the only series with strong annual cycle is that of the FBC, only those modes representing energy in the interannual bands are discussed further. They reveal a variability maximum at periods between 3 and 5 years and near 10 years . For multidecadal variability which shows higher energy in climate models there is urgent need to obtain longer term observational data. On the other hand, forecasts for 3-5 years from existing data seem to be possible as is revealed by our simulations.

  4. Increasing body condition score is positively associated interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lauren; Mann, Sabine; Levine, Corri B; Cummings, Bethany P; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2015-10-15

    The accumulation of excess body fat is a growing problem in dogs as well as people. Contrary to prior understanding of adipose tissue, fat is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that promotes a chronic low-grade inflammatory state often characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These have been implicated in several obesity-related disorders such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to characterize fasting plasma cytokine concentrations in ninety-two healthy client-owned Labrador retriever dogs of various ages and body condition scores. The dogs were grouped according to body condition score (BCS) into three categories, lean, overweight and obese. The following cytokines and chemokines were evaluated; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (TNF-?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1). Our results indicated that fasting plasma IL-6 and MCP-1 concentrations are associated with increasing BCS. This data suggest that certain markers of inflammation increase with increasing body condition score, and that dogs, similar to humans, may be fostering a chronic inflammatory state due to obesity. PMID:26235599

  5. Protective factors for mental health and well-being in a changing climate: Perspectives from Inuit youth in Nunatsiavut, Labrador.

    PubMed

    Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ford, James D; Shiwak, Inez; Wood, Michele

    2015-09-01

    The Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid changes in climatic conditions, with implications for Inuit communities widely documented. Youth have been identified as an at-risk population, with likely impacts on mental health and well-being. This study identifies and characterizes youth-specific protective factors that enhance well-being in light of a rapidly changing climate, and examines how climatic and environmental change challenges these. In-depth conversational interviews were conducted with youth aged 15-25 from the five communities of the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, Canada: Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet. Five key protective factors were identified as enhancing their mental health and well-being: being on the land; connecting to Inuit culture; strong communities; relationships with family and friends; and staying busy. Changing sea ice and weather conditions were widely reported to be compromising these protective factors by reducing access to the land, and increasing the danger of land-based activities. This study contributes to existing work on Northern climate change adaptation by identifying factors that enhance youth resilience and, if incorporated into adaptation strategies, may contribute to creating successful and effective adaptation responses. PMID:26275362

  6. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

  7. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  8. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  9. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  11. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  12. Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks Foundations of Ecology Clemson University #12;Larger the area(c) + zlog(A) Is the relationship between species and area linear? Island Biogeography Theory ­ (1963 Foundation Present ­ Prof. of Entomology at Harvard University #12;Island Biogeography Theory (1963) E

  13. Analysis of Labrador Sea Water in the subpolar North Atlantic by using sulphurhexafluoride as a transient tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Bulsiewicz, Klaus; Tanhua, Toste

    2010-05-01

    In this study we investigate two different modes of Labrador Sea Water (upper and deep LSW) by means of combined measurements of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) and chlorofluorocarbon (component CFC-12). In 2008 and 2009, two basin-wide surveys including hydrographic and tracer measurements have been conducted in the western subpolar North Atlantic. Both surveys aimed at estimating the recent formation and describing subsequent spreading of these two LSW types in the subpolar gyre. The SF6 signal observed in the water column of the subpolar gyre, basically, has two sources. On the one hand side, SF6 has been artificially added to the ocean in the framework of an deliberate tracer release experiment conducted in the Nordic Seas back in 1996. While leaving the Greenland Sea parts of this signal entered the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) which represents the bottom layer in the subpolar gyre. Away from the overflow regions LSW is well separated from the bottom layer by Iceland Scotland Overflow Water that originates in the eastern basin and has a tracer minimum. The tracer load in the LSW layers stems from atmosphere-ocean interaction. This transient signal has a well known atmospheric time history with an linearly increasing trend, whereas tracers chlorofluorocarbons meanwhile have a stagnant or even declining atmospheric history. SF6 is therefore much more appropriate to clearly allocate any gain of SF6 in the LSW layers to water mass formation during winter time. In this study we will present first basin-wide inventories from combined SF6 and CFC-12 measurement and analyze and compare the different fingerprints of LSW formation and spreading. Respective results will be compared to a large-scale survey conducted in 2003 that also yielded SF6 and CFC-12 data.

  14. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5–25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance the osseointegration of SLA surfaces and have the potential for future use. PMID:25609967

  15. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of the Mistastin Lake impact structure (Labrador, Canada): Implications for geomagnetic perturbation and shock effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Gwenaël; Gilder, Stuart A.; Marion, Cassandra L.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Pohl, Jean; Petersen, Nikolai; Sylvester, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    We carried out an integrated rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study of the ?36 Ma Mistastin Lake (Labrador, Canada) meteorite impact structure in order to investigate whether energy from the collision influenced the geodynamo and to assess the effects of shock on the magnetic properties of the target basement rocks. Stepwise demagnetization of 114 specimens isolates a well-defined magnetization component throughout the crater whose overall mean deviates slightly from the expected direction for North America at the time of impact. Paleointensity results from seven samples meeting stringent selection criteria show no significant difference with a global compilation from 40 to 30 Ma. The combined results, including those from a ?80 m-thick profile of an impact melt unit (Discovery Hill), lend no support that the impact caused an aberration of the geodynamo within a few centuries of a bolide collision that created the ?28 km-diameter crater. Both titanium-rich and titanium-poor titanomagnetite carry the magnetic remanence in the impact melt rocks; their relative proportions, compositions and domain states are cooling rate dependent. Magnetic hysteresis parameters of the magnetite-bearing anorthositic basement rocks reveal systematic changes as a function of distance from the crater's center with an increasing prevalence of single domain-like grains toward the center. Changes with radial distance are also found in the character of the Verwey transition in magnetite. Basement rocks were thermally overprinted when lying less than a meter from the impact melt rocks; Mesoproterozoic basement rocks more than a meter below the impact melt rocks hold similar magnetization directions to those expected from a 1500 Ma result for Laurentia. No evidence exists that shock heating of the basement rocks exceeded 200 °C at distances of 6-7 km from the crater's center.

  16. Glacier change from the early Little Ice Age to 2005 in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Bell, Trevor; Barrand, Nicholas E.

    2015-10-01

    The glaciers of the Torngat Mountains of northern Labrador are the southernmost of the Canadian Arctic and the easternmost of continental North America. Currently, 195 small mountain glaciers cover an area in excess of ~ 24 km2, confined mostly to small cirques and upland depressions. Using a combination of field and remote sensing methods this study reconstructs and dates the areal extent of Torngat glaciers at their Neoglacial maximums, enabling the first assessment of regional glacier change over the past several centuries. Mapped glacier paleomargins (n = 165) are compared to current (2005) glaciers and ice masses, showing a 52.5% reduction in glacier area, with at least 11 former glaciers altogether disappearing. Glacier change is spatially homogenous and independent of most geographic and topographic factors; however, glacier elevation and glacier size mitigated total change. Previously established lichen growth stations were revisited, and growth rates recalculated based on ~ 30-year-long records, enabling the construction of locally derived low- and high-altitude lichen growth curves. Using growth rates and in situ lichen measurements, the retreat from maximum Neoglacial moraine extents are suggested to have occurred between A.D. 1581 and 1673. These findings indicate a similar magnitude of post-LIA retreat to mountain glaciers elsewhere, yet a much earlier timing (~ 200 years) of retreat than other glaciers in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Though no definitive answer explaining this discrepancy is presented, evidence suggests that regional climate dynamics and the importance of solar radiation for Torngat glaciers may play an important role in local glacierization.

  17. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lavrijsen, Ineke C M; Leegwater, Peter A J; Martin, Alan J; Harris, Stephen J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Heuven, Henri C M; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2014-01-01

    Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a ?(2) statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001). Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia. PMID:24498183

  18. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  19. Stable Pb isotope ratios in aerosols, precipitation, and size-fractionated particulate matter in the Gulf of Maine, Scotian Shelf, and Labrador Sea.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Sarah Weinstein; Moran, S Bradley

    2010-07-01

    Measurements of Pb isotopes in aerosols, precipitation, and size-fractionated particulate matter from the Gulf of Maine, Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea are used to investigate the source of Pb. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in aerosols and precipitation collected at New Castle, NH suggests that anthropogenic Pb is a mixture of US and Canadian sources. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in >53 microm particulate matter from the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf slope waters are consistent with contaminant Pb inputs predominantly from US and Canadian sources, while in shelf waters (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in >0.4 microm and >53 microm particles are consistent with a mixture of US and Canadian sources, as well as Pb associated with resuspended surface sediment. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in particulate matter (>0.4 microm, 10-53 microm, and >53 microm) from Labrador Sea surface waters range from 1.165 to 1.211 and are a mixture of Pb derived from ore compositions consistent with Broken Hill, Australia and southeast Missouri, US sources. PMID:20304436

  20. Stewart Head from Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

  1. Reykjavik, Island Praktikumsstelle: Museum, Kunstfestival

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Reykjavik, Island Praktikumsstelle: Museum, Kunstfestival Praktikumszeitraum: Sommer 2005 Mein in Island lebenden, deutsch-schweizer Künstlers Dieter Roth motiviert, die den Kern des diesjährigen städtische Kultureinrichtung Islands als auch für das landesweit größte Kunstfestival tätig zu sein

  2. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (?3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (P<0.001) and MDR (P<0.001). Significant at P<0.003, was the consumption of raw meat for clavulanate-amoxicillin (OR: 9.57; 95% CI: 2.0-45.7) and third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) (OR: 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-54.0). AMR E. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due to the increasing popularity of raw-meat canine diets, and the potential for opportunistic infection, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from commensal isolates to potential pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25732912

  4. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  5. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  6. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  7. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N131; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  8. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  9. Rhode Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor on the Rhode Island coast and shows a skate on a fine-grained, likely silty or muddy seafloor. This photograph was collected to support research and management activities (e.g., wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf....

  10. Barnacles on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

  11. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  12. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  13. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the ... entire west end of Honshu Island, which crosses the upper half of the images, is covered with broken clouds. Away from the clouds, the ...

  14. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  15. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  16. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  17. Paleoceanography of marine isotope stage 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) in the Labrador Sea based on palynological, microfaunal and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Aurelie; de Vernal, Anne; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    We have documented the paleoceanography of marine isotope stage (MIS) 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) at IODP Site 1305 off southwest Greenland in the Labrador Sea, based on dinocyst and foraminifer populations in addition to isotopic measurements in planktonic foraminiferal shells. The planktonic foraminifer assemblages are dominated by the mesopelagic species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral (Nps). Current interpretations of Nps dominance would thus point to a polar type environment. However, dinocyst assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Bitectatodinium tepikiense, which rather indicate temperate-subpolar environnement conditions in the photic zone. Assuming that Nps ecological requirements were unchanged, reconciling the two observations lead to hypothesize a strong stratification of the surface water layer over a subsurface water mass, with Nps ocupying the pycnocline in between. We tentatively applied the modern analogue technique (MAT) to reconstruct surface water conditions from the dinocyst assemblages. Good analogues are found in the modern dinocyst database (n=1492), notably along the southeast Canadian margins and northwest European margins. They indicate a low salinity in the surface waters (32-34.5), a large seasonal amplitude of temperatures with cool winters (3-6° C) and mild summer (10-15° C). Stable isotope measurements in Nps point to ?18O ranging 1.5-2.2o throughout most of the interval, thus significantly lower than those measured during the Holocene (>2.2o at this very site. Benthic isotopic values (~3.2o are in accordance with the global stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (Paleoceanography, 2005). This suggests the presence of relatively warm water intermediate mass in between the bottom and surface water masses. The isotopic, micropaleontological and dinocyst results together show that conditions were unfavorable for convection and intermediate or deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during this interval.

  18. Studies of Labrador Sea Water formation and variability in the subpolar North Atlantic in the light of international partnership and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieke, Dagmar; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the lightest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and one of the most prominent water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic, has seen remarkable changes over the past century. LSW originates in the Labrador Sea, where it is formed through wintertime ocean convection of varying intensity, depth and spatial extent. Formation of LSW, followed by its respective injection into the mid-depth circulation system, is mandatory for ventilating and renewing water layers of the interior ocean. Indispensably important for unraveling the history of variability in formation and properties of LSW as well as for mapping its large-scale spreading and export are sustained physical and chemical observations from the deep ocean. These observations started at the beginning of the 20th century from occasional mostly national surveys and today constitute large-scale multi-national collaborative efforts including a vast arsenal of sophisticated instrumentation. In a historical context, we revisit major milestones over the past 100 years which have established and are constantly adding to shaping today's knowledge on LSW, and present first details on the latest vintage of LSW generated during the strong winter of 2013/2014. Respective Argo data reveal mixed-layer depths greater than 1700 m marking formation of a new cold and fresh anomaly that has spread since then over the subpolar North Atlantic. We further summarize the on-going observational efforts in the subpolar North Atlantic and present a compilation of hydrographic standard lines that serve to provide top-to-bottom information on NADW components.

  19. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  1. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  2. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  3. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  4. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  5. Pacific Islands Regional Office

    E-print Network

    kinds of dolphins and whales that live in the waters around the Hawaiian Islands, one species has become to harass, hunt, capture or kill, or attempt to do any of these activities to a marine mammal. Activities

  6. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  7. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice...Long Island Power Authority (Authority), and Long Island Lighting Company (LIPA); (the Authority and LIPA together,...

  8. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  9. Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3), far right, Hall of Transportation (Building 2), middle, and The Administration Building (Building 1), far left, Port of Trade Winds is in foreground, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  11. Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  12. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  13. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  14. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  15. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  16. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  17. Glacially-megalineated limestone terrain of Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada; onset zone of the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Putkinen, Niko

    2014-03-01

    Anticosti is a large elongate island (240 km long, 60 km wide) in eastern Canada within the northern part of a deep water trough (Gulf of St. Lawrence) that terminates at the Atlantic continental shelf edge. The island's Pleistocene glaciological significance is that its long axis lay transverse to ice from the Quebec and Labrador sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moving south from the relatively high-standing Canadian Shield. Recent glaciological reconstructions place a fast-flowing ice stream along the axis of the Gulf of St. Lawrence but supporting geologic evidence in terms of recognizing its hard-bedded onset zone and downstream streamlined soft bed is limited. Anticosti Island consists of gently southward-dipping limestone plains composed of Ordovician and Silurian limestones (Vaureal, Becscie and Jupiter formations) with north-facing escarpments transverse to regional ice flow. Glacial deposits are largely absent and limestone plains in the higher central plateau of the island retain a relict apparently ‘preglacial’ drainage system consisting of deeply-incised dendritic bedrock valleys. In contrast, the bedrock geomorphology of the lower lying western and eastern limestone plains of the island is strikingly different having been extensively modified by glacial erosion. Escarpments are glacially megalineated with a distinct ‘zig-zag’ planform reflecting northward-projecting bullet-shaped ‘noses’ (identified as rock drumlins) up to 2 km wide at their base and 4 km in length with rare megagrooved upper surfaces. Drumlins are separated by southward-closing, funnel-shaped ‘through valleys’ where former dendritic valleys have been extensively altered by the streaming of basal ice through gaps in the escarpments. Glacially-megalineated bedrock terrain such as on the western and eastern flanks of Anticosti Island is elsewhere associated with the hard-bedded onset zones of fast flowing ice streams and provides important ground truth for the postulated Laurentian Channel Ice Stream (LCIS) within the Gulf of St. Lawrence sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  18. Ian Cahatol Channel Islands

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    High Cruz, Jessie West Adams Prep Jimmy Du Temple City High Michael Goulis Palos Verdes High Dana HandyStudents Ian Cahatol Channel Islands Chen, Catherine Palos Verdes High Hayward (Adam) Cox Ridgeview Fallbrook High Garrett Hara Mark Keppel High Hill, Timothy Daniel (Danny) Servite High Kenneth Holstad Long

  19. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Block Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  1. Plum Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Plum Island coast and shows spider crabs on seabed characterized by coarse sand, gravelly sediment and shell fragments. This photograph was collected as part of a collaborative seafloor mapping program between the USGS and the Connecticut Department of Envi...

  2. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  3. Introduction Orcas Island

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    (T. ordinoides), and Western Terrestrial (T. elegans) - and the Northern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria of the sharp-tailed snake before and had no idea a rare reptile species was found on the island. Blue (All locations are approximate) Outreach and Public Education In order to better educate the public

  4. Atsena Otie Key Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

  5. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  6. Stable C and N isotopic composition of cold-water corals from the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope: Examination of trophic, depth and spatial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Jamieson, Robyn E.; Edinger, Evan N.; Wareham, Vonda E.

    2008-10-01

    With the aim of understanding of the trophic ecology of cold-water corals, this paper explores the tissue ?13C and ?15N values of 11 'coral' species (8 alcyonacean, 1 antipatharian, 1 pennatulacean, 1 scleractinian) collected along the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope. Isotopic results delimit species along continua of trophic level and food lability. With an isotopic signature similar to macrozooplankton, Paragorgia arborea occupies the lowest trophic level and most likely feeds on fresh phytodetritus. Primnoa resedaeformis occupies a slightly higher trophic level, likely supplementing its diet with microzooplankton. Bathypathes arctica, Pennatulacea and other alcyonaceans ( Acanella arbuscula, Acanthogorgia armata, Anthomastus grandiflorus, Duva florida, Keratoisis ornata, Paramuricea sp.) had higher ?13C and ?15N values, suggesting these species feed at higher trophic levels and on a greater proportion of more degraded POM. Flabellum alabastrum had an isotopic signature similar to that of snow crab, indicating a primarily carnivorous diet. Isotopic composition did not vary significantly over a depth gradient of 50-1400 m. Coral ?13C increased slightly (<1‰) from the Hudson Strait to the southern Grand Banks, but ?15N did not. By modulating the availability and quality of suspended foods, substrate likely exerts a primary influence on the feeding habits of cold-water corals.

  7. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp® ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp® sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and ?0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and ?1.1°C. PMID:25320380

  8. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  9. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  10. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  11. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The...

  12. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  13. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  14. Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands

    E-print Network

    Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

  15. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  16. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  17. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  18. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and...

  19. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  20. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  1. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  2. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  3. Geology of the Eoarchean, > 3.95 Ga, Nulliak supracrustal rocks in the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: The oldest geological evidence for plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shogo; Sawaki, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Akira; Tashiro, Takayuki; Koshida, Keiko; Shimojo, Masanori; Aoki, Kazumasa; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2015-11-01

    The Earth is a unique planet, which has been highly evolved, diversified and complicated through geologic time, and underwent many key events, including giant impact, magma ocean, core formation, large-scale mantle differentiation and late heavy bombardment, especially in its dawn. But, our knowledge of early Earth is limited due to the lack of the Hadean supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks with the Eoarchean ages provide key evidence for the Earth's early evolution, but few supracrustal rocks have been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we mapped in seven areas of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, where ancient supracrustal sequences are interleaved with a diverse assemblage of orthogneisses. Early studies suggested that some of them have the Mesoarchean ages because of the lack of the Mesoarchean Saglek dyke, but we found the Saglek dykes in the areas to recognize the Eoarchean Nulliak supracrustal rocks and Uivak Gneiss in all the areas. Recent reassessment of U-Pb dating and cathodoluminescence observation of zircons from the oldest suites of the Uivak Gneiss showed that the Uivak Gneiss has the Eoarchean age, > 3.95 Ga, and forms the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneiss series. Because our geological survey clearly showed that the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneisses were intruded into the Nulliak supracrustal belts, the Nulliak supracrustal rocks are the oldest supracrustal rock in the world. The supracrustal belts consist of piles of fault-bounded blocks, which are composed of the ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks in ascending order, similar to modern ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). In addition, small-scale duplex structures are found over the areas. The presence of duplex structure and OPS indicates that the > 3.95 Ga Nulliak supracrustal belts originate from an accretionary complex. The presence of the accretionary complex, ophiolite and granitic continental crust provides the oldest evidence for the plate tectonics on the early Earth.

  4. Influence of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic Ocean on a parasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) occurring off coastal Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of environmental change on an endoparasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over a 30-year period off the coast of Labrador in the north-western Atlantic, North Atlantic Fisheries Organization subareas 2J-3K. Cod, once an abundant fish species that had been commercially exploited for many decades, declined precipitously during the mid-1980s onwards. This decline was attributed to climatic changes that affected the entire food chain from zooplankton to fish, sea birds and marine mammals. A monitoring programme was introduced, sampling cod by otter trawling using research vessels. The fish, after capture, were frozen at - 20 degrees C, subsequently thawed and the digestive tract removed and examined for the parasite in 2006. Data from samples taken in 1976, 1980-81, 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2003 were compared statistically with those collected in 2006. The results indicate a decline in the prevalence and mean abundance of E. gadi in 1986 with a minimum in 2000 but increasing gradually in 2003 and 2006. These changes were coincident initially with a decline of oceanic temperature and the entire food web, including capelin (Mallotus villosus), a preferred prey of cod and primary source of E. gadi. The increase in prevalence and mean abundance of the parasite in 2006 were associated with an increase of oceanic temperature and the return of small schools of capelin to offshore areas. Cod older than 4 years harboured a greater abundance of E. gadi than younger fish, while no difference was observed between the sexes. The results suggest that the abundance of E. gadi can be useful as a bioindicator of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic. PMID:18452629

  5. Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Methods Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland–Altman plots. Results The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p?

  6. Investigating public perceptions and knowledge translation priorities to improve water safety for residents with private water supplies: a cross-sectional study in Newfoundland and Labrador

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The first objective of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water and alternative sources with respect to safety, quality, testing and treatment in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. The second objective was to provide public health practitioners with recommendations for improving knowledge translation (KT) efforts in NL, based on assessments of respondents’ perceived information needs and preferred KT methods. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of 618 households with private water supplies was conducted in March-April, 2007. Questions pertained to respondents’ perceptions of their tap water, water concerns, alternative water use, well characteristics, and water testing behaviours. Results Approximately 94% of households were supplied by private wells (50% drilled and 50% dug wells), while 6% obtained water from roadside ponds, rivers or springs (RPRS). While 85% rated their water quality highly, 55% nevertheless had concerns about its overall safety. Approximately 11% of respondents never tested their water, and of the 89% that had, 80% tested at frequencies below provincial recommendations for bacterial testing. More than one-third of respondents reported treating their water in the home, and 78% employed active carbon filtration methods. Respondents wanted more information on testing options and advice on effective treatment methods. Targeted advertising through television, flyers/brochures and/or radio is recommended as a first step to increase awareness. More active KT methods involving key stakeholders may be most effective in improving testing and treatment behaviour. Conclusions The results presented here can assist public health practitioners in tailoring current KT initiatives to influence well owner stewardship behaviour. PMID:24365203

  7. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 ?mol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 ?mol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

  8. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); P<0.05 was considered significant. Increasing dietary moisture significantly increased total moisture intake (P=0.001), and reduced urine specific gravity (P=0.003), urinary oxalate concentration (P=0.04), and CaOx relative supersaturation (P=0.04) in the MS. Urinary parameters remained unchanged in the LR, indicating that feeding a high moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups. PMID:12589739

  9. State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.

    PubMed

    Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

    2003-08-01

    In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

  10. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  11. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is visible as an off-vertical dark line in the MISR nadir view. In the multi-angle composite, the crack and other stress fractures show up very clearly in bright orange. Radar observations of Pine Island Glacier in the 1990's showed the glacier to be shrinking, and the newly discovered crack is expected to eventually lead to the calving of a major iceberg.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Long Island Sound Report Card

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Long Island Sound Report Card Grading the water quality and ecosystem health of the Urban Sea #12 EasternCentralEastern Narrows The east-west gradient of people and pollution Long Island Sound (100 meters). Both development and density of people increase from east to west along the Sound

  13. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

  14. Tidal Pool on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

  15. Murre Colony on Prince Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

  16. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  17. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

  18. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our...) 457-9778. U.S. Mail: Kevin Ryan, Project Leader, Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge...

  19. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule...Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH. This temporary safety zone is necessary...Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH. The temporary safety zone is...

  20. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. VII. Overview and discussion I. W. B. Thornton1 *, S. Cook2 , J. S. Edwards3 , R. D by volcanic eruption in c. 1645, and Motmot, an emergent island in its caldera lake, was re-created in 1968 species-poor islands. The mid-level caldera plateau, as in 1932, was covered in fairly open forest

  1. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...identified as Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount...

  2. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...identified as Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount...

  3. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  4. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  5. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  6. PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

  7. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  8. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  9. Natural hazards on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The island of Hawaii and the other islands of the Hawaiian chain are products of volcanic eruptions. Lava flows from hundreds of thousands of eruptions through countless centuries have built the Hawaiian Islands. Some volcanoes on the island of Hawaii have been very active during historic time, and similar activity is expected to continue throughout the foreseeable future.

  10. YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island Leader's Forum Wednesday, March 9, 2011 The Long Island Leader's Forum is a valuable and long standing tradition for the horticulture industry on Long Island and success of the green industry on Long Island. Thanks to Fred Soviero, this year's Leader's Forum

  11. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately...

  12. AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 USA 3 4638 14th Street, Boulder, CO 80304 USA July 16, 2002 Report oceanic islands is extremely limited. We photo-identified bottlenose dolphins around the islands of Oahu

  13. Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory in a temperate island archipelago. The theory of island biogeography (ToIB) predicts that island area affects species diversity by reducing immigration rates. The passive sampling hypothesis predicts that island area

  14. Fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility and its role in REE ore formation: Evidence from the Strange Lake rare metal deposit, Québec-Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, Olga; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2014-08-01

    Pegmatites and adjacent subsolvus granites (two alkali feldspars) of the Mid-Proterozoic Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) host potentially economic concentrations of high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), zirconium and niobium. Previous studies have proposed that these concentrations were the result of a combination of extreme fractionation of a peralkaline granitic magma and later hydrothermal remobilization. However, the recent discovery of melt inclusions which, after heating to 900 or 950 °C, quench to immiscible fluoride and silicate glasses, suggests an additional mechanism of HFSE concentration. Crystallized melt inclusions are common in quartz phenocrysts of the early hypersolvus and transsolvus granite. After heating, four types of inclusions were discerned. Type 1 inclusions quench to a single silicate glass containing a high concentration of Zr, Nb and Ti. Quenching of Type 2 inclusions produces a Zr, Nb, Ti-rich silicate glass containing a globule of calcium-rich fluoride glass with a high concentration of the REE. The third inclusion type is similar to Type 2, except that the calcium-rich fluoride glass contains a globule of REE-fluoride glass (up to 50 wt.% total REE). Type 4 inclusions contain calcium-fluoride glass with multiple silicate globules. We propose that during or soon after emplacement, the early granitic magma exsolved a calcium fluoride melt into which rare earth elements (REE) partitioned preferentially. The conjugate silicate melt was consequently depleted in Ca and the REE, and enriched in Zr, Nb and Ti. Crystallization of the fluoride melt occurred late in the crystallization history of the silicate magma allowing it to accumulate in the volatile-rich residual magma that formed the pegmatites. This played a major role in the extreme enrichment of the pegmatites in Ca, F and REE. Crystallization of the pegmatites proceeded inwards from an outer zone in which feldspars, quartz, arfvedsonite and zirconosilicate minerals dominate to a core where the immiscible fluoride liquid collected and crystallized fluorite and REE minerals. Fluid exsolved from the silicate melt reacted with the products of both the silicate and fluoride melts, remobilizing most of the HFSE including the REE. This study reports a rare example of silicate-fluoride melt immiscibility and the first in which such immiscibility played a role in concentrating the REE to potentially economic levels.

  15. U, Th and Pa insights into sedimentological and paleoceanographic changes off Hudson Strait (Labrador Sea) during the last ?37 ka with special attention to methodological issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, Laurence; Maccali, Jenny; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2015-05-01

    A ?9 m-long sediment core spanning the last ?37 ka has been raised from the lower Labrador continental slope, off the Hudson Strait shelf edge. It has been analyzed for its U, Th and Pa isotope contents, along with current sedimentological parameters, as a means to retrieve information about sedimentological changes in response to northeastern Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) margin instabilities. The sequence yielded a high-resolution record of subglacial detrital carbonate pulses from Hudson Strait assigned to "Heinrich events" H2 and H1, whereas H0 was missing. Large variations in bulk sediment U- and Th-contents as well as in 234U/238U activity ratio are observed throughout the sequence, leading to large uncertainties when calculating excesses in 231Pa and 230Th (231Paxs and 230Thxs) over their supported and in-growth fractions (i.e., inherited from detrital minerals and produced from authigenic and diagenetic U-uptake). In particular, 234U excesses or deficits vs 238U (-115‰ < ?234U < +126‰) are observed throughout the sequence, suggesting occasional U-uptake from the water column and/or some late diagenetic mobility along discrete redox gradients, despite the overall low and little variable organic carbon content (0.3 ± 0.1%) observed. The above uncertainties in 231Paxs and 230Thxs estimates and the large variability in geochemical and sedimentary fluxes off the northeastern LIS margin, lead us to downgrade the potential paleoceanographic information yielded by these isotopes in such a setting. Nonetheless, the H2 and H1 layers are highlighted by very low initial excesses in both 230Thxs and 231Paxs, indicating their extremely fast deposition. Throughout most of the sedimentary sequence, the calculated initial 230Thxs fluxes are nearly in balance with 230Th production in the overlying water column. Exceptions are the H2 layer, an interval succeeding H1, and the post-glacial sediment. The estimated initial (231Paxs/230Thxs) ratios are generally lower than their production rate in the water column (i.e., 0.092), indicating nearly continuous preferential export of 231Paxs over the last ?37 cal ka BP, thus the persistence of some deep currents throughout the interval.

  16. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  17. Wild Ponies on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  18. Island Cosmology in the Landscape

    E-print Network

    Yun-Song Piao

    2008-06-11

    In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the evolution of standard big bang cosmology. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of curvature perturbation generated during the emergence of island. We find that generally the spectrum obtained is nearly scale invariant, which can be well related to that of slow roll inflation by a simple duality. This in some sense suggests a degeneracy between their scalar spectra. In addition, we also simply estimate the non-Gaussianity of perturbation, which is naturally large, yet, can lie well in the observational bound. The results shown here indicate that the island emergently thermalized in the landscape can be consistent with our observable universe.

  19. No Company Is An Island 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, A.

    1989-01-01

    No company is an island. Utilities and their industrial customers are discovering that collaboration can breed opportunity while isolation can lead to ruin. Inter company relationships have changed over recent years and HL&P and its customers...

  20. Tsunami trapping near circular islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Vannini, Cesare

    1995-09-01

    Trapping of long water waves that are induced by submarine earthquakes and that attack circular islands is studied by applying a theoretical model ( Tinti and Vannini, 1994) that is based on the linear shallow water approximation. The solution is computed as the superposition of the eigenmodes of the water basin. The tsunami trapping is seen in terms of the capability of the source to excite the “trapped” eigenmodes of the basin. The bottom depth dependence around the island is shown to be quite important in determining the trapping capability of the island: a depth profile that is downwardly concave as the distance from the island coasts increases is substantially more efficient in amplifying the incoming waves and in trapping their energy than a profile exhibiting an upward concavity.

  1. Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

  2. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  3. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  4. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  6. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  7. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  8. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  9. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island...vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone...vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. This rule is intended to...

  10. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  11. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  12. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  13. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  14. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  15. 76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N222; 10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan,...

  16. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the...

  17. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. V. Colonization by ®gs (Ficus spp.), their dispersers and pollinators M. Shanahan1 activity in the early 1950s produced a series of temporary islands in the volcano's caldera lake. One

  18. Treeline Dynamics on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    Vancouver Island marmot. Keywords: dendroecology, subalpine meadows, seedling establishment, tree rings, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot. *Corresponding author Western Geography, 10/11(2000/01), pp. 43

  19. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  20. Big Bird Flies to Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lorne J.; Skanes, Graham R.

    1977-01-01

    This article raises the question of whether Sesame Street could be a valuable learning device for children older than those for whom the program was designed as well as for children who are functioning below average for their ages. (Author/AM)

  1. Trace element composition of olivine - implications for the evolution of the olivine gabbro-troctolite-hosted Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulle, F.; Layne, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Voisey's Bay intrusion is part of the Nain Plutonic Suite, which transects the 1.85 Ga collisional boundary between the Proterozoic Churchill Province and the Archean Nain Province in Eastern Labrador. The intrusion comprises a group of troctolitic to olivine gabbroic bodies linked by olivine gabbro dikes; together these rocks host the world-class Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit. Zones of massive and disseminated sulfide mineralization (Reid Brook, Discovery Hill, Mini-Ovoid and Ovoid) occur within a dike and at the entry line of this dike into a larger intrusion termed the Eastern Deeps [1, 2, 3]. At least two pulses of magma have generated the intrusion and the associated sulfide mineralization; an initial surge that achieved sulfide saturation by interacting with upper crustal rocks, and a later pulse of fresh, undepleted magma that forced the initial magma upwards and both remobilized the immiscible sulfide liquid and upgraded it in metal content [1, 2, 3]. Previous research [1, 2] has shown that the Ni content of olivine from the distinct sulfide-bearing host rocks is highly variable, and also indicative of both magma mixing and interaction of silicate magmas with sulfide. To further validate the significance of the olivine chemistry as a tracer for ore-forming petrological processes, we have determined the abundances of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn in olivines from the various mafic lithologies of the Eastern Deeps intrusion using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We present systematic variations in Mn, Co, Ni and Zn with Fo-content in olivines for both sulfide-free and sulfide-bearing zones. Olivines from mineralized and brecciated troctolitic/gabbroic zones display significantly higher Mn (up to 11,000 ppm) and Zn (up to 550 ppm) concentrations than those from nominally barren counterparts. The barren troctolite, broadly termed normal troctolite (NT), is a petrographically homogenous plagioclase and olivine cumulate. However, olivine compositional data establish the presence of "reef-like" horizons with, for instance, elevated Ni concentrations (up to 2,500 ppm), versus surrounding horizons where values of ? 1,500 ppm are predominant. These horizons correspond with deflections in the whole-rock MgO, Fe2O3 and MnO contents. If these horizons are widespread and traceable laterally within the intrusion it would imply that: (1) a "cryptic-layering" might be preserved in olivines from the otherwise homogenous NT - indicating either crystallization from an input of fresh, undepleted mafic magma, or an interaction of those olivines with a Ni-rich sulfide liquid [1, 2], (2) the high Mn and Zn concentrations, coupled with lower forsterite values, are probably a result of crystallization from a country rock-contaminated mafic magma, and therefore, might act as a mineral-based indicator for the assimilation of upper crustal material. These observations may assist in developing a signature for olivines that have been in contact with highly contaminated (and thus potentially sulfide saturated) magmas. [1] Li et al. (2000) Econ. Geol. 95, 771-799. [2] Li and Naldrett (1999) Lithos 47, 1-31. [3] Lightfoot and Naldrett (1999) GAC Vol. 13, 1-30.

  2. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  3. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  4. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  5. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  6. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  20. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  1. Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

  2. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  4. Critical island-size, stability and island morphology in nanoparticle island self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques; Hubartt, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle (NP) islands formed at the toluene-air interface during drop-drying are studied using molecular dynamics and energetics calculations. Our calculations were carried out using an empirical potential which takes into account interactions between the dodecanethiol ligands and the toluene solvent, ligand-ligand interactions, and the van der Waals interaction between the Au cores. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on NP diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. The relatively high rate of NP diffusion on an island obtained in our simulations as well as the low calculated activation barrier for interlayer diffusion are also consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete. Supported by NSF CHE-1012896 and DMR-1410840

  5. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

  6. Bidding the CpG island goodbye

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands. PMID:23467495

  7. Biodiversity on island chains: Neutral model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Patrick B.

    2010-11-01

    A neutral ecology model is simulated on an island chain, in which neighboring islands can exchange individuals but only the first island is able to receive immigrants from a metacommunity. It is found by several measures that ? -diversity decreases along the chain. Subtle changes in taxon abundance distributions can be detected when islands in the chain are compared to diversity-matched single islands. The island chain is found to have unexpectedly rich dynamics. Significant ? -diversity correlations are found between islands in the chain, which are absent between diversity-matched single islands. The results potentially apply to human microbial biodiversity and biogeography and suggest that measurements of interindividual and intraindividual ? -diversity may give insights into microbial community assembly mechanisms.

  8. Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Hillary

    2012-10-19

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island...Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island...Island; naval restricted area. (a) The area....

  10. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  11. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  12. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  13. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  14. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  15. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  16. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  17. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  18. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  19. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  8. Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island

    E-print Network

    Wait, D. Alexander

    Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island biogeography the subsidized island biogeography (SIB) hypothesis, which predicts that spatial subsidies may cause insular. Methods To evaluate the SIB hypothesis, we first identified subsidized and unsubsidized islands based

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  10. ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

  11. Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R. Fitzpatrick, P. G. Watson, and F. L. Waelbroeck the phase-velocity of a comparatively wide, isolated, magnetic island, formed as a result of a nonlinear

  12. The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands

    E-print Network

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    The Skirted Island: The Effect of Topography on the Flow Around Planetary Scale Islands by Joseph ^ Corresponding author: e-mail, jpedlosky@whoi.edu #12;2 ABSTRACT The flow around planetary scale islands is examined when the island possesses a topographic skirt representing a steep continental shelf. The model

  13. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  14. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  15. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix E to Part 622...622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1 of...

  16. The Status of Island Scrub Oak (Quercus pacifica) on Catalina Island, California1

    E-print Network

    The Status of Island Scrub Oak (Quercus pacifica) on Catalina Island, California1 Denise A. Knapp2 The island scrub oak is characterized by a shrubby (to 2 meters) or arborescent (to 5 meters or taller) growth form. It is the dominant species of the scrub oak chaparral community on Catalina Island, which

  17. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas E Appendix E to Part 622...622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1 of...

  18. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  19. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  20. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  1. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  2. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  3. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  4. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85 Section 7.85 Shipping ...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line...

  5. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A...

  6. A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions the carbon footprint of typical households within the US Virgin Islands. We find the average carbon footprint

  7. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  8. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Island, St. John, St. Thomas and St. Croix. The islands are principally of volcanic origin and relyVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Virgin Islands Islands are a Territory of the United States. The Territory consists of four principal islands - Water

  9. Annual Fish Passage Report -Rock Island Dam

    E-print Network

    Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965 By Paul D. Zimmer L. McKeman, Director Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965;#12;Annual Fish Passage Report - Rock Island Dam Columbia River, Washington, 1965 By PAUL D. ZIMMER, Fishery

  10. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1960 . SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1960 by Paul D. Zimmer and Clifton C. Davidson United States Fish This annual report of fishway operations at Rock Island Dam in 1960 is dedicated to the memory of co

  11. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

  12. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM

    E-print Network

    42) ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON 1961 Marine Biological. McKeman, Director ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1961--Fisheries No. 421 Washington, D. C. April 1962 #12;Rock Island Dam, Columbia River, Washington ii #12;CONTENTS

  13. Early Hominin Biogeography in Island Southeast Asia

    E-print Network

    Stanier, Charlie

    becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. In 1859, Alfred RussellARTICLE Early Hominin Biogeography in Island Southeast Asia ROY LARICK AND RUSSELL L. CIOCHON. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc

  14. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

  15. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  16. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  17. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary...

  18. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary...

  19. Island-finding ability of marine turtles

    E-print Network

    Hays, Graeme

    Island-finding ability of marine turtles Graeme C. Hays1* , Susanne AÊ kesson2 , Annette C grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we

  20. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section 9.170 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  1. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section 9.170 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  2. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary...

  3. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section 9.170 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  4. Island Biogeography of Populations: An Introduced Species

    E-print Network

    Losos, Jonathan B.

    Island Biogeography of Populations: An Introduced Species Transforms Survival Patterns Thomas W of the underlying basis for the theoretical structure of island biogeography, have received little direct study. We determined a key population trait--survival--in the Bahamian lizard Anolis sagrei on islands

  5. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section 9.170 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  6. SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND, TEXAS

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND, TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1 , ANDREW MORANG1 , DAVID.C.Thomas@usace.army.mil Abstract: Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth while the beach west of the Seawall has severely eroded. In order to protect the island and ensure

  7. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section 9.170 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.170 Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The...

  8. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  9. he volcanic Hawaiian Islands are the most

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    RESEARCH t he volcanic Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated archipelago in the world. They sit spinner dolphins in the main Hawaiian Islands one of the more well-studied populations of dolphins the west coast of Hawai`i ­ `the big island'. Within just a few kilometres of shore the bottom drops

  10. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized catastrophic floods that came through Ares Valles. The Story In symbolism only, these guppy-shaped islands and current-like flutes of land beside them may conjure up a mental image of a flowing Martian river. This picture would only be half-right. Scientifically, no fish ever swam this channel, but these landforms do reveal that catastrophic floods of rushing water probably patterned the land in just this way. Geologists who study flood areas believe that a tremendous force of moving water probably carved both the islands and the small, parallel, 'current-like' ridges around them. The blunt end of the islands (the 'heads' of the 'fish') are probably ancient impact craters that posed obstacles to the water as it rushed down the channel in torrents. Because a crater is resistant to erosion, it creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water makes its way downstream, the crater's interference with the water flow is reduced, so the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins at the narrow end of the island (the 'tail' of the 'fish'). Therefore, from this information, you can tell that the water flowed from the southeast to the northwest. As a rule of thumb for the future, you can say that the narrow end of the island points downstream. The result may be the island behind the crater, but geologists disagree about the exact process by which the island forms. Some scientists argue that the erosive power of the water is directed outward, leaving the area behind, or in the lee of, the obstacle relatively untouched. Other scientists argue that the water slows when it encounters the crater obstacle, and small particles of sand and 'dirt' drop out of the water and are deposited in the lee. There's another small associated uncertainty too. Look closely at the edges of the islands and notice how the land is terraced. These ledges might mark the height of the water at various times during the flood . . . or they might be an indication that layering occurred. It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the stream

  11. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  12. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  13. Birds are islands for parasites

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; DeMatteo, Karen E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host–parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  14. UV - VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 144 is located in Virgin Islands NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, I...

  15. The Manitoulin Island Space Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dianna

    1991-01-01

    Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

  16. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  17. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  18. Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W.

    2012-07-15

    Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

  19. The island rule: made to be broken?

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

    2007-01-01

    The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency. PMID:17986433

  20. Barrier Island Failure During Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallenger, A.; Howd, P.; Stockdon, H.; Wright, C. W.; Fauver, L.; Guy, K.

    2006-12-01

    Classical models of barrier-island response to storms predict that wave runup can periodically overtop an island and transport sand from its seaside to its bayside, forcing the island to migrate landward. While this process can destroy fixed human developments, the island survives with little net change in form or dimensions. In contrast, we find that Louisiana's Chandeleur Islands during Hurricane Katrina were not periodically overtopped by waves, but were continuously inundated by storm surge. When such inundation occurs locally on a barrier island, it can force the erosion of a narrow breach that connects sea and bay. However, little is known about the response of a barrier island when it is entirely submerged. Here, we show that the Chandeleur Islands approached complete failure, losing 84% of their surface area. Their Gulf of Mexico shorelines retreated landward an average of 268 m, the largest retreat ever reported for a storm. Sand was stripped from the islands, reducing their peak elevation from >6 m to <3 m and exposing them to further degradation and potential failure by future hurricanes of less intensity than Katrina. Further, the islands that survived Katrina were marsh remnants composed of mud and vegetation that relatively small waves diminished following the storm. The Chandeleur Islands are prone to failure because of their location on the Mississippi delta where small sand supply and large sea-level rise (induced locally by land subsidence) limit natural rebuilding of the islands following a storm. The response of the delta's barrier islands during Hurricane Katrina provides a warning of how the world's barrier islands might respond to storm-surge inundation should predictions of accelerated global sea level rise prove accurate.

  1. Generalized water-table map of Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Veeger, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The map shows the altitude of water table surface above seal level in the glacial deposits that form Block Island. Because the sediments are only moderately permeable, the water table is close to the to the surface in most parts of the island, even in hilly areas. The map represents a generalized water-table configuration on the basis of data from many different sampling periods; because the data were collected at different times, they should not be used to determine a specific depth to water at a particular site. Water levels measured in 117 shallow wells (less than 35 feet deep) from June through September 1962 and from March through September 1988-90--periods when water levels were at about the same altitude above sea level--ranged from less than 1 to 24 feet below land surface and averaged about 6 feet below land surface.

  2. Hydrogeology and water resources of Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Johnston, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is present on Block Island as a lens of freshwater that overlies saltwater. Yields of 2 to 5 gallons per minute are obtainable throughout the island, and yields of 25 gallons per minute are possible at many wells. Annual water use during 1990 is estimated to have been 53 million gallons, of which approximately 17 million gallons was delivered from a water company at Sands Pond. Demand by water company customers from May through October averages 74,000 gallons per day. The sustainable yield of Sands Pond during the drought years estimated to be only 45,000 gallons per day. Withdrawal of the remaining 29,000 gallons per day from Fresh Pond, proposed as an alternative source, would produce an estimated water-level decline of less than 1 foot. Block Island consists of a Pleistocene moraine deposit that includes meltwater deposits, till, sediment-flow deposits, and glacially transported blocks of Cretaceous strata and pre-Late Wisconsinan glacial deposits. The water table is a subdued reflection of the land-surface topography and flow is generally from the central, topographic highs toward the coast. Layers of low hydraulic- conductivity material impede vertical flow, creating steep vertical gradients. No evidence of widespread ground-water contamination was found during this study. Nitrate concentrations were below Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels at each of the 83 sites sampled. No evidence of dissolved organic constituents was found in groundwater at the 10 sites sampled, and ground-water samples collected near the landfill showed no evidence of contamination from landfill leachate. Dissolved-iron concentrations exceeded the Federal Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level in groundwater at 26 of 76 wells sampled. High iron concentrations were found predominantly in the eastern and northern parts of the island and are attributed to the presence of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter in the aquifer.

  3. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  4. Island biology: looking towards the future

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R.; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014—an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7–11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries1—demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

  5. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  6. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  7. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  8. Storm impact for barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale is proposed that categorizes impacts to natural barrier islands resulting from tropical and extra-tropical storms. The proposed scale is fundamentally different than existing storm-related scales in that the coupling between forcing processes and the geometry of the coast is explicitly included. Four regimes, representing different levels of impact, are defined. Within each regime, patterns and relative magnitudes of net erosion and accretion are argued to be unique. The borders between regimes represent thresholds defining where processes and magnitudes of impacts change dramatically. Impact level 1 is the 'swash' regime describing a storm where runup is confined to the foreshore. The foreshore typically erodes during the storm and recovers following the storm; hence, there is no net change. Impact level 2 is the 'collision' regime describing a storm where the wave runup exceeds the threshold of the base of the foredune ridge. Swash impacts the dune forcing net erosion. Impact level 3 is the 'overwash' regime describing a storm where wave runup overtops the berm or, if present, the foredune ridge. The associated net landward sand transport contributes to net migration of the barrier landward. Impact level 4 is the 'inundation' regime describing a storm where the storm surge is sufficient to completely and continuously submerge the barrier island. Sand undergoes net landward transport over the barrier island; limited evidence suggests the quantities and distance of transport are much greater than what occurs during the 'overwash' regime.

  9. Cladocera of Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Sinev, Artem Y; Gu, Yangliang; Han, Bo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The cladoceran fauna of Hainan Island (China) was investigated. Samples were collected in January 2013 and in April 2014 from over hundred water bodies, including large and small reservoirs, ponds and pools, rivers, streams, and paddy fields. There are no large natural lakes on the island. We found 53 species of Cladocera: 9 species of Sididae; 5 Daphniidae; 2 Moinidae; 2 Macrothricidae; 2 Ilyocryptidae; 3 Bosminidae; and 30 Chydoridae. Planktonic communities were dominated by Diaphanosoma dubium Manuilova, 1964, D. excisum Sars, 1885, D. sarsi Richard, 1894, Moina micrura Kurz, 1874 and Bosminopsis deitersi (Richard, 1895). Six Chydoridae species are first records for China. The fauna consists mostly of Oriental and Pantropical species, but, also includes non-tropical Palaearctic species and East Asian endemics. For these species, Hainan Island is the southernmost record. The number of species is rather small, compared to adjacent areas. This may reflect a low intensity of sampling, but more likely a lack of natural lakes. Communities in reservoirs suffer from water level fluctuations, and the absence of permanent macrophyte stands, a preferred habitat of littoral cladocera. PMID:26623784

  10. A review of the contributions of fisheries and climate variability to contrasting dynamics in two Arcto-boreal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Persistent high productivity in the Barents Sea and collapse on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, George R.; Nakken, Odd; Brattey, John

    2013-07-01

    Stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the North Atlantic and adjacent seas have been fished intensively for years, and many are now severely depleted. In order to promote recovery and sustainable harvesting, it is essential to understand factors that have contributed to the declines and to variability in rates of recovery. Considerable insight may be gleaned by comparing and contrasting the histories of the Northeast Arctic (NEA) cod in the Barents Sea - Svalbard area of the northeast Atlantic and the “northern cod” on the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) shelf in the northwest Atlantic. These two stocks, which were among the 3 largest cod stocks during the middle of the 20th century, are Arcto-boreal, and have many species of prey and predators in common. The biomass of NEA cod has varied considerably over time, and in 2009 was a little above 60% of its maximum observed level, which occurred in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In contrast, the biomass of NL cod decreased steadily from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increased somewhat during the 1980s, and crashed during the early 1990s to an extremely low level, at which it remained for a decade before showing recent indications of improvement. Although both stocks were influenced by similar changes in harvesting strategies and environmental circumstances, both biotic and abiotic, there are two events which stand out as being particularly influential. First, crises developed in the management of both stocks in the late 1980s. For NEA cod, the crisis was environmental, caused by the collapse of capelin (Mallotus villosus), the main food for adult cod, whereas for NL cod the crisis was caused by a sudden large reduction in scientific perception of stock size. The difference in response to these crises strongly influenced subsequent stock dynamics. Catches of NEA cod were reduced considerably, preventing severe overharvesting of the cod that at that time experienced low productivity, whereas catches of NL cod were reduced only a little, contributing to escalating fishing mortality. The second event followed directly upon the first. The North Atlantic Oscillation index, which had been increasingly positive since the early 1970s, became strongly so during the early 1990s, creating favourable environmental conditions (warm water) in the Barents Sea and highly unfavourable conditions (cold water and extensive ice cover) on the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The NEA stock recovered quickly, whereas the NL stock collapsed. The NEA cod has remained highly productive to this date, whereas the NL cod remained very unproductive for a decade, primarily because of high mortality, most of which appears to have been natural.

  11. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    . They are primarily volcanic in origin. The principal islands are St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John and Water IslandVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction The Virgin Islands

  13. A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; Poyé, A.; Yagi, M.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

  14. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  15. Mass wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, H.; Sager, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those comprising the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable with the passage of time, resulting in failures of the subaerial and submarine portion of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary source of destruction and loss of volume of many oceanic islands, but our knowledge of mass wasting in seamount and island chains is still rudimentary. To better understand mass wasting in the western Galapagos Islands, multi-beam bathymetry, backscatter and sidescan sonar data were used to examine topography characteristic of mass wasting. Observations show that mass wasting plays an important role in the morphological development of Galapagos volcanoes. While volcanic activity continues to modify the submarine terrain, the data show that several types of mass wasting can be found in this archipelago. The steep upper slopes of the north and west flanks of Fernandina Island and the north and southwest flanks of Isabela Island are characterized by slump sheets. The lower slopes on the north and west flank of Fernandina and the southwest tip of Isabela Island are characterized by debris flows. The northwest tip of Isabela Island is characterized by chaotic slumping and detached blocks originating from the sector collapse of Volcan Ecuador. Unlike the giant landslides documented by GLORIA imagery around the Hawaiian Islands, the western Galapagos Islands appear to be characterized by small slumps and debris flows. Nevertheless, this study indicates that submarine mass wasting is widespread in the western Galapagos Islands and is an important component of erosion of these volcanic edifices.

  16. Pleistocene glaciation on st. George, pribilof islands.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D M; Einarsson, T

    1966-04-15

    A small ice cap (covering about 12 square kilometers) and at least two-probably four-cirque glaciers (each covering less than 1 square kilometer) occurred on St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, probably during the Illinoian; Glaciation. Snowbanks persisted during a later cold cycle, probably during the Wisconsin Glaciation, with no glaciers existing. We found no evidence of glaciation on other Pribilof islands. PMID:17775155

  17. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  18. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  19. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  20. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  1. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  2. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  3. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    PubMed

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes. PMID:16803325

  4. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  5. The evolution of birdsong on islands

    PubMed Central

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals on islands, by undertaking a broad comparison based on pairs of closely related island-mainland species across the globe. We studied song traits related to complexity (number of different syllables, frequency bandwidth), to vocal performance (syllable delivery rate, song duration), and also three particular song elements (rattles, buzzes, and trills) generally implicated in aggressive communication. We also investigated whether song complexity was related to the number of similar sympatric species. We found that island species were less likely to produce broadband and likely aggressive song elements (rattles and buzzes). By contrast, various aspects of song complexity and performance did not differ between island and mainland species. Species with fewer same-family sympatric species used wider frequency bandwidths, as predicted by the character release hypothesis, both on continents and on islands. Our study supports the hypothesis of a reduction in aggressive behavior on islands and suggests that discrimination against closely related species is an important factor influencing birdsong evolution. PMID:24455143

  6. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    Long, Chuck

    2010-07-15

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  7. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  8. Island length distribution in genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Percus, O E; Percus, J K

    1999-09-01

    We consider the general problem of constructing a physical map of a genome by welding islands of overlapping clones. Both distribution of clone length and non-uniform probability of overlap detection are taken into account, the latter restricted to the Markov case in which only the location of the end of the developing island is required. Exact results for the distribution of island length are obtained in the special cases of fixed clone length or rigid overlap criterion, and mean and variance for the general situation. Determination of ocean length distribution permits island number and contig number distributions to be found as well. PMID:10501922

  9. Open Sea -Cayman IslandsOpen Sea -Cayman Islands 0 50 100 150 20025

    E-print Network

    Exeter, University of

    Exclusive Economic Zone - Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Cuba Jamaica Honduras #12;Coral Reefs - Grand CaymanCoral Sand Colonized Hardbottom Uncolonized Hardbottom Beach Rock Marine Protected Area #12;Coral Reefs - Little CaymanCoral Reefs - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National

  10. Coral reef recovery in the Galapagos Islands: the northernmost islands (Darwin and Wenman)

    E-print Network

    Purkis, Sam

    REPORT Coral reef recovery in the Gala´pagos Islands: the northernmost islands (Darwin and Wenman were severely degraded dur- ing the 1982­1983 El Nin~o warming event. Mapping of the coral reef by echinoid bioerosion that varies significantly among islands. Keywords Gala´pagos coral recovery Á Reef

  11. First record of Orobdella kawakatsuorum (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida: Erpobdelliformes) from Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Specimens of the genus Orobdella Oka, 1895 from Kunashir Island, the Kuril Islands, are identified as Orobdella kawakatsuorum Richardson, 1975. Mitochondrial tRNALeu and ND1 data confirm the species identification of the Kunashir specimens. This is the first record of the genus Orobdella from the Kuril Islands. PMID:24855445

  12. Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George Island, Florida

    E-print Network

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George September 2009 Keywords: Dune recovery LiDAR Overwash Hurricane Dennis Barrier island During the summer barrier island chain located along the Florida Panhandle. In this paper, LiDAR-based morphological changes

  13. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...Lake Erie, Catawba Island, Port Clinton, OH between 9:15 p.m. through 9:45 p...Fireworks, Catawba Island; Port Clinton, OH. (a) Location. The following area...

  14. 77 FR 33130 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...between Lakeside and Kelley's Island, OH. The Captain of the Port Detroit has determined...swimmers in the water between Lakeside, OH and Kelley's Island, OH, the Coast...

  15. Electron Energization InsideElectron Energization Inside Magnetic IslandsMagnetic Islands

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Electron Energization InsideElectron Energization Inside Magnetic IslandsMagnetic Islands Katarzyna: already fast electrons bounce insideThe theory: already fast electrons bounce inside magnetic islandsmagnetic islands The question: what happens to slower electrons?The question: what happens to slower

  16. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Republic of the Marshall Islands MarshallIslands

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    and islets including 29 atolls and five solitary, low coral islands. Only 0.01%, or 181.3 km2 , of the country is dry land. The atolls and islands are arranged in two roughly parallel groupings--the eastern Ratak (or Sunrise) Chain containing 15 atolls and two islands, and the Ralik (Sunset) Chain to the west

  17. Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Haeg Island Michael J. Benton a,

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Haeg Island Michael J. Benton a, , Zoltan 2009 Accepted 21 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Dinosaurs Cretaceous, in 1914, to suggest that the latest Cretaceous dinosaurs from Haeg, Romania were an island fauna, based

  18. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  19. 77 FR 71531 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH in the Federal Register (77 FR... Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim,...

  20. Contradiction and grammar : the case of weak islands

    E-print Network

    Abrusán, Márta

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about weak islands. Weak islands are contexts that are transparent to some but not all operator-variable dependencies. For this reason, they are also sometimes called selective islands. Some paradigmatic ...

  1. 6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  2. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-4089-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2012-0002] Rhode Island...for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated November...Island resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October...

  3. 36 CFR 7.65 - Assateague Island National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Assateague Island National Seashore. 7.65...SYSTEM § 7.65 Assateague Island National Seashore. (a...designated routes from the island. (9) Prior to entering... (iii) Primary dune. Barriers or mounds of sand which...

  4. 36 CFR 7.65 - Assateague Island National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Assateague Island National Seashore. 7.65...SYSTEM § 7.65 Assateague Island National Seashore. (a...designated routes from the island. (9) Prior to entering... (iii) Primary dune. Barriers or mounds of sand which...

  5. 36 CFR 7.65 - Assateague Island National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Assateague Island National Seashore. 7.65...SYSTEM § 7.65 Assateague Island National Seashore. (a...designated routes from the island. (9) Prior to entering... (iii) Primary dune. Barriers or mounds of sand which...

  6. 36 CFR 7.65 - Assateague Island National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Assateague Island National Seashore. 7.65...SYSTEM § 7.65 Assateague Island National Seashore. (a...designated routes from the island. (9) Prior to entering... (iii) Primary dune. Barriers or mounds of sand which...

  7. 36 CFR 7.65 - Assateague Island National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Assateague Island National Seashore. 7.65...SYSTEM § 7.65 Assateague Island National Seashore. (a...designated routes from the island. (9) Prior to entering... (iii) Primary dune. Barriers or mounds of sand which...

  8. Recovery Act Invests $116,000 at Apostle Islands

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Secretary Salazar checks out the island's photovoltaic solar panels. Solar panels are the sole source of electricity for the islands and are used to run the interior of the lighthouse on Michigan Island....

  9. 8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE MAKING SIGN (STOP 5). NOTE WICKET MADE OF VINES IN FOREGROUND. - Jamestown Island Loop Road, Jamestown Island, Jamestown, James City County, VA

  10. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  11. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...and transiting of vessels, particularly deep draft vessels, transiting Long Island...and transiting of vessels, particularly deep draft vessels, through Long Island Sound...provides designated locations for anchorage of deep draft vessels throughout Long Island...

  12. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

  13. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

  14. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

  15. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

  16. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

  17. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100 Section 61.100 Aeronautics...Pilots § 61.100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight training...

  18. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100 Section 61.100 Aeronautics...Pilots § 61.100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight training...

  19. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61 National... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial...

  20. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

  1. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

  2. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61 National... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial...

  3. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216.85 Wildlife...AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated...

  4. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354 Section 81.354 Protection of...Status Designations § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  5. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354 Section 81.354 Protection of...Status Designations § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  6. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

  7. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354 Section 81.354 Protection of...Status Designations § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  8. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

  9. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61 National... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial...

  10. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216.85 Wildlife...AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated...

  11. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100 Section 61.100 Aeronautics...Pilots § 61.100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight training...

  12. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61 National... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial...

  13. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216.85 Wildlife...AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated...

  14. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216.85 Wildlife...AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated...

  15. 14 CFR 61.100 - Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Pilots based on small islands. 61.100 Section 61.100 Aeronautics...Pilots § 61.100 Pilots based on small islands. (a) An applicant located on an island from which the flight training...

  16. 33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

  17. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216.85 Wildlife...AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated...

  18. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354 Section 81.354 Protection of...Status Designations § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  19. 77 FR 45988 - Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...areas in the vicinity of Great Chebeague Island, Maine. This proposed action is necessary...and property surrounding Great Chebeague Island, improve the safety of anchored...

  20. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

  1. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

  2. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354 Section 81.354 Protection of...Status Designations § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  3. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939.700...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

  4. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61 National... TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial...

  5. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

  6. Classical treatment of island cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Sourish

    2006-03-15

    Computing the perturbation spectrum in the recently proposed Island Cosmology remains an open problem. In this paper we present a classical computation of the perturbations generated in this scenario by assuming that the NEC-violating field behaves as a classical phantom field. Using an exactly solvable potential, we show that the model generates a scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations, as well as a scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves. The scalar perturbations can have sufficient amplitude to seed cosmological structure, while the gravitational waves have a vastly diminished amplitude.

  7. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  8. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.

    The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.

    The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.

    Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support...

  10. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support...

  11. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support...

  12. Effects of magnetic islands on drift wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, P.; Lin, Z. Holod, I.; Xiao, C.

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic islands have been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code to study the effects of the islands on microturbulence. The pressure profile flattening is verified in the simulation with the islands. Simulations of ion temperature gradient instability find that different toroidal modes are linearly coupled together and that toroidal spectra become broader when the island width increases. The real frequencies and growth rates of different toroidal modes approach each other with the averaged value independent of the island width. The linear mode structures are enhanced at the island separatrices and weakened at the island centers, consistent with the flattening of the pressure profile inside the islands.

  13. Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

  14. Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vlahovi?, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water. PMID:22048924

  15. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-09-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. PMID:26478140

  16. Fur Seal Industry of the Pribilof Islands,

    E-print Network

    Fur Seal Industry of the Pribilof Islands, 1786-1965 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH prior to the date of sale. Co v e r .··.. A small fur seal harem Fall sale - - - $36.05 41 .05 48.40 40 Seal Industry of the Pribilof Islands, 1786-1965 By FRANCIS RILEY Circular 275 Washington, D.C. October

  17. PROCEEDI]VGS StatenIslandInstituteof

    E-print Network

    Simon, Chris

    Cicada on Staten Island: Timing and Distribution by Chris Simon Department of Ecologyand Evolution S.U.N.Y.StonyBrook & Department of Biology University of Chicago The coming of the l7-year cicada (Magicicada) is a more the distribution and timing of the 1979 emergenceof Brood II of the periodical cicada on Staten Island

  18. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

  19. DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016

    EPA Science Inventory

    The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

  20. Tin diselenide quantum-sized island films

    SciTech Connect

    Kushkhov, A. R.; Gaev, D. S.; Rabinovich, O. I.; Stolyarov, A. G.

    2012-03-15

    Island films based on the intermediate phases forming in Ge-Se and Sn-Se systems are prepared by the incongruent evaporation of film structures of a Sn{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} composition. The surface morphology of these structures is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of growth conditions on the size distribution of islands is established.