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1

Geology and geochemistry of Gannet (Karewa) Island, Tasman Sea: A rift?related nephelinitic tuff ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Karewa) Island is a small (0.06 km) island situated in the Tasman Sea, northwest of Kawhia Harbour, western North Island, New Zealand. It consists of well indurated, palagonitic tuff and lapilli tuff with subordinate scoriaceous basalt bombs and blocks (Karewa Volcanic Formation) which are considered to represent the eroded remnants of a tuff ring. Evidence for this includes such

R. M. Briggs; M. D. Rosenberg; P. J. de Lange; T. Itaya; P. R. King; R. C. Price

1997-01-01

2

Parental roles of male and female thick-billed murres and razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We studied female and male parental roles in two sympatric auks, thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) and razorbill (Alca torda), with initial biparental care at the breeding site and later exclusively paternal care at sea. Our study addressed the following two questions: Why do males accompany chicks to sea?, and How do the sexes allocate parental effort at the breeding

Rosana Paredes; Ian L. Jones; Daryl J. Boness

2006-01-01

3

Slow, dense replenishments of a basic magma chamber: the layered series of the Newark Island layered intrusion, Nain, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Newark Island layered intrusion is a composite layered intrusion within the Nain anorthosite complex, Labrador. The intrusion comprises a lower layered series (LS) dominated by troctolites, olivine gabbros and oxide-rich cumulates and an upper hybrid series (HS) characterized by a wide range of mafic, granitic and hybrid cumulates and discontinuous layers of chilled mafic rocks (Wiebe 1988). The HS

R. A. Wiebe; Don Snyder

1993-01-01

4

Analyses of sex and individual differences in vocalizations of Australasian gannets using a dynamic time warping algorithm.  

PubMed

The study of the evolution of sexual differences in behavioral and morphological displays requires analyses of the extent of sexual dimorphism across various sensory modalities. In the seabird family Sulidae, boobies show dramatic sexual dimorphism in their vocalizations, and gannet calls have also been suggested to be dimorphic to human observers. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of sexually dimorphic calls in the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) through the first comprehensive description of its vocalizations recorded at two localities; Cape Kidnappers, where individuals were banded and sexed from DNA samples, and at the Muriwai gannetry, both on the North Island of New Zealand. Calls were first inspected using basic bioacoustic features to establish a library of call element types for general reference. Extensive multivariate tests, based on a dynamic time warping algorithm, subsequently revealed that no sexual differences could be detected in Australasian gannet calls. The analyses, however, indicated extensive and consistent vocal variation between individuals, particularly so in female gannets, which may serve to signal individual identity to conspecifics. This study generates predictions to identify whether differences in Australasian gannet vocalizations play perceptual and functional roles in the breeding and social biology of this long-lived biparental seabird species. PMID:22894237

Krull, C R; Ranjard, L; Landers, T J; Ismar, S M H; Matthews, J L; Hauber, M E

2012-08-01

5

ARCTIC FOX INFLUENCE ON A SEABIRD COMMUNITY IN LABRADOR: A NATURAL EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gannet Islands contain the single most important seabird colony in Lab- rador, both in terms of numbers and species diversity. In 1992, we discovered arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on these islands during the breeding season. Of five islands examined, two had resident foxes (in one case breeding), two had been visited by foxes earlier in the season, and one

T. R. BIRKHEAD; D. N. NETTLESHIP

1995-01-01

6

Mineral variation in anorthositic, troctolitic, and adamellitic rocks of the Barth Island layered structure in the Nain anorthosite complex, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barth Island layered structure is an oval, 6 by 9 km body, consisting of rhythmically layered adamellitic rock in the center which grades outward through jotunite into troctolite. Farther outward the sequence repeats itself in reversed order, strongly reduced in magnitude and finer grained; the adamellitic zone is followed by jotunite which grades into coarse-grained leuconorite and into anorthosite

D. de Waard; K. Mulhern; D. F. Merriam

1976-01-01

7

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds

David Gremillet; Lorien Pichegru; G regoire Kuntz; G. Woakes

2008-01-01

8

Cretaceous-Tertiary paleobathymetry of Labrador and Baffin shelves, and its significance to evolution of Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The integrated micropaleontological and palynological analyses of 17 wells from offshore Labrador and southern Baffin Island allowed consistent assignments of biozones, ages, and depositional environments to the sections. Resolution attained is approximately at the stage level or finer. Interpretation of the foraminifera and palynomorphs from the Labrador Shelf indicates that the depositional environments were mainly neritic during the Early and early Late Cretaceous, changed to bathyal during the Maastrichtian to late Eocene, and returned to neritic during the Oligocene to Miocene. The sections drilled on the Baffin Shelf do not include Cretaceous sediments, but indicate bathyal environments from Paleocene to early Eocene, and neritic to nonmarine environments from late Eocene to Miocene. The Barremian to Campanian continental to neritic sediments from the Labrador Shelf correspond to the initial rifting phase of the Labrador-Greenland continental plate; whereas the Maastrichtian to late Eocene bathyal sediments correspond to the opening of the southern part of the Labrador Sea with the creation of oceanic crust. The Labrador Sea reached the Baffin shelf area during the Maastrichtian. The Oligocene to Miocene neritic to continental sediments of both the Labrador and Baffin Shelf areas correspond to the filling phase of the basin, with resulting buildup of the continental shelves and slopes.

Helenes, J.; Gradstein, F.

1988-03-01

9

Mercury and organochlorines in eggs from a Norwegian gannet colony  

SciTech Connect

The materials for this study consisted of addled eggs that were collected shortly after the laying season and stored frozen until analysis took place. The collection site is located near Nordmjele at 69/sup 0/ 08' N in northern Norway. Eggs were analyzed for DDE, PCBs and HCB by a gas chromatographic method described by BJERK and SUNDBY (1970). The PCBs were determined via pattern recognition using the commercial PCB standard Aroclor 1254, and the sum of peaks numbers 7, 8, and 10 was used (JENSEN 1972). Analysis for total mercury by flameless atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry followed the procedure of HATCH and OTT (1968). Results show a significant decrease in DDE as well as PCBs levels had taken place between the years 1972 and 1978. The 1979 data support the hypothesis that this indicates a trend as the average DDE and PCBs concentrations dropped further by 33 and 43 per cent, respectively. Only the eggs collected in 1979 were analyzed for HCB. The concentrations were very low (0.033 +/- 0.0018 ppm). The average mercury levels increased from 0.58 ppm in 1972 to 0.80 ppm in 1978 and then dropped to 0.36 ppm the following year. The present levels of DDE, PCBs, and HCB are well below those that by experience have caused problems as, for example, eggshell thinning. The mercury concentrations come closer to such levels as 0.5 ppm of mercury in eggs have been associated with reproductive impairment in pheasants. However, since fish and seafood in general, which constitute the diet of gannets, are rich in selenium, a strong antagonist to mercury such concentrations are probably well within safe limits too.

Fimreite, N. (Telemark College, BO, Norway); Brevik, E.M.; Torp, R.

1982-01-01

10

Evaluating molecular and behavioural sexing methods for the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of molecular methods for avian sex identification has revolutionised the study of sexual differences in behaviour, morphology, life-history traits and conservation management. We implemented the recom- mendations of a recent review of DNA-based sex-identification by (1) verifying the sex-specificity and (2) estimating the accurac y of different sex-assignment methods in an apparently monomorphic seabird, the Australasian gannet (Morus

Claire Daniel; Craig D. Millar; Stefanie M. H. Ismar; Brent M. Stephenson; Mark E. Hauber

2007-01-01

11

Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet  

PubMed Central

Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air.

Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Howland, Howard C.; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Wursig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E.; Katzir, Gadi

2012-01-01

12

Old marine seismic and new satellite radar data: Petroleum exploration of north west Labrador Sea, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some new concepts in the petroleum systems of the northern Labrador and southern Baffin Island offshore region of eastern Canada. The focus of this work is the region of the Hekja O-71 gas discovery of 1979 by Aquitaine, one of only five wells drilled between 1976 and 1980 within an area covering some 166,000 square kilometers within

Christopher D. Jauer; Paul Budkewitsch

2010-01-01

13

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

14

Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population has increased considerably over the past century, both in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1980, the population in Australian waters has increased threefold, from 6,600 breeding pairs to approximately 20,000 pairs in 1999-2000, a rate of 6% per year. Reasons for the increase in the Australasian gannet population are poorly understood; here we consider

A. Bunce; F. Norman; N. Brothers; R. Gales

2002-01-01

15

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-08-06

16

The Labrador Inuit Through Moravian Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started by Jan Hus in the late fourteenth century, the Moravian Church was one of the earliest Protestant movements to rebel against the Roman Catholic Church. Over the course of the seventeenth century, the Moravian Church was suppressed and they were forced to operate in secret. In the early eighteenth century, they were allowed to reestablish at the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. This community grew rapidly and became a center of Christian renewal and missionary work over the course of the century. In fact, the Moravian missionaries were the first large scale Protestant missionary movement and sent hundreds of missionaries to all parts of the globe. This work included missions to the coast of Labrador. This site, created by a joint effort of the University of Toronto Libraries, Memorial University Libraries, and the Biblioth'que de l'Universit" Laval, provides a thorough and fascinating look at the 250-year relationship between the Moravian missionaries and the Inuit of Labrador. The site includes background information on the Moravian Church, the Inuit, and Labrador as well as detailed looks at the various Moravian mission stations. After getting acquainted with the mission and the Inuit, visitors should be sure to check out both the interactive timeline and interactive map provided. The site also provides a teacher toolkit as well as a series of related links.

17

Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

1982-09-01

18

Fine scale bio-physical oceanographic characteristics predict the foraging occurrence of contrasting seabird species; Gannet (Morus bassanus) and storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we begin to manage our oceans in much more spatial detail we must understand a great deal more about oceanographic habitat preferences of marine mobile top predators. In this unique field study we test a hypothesis on the mechanisms defining mobile predator foraging habitat characteristics by comparing temporally and spatially detailed bio-physical oceanographic data from contrasting topographical locations. We contrast the foraging locations of two very different seabird species, gannets and storm petrels, by repeatedly sampling a bank and a nearby flat area over daily tidal cycles during spring and neap tides. The results suggest that storm petrels are linked to foraging in specific locations where internal waves are produced, which is mainly on banks. These locations can also include the presence of high biomass of chlorophyll. In contrast, the location where more gannets are foraging is significantly influenced by temporal variables with higher densities of foraging birds much more likely during the neap tide than times of spring tide. The foraging times of both species was influenced by differences between the vertical layers of the water column above and below the thermocline; via either vertical shear of horizontal currents or absolute differences in speed between layers. Higher densities of foraging gannets were significantly more likely to be found at ebb tides in both bank and flat regions however over the bank, the density of foraging gannets was higher when the differences in speed between the layers were at a maximum. Both gannets and storm petrels appear to be more likely to forage when wind direction is opposed to tidal direction. This detailed understanding links foraging behaviour to predictable spatial and temporal bio-physical vertical characteristics and thus can be immediately used to explain variance and increase certainty in past abundance and distributional surveys. These results also illuminate the types of variables that should be considered when assessing potential changes to the distribution and characteristics of habitats from increased anthropogenic disturbances such as large scale offshore wind, wave and tidal renewable deployments.

Scott, B. E.; Webb, A.; Palmer, M. R.; Embling, C. B.; Sharples, J.

2013-10-01

19

Maternal serum screening in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine family physicians’ practice of, attitudes toward, and knowledge about maternal serum screening (MSS) and to compare the demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes, and knowledge of physicians who offer MSS to all their pregnant patients with those of physicians who offer MSS to some or none of their pregnant patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING Newfoundland and Labrador. PARTICIPANTS One hundred eighty-two family physicians who provided prenatal care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Proportion of physicians offering MSS to their pregnant patients. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward and knowledge about MSS of physicians who offer MSS to all, some, or none of their pregnant patients. RESULTS Just over half the physicians (52.2%) offered MSS to all their pregnant patients, 34.6% offered it to some patients, and 13.2% did not offer MSS at all. Almost two thirds of physicians (63.6%) had not changed their practice regarding MSS in the past 18 months, but 29.5% said they offered MSS more often. About 69.6% of physicians communicated positive results to patients within 48 hours; 60.8% communicated negative results at the next clinical appointment. Half (50.6%) believed that offering MSS did not affect their legal risk, 24.1% said it increased their risk, and 25.3% said it decreased their risk. Most physicians (83.4%) ordered MSS at the correct gestational age. A larger proportion of those who offered MSS to all patients were female, were between 30 and 39 years old, had graduated from Canadian medical schools, practised in urban centres, and were aware of the provincial MSS program. Physicians who offered MSS to all, some, or none of their patients were similar in terms of length of practice in Canada, whether they performed deliveries, number of pregnant women they cared for annually, beliefs about MSS and legal risk, and general knowledge of MSS detection rates. CONCLUSION More than half the family physicians in Newfoundland and Labrador offered MSS to all their pregnant patients, and another third offered it to some patients. Physicians’ practice was not related to their attitudes toward or knowledge about MSS.

Cavanagh, Jonathan; Mathews, Maria

2006-01-01

20

Evolution of the northeast Labrador Sea during the last interglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal summer insolation during the last interglaciation (LIG) generally warmed the subpolar to polar Northern Hemisphere more than during the early Holocene, yet regional climate variations between the two periods remain. We investigate northeast Labrador Sea subsurface temperature and hydrography across terminations (T) I and II and during the LIG to assess the impact of two different magnitudes of boreal summer insolation increase on the northeast Labrador Sea. We use Mg/Ca ratios in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) as a proxy of calcification temperature to document changes in subsurface temperatures over Eirik Drift. Our corresponding record of ?18O of seawater documents changes in water mass salinity. Mg/Ca calcification temperatures peak early in the Holocene coincident with peak boreal summer insolation. In contrast, LIG temperatures are relatively constant through the interglaciation, and are no warmer than peak Holocene temperatures. During the first half of the LIG, ?18O of seawater remains depleted, likely from southern Greenland Ice Sheet retreat and enhanced Arctic freshwater and sea-ice export to the Labrador Sea. The consequent stratification of the Labrador Sea and attendant suppressed convection explains delayed deep-ocean ventilation and a cooler subsurface in the northeast Labrador Sea during the LIG.

Winsor, Kelsey; Carlson, Anders E.; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Hatfield, Robert G.

2012-11-01

21

Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.  

PubMed Central

To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region. Images

Johnson, G J

1981-01-01

22

Did the Hudson Strait in Arctic Canada record the opening of the Labrador Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hudson Strait-Evans Strait-Foxe Channel is a major E-W trending composite topographic feature in Arctic Canada that connects Hudson Bay and Foxe Basin with the Labrador Sea. It corresponds to a ~1000 km long, WNW elongated body of water with maximal depths reaching 900 m in its eastern part. Based on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, the Hudson Strait comprises several fault-controlled sub-basins having a half graben geometry and corresponding to gravity lows on the Bouguer anomaly map. In the sub-basins, the sedimentary succession is thicker than the one preserved onshore (a few hundred metres) and reaches a maximum of ~ 2.6 km in the eastern part of the Hudson Strait, an estimate comparable with the maximum thickness documented in the Hudson Bay. Despite the low penetration of high-resolution seismic data, several angular unconformities have been documented locally. The lower part of the offshore succession unconformably overlies the Precambrian basement and correlates with Middle Ordovician to Silurian rocks exposed in nearby islands. The nature and age of the upper part of the succession remains poorly constrained even if a Mesozoic age has been proposed in the past. Phanerozoic strata generally dip less than 3° except in deformed zones characterized by open folds and down to basement faults, where strata dip locally at 10° or more. Faults are steeply dipping and generally have a clear geomorphological expression. Faults are oriented WNW and ENE, dip predominantly toward the north and record an extensional (or transtensional) tectonic event. Deformed zones characterized by open folds that trend parallel with the main faults attest of a subsequent episode of shortening. Forward modelling of satellite-derived gravity data indicates that interpreted sediment thickness alone cannot explain the entire negative anomaly found in sub-basins and that an additional source, possibly associated with the depth variation of the crust-mantle interface, contributes to the gravity signal. An attractive hypothesis would be to link tectonic structures (normal or transtensional faults and subsequent open folds) to Cretaceous - Paleocene rifting and seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea. However, a better understanding of the role and timing of the Ungava Fault zone which is located offshore, to the east of Baffin Island is crucial to test this hypothesis as this fault may kinematically decoupled the Labrador Sea from the Canadian landmass.

Pinet, Nicolas; Keating, Pierre; Lavoie, Denis

2013-04-01

23

A possible new inherited myopathy in a young Labrador retriever  

PubMed Central

A 5-month-old, male, Labrador retriever was evaluated for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. Histologic evaluation of fresh frozen muscle revealed distinct cytoarchitectural changes and central mitochondrial accumulations indistinguishable from those found in the inherited myopathy described in Great Danes. Multiple male littermates and half-siblings were similarly affected.

Cosford, Kevin L.; Taylor, Susan M.; Thompson, Logan; Shelton, G. Diane

2008-01-01

24

Marine lipids in a cold coastal ecosystem: Gilbert Bay, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some organisms living in coastal bays in Newfoundland and Labrador have to contend with sub-zero temperatures for most of the year. The goal of this study was to examine the lipid composition of the food web in such an environment in order to obtain information on essential nutrients and trophic relations. In August 2000, plankton, 16 species of macroinvertebrates, and

L. A. Copeman; C. C. Parrish

2003-01-01

25

AUGITE OLIVINE EQUILIBRIA IN THE KIGLAPAIT INTRUSION, LABRADOR, CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first appearance of abundant cumulus augite in the Kiglapait layered mafic body, on the coast of Labrador, defines the base of the Upper Zone at 84 PCS (percent solidified). The appearance of this phase is gradual, culminating in an impressive overproduction in the region around 90 PCS. This behavior can be rectified to yield an \\

STEARNS A. MORSE

2001-01-01

26

Mesoscale physical variability affects zooplankton production in the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface distribution (0–100m) of zooplankton biomass and specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) activity, as a proxy of structural growth, were assessed during winter 2002 and spring 2004 in the Labrador Sea. Two fronts formed by strong boundary currents, several anticyclonic eddies and a cyclonic eddy were studied. The spatial contrasts observed in seawater temperature, salinity and fluorescence, associated with those mesoscale

L. Yebra; R. P. Harris; E. J. H. Head; I. Yashayaev; L. R. Harris; A. G. Hirst

2009-01-01

27

Volume and freshwater transport of the Labrador Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current meter array of 3 months duration flom the Newfoundland shelf edge to the 400- m isobath gives a mean southward transport of the Labrador Current of 3.7 Sv with a fleshwater component of 0.1 Sv. Over a 2-month period, the volume and the fleshwater flow increased by 3 and 0.09 Sv, respectively. Mean currents exceeded the variable components

Brian Petrie; Joseph Buckley

1996-01-01

28

Central corneal dermoid in a Labrador retriever puppy.  

PubMed

An eight-week-old, male Labrador retriever puppy was presented with an abnormal appearance of the left cornea, observed after the eyelids opened in the second week of life. Ocular examination showed a large central dermoid of the left cornea. The dermoid was excised by superficial keratectomy, and healing was uneventful. The dermoid was classified as a Mann's second type. To the authors' knowledge, a Mann's second type corneal dermoid has not previously been reported in a dog. PMID:17543022

Brudenall, D K; Bernays, M E; Peiffer, R L

2007-06-02

29

Oceanography of a tidally choked fjord: Lake Melville, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Melville is large and complex sub-Arctic fjord that is a major outlet for freshwater on the Labrador coast. Although it has been the subject of exploration for centuries, we still know relatively little about its oceanography. We are studying the influence of changes in the fresh water discharge on the dynamics and ecosystem of Lake Melville in Labrador and how they interact with long-term climatic variability. Enormous hydroelectric developments have changed the freshwater runoff dynamics with unknown implications for the local and regional oceanography. The fjord is tidally choked, leading to intense flows at the entrance of 3-4 m/s. We will review the role of mixing and seasonal cycles in determining water properties in the lake and how changing climatic and freshwater conditions influence the oceanography and sea-ice dynamics. We will present historical data for the Lake together with results from our recent oceanographic work. We will compare our current measurements with results of a high resolution, variable element, coupled ocean-ice model for the Lake. The long-term exchange between the Labrador Sea and Lake Melville will be studied with this high-resolution ocean model. The implications of interannual ocean and atmospheric variability on the Lake ocean ecosystem will be discussed.

deYoung, Brad; Lu, Zhaoshi; Demirov, Entcho

2013-04-01

30

Geomorphological reconstruction of the Labrador Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Labrador sector formed one of three major domes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last (Wisconsinan) glaciation. Reconstruction of its evolution is important because it modulated atmospheric and oceanic circulation over 1–100ka time scales. This paper reports new geomorphological evidence of ice flow, which is used to reconstruct glimpses of the behaviour of the Labrador Sector during its

Chris D. Clark; Jane K. Knight; James T. Gray

2000-01-01

31

Mass wasting along the Labrador shelf margin: Submersible observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dissected valley system along the central portion of the Labrador upper slope has been investigated using geophysical and submersible observations. The complex slope is a result of mass wasting on a steep slope gradient which appears to be independent of processes on the bank top. Small scale slumping and creep, a result of biological activity and iceberg rafting, and large-scale debris flows occur presently below 750 m water depth. A recent debris flow in the valley was examined in detail. Degraded iceberg scour marks are the principal sea bed feature above 750 m water depth.

Josenhans, H. W.; Barrie, J. V.; Kiely, L. A.

1987-12-01

32

Organic contaminants in isolated lakes of southern Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

From 1980 to 1984, the Water Quality Branch of Environment Canada studied the chemical quality of the aquatic ecosystems straddling the Labrador and Quebec border in northeastern Canada. The object of the work was to get baseline information on the aquatic resources of potential hydroelectric development sites. One result from this work was the discovery of measurable levels of organic contaminants in areas isolated from any major human activity. The purpose of this report is to describe results from the survey of the five transboundary basins and, to place the results in the perspective of other work.

Lockerbie, D.M.; Clair, T.A.

1988-10-01

33

Breaking internal waves on the pycnocline of the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-frequency internal waves in the upper ocean have been shown to be a source of turbulence, mixing, and vertical heat fluxes through the base of the seasonal mixed layer (e.g. Wijesekera and Dillon (1991), Lien et al. (1996), Polton et al. (2008)). Small-scale turbulence in deep convection regions is not well documented, but the shallow pycnocline that forms during restratification is conducive to internal wave generation from surface events. With the weak background stratification after convection, internal waves are readily trapped on the pycnocline and can propagate laterally away from their generation site, and break to produce turbulence. We present here microstructure measurements from the Labrador Sea during the spring restratification period after deep convection. These measurements were made with the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP), a novel, autonomous, untethered, upwardly-rising microstructure instrument that is capable of measuring turbulence to within centimeters of the ocean surface. Thirty profiles of high-resolution temperature, conductivity, and velocity shear over the upper 100m are presented, with a profile rate of about 8 minutes. ASIP's rapid profiling capabilities captured high frequency (1 cph) waves with 10-m amplitude on the 60-m pycnocline. An isolated patch of elevated turbulence was observed at the crest of one of the waves from a breaking event. The dissipation rates here equal or exceed those observed in other regions of deep convection, suggesting that such high frequency waves may be an important source of turbulence in the Labrador Sea and similar convection regions.

Wain, Danielle; Ward, Brian; Lilly, Jonathan; Callaghan, Adrian

2013-04-01

34

A tree-ring densitometric transect from Alaska to Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a recently completed network of densitometric tree-ring time series representing various aspects of tree-growth for up to 200 years at 69 sites spread across the northern North American conifer zone from Yukon to Labrador. Duplicate cores, from 12 to 15 trees per site, provide time series for a suite of growth parameters including earlywood (spring), latewood (summer) and total (annual) ring widths and mean earlywood, mean latewood, minimum and maximum ring density. These data form the basis for extensive analyses of intra- and inter-site parameter comparisons and regional climate/tree-growth comparisons. Five large-scale regional chronologies do not suggest that any anomalous growth increases have occurred in recent decades, at least on these regional scales, despite the observed changes in atmospheric composition and climate.

Schweingruber, F. H.; Briffa, K. R.; Nogler, P.

1993-09-01

35

Seaglider observations of vertical velocity in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five Seagliders spent a combined total of over 24 months in the Labrador Sea between 2003-2005. The hydrographic observations made by Seagliders can then be used to estimate vertical water velocities, in stratified regimes (observing internal waves), and mixed regimes (including wintertime mixed layers during deep convection exceeding 1000m deep). Across the seasons and from shelf seas to deep water, the vertical velocity regimes will be described, with particular focus on the velocity measurements during deep convection (Jan-Feb). New results from the high-resolution hydrographic measurements show striking horizontal density variability over tens of kilometers, containing sufficient buoyancy to restratify the region to the degree of stratification observed by Argo floats in April. Concurrently, the vertical velocity measurements show narrow, fast, downwelling plumes between broader and somewhat slower upwelling regions. These new measurements offer a compelling snapshot of deep convection, in both hydrography and vertical velocity, at unprecendented resolution.

Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Rhines, Peter B.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Harcourt, Ramsey R.

2013-04-01

36

Iatrogenic, sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a Labrador Retriever.  

PubMed

This case report describes a sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a 4-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch. Empirical therapy with high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 10 days produced signs of weakness, ataxia and mental depression and the clinicopathological results supported hypothyroid-induced central nervous system depression. Short-term levothyroxine sodium therapy led to complete resolution of all clinical signs and follow-up thyroid hormone assays ruled out underlying thyroid pathology. This case report is the first to highlight this potentially life-threatening manifestation of sulfonamide-induced hypothyroidism. Sulfonamide combinations are widely used antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and early recognition of this syndrome is critical. PMID:19930169

Brenner, K; Harkin, K; Schermerhorn, T

2009-12-01

37

Genetic Evaluation of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV) for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009) were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection.

Lewis, Thomas W.; Blott, Sarah C.; Woolliams, John A.

2010-01-01

38

Genetic evaluation of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

Hip dysplasia is an important and complex genetic disease in dogs with both genetic and environmental influences. Since the osteoarthritis that develops is irreversible the only way to improve welfare, through reducing the prevalence, is through genetic selection. This study aimed to evaluate the progress of selection against hip dysplasia, to quantify potential improvements in the response to selection via use of genetic information and increases in selection intensity, and to prepare for public provision of estimated breeding values (EBV) for hip dysplasia in the UK. Data consisted of 25,243 single records of hip scores of Labrador Retrievers between one and four years old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007 as part of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) hip score scheme. A natural logarithm transformation was applied to improve normality and linear mixed models were evaluated using ASREML. Genetic correlations between left and right scores, and total hip scores at one, two and three years of age were found to be close to one, endorsing analysis of total hip score in dogs aged one to three as an appropriate approach. A heritability of 0.35±0.016 and small but significant litter effect (0.07±0.009) were estimated. The observed trends in both mean hip score and mean EBV over year of birth indicate that a small genetic improvement has been taking place, approximately equivalent to avoiding those dogs with the worst 15% of scores. Deterministic analysis supported by simulations showed that a 19% greater response could be achieved using EBV compared to phenotype through increases in accuracy alone. This study establishes that consistent but slow genetic improvement in the hip score of UK Labrador Retrievers has been achieved over the previous decade, and demonstrates that progress may be easily enhanced through the use of EBVs and more intense selection. PMID:21042573

Lewis, Thomas W; Blott, Sarah C; Woolliams, John A

2010-10-22

39

Petroleum exploration and resource potential of offshore Newfoundland and Labrador  

SciTech Connect

The continental margin of Newfoundland and Labrador, encompassing a total area of 714,000 mi/sup 2/ (1,849,252 km/sup 2/) has been the target of exploratory activity since the early 1960s. Exploratory drilling began on the Grand Banks in 1966 and by 1974 a total of 40 dry wells had been drilled. In 1979 wildcat drilling resumed on the Grand Banks and the Hibernia field was discovered with the drilling of the P-15 well. This well, with an estimated flow potential of more than 20,000 BOPD, was the first oil well drilled on the Atlantic shelf of North America capable of commercial production. Truly a giant, the Hibernia structure has a resource potential of 1.85 billion bbl of oil and 2.0 tcf of gas at a probability level of 50%. Six significant oil discoveries have been made on the Grand Banks. The reservoirs are fluvial-deltaic and shoreline sandstones of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. Since 1971, 25 wells drilled on the Labrador Shelf resulted in one oil and five gas discoveries. The reservoirs are Paleozoic carbonates and Lower Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene sandstones. All are capping or draping basement horst blocks. By the end of 1982, total exploratory efforts had resulted in the drilling of 86 wells and the acquisition of approximately 240,000 line-mi of marine reflection seismic. A total resource potential of these structures has been estimated at 14.7 billion bbl of oil and 88.6 tcf of gas at a 50% probability level. A commercial discovery was long in coming but the recent high success rates confirm this margin as a major frontier of enormous potential.

Burden, D.M.; Dobbin, J.; Sheppard, M.G.

1983-03-01

40

Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

1985-01-01

41

Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements  

PubMed

The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000 m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations of the ocean currents that lead to this distribution of Labrador Sea water have, however, been difficult and therefore scarce. We have used more than 200 subsurface floats to measure directly basin-wide horizontal velocities at various depths in the Labrador and Irminger seas. We observe unanticipated recirculations of the mid-depth (approximately 700 m) cyclonic boundary currents in both basins, leading to an anticyclonic flow in the interior of the Labrador basin. About 40% of the floats from the region of deep convection left the basin within one year and were rapidly transported in the anticyclonic flow to the Irminger basin, and also eastwards into the subpolar gyre. Surprisingly, the float tracks did not clearly depict the deep western boundary current, which is the expected main pathway of Labrador Sea water in the thermohaline circulation. Rather, the flow along the boundary near Flemish Cap is dominated by eddies that transport water offshore. Our detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that we may have to revise our picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation. PMID:10993072

Lavender; Davis; Owens

2000-09-01

42

Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two main constituent water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean-North Atlantic Deep Water at the bottom and Labrador Sea Water at an intermediate level-are currently formed in the Nordic seas and the Labrador Sea, respectively. The rate of formation of these two water masses tightly governs the strength of the global ocean circulation and the associated heat transport across the North Atlantic Ocean. Numerical simulations have suggested a possible shut-down of Labrador Sea Water formation as a consequence of global warming. Here we use micropalaeontological data and stable isotope measurements in both planktonic and benthic foraminifera from deep Labrador Sea cores to investigate the density structure of the water column during the last interglacial period, which was thought to be about 2°C warmer than present. Our results indicate that today's stratification between Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water never developed during the last interglacial period. Instead, a buoyant surface layer was present above a single water mass originating from the Nordic seas. Thus the present situation, with an active site of intermediate-water formation in the Labrador Sea, which settled some 7,000 years ago, has no analogue throughout the last climate cycle.

Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Bilodeau, G.; Weaver, A. J.

2001-04-01

43

Decadal Variations of a Long-Term Carbon Sink in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep convection in the Labrador Sea ventilates the water column every winter. Depths of deep convection are influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the NAO positive phase, convection reaches over 2000m as observed in early 1990's, while during the NAO negative phase, convection becomes shallower to 500-1000m. Convection regimes in the Labrador Sea are, therefore, in the opposite phase from deep the convection in the Nordic Seas and the formation of subtropical mode water. Carbon dioxide sequestered during the winter convection in the Labrador Sea is partly transported to the south as Deep Western Boundary Current, while some spreads at the intermediate depths into the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre. Thus the Labrador Sea provides a conduit for a long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of centuries to millennium. We will present a time series study of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC), Alkalinity (Alk) and auxiliary measurements along the Labrador Sea repeat section from 1993 to 2004. Water masses in the Labrador Sea can be described by four layers from the surface to the bottom: namely, (1) new Labrador Sea Water (LSWnew) ventilated in the previous winter, (2) Labrador Sea Water produced during the exceptionally deep convection period of 1993-1994 (LSWold), (3) North East Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW) and (4) Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). All these water masses were formed in deep convection regions, LSWnew and LSWold in the Labrador Sea and NEADW and DSOW in the Nordic Seas. DIC has increased in all four water masses since 1993 with the highest rate of increase in LSWnew, corresponding to the atmospheric CO2 increase. LSWold has been isolated from the atmosphere since 1994 and accumulating DIC from the respired organic carbon. In the latter half of 1990's, during the period of shallow convection (<1000m), DIC concentrations were constantly higher in LSWold than LSWnew. However, in 2000, convection reached 1500m and DIC concentrations in LSWnew increased to the same levels as in LSWold. The inventory of DIC in the Labrador Sea was estimated to be 106 (S.D.=14) PgC from the basin wide survey of over 100 stations in 1996. The average inventory increase is 0.03 PgC/year for the period from 1993 to 2004. A sharp inventory increase in 2000 suggests the higher uptake of atmospheric CO2 during the deep convection period despite the entrainment of abundant DIC from the depth to the surface.

Azetsu-Scott, K.; Jones, E. P.; Gershey, R. M.

2004-12-01

44

Lithospheric structure of the Labrador Sea from constrained 3-D gravity inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional inversions of free air gravity data constrained by bathymetric and sediment thickness information were undertaken over the Labrador Sea and its margins to generate 3-D density anomaly models to investigate broad-scale crustal structural variations across the extinct spreading centre. Benchmarked against independent seismic Moho depth constraints, a density anomaly isosurface within the inverted volumes was selected as a Moho-proxy and regional maps of Moho structure were developed. Inversions using two different sources for depth to basement constraints revealed similar Moho structures with a depth to Moho of 12 km beneath the Labrador Sea which deepens to 20 km and greater towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province. Density anomaly slices through the models corresponding to seismic lines show good agreement between the inverted Moho-proxy and the seismic Moho, with the only exceptions occurring where a high velocity lower crustal zone or underplate has been modelled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiling studies. The inverted depth to Moho estimates were combined with depth to basement constraints to investigate crustal thickness, both for the full crust and for individual crustal layers, revealing that the crust of the Labrador Sea is generally 5-10 km thick but thickens to 20-25 km towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province, not taking into account high density underplates or anomalously high density lower crust. Sediment and crustal thickness variations were investigated to compute stretching factors, ?, across the Labrador Sea and to identify zones which deviate from local isostatic compensation. Assuming both an initial unstretched crustal thickness of 35 km and using a variable unstretched crustal thickness model, much of the Labrador Sea has experienced 70-90 per cent thinning. The derived ? values suggest that embrittlement of the entire crust and serpentinization of the upper mantle are likely to have occurred for large portions of the central and southern Labrador Sea, inboard of known oceanic crust. Isostatic considerations reveal sediment excess and deficiency on the Labrador and Greenland margins, respectively, possibly reflecting fundamental rheological asymmetry, with the Greenland margin appearing weaker than the Labrador margin. A strong gradient from sediment deficiency to excess, exclusive to the Labrador margin, may reveal the southwestern limit of a regional graben bounding listric detachment or of a zone of distributed faults and detachments.

Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy

2013-11-01

45

Lithospheric structure of the Labrador Sea from constrained 3-D gravity inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional inversions of free air gravity data constrained by bathymetric and sediment thickness information were undertaken over the Labrador Sea and its margins to generate 3-D density anomaly models to investigate broad-scale crustal structural variations across the extinct spreading centre. Benchmarked against independent seismic Moho depth constraints, a density anomaly isosurface within the inverted volumes was selected as a Moho-proxy and regional maps of Moho structure were developed. Inversions using two different sources for depth to basement constraints revealed similar Moho structures with a depth to Moho of 12 km beneath the Labrador Sea which deepens to 20 km and greater towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province. Density anomaly slices through the models corresponding to seismic lines show good agreement between the inverted Moho-proxy and the seismic Moho, with the only exceptions occurring where a high velocity lower crustal zone or underplate has been modelled from wide-angle reflection/refraction profiling studies. The inverted depth to Moho estimates were combined with depth to basement constraints to investigate crustal thickness, both for the full crust and for individual crustal layers, revealing that the crust of the Labrador Sea is generally 5-10 km thick but thickens to 20-25 km towards Davis Strait and beneath the offshore extension of the Grenville Province, not taking into account high density underplates or anomalously high density lower crust. Sediment and crustal thickness variations were investigated to compute stretching factors, ?, across the Labrador Sea and to identify zones which deviate from local isostatic compensation. Assuming both an initial unstretched crustal thickness of 35 km and using a variable unstretched crustal thickness model, much of the Labrador Sea has experienced 70-90 per cent thinning. The derived ? values suggest that embrittlement of the entire crust and serpentinization of the upper mantle are likely to have occurred for large portions of the central and southern Labrador Sea, inboard of known oceanic crust. Isostatic considerations reveal sediment excess and deficiency on the Labrador and Greenland margins, respectively, possibly reflecting fundamental rheological asymmetry, with the Greenland margin appearing weaker than the Labrador margin. A strong gradient from sediment deficiency to excess, exclusive to the Labrador margin, may reveal the southwestern limit of a regional graben bounding listric detachment or of a zone of distributed faults and detachments.

Welford, J. Kim; Hall, Jeremy

2013-08-01

46

Deep convection in the Labrador Sea, as captured by a global ocean reanalysis and regional downscalings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Labrador Sea Water is formed by deep convection caused by strong surface cooling. The convection patch reaches as deep as 2000~m, but is limited to areas where adequat preconditionning occurs. Indeed, baroclinic eddies that form along the West Greenland boundary current enable the restratification throughout the column. The recent Global Eddy Permitting Ocean Reanalysis (GLORYS1, Ferry et al., 2010) shows a good ability to capture the interannual variability of deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Temperature increments from the data assimilation are used to describe how the ocean model is corrected in the reanalysis. It is shown that data assimilation has the same effects as the expected effects of heat transport by baroclinic eddies that form along the West Greenland boundary current. Most of the ocean models at resolution coarser than ~ 1/15° fail to capture deep convection in the Labrador Sea because eddies are not resolved, and existing eddy parameterizations have not setlled the problem. Yet, the formation of Labrador deep water in a climate change scenario, i.e. simulated by relatively coarse ocean models, is a major concern. Therefore, regional downscalings within GLORYS1 are built up using the ocean model NEMO (Madec, 2008), without data assimlilation, and at a resolution of 1/4°. The information form GLORYS data assimilation is used to improve the representation of deep convection in the Labrador Sea.

Jourdain, N. C.; Barnier, B.; Molines, J.; Chanut, J.; Ferry, N.; Garric, G.; Parent, L.; Mercator-Ocean Team

2010-12-01

47

Recirculation Gyres In The Labrador Sea and Their Influence On Deep Convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations in the Labrador and Irminger Seas have revealed energetic, weakly sheared cyclonic recirculation gyres just offshore of the boundary currents that flow around the subpolar North Atlantic. The data suggest that these features, which dominate the circulation in the interior of the Labrador and Irminger Seas, play an active role in isolating deep convection. The driving mechanism for these recircula- tion gyres and their influence on the formation and circulation of water masses within the Labrador and Irminger Seas are the main subjects of this study. To investigate these issues, a regional numerical model of the area of interest is used, which is idealized but designed to retain the essential features of the Labrador and Irminger Seas. The recirculation gyres appear to be predominantly forced by intense cyclonic wind events that develop along the east coast of Greenland during winter. The resulting oceanic response is a so-called beta-plume: an elongated cyclonic gyre that follows the topography around Greenland and into the Labrador Sea. Recirculations develop in the Irminger and Labrador Seas, in crude agreement with the observations. Despite the strong seasonality of the forcing the circulation persists year-round, as a consequence of slow Rossby-wave adjustment and interaction with the continental slope. Having established a plausible forcing mechanism for the recirculation gyres, we sub- sequently incorporate buoyancy forcing to investigate the influence of the recirculation gyres on deep convection. Key features of the recirculations that may result in favor- able conditions for localized deep convection, like the trapping of water masses and preconditioning of the stratification, are addressed.

Spall, M. A.; Katsman, C. A.; Pickart, R. S.

48

Contrasted dynamics of northern Labrador tree lines caused by climate change and migrational lag.  

PubMed

The northern Québec-Labrador tree lines are the most climatically stressed tree ecosystems of eastern North America. In particular, white spruce (Picea glauca) tree line populations distributed between 56 degrees N and 58 degrees N and 61 degrees W and 66 degrees W show contrasted responses to recent changes in climate according to their geographic position relative to the Labrador Sea. Along the coast, the northernmost latitudinal and altitudinal tree lines responded positively to warming over the last 50 years with invading spruce several tens of meters above the current tree line. In contrast, white spruce tree lines across the wind-exposed Labrador plateau are located much higher in altitude and have receded a few tens of meters beginning around AD 1740-1750 and have not yet recovered. Whereas no field evidence of recent fire and insect damage was found, all inland tree line stands were progressively damaged likely due to mechanical defoliation of wind-exposed trees. Massive tree death in the 19th century caused a reduction in the number of seed-bearing trees, and declining tree lines were not replenished by seedlings. Recent warming reported for northern latitudes has not been strong enough to change the regressive tree line trajectory in interior Labrador. However, white spruce expansion above coastal tree line in the northernmost forest site in Labrador is in line with current climatic trends. It is hypothesized that the species is still advancing toward its potential tree line higher in altitude due to delayed postglacial migration. The slow advance of white spruce in northernmost coastal Labrador is likely caused by the rugged topography of the Torngat-Kaumajet-Kiglapait mountains. PMID:17503604

Payette, Serge

2007-03-01

49

Grammar without Speech Production: The Case of Labrador Inuttitut Heritage Receptive Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine morphosyntactic knowledge of Labrador Inuttitut by Inuit receptive bilinguals (RBs)--heritage speakers who are capable of comprehension, but produce little or no speech. A grammaticality judgment study suggests that RBs possess sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations, though to a lesser degree than fluent bilinguals. Low-proficiency…

Sherkina-Lieber, Marina; Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Johns, Alana

2011-01-01

50

Ice stress measurements from land-fast ice along Canada's Labrador Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice stress data collected by mercury filled sensors from two land-fast ice sites off the coast of Labrador are presented. Difficulties associated with installation and the solution adopted are described. The stress data are analyzed with respect to wind and ice temperature data obtained for the area and correlations presented. For this land-fast data set, the response of the principal

S. J. Prinsenberg; G. A. Fowler; A. van der Baaren; B. Beanlands

1997-01-01

51

Microsatellite gene diversity analysis in anadromous arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus , from Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed six loci among 257 Arctic char ( Salvelinus alpinus) representing seven locations in Labrador and Newfoundland to provide a first assessment of microsatellites gene diversity in anadromous char and to determine the geographic scale of population structuring within the species. The number of alleles per locus varied between 9 and 48, and gene diversity ranged from 0.190 to

Louis Bernatchez; J. Brian Dempson; Sylvain Martin

1998-01-01

52

Mg\\/Ca Ratios in Coralline Red Algae as Temperature Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine ecosystems and fishery productivity in the Northwestern Atlantic have been considerably affected by regional climate and oceanographic changes. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC). The cold LC originates

G. Gamboa; S. Hetzinger; J. Halfar; T. Zack; B. Kunz; W. Adey

2009-01-01

53

Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea water from its source region to 26°N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than two decades of hydrography on the Abaco line east of the Bahamas at 26°N reveals decadal variability in the salinity of classical Labrador Sea Water (cLSW), despite the long distance from its source region in the North Atlantic Ocean. Hydrographic time series from the Labrador Sea and from the Abaco line show a pronounced step-like decrease in salinity between 1985 and 1995 in the Labrador Sea and between 1995 and 2010 at the Abaco line, suggesting a time lag between the two locations of approximately 9 years. The amplitude of the anomaly at the Abaco line is 50% of the amplitude in the Labrador Sea. A similar time lag and reduction of amplitude is found in the high-resolution OFES model, in which salinity anomalies can be observed propagating through the Deep Western Boundary Current as well as through a broad interior pathway. On its way south to the Abaco line, the cLSW becomes 8 standard deviations saltier due to isopycnal mixing with Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW). Climatological data in the North Atlantic suggests that the mixing ratio of MOW to cLSW at the Abaco line is 1:4 and that no variability in MOW is required to explain the observed variability at the Abaco line. The data studied here suggest that decadal cLSW anomalies stay relatively coherent while getting advected, despite the important role of interior pathways.

van Sebille, Erik; Baringer, Molly O.; Johns, William E.; Meinen, Christopher S.; Beal, Lisa M.; de Jong, M. Femke; van Aken, Hendrik M.

2011-12-01

54

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

55

A simple model of the large-scale circulation of Mediterranean Water and Labrador Sea Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady, 212 layer planetary geostrophic model is used to study the circulation and mixing of Mediterranean Water (MW) and Labrador Sea Water (LSW). The model includes parameterizions of salt fingering, mesoscale variability, and meddies. A close relationship between the vertical density ratio (and expected strength of salt fingering) and the potential vorticity anomaly of the upper salt tongue is

Michael A. Spall

1999-01-01

56

Comminuted fracture of the ulnar carpal bone in a Labrador retriever dog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old male Labrador retriever dog was evaluated for acute lameness without weight-bearing in the right forelimb after an 8-meter fall. Radiographs revealed a comminuted fracture of the ulnar carpal bone that required removal of bone fragments. This appears to be the first report of such a condition. PMID:24179242

Vedrine, Bertrand

2013-11-01

57

Origin of the marine magnetic quiet zones in the Labrador and Greenland Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central part of the northern Labrador Sea is a magnetic quiet zone, and is flanked by regions exhibiting well developed linear magnetic anomalies older than anomaly 24. The quiet zone dies out progressively to the south, where it becomes possible to correlate anomalies between adjacent profiles. A 45 degree change in spreading direction at anomaly 25 time was accompanied

W. D. Roots; S. P. Srivastava

1984-01-01

58

Maintaining Quality Programming in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: A Case Study in Policy and Structural Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newfoundland and Labrador has many rural communities, low literacy rates, high unemployment, declining enrollment and population, and teacher shortages. Policy responses have been to consolidate schools, increase rural teacher pay, increase teacher recruitment, implement distance learning and distance professional development, intensify…

Press, Harold; Galway, Gerald; Collins, Alice

2003-01-01

59

The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

Wood, Gregory

1997-01-01

60

DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF PARENTAL EFFORT DURING CHICK-REARING BY FEMALE AND MALE THICK-BILLED MURRES (URIA LOMVIA) AT A LOW-ARCTIC COLONY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.—Using temperature loggers and radio telemetry, foraging and brooding be- haviors,of female,and,male,Thick-billed Murres,(Uria lomvia) were,measured,during,chick rearing at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, to quantify parental roles during this crucial stage of reproduction. We recorded 2,725 foraging dives by 10 females and 7 males during 1,416 bird-hours of monitoring.,Our study birds made,between,21 and 107 dives per day between 0327 and 2220 hours,

Ian L. Jones; Sherrylynn Rowe; Steve M. Carr; Gail Fraser; Philip Taylor

2002-01-01

61

NASOPHARYNGEAL FLORA IN HEALTH AND DURING RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN ISOLATED COMMUNITIES IN ALABAMA AND LABRADOR  

PubMed Central

Studies of the bacterial flora of the nasopharynx were made in isolated communities in South Alabama and Labrador. The basic flora was determined in both communities. In Alabama an epidemic of common colds was studied. In Labrador cases of sporadic colds and an epidemic of tracheitis were studied. Gram-negative cocci were found in nearly all normal individuals in moderate numbers. In pathological states there was a suppression of these organisms. Staphylococci were found in small numbers in about half of the normal individuals. In pathological conditions they disappeared from most of those affected but were found in increased numbers in a few individuals. Pfeiffer bacilli were absent or present only in small numbers in normal individuals. During the epidemic of colds in Alabama there was an increase in the number of strains recovered and an increase in the relative numbers of the bacilli in each throat. The highest prevalence was found one month after the epidemic had reached its height. In Labrador a similar increase was coincident with an epidemic of tracheitis. During normal periods the majority of the Pfeiffer strains were of the para non-indol-forming type. During epidemic periods the strains recovered were largely true indol-forming B. Pfeifferi. Hemolytic streptococci were rarely found in normals. During disease prevalence periods they appeared in a small number of persons. In Alabama, indifferent streptococci resembled the hemolytic streptococci in their distribution. In Labrador they were found to be widely distributed in both health and disease and composed apparently a part of the normal flora. Green streptococci were found to be widely distributed in fairly large numbers both in health and disease. Intermediates, or organisms midway between green streptococci and pneumococci, were found in moderate numbers in each series of persons studied. Early in the Alabama epidemic they were present in large numbers in nearly all persons. Pneumococci were not found in Alabama in normal individuals. The epidemic of colds in Alabama was accompanied by a marked increase in the incidence of these organisms. In Labrador pneumococci seemed to be part of the normal flora as they were generally distributed throughout the community, in many instances comprising a large proportion of the flora of an individual's throat. The Labrador strains of pneumococci were avirulent. A variety of other organisms such as diphtheroids, Gram-negative rods, and Gram-positive cocci were found in small numbers in many individuals both in health and disease.

Burky, E. L.; Smillie, W. G.

1929-01-01

62

Sea surface temperature variability of the Labrador Current over the last 2000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the first sub-decadal scale sea-surface temperature (SSTs) time-series derived from alkenone paleothermometry, covering the last 2000-year ocean temperature history of the the Labrador Sea region. The records obtained from two sites off Newfoundland document SST variations in a climatically crucial component of the Western North Atlantic circulation system, the southernmost Labrador Current (LC). This boundary current is a major conduit of cold and ice loaded fresh waters originating from the Arctic, which has a major impact on climate in the entire North Atlantic region. Our results demonstrate a clear link between the LC strength and the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), supporting the idea of a more persistent +NAM system and stronger LC during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). They also suggest enhanced LC activity under future warming with major implications for global thermohaline circulation.

Sicre, M.-A.; Weckström, K.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Kuijpers, A.; Benetti, M.; Massé, G.; Ezat, U.; Schmidt, S.; Bouloubassi, I.

2012-04-01

63

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory: Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment Data Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory conveys its goal to improve the understanding of the Labrador Sea deep convective process and the reliability of parametric representations used in large scale models. Students can find a brief introduction to the convective process and its impacts on world climate. Researchers can find links to datasets organized by contributor, type of data, and by the number of the dataset. The website furnishes maps of the locations of the velocity, T and S, and meteorological measurements as well as the floaters and drifters and the model and ice data. Visitors can find links to references, manuscripts, homepages of groups and individuals working on the Labrador Sea, and related data sources.

64

Linking the 8.2 ka event and its freshwater forcing in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in ?18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that ?3°C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an ?1.0‰ decrease in western Labrador Sea ?18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic ?18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, Jeffrey C.

2012-09-01

65

Comparison of methods for marine gravity determination from satellite altimetry data in the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-year average satellite altimetry data from the Exact Repeat Missions (ERM) of GEOSAT have been used to determine marine\\u000a gravity disturbances in the Labrador Sea region using the inverse Hotine approach with FFT techniques. The derived satellite\\u000a gravity information has been compared to shipboard gravity as well as gravity information derived by least-squares collocation\\u000a (LSC), GEMT3 and OSU91A geopotential models

Changyou Zhang; J. A. R. Blais

1995-01-01

66

Interannual variability of sea?ice cover in Hudson bay, Baffin bay and the Labrador sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal relationships between subarctic Canadian sea?ice cover and atmospheric forcing are investigated by analysing sea?ice concentration, sea?level pressure and surface air temperature data from 1953 to 1988. The sea?ice anomalies in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea are found to be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Southern Oscillation (SO). Through a

Jia Wang; Lawrence A. Mysak; R. Grant Ingram

1994-01-01

67

Sources of Labrador Sea sediments since the last glacial maximum inferred from NdPb isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb isotopes have been measured in the clay-size fraction of Late Glacial and Holocene deep-sea sediments recovered from two Labrador Sea piston cores that have been previously analyzed for Nd isotopes. The newly acquired Pb isotopic data allow us to better constrain the different source areas that supplied clay-size material during the last deglaciation, until 8.6 kyr (calendar ages). Nd-Pb

N. Fagel; C. Innocent; C. Gariepy; C. Hillaire-Marcel

2002-01-01

68

Microwave remote sensing of ice in Lake Melville and the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a joint experiment on microwave remote sensing of ice in the Labrador Sea and Lake Melville during March 1982 are presented. Data from sensors carried on the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) Convair-580, including Ku-band scatterometer and K-band radiometer profiles andX-, C-, andL-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, were analyzed in conjunction with aerial photography and surface

SUSAN A. DIGBY-ARGUS; ROBERT K. HAWKINS; KESHAVA P. SINGH

1987-01-01

69

Reconstructing Holocene Laurentide Ice Sheet discharge and ocean temperature in the western Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As recorded in Greenland ice core temperature ?18O records, the 8.2 ka Cold Event stands out as the largest abrupt climate anomaly in the Holocene, presumably forced by the drainage of Glacial Lake Agassiz into the Labrador Sea (~8.4 ka) after the collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) over Hudson Bay and attendant reduction in North Atlantic overturning strength. However, a prominent freshwater signal has yet to be clearly identified in the Labrador Sea, possibly due to the competing effect of temperature on foraminifera test ?18O. Existing ?18O records from the western Labrador Sea do show light anomalies between 9.5 and 8.6 ka, but increase at the start of the presumed lake drainage event ~8.4 ka. We will present new grain size, planktonic Mg/Ca-based temperature and ?18O of seawater records to reconstruct ice rafting, surface ocean temperature and concurrent LIS meltwater history, respectively, for the Labrador Sea through the Holocene. Our percent sand record suggests several ice rafting events (15-20 % sand) between 10 and 9 ka during the Noble Inlet LIS re-advance in Hudson Strait and a large peak in sand output (25-27 % sand) at ~8.4 ka coincident with the increase in foraminifera ?18O. We will test if cooling masked a large freshwater signal in foraminifera ?18O at the timing of the Lake Agassiz drainage, thereby providing insight into the sensitivity of the North Atlantic to climate perturbations and freshwater flux.

Hoffman, J. S.; Carlson, A. E.; Klinkhammer, G. P.; Haley, B.; Strasser, J.

2010-12-01

70

Volume and freshwater transport of the Labrador Current in Flemish Pass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current meter array of 3 months duration from the Newfoundland shelf edge to the 400-m isobath gives a mean southward transport of the Labrador Current of 3.7 Sv with a freshwater component of 0.1 Sv. Over a 2-month period, the volume and the freshwater flow increased by 3 and 0.09 Sv, respectively. Mean currents exceeded the variable components by

Brian Petrie; Joseph Buckley

1996-01-01

71

Variations in the Labrador Current Transport and Zooplankton Abundance on the NL Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the volume transport of the Labrador Current at the shelf break has important implications for recruitment of calanoid copepods on the continental shelf in the NW Atlantic. During the past several decades the ocean climate on the NL shelf have been characterised by several extremes, from the warm 1960s, cold early 1970s, mid-1980s and early 1990s and the

G. Maillet; E. Colbourne

72

Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort.

2013-01-01

73

Arguing for a multi-hazard mapping program in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster describes efforts to implement a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program, and will explore the challenges associated with this process. Newfoundland and Labrador is on the eastern edge of North America, has a large land area (405,212 km2) and a small population (510,000; 2009 estimate). The province currently has no legislative framework to control development in hazardous areas, but recent

Martin Batterson; Stapleton Neil

2010-01-01

74

Reconciling tracer and float observations of the export pathways of Labrador Sea Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than fifty years, it has been generally accepted by oceanographers that the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is the principal conduit of recently-convected Labrador Sea Water (LSW) exported from the high-latitude North Atlantic to the equator. Supporting this supposition is observational evidence that the waters of the DWBC have consistently greater equatorward velocities, higher concentrations of passive tracers, and younger ages compared to ocean interior waters. However, recent observations and simulations of floats launched in the DWBC in the Labrador Sea show that most water parcels are quickly ejected from the DWBC and follow instead interior pathways to the subtropics. Here, we show that tracer observations from the last three decades are compatible with the existence of both DWBC and basin-interior export pathways. From analyses of observational data and model output, we find that equatorward transport in the basin interior is consistent with the large-scale vorticity balance at mid-depth. Furthermore, from the modeling analysis we show that despite higher, localized concentrations of tracer and particles in the DWBC, only 5% of particles released in the Labrador Sea are transported from the subpolar to subtropical gyre via a continuous DWBC pathway. Thus, the interior pathway is a significant contributor to LSW export.

Gary, S. F.; Lozier, M. S.; Biastoch, A.; Böning, C. W.

2012-12-01

75

Geochemistry of the nain massif anorthosite, labrador: Magma diversity in five intrusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrography and major- and trace-element concentrations of the anorthositic Bird Lake Massif (BLM), Susie Brook Slab (SBS), Lister Massif (LM), Port Man vers Run (PMR), and Kikkertavak area (KIK) in the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS), Labrador, delineate the mineralogical and composition ranges of these large intrusions. From these, a variety of magmas and staging histories can be inferred. The BLM and SBS are mainly noritic anorthosites of the western region exposed along Tikkoatokhakh Bay (TIK). Tilting and stretching deformation distinguish SBS from BLM, but the two units show no mineralogical or chemical differences. The KIK and PMR intrusions are mainly troctolitic to noritic anorthosites of the eastern region, and they contain more mafic components than the TIK bodies. Chemically, all the anorthositic rocks are high in Ba, Sr, and the ratio K/Rb, and low in Zr, Rb, and Rb/Sr. The three plutonic bodies, BLM, SBS, and LM, along TIK are similar and can be clearly distinguished from KIK and PMR intrusions by element concentrations and ratios. Diagrams of element pairs show that each intrusion or group has its own evolutionary trend and variable style, indicating that they represent independent magma batches rather than fractionally related volumes of the same magma. REE patterns show light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion, and strong positive Eu anomalies, correlated with cumulus plagioclase. In chemical comparison with adjacent plutons, one PMR-chilled leucotroctolite, after subtraction of 18% cumulus plagioclase, is similar to the Kiglapait magma (KI); one melatroctolite in KIK is close to the comb-layered melatroctolite of the Snowflake zone in the Hettasch Intrusion (HI); and the average leucotroctolite and leuconorite in KIK are similar to the leucotroctolite unit and the upper leuconorite, respectively, at Paul Island (PI). Therefore, the magmas from PMR and KIK are similar to those of wellknown troctolitic bodies and their feldspar-rich cumulates. KIK differs from PMR in having somewhat higher An and Xmg values. All these lines of evidence show that at least three types of magma existed in the study area: sodic noritic magma accumulating plagioclase in TIK, troctolitic magma in KIK, and a magma similar to but more evolved than KIK in PMR. The methods used also illustrate the feasibility of characterizing magma compositions from diverse types of cumulates. Regional differences in modal and chemical composition occur in the NPS. Noritic compositions with pale plagioclase are located in the western and southern regions, and troctolitic compositions with darker plagioclase are located in the eastern region. A reasonably accurate boundary can now be drawn between the two regions, which differ in the nature of their transport from the mantle. In comparison with a primitive mantle composition, high Ba, Pb, K, Sr, Ti, and low Rb, Nb, Zr in the Nain anorthositic rocks are distinctive. These anomalies and the isotopic results of other investigators are consistent with mantle source enrichment followed by variable contamination during magma ponding at the base of the depleted crust.

Xue, Suizhou; Morse, S. A.

1993-08-01

76

Full-fit reconstruction of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the opening of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay between Greenland and North America remains controversial. Recent seismic data suggest that magnetic lineations along the margins of the Labrador Sea, originally interpreted as seafloor spreading anomalies, may lie within the crust of the continent-ocean transition. These data also suggest a more seaward extent of continental crust within the Greenland margin near the Davis Strait than assumed in previous full-fit reconstructions. Our study focuses on reconstructing the full-fit configuration of Greenland and North America using an approach that considers continental deformation in a quantitative manner. We use gravity inversion to map crustal thickness across the conjugate margins, and assimilate observations from available seismic profiles and potential field data to constrain the likely extent of different crustal types. We derive end-member continental margin restorations following alternative interpretations of published seismic profiles. The boundaries between continental and oceanic crust (COB) are restored to their pre-stretching locations along small circle motion paths across the region of Cretaceous extension. Restored COBs are fitted quantitatively to compute alternative total-fit reconstructions. A preferred full-fit model is chosen based on the strongest compatibility with geological and geophysical data. Our preferred model suggests that (i) the COB lies oceanward of magnetic lineations interpreted as magnetic anomaly 31 (70 Ma) in the Labrador Sea, (ii) all previously identified magnetic lineations landward of anomaly 27 reflect intrusions into continental crust, and (iii) the Ungava fault zone in Davis Strait acted as a leaky transform fault during rifting. This robust plate reconstruction reduces gaps and overlaps in the Davis Strait and suggests that there is no need for alternative models proposed for reconstructions of this area including additional plate boundaries in North America or Greenland. Our favored model implies that break up and formation of continent-ocean transition (COT) first started in the southern Labrador Sea and Davis Strait around 88 Ma and then propagated north and southwards up to onset of real seafloor spreading at 63 Ma in the Labrador Sea. In the Baffin Bay, continental stretching lasted longer and actual break up and seafloor spreading started around 61 Ma (Chron 26).

Hosseinpour, M.; Müller, R. D.; Williams, S. E.; Whittaker, J. M.

2013-07-01

77

Centronuclear Myopathy in Labrador Retrievers: A Recent Founder Mutation in the PTPLA Gene Has Rapidly Disseminated Worldwide  

PubMed Central

Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are inherited congenital disorders characterized by an excessive number of internalized nuclei. In humans, CNM results from ?70 mutations in three major genes from the myotubularin, dynamin and amphiphysin families. Analysis of animal models with altered expression of these genes revealed common defects in all forms of CNM, paving the way for unified pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms. Despite these efforts, some CNM cases remain genetically unresolved. We previously identified an autosomal recessive form of CNM in French Labrador retrievers from an experimental pedigree, and showed that a loss-of-function mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLA) gene segregated with CNM. Around the world, client-owned Labrador retrievers with a similar clinical presentation and histopathological changes in muscle biopsies have been described. We hypothesized that these Labradors share the same PTPLAcnm mutation. Genotyping of an international panel of 7,426 Labradors led to the identification of PTPLAcnm carriers in 13 countries. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the PTPLAcnm allele resulted from a single and recent mutational event that may have rapidly disseminated through the extensive use of popular sires. PTPLA-deficient Labradors will help define the integrated role of PTPLA in the existing CNM gene network. They will be valuable complementary large animal models to test innovative therapies in CNM.

Guillaud, Laurent; Fender, Marilyn; Pele, Manuel; Bilzer, Thomas; Olby, Natasha; Penderis, Jacques; Shelton, G. Diane; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Barthelemy, Ines; Aubin-Houzelstein, Genevieve; Blot, Stephane; Hitte, Christophe; Tiret, Laurent

2012-01-01

78

The Wild Partridgeberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. var. minus lodd) Industry in Newfoundland and Labrador and the Potential for Expansion Utilizing European Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. var. minus Lodd, known in Newfoundland and Labrador as partridgeberry, is an economically important native fruit that is harvested from unmanaged natural stands. Annual production varies, but a mean annual harvest of 96,500 kilograms makes Newfoundland and Labrador the largest North American producer. Most fruit is exported frozen, but there is local secondary processing. There is a

B. G. Penney; C. A. Gallagher; P. A. Hendrickson; R. A. Churchill

79

An introduction to nutrition Newfoundland and Labrador with a preliminary look at the dietary intakes and some related health issues in senior residents of the province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition Newfoundland and Labrador is a province wide survey of a random sample of approximately 2000 residents of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Survey questions address dietary intakes of respondents and related nutrition and health issues. Preliminary findings on the 65–74 year old subgroup (342 respondents) suggest that only 17% intentionally exercise in their leisure time, 30% take nutritional

B. V. Roebothan; J. Aucoin

1998-01-01

80

Decline and partial rebound of the Labrador Current 1993–2004: Monitoring ocean currents from altimetric and conductivity-temperature-depth data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring and understanding of Labrador Current variability is important because it is intimately linked to the meridional overturning circulation and the marine ecosystem off northeast North America. Nevertheless, knowledge of its decadal variability is inadequate because of scarcity of current meter data. By using a novel synthesis of satellite altimetry with conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data, we assess the Labrador Current variability

Guoqi Han; Kyoko Ohashi; Nancy Chen; Paul G. Myers; Nuno Nunes; Jürgen Fischer

2010-01-01

81

Late Glacial Outbursts From Lake Agassiz: the Marine Record on the Labrador, Newfoundland, and Scotian Shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Agassiz formed along the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) between ~13.7-8.4 cal ka, and periodically released large (1.6 to 160 x 103 km3) bursts of water into different oceans as ice retreated past critical topographic thresholds. Differential isostatic rebound, reconstructions of the LIS margin, and dated lake levels are used to identify the routing taken by these outbursts. The two largest outbursts (0.3 and 5.2 Sv) occurred at ~12.9 cal ka and ~8.4 cal ka, which are near the start of the Younger Dryas (YD) and the 8.2 cal ka cooling, respectively. There is a distinct lack of evidence in the western North Atlantic Ocean (e.g. Labrador Sea) for the largest outburst from Lake Agassiz when it drained out of Hudson Strait at 8.4 ka. However, new data and re-evaluation of previously published results from cores collected on the Labrador, Newfoundland and Scotian continental shelves show the presence of a calcite-rich detrital carbonate (DC) layer, around 8.4 ka, indicating plume transport of sediments from Hudson Bay in the Labrador Current. Changes in dinocyst assemblages and shifts to lighter delta 18O values indicate reduced ocean sea-surface temperatures and salinities in this flow. Significant changes in benthic foraminiferal faunas at some sites indicate water-mass shifts, and reduced salinities and temperatures, at the sea floor, all of which correlate to the flux of waters from the final Agassiz drawdown. Through mixing with offshore branches of the Labrador Current, some of these waters may have been incorporated in the North Atlantic Current east of Grand Bank, or into the Gulf Stream south of Grand Bank, and transported to northern North Atlantic areas of convection, confirming the potential role of Lake Agassiz freshwaters in triggering the 8.2 ka cooling event by impacting thermohaline circulation (THC). The presence of a YD-dated DC layer, with a strong dolomite component, on Northeast Newfoundland Shelf is possibly a consequence of a northwestern outburst from Lake Agassiz at the start of the YD, routed via the Arctic Ocean, through Fram Strait, then into the East, then West, Greenland currents, to the Labrador Current, rather than through the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence drainage system. The same benthic foraminiferal changes observed on Northeast Newfoundland Shelf in the 8.2 ka DC layer also occurred during YD DC deposition, suggesting water mass changes and flux were of similar magnitude in the YD as during the 8.2 ka event, and much more significant than previously recognized. Some of these waters may also have coalesced with the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current, for transport back to the Norwegian and Greenland seas, where in combination with the Arctic outflow they inhibited THC. The final 163,000 km3 drainage of Lake Agassiz at 8.4 ka may also have been responsible for triggering a tsunami in the Labrador Sea, and for rapid marine transgressions along gently-sloping continental shelves of the world.

Teller, J. T.; Miller, A. A.; Lewis, C. M.; Levac, E.; Sonnichsen, G. V.; Piper, D. J.

2005-12-01

82

Eastern and Western Boundary Currents in the Labrador Sea, 1995-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1995, the annual occupation of AR7W in the Labrador Sea has usually included LADCP data in addition to hydrographic measurements and tracers. We have previously presented results discussing the section-wide circulation for particular years, comparison with geostrophic velocities, and heat flux as determined from individual as well as composite sections. In this work, we present boundary current transports for a sampling of AR7W sections from 1995 through 2008. Both eastern and western boundary currents (EBCs, WBCs) are examined by combining LADCP data with density (or hydrographic) measurements from ships and profiling floats (Argo, PALACE). The transport estimates from LADCP data are also compared with the currents based on along-track multi-mission altimetry and with the lagrangian velocities from historic float and drifter trajectories. We find that WBC transports are mostly weaker than EBC transports, with slightly less variability year to year. Transports may be underestimated by 2 - 4 Sv when LADCP data are not available far enough onshore, so we extrapolate the velocities (carefully) to improve our estimate. Geostrophic velocities from hydrographic data can also be used to extend the coverage. WBC transports are about 32 Sv in the mean, but range from 22 to as much as 55 Sv. EBC transports range from 26 to 70 (!) Sv, with a mean of about 45 Sv. Higher transports, year to year, result from a combination of greater current width and faster velocities. Baroclinic transport relative to 1500 dbars for the upper level current ranges from 2.5 - 4.6 Sv, in good agreement with Lazier and Wright (1993). Using hydrographic data to determine transport in prescribed density layers, we find reasonable agreement with other recent observations in the Labrador Sea: for the western boundaries, Fischer et al. (2004) and Dengler et al. (2006) (CTD, LADCP and moored array data near 53 N and 56 N, respectively); for the eastern boundaries, Holliday et al. (2009), their Labrador Sea section near 59 N (CTD and LADCP data). For our sections, transport in density layers (in the mean) is conserved only below sigma-theta = 27.8, that is, in the overflow waters of the DWBC. References: Dengler, M., J. Fischer, F. A. Schott and R. Zantopp (2006), Deep Labrador Current and its variability in 1996-2005, Geophys. Res. Letters, vol. 33, L21S06, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026702. Fischer, J., F. Schott, and M. Dengler (2004), Boundary circulation at the exit of the Labrador Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1548-1570. Holliday, N. P., S. Bacon, J. Allen, and E. L. McDonagh (2009), Circulation and transport in the western boundary currents at Cape Farewell, Greenland, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1854-1870. Lazier, J. R. N., and D. G. Wright (1993), Annual velocity variations in the Labrador Current, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 659-678.

Hall, M. M.; Torres, D. J.; Yashayaev, I.

2010-12-01

83

A cross-sectional study of epilepsy in Danish Labrador Retrievers: prevalence and selected risk factors.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and selected risk factors of epilepsy, the proportion of dogs with epilepsy in remission, and the types of seizures in Danish Labrador Retrievers. A prospective cross-sectional study of epilepsy was conducted in 1999-2000. The study was carried out in 2 phases in a reference population consisting of 29,602 individuals. In phase 1, 550 dogs were selected by random sampling stratified by year of birth. A telephone interview was used to identify dogs with possible epilepsy. In phase 2, dogs judged during phase 1 as possibly suffering from epilepsy were further subjected to physical and neurologic examination, CBC, blood chemistry, and a questionnaire on seizure phenomenology. Seventeen dogs were diagnosed with epilepsy, yielding a prevalence of 3.1% (95% CI 1.6-4.6%) in the Danish population of Labrador Retrievers. A diagnosis of epilepsy was 6 times more probable in dogs >4 years (born before 1995) than in younger dogs (born between 1995 and 1999) (P = .004, relative risk = 6.5). No significant difference in risk between genders was observed, nor could any effect of neutering be proven statistically. The frequencies of primary generalized seizures and partial seizures (with or without secondary generalization) were 24 and 70%, respectively. The type of seizures could not be classified in 6%. In conclusion, the 3.1% prevalence of epilepsy in Danish Labrador Retrievers is higher than the 1% prevalence of epilepsy described in the general canine population, establishing that this breed is at increased risk. PMID:12041655

Berendt, Mette; Gredal, Hanne; Pedersen, Lotte Gam; Alban, Lis; Alving, Jørgen

84

Comparison of methods for marine gravity determination from satellite altimetry data in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-year average satellite altimetry data from the Exact Repeat Missions (ERM) of GEOSAT have been used to determine marine gravity disturbances in the Labrador Sea region using the inverse Hotine approach with FFT techniques. The derived satellite gravity information has been compared to shipboard gravity as well as gravity information derived by least-squares collocation (LSC), GEMT3 and OSU91A geopotential models in the Orphan Knoll area. The RMS and mean differences between satellite and shipboard gravity disturbances are about 8.0 and 2.8 mGal, respectively. There is no significantly difference between the results obtained using FFT and LSC.

Zhang, Changyou; Blais, J. A. R.

1995-09-01

85

Insight into lunar impact cratering processes based on field mapping of the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact craters are the dominant geological landform on the Moon; however, relationships between specific lunar craters and their impactites are typically poorly constrained. With limited lunar samples, planetary scientists look to terrestrial craters as lunar analogues. The Mistastin Lake impact structure, located in northern Labrador, Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W) offers a unique opportunity to study preserved impactites of similar lunar mineralogy and outcrop characteristics, and to understand the origin and emplacement of lunar impact ejecta. The Mistastin Lake impact structure is an intermediate-size, complex crater (28 km apparent crater diameter) formed by a meteorite impact ~36 million years ago. It is comparable to many of the larger impact craters on the Moon (150-200 km in diameter) when scaled for gravity differences. The original crater has been differentially eroded; however, a subdued rim and distinct central uplift are still observed [1]. The inner portion of the structure is covered by the Mistastin Lake and the surrounding area is locally covered by soil/glacial deposits and vegetation. The crystalline target rocks of the Mistastin Lake region are dominated by anorthosite, granodiorite, and mangerite. Locally, allochthonous impactite units including impact melt and various types of breccias are unevenly distributed around the lake and on Horseshoe Island (interpreted as the remains of a central uplift). Previous studies of the Mistastin Lake impactites have primarily focussed on the melt rocks (e.g., [1], [2]). This project builds on these studies and further evaluates the suite of impactite rocks in terms of their context within the crater structure and origin of their components. Based on field mapping over three field seasons, the Mistastin Lake is interpreted as the outer edge of the collapsed transient crater of the Mistastin Lake impact structure and the plateaus extending up to 5 km away from the edge of the water are interpreted as terraces formed by collapse during the modification stage of crater formation. Exposed impactite units in this region, define a consistent stratigraphy, from bottom to top: autochthonous to parachthonous lithic (monomict) breccias, allochthonous lithic (polymict) breccias, and allochthonous impact melt. Impact melt and breccia deposits in the terraced rim are interpreted as proximal ejecta deposits. These units may be analogous to impact melt ponds that overlie the blocky continuous ejecta blanket [3]. Field relationships between Mistastin breccias and overlying melt units exhibit evidence of flow and are not consistent with an airborne mode of origin for either impactite type. Sharp contacts between these units suggest that there is a time gap between their depositions, and are consistent with a multi-stage impact ejecta emplacement process [4].

Mader, M. M.; Osinski, G. R.

2011-12-01

86

Incidence of the mask phenotype M264V mutation in Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

The introduction of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) chips allows for the rapid typing of multiple markers for many individuals at one time. Our lab routinely types dogs using a custom designed combined panel of SNPs for parentage verification and a number of genes for diagnostic tests using an OpenArray platform manufactured by BioTrove (Woburn, MA, USA). By utilizing the same SNP panel across a wide array of canine breeds it is possible to detect trait-associated SNPs in breeds not thought to carry those traits. We genotyped 245 Labrador Retrievers on the canine SNP chip and found 13 animals heterozygous for the M264V mutation associated with autosomal dominant mask trait, and one animal homozygous for this trait. The color genotypes for these animals were further examined. In standard colored Labradors (black, chocolate, and yellow), the mask phenotype would never be distinguishable. As illustrated by this example, we feel this SNP panel is a valuable method for discovering traits not known to exist in a breed. PMID:21353269

Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

2011-02-24

87

A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism  

PubMed Central

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drogemuller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

88

The Inclusive Classroom - Can the Teachers Keep Up? A Comparison of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study compared the results of a previous study on 725 Nova Scotia teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and confidence in their abilities with those of 287 teachers from Newfoundland & Labrador. No provincial differences in teachers' perceptions of inclusion were found despite differences in provincial policy/practice. (Contains…

Edmunds, Alan

2003-01-01

89

Birthdate for the Iapetus Ocean A precise UPb zircon and baddeleyite age for the Long Range dikes, southeast Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mafic dike swarms represent direct evidence of early tensional environments that may have eventually led to ocean formation. The first precise U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite age of 615 {plus minus} 2 Ma for a Long Range dike, southeastern Labrador, could mark the beginning of Iapetus Ocean formation. Baddeleyite (ZrOâ) is more widespread than previously recognized. It is ideal for use

Sandra L. Kamo; T. E. Krogh; C. F. Gower

1989-01-01

90

Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between vitamin D status and cutaneous mast cell tumours in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data indicate that low serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with an increased risk of a variety of human tumours. Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) occur more frequently in dogs than in any other species. Canine MCT express the vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D derivatives have in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour activity. We sought to examine the association between vitamin D serum level and MCT in Labrador retrievers, a dog breed predisposed to MCT development. To examine this association, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations were examined in eighty-seven Labrador retrievers, including thirty-three with MCT and fifty-four unaffected controls. The relationship between cases and controls and 25(OH)D3 level, age and body condition score were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Potential differences in vitamin D oral intake, calculated on the basis of a dietary questionnaire, were also evaluated between groups. Mean 25(OH)D3 concentration (104 (SD 30) nmol/l) in dogs with MCT was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (120 (SD 35) nmol/l; P = 0.027). The mean calculated vitamin D intake per kg body weight in Labrador retrievers with MCT was not statistically different from that of unaffected Labrador retrievers (0.38 (SD 0.25) and 0.31 (SD 0.22) ?g/kg body weight, respectively; P = 0.13). These findings suggest that low levels of 25(OH)D3 might be a risk factor for MCT in Labrador retrievers. Prospective cohort studies are warranted. PMID:22005438

Wakshlag, Joseph J; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Malone, Erin K; Struble, Angela M; Vachhani, Priyanka; Trump, Donald L; Tian, Lili

2011-10-01

91

[Musculotendinopathy of the gastrocnemius muscle in a Labrador Retriever. A case report].  

PubMed

Musculotendinopathy at the origin of the gastrocnemius muscle is a rare disease mostly described in herding dogs. The etiology is based on repeated myotendinous strain of the muscle in athletic dogs. Clinically, the patient displays chronic pelvic limb lameness and pain at the lateral fabella during palpation of this area. There is no instability of the stifle present. Radiographic findings (osteophyte formation at the origin of the muscle and the lateral fabella) support the potential diagnosis. Magnetic resonance tomography shows edematous changes and enhancement after intravenous application of contrast agent in the area of the origin of the lateral gastrocnemius head. With conservative treatment (i.?e. leash confinement, NSAID application and physiotherapy) the prognosis is good. This case report describes clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, therapy and long-term outcome of an athletic Labrador Retriever presented with this disease. PMID:24127033

Fiedler, A M; Amort, K H; Bokemeyer, J; Kramer, M

2013-10-15

92

Immunophenotypic evaluation of working Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd dogs living in the same environment.  

PubMed

Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to compare peripheral blood lymphocyte subset distribution between healthy working police Labrador Retrievers (LRs; n=12) and German Shepherd dogs (GS; n=11) living in the same environment. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in LR than in GS because of the lower percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes in LR. GS showed the highest relative percentage of CD3-/CD21- lymphocytes, whereas LR had the highest percentages of MHC II+ lymphocytes. Because age, sex, environmental and housing conditions, dietary patterns, and training or working routines were similar in both breeds in the study, differences in peripheral blood lymphocyte subset distribution could be attributed to the influence of breed on the immune system. PMID:22321612

Villaescusa, Alejandra; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Delgado, Alba M; Tesouro, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

2012-02-08

93

Genetic Evaluation of the Nine Component Features of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore the genetic relationship between the nine component traits comprising the British Veterinary Association (BVA) total hip score in UK registered Labrador Retrievers. Data consisted of 11,928 single records of trait scores of dogs aged between one and four years (365–1459 days) old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007. Pedigree information was provided by the UK Kennel Club. The distribution of trait scores showed only small numbers of dogs with visible malformation in the six traits that were scored according to the severity of osteoarthritis. Linear mixed models were fitted using ASREML. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.38, and litter effects from 0.04 to 0.10. Genetic correlations between all nine traits were extremely high ranging from 0.71 to 1.0, implying considerable genetic similarity. The decomposition demonstrated that aggregate scores of only the 3 traits indicative of laxity in one year old dogs was predictive of the phenotype of the remaining six scored on osteoarthritic severity in dogs at 4+ years old. The application of selection index methodology in selecting against hip dysplasia using the trait scores was explored and potential improvements in accuracy (directly related to response to selection) of over 10% are reported compared to the current total hip score. This study demonstrates that traits descriptive of joint laxity are valuable early-age predictors of osteoarthritis and shows that there is scope for improvement in the way data from the UK hip score scheme are used for selection against hip dysplasia in Labradors. This was verified via use of selection indices, which identified substantial increases in accuracy, not only via optimum coefficients, but also through an easily applicable aggregate of scores of just two or three traits only compared with the current total hip score.

Lewis, Thomas W.; Woolliams, John A.; Blott, Sarah C.

2010-01-01

94

Wind and topographic effects on the Labrador Current at Carson Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from an experimental investigation of the interaction between a shelf break jet and a submarine canyon and of the response of this system to a single upwelling favorable wind event. The field site was Carson Canyon, located at the edge of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland. The shelf break jet is the Labrador Current. The time-averaged current measurements indicate that the interaction between the Labrador Current and the canyon topography is nonlinear and that the mean current crosses isobaths to flow into the canyon on the upstream side but is steered off shelf on the downstream side. The mean flow vorticity balance in the near field and far field is examined, using a two-layer model with the lower layer at rest. In the far field we obtain an interesting result which suggests that the cross-stream shear in combination with bottom friction can drive a significant on-shelf flow. This flow is equivalent to a volume transport of about 60 m3 s-1 per 100 m of along-shelf distance, which is comparable to typical wind-driven Ekman transports on and off continental shelves and which appears to have important implications for the on-off-shelf transport of icebergs in the Grand Banks region. In the near field the Rossby number is of order unity and bottom friction is less important. Many of the observed flow properties can be explained qualitatively in terms of an upstream inertial boundary layer and potential vorticity conservation. The time-dependent response to upwelling favorable winds was registered by current meters in the canyon and at the shelf break at the canyon perimeter. These observations indicate an amplified upwelling response at the shelf break and vertical ascent rates within the canyon of about 0.7 cm s-1.

Kinsella, E. Douglas; Hay, Alex E.; Denner, Warren W.

1987-09-01

95

Carbon Cycle Dynamics in the Labrador Sea During the Spring to Summer Phytoplankton Bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Sea is a region of intense physical and biological activity. This area is a globally significant site of air-sea CO2 flux, deep water formation, and perhaps organic carbon export. It is therefore important to characterize these processes and the interplay between them. We report here the carbon cycle dynamics during the summer 2004 phytoplankton bloom observed from a 70-day Air-Sea Interaction Buoy (ASIS) deployment in the Labrador Sea. Physical and biogeochemical properties were measured at multiple depths in the upper 35 m by autonomous pCO2, PAR, Chl-a fluorescence, beam-c, optical backscatter, CTD, and ADCP sensors. Using the in situ pCO2, air-sea flux of CO2 and net community metabolism (NCM) are estimated. Our findings indicate that during the main phytoplankton bloom, temperature and NCM drive large opposing trends in seawater pCO2. Changes in particulate organic carbon, obtained from beam-C and optical backscatter, provide a linkage between the observed CO2 drawdown and organic carbon production. This connection may allow inference on the less-understood flux of organic carbon in this region thus providing a link between air-sea CO2 flux and carbon export. Evaluation of net community production in the context of mixed layer depth and compensation irradiance reveals a general adherence to the classic Critical Depth Hypothesis. ADCP backscatter reveals an intriguing relationship between magnitude and phase of diel pCO2 cycling in the upper 10 m, presumably driven by zooplankton migration.

Martz, T.; Degrandpre, M.; Strutton, P.; McGillis, W.; Drennan, W.

2006-12-01

96

Genetic evaluation of the nine component features of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the genetic relationship between the nine component traits comprising the British Veterinary Association (BVA) total hip score in UK registered Labrador Retrievers. Data consisted of 11,928 single records of trait scores of dogs aged between one and four years (365-1459 days) old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007. Pedigree information was provided by the UK Kennel Club. The distribution of trait scores showed only small numbers of dogs with visible malformation in the six traits that were scored according to the severity of osteoarthritis. Linear mixed models were fitted using ASREML. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.38, and litter effects from 0.04 to 0.10. Genetic correlations between all nine traits were extremely high ranging from 0.71 to 1.0, implying considerable genetic similarity. The decomposition demonstrated that aggregate scores of only the 3 traits indicative of laxity in one year old dogs was predictive of the phenotype of the remaining six scored on osteoarthritic severity in dogs at 4+ years old. The application of selection index methodology in selecting against hip dysplasia using the trait scores was explored and potential improvements in accuracy (directly related to response to selection) of over 10% are reported compared to the current total hip score. This study demonstrates that traits descriptive of joint laxity are valuable early-age predictors of osteoarthritis and shows that there is scope for improvement in the way data from the UK hip score scheme are used for selection against hip dysplasia in Labradors. This was verified via use of selection indices, which identified substantial increases in accuracy, not only via optimum coefficients, but also through an easily applicable aggregate of scores of just two or three traits only compared with the current total hip score. PMID:21042594

Lewis, Thomas W; Woolliams, John A; Blott, Sarah C

2010-10-22

97

On the factors behind large Labrador Sea tides during the last glacial cycle and the potential implications for Heinrich events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador Sea (LS) tidal elevations over the last glacial cycle are investigated in a near-global numerical model that accurately captures the present-day tides. From ?65 ka to ?7 ka, the modeled elevations at the debouchement point of the Hudson Strait ice stream in the LS are exceptionally large, comparable to the largest elevations seen anywhere in the present-day ocean. New

Brian K. Arbic; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Douglas R. MacAyeal; Glenn A. Milne

2008-01-01

98

Asymmetrical turbid surface-plume deposition near ice-outlets of the Pleistocene Laurentide ice sheet in the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice-sheet drainage of glacial detritus into the sea involves size fractionation by ice-margin winnowing on a giant scale\\u000a caused by the lower density of meltwater entering cold seawater. Despite its load of suspended sediment, the fresh water rises\\u000a to or stays at the sea surface forming turbid surface plumes, whereas the coarse-grained sediment forms bed load. On the Labrador\\u000a Slope

Reinhard Hesse; Saeed Khodabakhsh; Ingo Klaucke; William B. F. Ryan

1997-01-01

99

Crustal structure of the Labrador Sea conjugate margin and implications for the formation of nonvolcanic continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-angle seismic studies have determined the detailed velocity structure along a 350-km-long profile across the Labrador margin. Combination of this model with a previously published cross section for the southwestern Greenland margin constitutes the first combined conjugate margin study based on seismic velocity structure. The results indicate three distinct zones across the Labrador margin, similar to the structure of the conjugate Greenland margin. Zone 1 represents 27 to 30-km-thick continental crust thinning gradually seaward over ˜100 km distance. Farther seaward, zone 2 is 70-80 km wide, characterized by a distinct lower crust, 4-5 km thick, in which velocity increases with depth from 6.4 to 7.7 km/s. Interpretation for this lower crustal block favors an origin by serpentinized peridotite rather than by magmatic under-plating. Zone 3 represents two-layered, normal oceanic crust. The cross sections from both margins are reconstructed to an early drift stage at Chron 27. This demonstrates that the serpentinites in zone 2 are symmetrically distributed between previous identifications of Chrons 31 and 33 on both margins. Zone 1 shows a marked asymmetry, with a gradual thinning of continental crust off Labrador contrasted with a rapid thinning off Greenland. The abundant serpentinization of upper mantle peridotite in zone 2 and the asymmetric shape of zone 1 are both probably related to a very slow rate of continental rifting which produced little if any melt.

Chian, Doping; Louden, Keith E.; Reid, Ian

1995-12-01

100

Comparison of the atmospheric forcing and oceanographic responses between the Labrador Sea and the Norwegian and Barents seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the mean conditions and variability in the climate and physical oceanographic characteristics between the Labrador Sea and surrounding shelves and the Norwegian and Barents seas is presented. The two regions are strongly advective systems being influenced by both cold, low saline flows from the Arctic and warm, high saline flows from the Atlantic. However, Arctic flows are more dominant in the Labrador Sea region, especially on the shelves, while Atlantic flows dominate in the Norwegian and a large part of the Barents Seas. In spite of this, the study reveals a general latitudinal dependence for several climate and oceanographic variables, including air temperatures, eastward winds, heat fluxes, and seasonal sea surface temperature range, within each of the two regions but with regional varying rates of change with latitude. We also confirm the previously reported out-of-phase relationships on interannual to decadal time scales of air and sea temperatures and sea-ice conditions between the Labrador Sea and the Norwegian and Barents seas regions from the 1950s until the mid-1990s. This is owing to their opposite response to the variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, from the mid-1990s, air and sea temperatures in both regions generally have been in phase, showing strong warming and reduced ice coverage. The cause of this change is related to changes in the spatial structure of the atmospheric pressure patterns, resulting in a general reduction in the importance of NAO forcing over the North Atlantic.

Drinkwater, K.; Colbourne, E.; Loeng, H.; Sundby, S.; Kristiansen, T.

2013-07-01

101

Eddy Seeding in the Labrador Sea: a Submerged Autonomous Launching Platform (SALP) Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified Submerged Autonomous Launch Platform (SALP) was used to release profiling floats into warm-core Irminger Rings (IRs) in order to investigate their vertical structure and evolution in the Labrador Sea from September 2007 - September 2009. IRs are thought to play an important role in restratification after convection in the Labrador Sea. The SALP is designed to release surface drifters or subsurface floats serially from a traditional ocean mooring, using real-time ocean measurements as criteria for launch. The original prototype instrument used properties measured at multiple depths, with information relayed to the SALP controller via acoustic modems. In our application, two SALP carousels were attached at 500 meters onto a heavily-instrumented deep water mooring, in the path of recently-shed IRs off the west Greenland shelf. A release algorithm was designed to use temperature and pressure measured at the SALP depth only to release one or two APEX profiling drifters each time an IR passed the mooring, using limited historical observations to set release thresholds. Mechanically and electronically, the SALP worked well: out of eleven releases, there was only one malfunction when a float was caught in the cage after the burn-wire had triggered. However, getting floats trapped in eddies met with limited success due to problems with the release algorithm and float ballasting. Out of seven floats launched from the platform using oceanographic criteria, four were released during warm water events that were not related to passing IRs. Also, after float release, it took on average about 2.6 days for the APEX to adjust from its initial ballast depth, about 600 meters, to its park point of 300 meters, leaving the float below the trapped core of water in the IRs. The other mooring instruments (at depths of 100 to 3000 m), revealed that 12 IRs passed by the mooring in the 2-year monitoring period. With this independent information, we were able to assess and improve the release algorithm, still based on ocean conditions measured only at one depth. We found that much better performance could have been achieved with an algorithm that detected IRs based on a temperature difference from a long-term running mean rather than a fixed temperature threshold. This highlights the challenge of designing an appropriate release strategy with limited a priori information on the amplitude and time scales of the background variability.

Furey, Heather H.; Femke de Jong, M.; Bower, Amy S.

2013-04-01

102

Hindcasting and forecasting of climatology for Gilbert Bay, Labrador: A marine protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gilbert Bay is a marine protected area (MPA) on the southeastern coast of Labrador, Canada. The MPA was created to conserve a genetically distinctive population of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Future climate change in the region is expected to have an impact on the coastal marine environment and local communities in the future. This thesis presents results from a hindcast and forecasts study of physical oceanographic conditions for Gilbert Bay. The first section of this thesis examines the interannual variability in atmospheric and physical oceanographic characteristics of Gilbert Bay over the period 1949-2006. The seasonal and interannual variability of the near surface atmospheric parameters are described. Seawater temperature, salinity and sea-ice thickness in winter are simulated with a physical ocean model, the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). The results of the hindcast model suggest that the atmospheric interannual variability of the Gilbert Bay region is linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A warming trend observed in the subpolar North Atlantic was influenced by the local climate of coastal Labrador during the recent decade of 1995-2005. The second section of this thesis presents a model forecast of the impact of climate change on the physical conditions within Gilbert Bay over the next century. Climate scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment and the US Climate Change Science Program Project (US CCSP), specifically the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), were used. Atmospheric parameters and related changes in seawater temperature, salinity and sea-ice thickness in winter for three SRES are simulated with the GOTM, and are then compared to the hindcast study results. The results suggest that the water column during future winters will become warmer in the second half of the 21st century. In the summer the atmosphere will be warmer and more humid. Cloudiness and precipitation are expected to increase. This will have an impact on the vertical stratification of the water column. The surface mixed layer is expected to become warmer, fresher and much shallower than seen in the past. The stratification below the seasonal thermocline will weaken and vertical mixing will intensify. A significant change in surface sea-ice coverage is also suggested by the forecast. Continuing reduction in sea-ice formation during the winter months as highlighted by the hindcast study is expected to affect living conditions of the neighbouring coastal communities around the bay, specifically by increasing the danger of travelling across the bay. A warming Gilbert Bay ecosystem may be favourable for cod growth, but reduced sea-ice formation during the winter months increases the danger of travelling across the bay by snowmobile.

Best, Sara J.

103

A 1600-Year History of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments in Emerald Basin, on the continental shelf off Halifax, N.S., accumulate at a rate of about 30 cm/thousand years. This rate is great enough to record century to millennial scale changes in the surface and deep (~230m) waters in the basin. In 1998 we cored Emerald Basin, and other locations in the nearby slope water system, in order to develop an ocean-climate history of the region using paleoceanographic techniques. The core top has a modern 14C age, and other 14C dates indicate approximately linear sedimentation rates to 1600 calendar years B.P. Today the continental shelf off Nova Scotia is bathed by a mixture of coastal and slope waters. This mixture varies on interannual to interdecadal timescales. For example, the work of Petrie and Drinkwater and others of the Bedford Institute clearly shows that during the very strong minimum phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 1960s, the Labrador Current was colder and fresher than today and intruded into Emerald Basin. Sea surface temperatures (SST) decreased by 1-2 degrees on an annual average basis, and bottom water temperatures dropped by about 4 degrees. We applied 5 proxies for seawater temperature changes to the sediments of Emerald Basin. Surface water temperature changes are reflected in the percent abundance of the polar planktonic foraminifer N. pachyderma (s.), in the oxygen isotope ratio (d18-O) of the shells of this species, and in the unsaturation ratio of alkenones produced by phytoplankton. Bottom water temperature changes are recorded by the d18-O of benthic forams, and by the Mg/Ca in their shells. All five of these proxies indicate the ocean warmed suddenly sometime in the past 150 years or so. The exact date is uncertain because 14C dating is inaccurate in recent centuries, but we believe this abrupt warming probably correlates with the ice melt layer evidence for warming in the ice caps of the Canadian Archipelago. This region is known to be one of the main source regions for the Labrador Current. Before this recent warming, SST was continually lower by 1-2 degrees, and bottom water was colder by about 6 degrees. These results suggest that there was no Medieval Warm Period off Nova Scotia. Because there is no evidence of Medieval warming in the Canadian archipelago, it seems likely that coastal waters from Baffin Bay to at least as far south as Nova Scotia were continually cold for ~1500 of the past 1600 years. The present hydrography on the Scotian Shelf may be strongly influenced by anthropogenic effects.

Keigwin, L. D.; Sachs, J.; Rosenthal, Y.

2001-12-01

104

Happy Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, Nc is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the ?B-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

McLerran, Larry

2012-01-01

105

Two Loci on Chromosome 5 Are Associated with Serum IgE Levels in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response.

Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Beatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T.; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Ake; Andersson, Goran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

2012-01-01

106

Magma evolution in the Nain Complex, Labrador, and implications for the origin of anorthosite  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of over 50 chilled margins of plutons and contemporaneous dikes in the anorthositic Nain Complex reveal a well-defined trend of liquid evolution along a plagioclase-olivine cotectic. Fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase has resulted in extreme enrichment of TiO/sub 2/ and FeO/sub T/ and depletion of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the more evolved compositions. The contemporaneous Harp Dikes and Seal Lake Volcanics of southern Labrador also fall along this trend. Although rare, other dikes in the Nain complex are very olivine-rich and the olivine is quench-textured. Modeling of major and trace elements indicates that the leucotroctolitic liquids can be derived from the melatroctolites by olivine removal, and that the more evolved cotectic liquids can be derived from the leucotroctolitic liquids by removal of o1 + plag in a 25:75 ratio. If the equilibrium saturation surface of plagioclase is ignored, continued olivine removal from the leucotroctolites is capable of producing compositions very similar to compositions of hypothesized anorthositic magmas. In the Nain Complex, field evidence for supersaturation of plagioclase is abundant. Since all of the compositions discussed above are low in normative diopside, it may be that such liquids are less capable of nucleating plagioclase than liquid with more normal diopside contents, thus permitting the supersaturation.

Berg, J.H.

1985-01-01

107

Detrital Carbonate Events on the Labrador Shelf, a 13 to 7 kyr Template for Freshwater Forcing From the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex sequence of abrupt glacial advances and retreats punctuate the late phases of Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation. These episodes have been reconstructed from interpretation and mapping of glacial deposits on land and in marine basins proximal to the former ice margins in Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and the SE Baffin Island shelf. As these events likely produced pulses of freshwater discharge into the North Altantic, which may be responsible for rapid climate change, their timing and magnitude need to be understood. The timing of these events is well constrained by radiocarbon ages, but the ocean reservoir age in ice proximal areas is subject to very large uncertainties, making it difficult to determine calibrated ages for the glacial events so that they can be compared to other climate records. We suggest that the sequence of high detrital carbonate peaks in Holocene and Late Glacial sediments in the Cartwright Saddle of the Labrador shelf provides a template of the abrupt glacial events of the NE margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, particularly events that issued from Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, but possibly including events in Baffin Bay. Once the Labrador Shelf was deglaciated and the local ice had retreated inland, the Cartwright Saddle was a distal trap for sediments released from Hudson Strait and other ice sheet outlets farther north as their sediments and meltwater were carried southwards by surface currents. Core MD99-2236 contains a sediment record beginning c. 13.9 cal ka. We assume a marine reservoir age for the Cartwright Saddle of 450 yrs, which is reasonable given the ice distal and oceanic position of the site. Carbonate was measured on average at a 30 yr time resolution. Carbonate values are elevated between 11.7 and 7 cal kyr BP, with six spikes exceeding 30 percent. Each spike corresponds to a light isotope spike in foraminifers, suggesting that each major spike is associated with a pulse of glacial meltwater. Elevated IRD counts associated with the carbonate spikes suggest that at least some of the meltwater was released by icebergs. Age estimates of these peaks are: 11.5, 10.6, 9.5, 9.1, 8.7, and 8.2 cal kyr BP, and their duration ranges between 50 and 200 years. A 'red bed' is associated with a subsidiary carbonate spike 8.57 cal ka, very close to the estimated age of the timing of the final outburst drainage of lakes Agassiz and Ojibway: about 8.47 cal ka BP. A lower carbonate spike at 11.1 cal ka is associated with a light isotope event. The carbonate record of MD99-2236 promises to be an important key to the timing and role of deglacial episodes in freshwater forcing on North Altantic climate.

Jennings, A. E.; Andrews, J. T.

2008-12-01

108

Lavender Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and

Mark Henrickson; Stephen Neville; Claire Jordan; Sara Donaghey

2007-01-01

109

Arguing for a multi-hazard mapping program in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster describes efforts to implement a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program, and will explore the challenges associated with this process. Newfoundland and Labrador is on the eastern edge of North America, has a large land area (405,212 km2) and a small population (510,000; 2009 estimate). The province currently has no legislative framework to control development in hazardous areas, but recent landslides in the communities of Daniel's Harbour and Trout River, both of which forced the relocation of residents, emphasize the need for action. There are two factors which confirm the need for a natural hazard mapping program: the documented history of natural disasters, and the future potential impacts of climate change. Despite being relatively far removed from the impacts of earthquake and volcanic activity, Newfoundland and Labrador has a long history of natural disasters. Rockfall, landslide, avalanche and flood events have killed at least 176 people over the past 225 years, many in their own homes. Some of the fatalities resulted from the adjacency of homes to places of employment, and of communities and roads to steep slopes. Others were likely the result of chance, and were thus unavoidable. Still others were the result of poor planning, albeit unwitting. Increasingly however, aesthetics have replaced pragmatism as a selection criterion for housing developments, with residential construction being contemplated for many coastal areas. The issue is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, which while not a universal bane for the Province, will likely result in rising sea level and enhanced coastal erosion. Much of the Province's coastline is receding at up to 30 cm (and locally higher) per year. Sea level is anticipated to rise by 70cm to over 100 cm by 2099, based on IPCC predictions, plus the effects of enhanced ice sheet melting, plus (or minus) continued local isostatic adjustment. The history of geological disasters, coupled with pressures on development and the threat of rising sea levels, has prompted the initiation of a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program. Initial focus is on the north-east Avalon Peninsula, where the majority of the Province's residents are located and where most development is occurring. A regional land-use plan is being initiated for this area. While there are few, if any, standard protocols in literature for determining variables/data to be included in a hazard assessment, three important factors require consideration: the characteristics and detail of the study area, the availability of digital datasets, and the scale of data. For the north-east Avalon Peninsula hazard mapping will combine slope models generated from DEMs, bedrock/surficial geology mapping at 1:50,000 scale, Provincial flood risk mapping and municipal digital topographic data at 1:2500 scale, and historical research and field work, to produce a ‘traffic-light' designation of potentially hazardous areas. Data will be presented in an ArcGIS environment. Sea-level rise scenarios will also be incorporated into the mapping. Following the experience of flood risk mapping in the Province, which identified hazardous areas for development which nevertheless continued to experience urban expansion, subsequently ensuring the utilization of these maps in future land-use planning will likely require entrenchment in legislation.

Batterson, Martin; Neil, Stapleton

2010-05-01

110

Relationship between Holocene climate variations over southern Greenland and eastern Baffin Island and synoptic circulation pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake pollen records from southwest Greenland and eastern Baffin Island show strong regionalism in climate trends of the last 7000 years. Air temperature reconstructions from pollen indicate larger amplitude cooling in southwest Greenland (>3.0°C) than in eastern Baffin Island (<1.0°C). Such west-east gradient in climate change is consistent with paleoceanographical data that indicate decreasing temperature and/or strength of the North Atlantic Current to the east during the Holocene while the eastern Canadian margins under the Labrador Current influence display slight warming. Complementary to air and sea temperature records, the lake pollen data led to reconstruct increased cloudiness in southern Greenland, which points to increasing cyclonic activity since 7000 years west of Greenland. Together, the terrestrial and marine records of the northwest North Atlantic therefore suggest a shift from a dominant NAO+ during the early-mid Holocene to dominant NAO- in the late Holocene.

Fréchette, B.; de Vernal, A.

2009-03-01

111

Basin-scale variability in the Labrador Sea from TOPEX/POSEIDON and Geosat altimeter data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data and the Geosat altimeter data from the Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) have been analyzed to show the basin-scale features of annual sea surface height anomalies in the Labrador Sea. A complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis is used to extract spatial and temporal patterns of altimetric sea surface height anomalies. The analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data has revealed that the first eigenmode has an annual variation with amplitudes of ˜5 cm, positive in summer and negative in winter. The Geosat data analysis implies similar results but shows only the sea surface height variabilities relative to those of the subtropical gyre circulation and the North Atlantic Current due to an orbit error correction. The steric height anomalies of the climatological monthly-mean Levitus data and the sea surface height anomalies of a wind-driven barotropic model are also analyzed using the CEOF technique. The annual cycle in the Levitus data, dominated by thermal expansion, has an amplitude of ˜4 cm and is nearly in phase with the TOPEX/POSEIDON data. The wind-driven annual signal is approximately in phase with the TOPEX/POSEIDON and Levitus data, but its amplitude is less than ˜1 cm. A correlation analysis suggests that the basin-scale features deduced from TOPEX/POSEIDON data are dominated by the steric height variability of the Levitus data, supplemented to much less extent by the wind-driven response of the barotropic model. The Geosat results are found to represent the steric effect only. It is modified by the orbit error correction so much that the phase changes by 180°.

Han, Guoqi; Ikeda, Moto

1996-12-01

112

To Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of islands. They will learn where islands are located throughout the world and will study two very different island groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of islands of the world. Students will explore island flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.

113

Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities. Volume 4. Offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador  

SciTech Connect

This document is Volume 4 of a series of reports entitled ''Geological Evolution and Analysis of Confirmed or Suspected Gas Hydrate Localities.'' Volume 4 is an analysis of the ''Formation and Stability of Gas Hydrates Offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador.'' This report presents a geological description of the offshore regions of Newfoundland and Labrador, including regional and local structural settings, geomorphology, geological history, stratigraphy, and physical properties. It provides the necessary regional and geological background for more in-depth research of the area. Detailed discussion of bottom simulating acoustic reflectors, sediment acoustic properties, and distribution of hydrates within the sediments. The formation and stabilization of gas hydrates in sediments are considered in terms of phase relations, nucleation, and crystallization constraints, gas solubility, pore fluid chemistry, inorganic diagenesis, and sediment organic content. Together with a depositional analysis of the area, this report is a better understanding of the thermal evolution of the locality. It should lead to an assessment of the potential for thermogenic hydrocarbon generation. 183 refs., 64 figs., 1 tab.

Krason, J.; Rudloff, B.

1985-09-01

114

Spreading of Labrador Sea Water in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the central subpolar North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its contribution to the deep cold return flow of the meridional overturning circulation Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is probably one of the best studied water masses in the world ocean. Knowledge concerning changes in the formation of LSW in the Labrador Sea has been gained from hydrographic and tracer data now spanning several decades. Time series revealing temporal changes of LSW properties in other regions key regions like the Irminger Sea and the Newfoundland Basin reveal the arrival of the different dense and light types of LSW one to two years after formation. These regions adjacent to the formation region of LSW are easily invaded by LSW since the flow is not particularly hindered by topographic obstacles or barriers. However, for entering the eastern basins of the North Atlantic, LSW has to cross the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) which is facilitated by the existence of several fracture zones. Based on historical, WOCE, and recent hydrographic data derived from ship surveys and Argo profiles, here, we report on the spreading of LSW in the vicinity of the MAR in the central subpolar North Atlantic. We investigate LSW water mass properties in this region and discuss observed changes in the light of the changing formation history of LSW as well as spatial shifts in the location of the Subpolar Front.

Kieke, D.; Rhein, M.; Yashayaev, I.; Klein, B.

2012-04-01

115

Fylla Bank: structure and evolution of a normal-to-shear rifted margin in the northern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cenozoic seafloor spreading between Greenland and North America is generally considered a major right-stepping ridge-transform-ridge system between NW-SE trending spreading ridge segments in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The ridges were linked by N-S/NNE-SSW trending transform motions in the Davis Strait, in particular expressed by the ˜1000-km-long Ungava Fault Zone. Fylla Bank, part of the southern West Greenland continental margin, is located in the northernmost Labrador Sea at the transition between the normal and shear rifting regimes of the Labrador Sea and Davis Strait. As such, the Bank may be compared with the Demerara Plateau, part of the French Guinea-Northeast Brazil continental margin. Seismic reflection interpretations presented in this study show that Fylla Bank is situated above an extensive basin complex, herein referred to as Fylla Structural Complex, which contains an up to 5-km-thick Cretaceous-Cenozoic sedimentary succession above an inferred pre-Cretaceous basement. Seismic mapping of basement structures show that the complex is dominated by NNW-/NW-striking rift basins in its southern part and NNE-striking rift basins in its northern part. The rift basins are interpreted to be the result of an initial late-Early Cretaceous rift phase, which mainly resulted in the formation of the NNW-/NW-striking structures, and a subsequent early Campanian rift phase, mainly resulting in the formation of large NNE-striking rotated fault blocks. Resumed rifting in the early Cenozoic deepened the NNE-striking rift basins. The NNE-oriented structures have previously been interpreted to initiate during the latest Cretaceous. However, this study suggests that they initiated transfer faults already during the late-Early Cretaceous rift phase and possibly correlate with along-strike discontinuities in oceanic crust in the Labrador Sea to define margin segmentation in southern West Greenland, including the borders of Fylla Bank. A structural-kinematic model presented here thus suggests that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic poly-phase rifting to some extent was controlled by pre-existing crustal fabric. Combined with an interpreted interplay between normal stresses in the Labrador Sea and oblique-shear stresses in the Davis Strait, this resulted in a very complex structural-tectonic evolution and the formation of several distinct structural styles. The seismic interpretations are supported by maps of the Moho topography and crustal thickness which were compiled from results of pseudo-3-D gravity modelling. The maps show minimum crustal thicknesses (11 km) and maximum Moho uplifts in areas where the NNW-/NW- and NNE-striking structures interact. Moreover, a strong correlation is found between Moho topography, crustal attenuation, rift-enforced thermal uplift and erosion, and post-rift subsidence in the area. This is interpreted to be a result of thermally controlled basin dynamics.

Døssing, Arne

2011-11-01

116

Mg/Ca ratios in coralline red algae as temperature proxies for reconstructing Labrador Current variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and oceanographic changes in the Northwestern Atlantic have recently had a dramatic impact on ecosystems and fishery yields. Fluctuations of North Atlantic marine climate have been linked in part to a dominant pattern of atmospheric circulation known as the North Atlantic Oscillation, which has a strong influence on transport variability of the Labrador Current (LC) flowing along the Eastern Canadian coastline. Although interdecadal and interannual variability of SST and salinity in the LC system have been documented, a clear cyclic pattern has not been identified. In order to better understand the observed ecosystem changes and predict future changes in LC flow, a spatial and temporal reconstruction of the LC is needed. This, however, requires reliable long-term and high-resolution temperature records, which are not available from short instrumental observations. Our research is therefore concerned with establishing century-scale sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Northwest Atlantic using long-lived coralline red algae. Coralline red algae have a high-Mg calcite skeleton, live in shallow water worldwide and develop annual growth bands. It has previously been demonstrated that subannual resolution SST information can be obtained from coralline red algal Mg/Ca ratios, a commonly used paleotemperature proxy. Specimens of the long-lived coralline red algae Clathromorphum compactum were collected alive in August 2008 along a latitudinal transect spanning the southern extent of LC flow in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. This collection is supplemented with specimens from the same region collected in the 1960's. In order to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of the LC, selected samples of C. compactum were analyzed for Mg/Ca using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Age models were established for all specimens by counting annual growth increments, which average 350 microns/year. Mg/Ca ratios range from 0.055 to 0.138 (measured in weight %) and relate to water temperatures of -1 to 10°C. An integration of observed element cycles and age model data yields Mg/Ca-based SST reconstructions dating back to the industrial revolution. Multidecadal spatial correlations of our C. compactum records with satellite-derived sea-surface temperatures clearly indicate the influence of a LC signature on the Mg/Ca time series and highlight the value of the algae as a proxy to resolve large-scale and long-term LC variability.

Gamboa, G.; Halfar, J.; Zack, T.; Hetzinger, S.; Adey, W.

2009-04-01

117

Are metal mining effluent regulations adequate: identification of a novel bleached fish syndrome in association with iron-ore mining effluents in Labrador, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality guidelines for industrial effluents are in place in many countries but they have generally evolved within a limited ecotoxicological framework. Effluents from iron-ore mines have traditionally been viewed by regulatory bodies as posing little or no risk to the aquatic environment. However, it was recently reported that lake trout taken from a large iron-ore contaminated Lake in Labrador

J. F. Payne; D. Hamoutene; P. Yeats; A. Rahimtula; D. Scruton; C. Andrews

2001-01-01

118

Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive…

Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

2009-01-01

119

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

120

BRIER ISLAND AND LURCHER SHOAL SCALLOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus occurs only in the northwest Atlantic Ocean from Cape Hatteras north to Labrador. Within this area, scallops are concentrated in persistent, geographically discrete aggregates or \\

Brier Island; Lurcher Shoal

121

Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposurexlevel of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact.

Howse, Dana [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., Canada A1B 3V6 (Canada); Gautrin, Denyse [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Neis, Barbara [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., A1B 3V6 (Canada)]. E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Horth-Susin, Lise [Valley Regional Hospital, Kentville, NS, B4N 5E3 (Canada); Jong, Michael [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University and Health Labrador Corporation, Happy Valley, NL, AOP 1EO (Canada); Swanson, Mark C. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

2006-06-15

122

Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization  

PubMed Central

In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes.

Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

2012-01-01

123

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

124

Island Fox Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)

2010-05-03

125

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

126

The role of hydrothermal processes in the granite-hosted Zr, Y, REE deposit at Strange Lake, Quebec\\/Labrador: Evidence from fluid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strange Lake Zr, Y, REE, Nb, and Be deposit is hosted by a small, high-level, Late-Proterozoic peralkaline granite stock that intruded into high-grade metamorphic gneisses on the Quebec-Labrador border. The stock is extensively altered. Early alteration is manifested by the replacement of arfvedsonite with aegirine. Later alteration involved Ca-Na exchange. Zr, Ti, Y, REEs, Nb, and Be are concentrated

Stefano Salvi; Anthony E. Williams-Jones

1990-01-01

127

Sea-ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal Arctic climate cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent ice data sets from the Greenland and Labrador Seas have been analyzed for the purpose of characterizing interannual and decadal time scale sea-ice extent anomalies during this century. Sea-ice concentration data for the 1953–1984 period revealed the presence of a large positive anomaly in the Greenland Sea during the 1960s which coincided with the “great salinity anomaly”, an

L. A. Mysak; D. K. Manak; R. F. Marsden

1990-01-01

128

Disturbed island ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of island ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected islands in the Caribbean, islands that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However,

Robert J. Whittaker

1995-01-01

129

40Ar/ 39Ar incremental-release ages of biotite from a progressively remetamorphosed Archean basement terrane in southwestern Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gneisses within an Archean basement terrane adjacent to the southwestern portion of the Labrador Trough were variably retrograded during a regional metamorphism of Grenville age (ca. 1000 Ma). Biotites from non-retrograded segments of the gneiss terrane record 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau and isochron ages which date times of cooling following an episode of the Kenoran orogeny (2376-2391 Ma). A suite of gneiss samples displaying varying degrees of retrograde alteration was collected across the Grenville metamorphic gradient. Biotites in these samples show no petrographic evidence of retrograde alteration, however they do record internally discordant 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectra. Although the extent of internal discordance is variable, the overall character of the release patterns is similar with younger apparent ages recorded in intermediate-temperature gas fractions. The total-gas dates range from 2257±27 Ma (northwest) to 1751±23 Ma (southeast), suggesting that variable quantities of radiogenic argon were lost from the Archean biotites during Grenville metamorphism. The "saddle-shaped" nature of the discordant spectra indicates that argon loss was not accomplished through single-stage, volume diffusion processes. Biotites in portions of the gneiss terrane which were completely recrystallized during Grenville metamorphism are petrographically and texturally distinct. A representative of this phase records a 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau age of 2674±28 Ma. This date is markedly inconsistent with regional constraints on the timing of Grenville metamorphism, and indicates the presence of extraneous argon components. Both the extraneous and radiogenic argon components must have been liberated in constant proportions during experimental heating because the argon isotopic data yield a well-defined 40Ar/ 36Ar vs. 39Ar/ 36Ar isochron corresponding to an age (2658±23 Ma) similar to that defined by the plateau portion of the spectrum. The 40Ar/ 39Ar biotite dates suggest that the effects of Grenville metamorphism extent 15-20 km northward into the Superior Province. The limit of this overprint is approximately coincident with the northernmost development of Grenville age thrust faults in the Archean terrane. Therefore, it is proposed that the northern margin of the Grenville Province in southwestern Labrador should be located along the northernmost Grenville thrust fault because this represents both a structural and a thermal discontinuity.

Dallmeyer, R. D.

1982-11-01

130

On the formation of ultra-thick sedimentary basins on rifted margins: a comparison of the Scotian and Labrador margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins that form on rifted continental margins exhibit a great variety of shapes and sizes. In particular, the total sediment thickness can vary significantly and in certain sub-basins can approach 15-20 km. The deeper structure of these ultra-thick basins is typically not well resolved by seismic reflection profiles due to poor penetration within the thickest parts of the basin. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles can help resolve these deeper features. We compare two such sub-basins that occur on the eastern Canadian margins, where reflection and refraction profiles are able to define the complete sedimentary and crustal structures: the Sable sub-basin on the northeast Nova Scotian margin and the Hopedale sub-basin on the central Labrador margin. We compare the development of these basins by converting the sediment refraction velocities to density and back-stripping assuming local isostasy. Although these basins formed during completely different episodes of rifting on different types of continental crust, we find a surprising similarity in the characteristics of crustal thinning across each margin, especially for the lower crust. Initial thinning of the crust by 50-60% occurs within 50 km followed by more gradual thinning over the subsequent 100 km. This leaves a tongue of lower continental crust extending 150 km seaward of the unstretched continental crust. This outer region becomes the location of the thickest initial sediment deposition, followed by up-building and out-building of the shelf. The local form of this deposition differs between the two margins: with much larger syn- and immediately post-rift sediments on the Scotian margin and thicker recent deposition on the Labrador margin, probably controlled by the local availability of sediment fill. Comparison with previous models of rifting based on borehole observations for the Scotia margin compare well with the overall width of the rifting (150 km), but our results suggest more rapid initial crustal thinning. By comparison, the conjugate margins of SW Greenland and Morocco are much narrower, do not have the broad region of thinned lower continental crust and have much smaller sediment thicknesses primarily located seaward of the continental shelf and slope. These features are all evidence for asymmetric rifting during late stages of extension.

Louden, K.; Funck, T.

2003-12-01

131

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

132

Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

1986-01-01

133

Island Biogeography and Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MacArthur and Wilson’s theory (1967) set out to identify and measure the variables involved in the colonisation of islands\\u000a by biota and their subsequent evolution or extinction. The key biogeographical variables identified by their theory were island\\u000a size and distance from the mainland. They suggested that an island’s biodiversity is proportionate to the island’s size (i.e.\\u000a the larger the island

Ioannis Vogiatzakis; Geoffrey H. Griffiths

134

A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers.

2013-01-01

135

Effects-based marine ecological risk assessment at a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated site in Saglek, Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Although the presence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Arctic marine environments has been well documented, the implications for the health of biota are poorly understood. In the present study, multiple lines of evidence, including site-specific effects data, were used to assess PCB-related risks to marine biota at a contaminated military site in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, from 1997 to 1999. Risks were evaluated for three components of the ecosystem: benthic invertebrates, a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), and a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle). Average sediment PCB concentrations exceeded the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline level by 41-fold. However, sediment toxicity testing and a benthic community survey showed no evidence of adverse effects. In contrast, shorthorn sculpin and black guillemot PCB exposures (measured as sum of 55 congeners) were elevated enough to pose risks to survival or reproduction. Based on the collective evidence, the authors estimated that risks were posed by sediment PCB concentrations greater than 77?ng/g dry weight for black guillemots and 750?ng/g dry weight for shorthorn sculpins. The present study, along with two parallel studies, provided information to support the management decisions concerning potential remedial action on the contaminated sediments. This ecological risk assessment describes the steps and rationale taken to evaluate the risk posed by an area of PCB-contaminated marine sediments in an otherwise relatively pristine northern coastal environment. PMID:23147987

Brown, Tanya M; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Stow, Jason P; Burgess, Neil M; Solomon, Steve M; Sheldon, Tom A; Reimer, Ken J

2012-12-28

136

What can we learn about deep convection in the Labrador Sea using increments of an ocean reanalysis ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Labrador Sea Water is formed by deep convection caused by strong surface cooling (Yashayaev et al., 2009). The convection patch reaches as deep as 2000~m, but is limited to areas where adequat preconditionning can occur. Indeed, baroclinic eddies that form along the West Greenland boundary current enable the restratification throughout the column (Chanut et al., 2008). We use the global eddy permitting reanalysis GLORYS1v1 (Ferry et al., 2010), and free regional simulations of NEMO (Madec, 2008) nested in the ocean reanalysis. It is shown that data assimilation enables to better represent the seasonal and interannual variability of deep convection. We use temperature increments from the data assimilation to describe how the ocean model is corrected in the reanalysis. It is shown that data assimilation has the same effects as the expected effects of heat transport by baroclinic eddies that form along the West Greenland boundary current. The effect of data assimilation is compared to existing eddy parametrizations used in coarse ocean models.

Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Barnier, Bernard; Le Sommer, Julien; Molines, Jean-Marc; Chanut, Jérome; Ferry, Nicolas; Mercator Team

2010-05-01

137

Diagenetic alteration of magnetic minerals in Labrador Sea sediments (IODP Sites U1305, U1306, and U1307)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal the potential effects of early diagenesis on magnetic minerals in deep-sea sediments, we studied early diagenetic zones and magnetic mineral characteristics of Lower Pliocene hemipelagic sediment samples from IODP Sites U1305, U1306, and U1307 on Eirik Drift, Labrador Sea. All samples analyzed were unlithified silty clay sediments recovered by a piston corer from depths down to 200 meters composite depth (mcd). Based on shipboard interstitial-water geochemistry, we divided the sediment column from each site into six early diagenetic zones. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was present at all analyzed depths, whereas maghemite (?Fe2O3) was found only above the iron reduction zone. We attribute this to associated changes in interstitial redox conditions, which induced preferential dissolution of maghemitized surfaces on magnetite grains. Mineral magnetic results indicate a general down-hole change in mean grain size of magnetic minerals. At Site U1307, which has relatively low organic carbon contents, the diagenetic zones occur at greater depths than at the other studies sites. This suggests that interstitial oxygen levels at this site remained high enough to degrade organic matter through oxic bacterial activity, and that detrital magnetic minerals have been preserved even at depth.

Kawamura, Noriko; Ishikawa, Naoto; Torii, Masayuki

2012-08-01

138

Delayed endochondral ossification in early medial coronoid disease (MCD): A morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation in growing Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

Medial coronoid disease (MCD) is a common joint disease of dogs. It has a multifactorial aetiology, but the relationship between known causal factors and the disease has yet to be elucidated. As most of the published literature is clinical and it reports changes associated with advanced disease, it is not known whether the changes reflect the cause or consequences of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate early micromorphological changes occurring in articular cartilage and to describe the postnatal development of the medial coronoid process (MCP) before MCD develops. Three litters of MCD-prone young Labrador retrievers were purpose-bred from a dam and two sires with MCD. Comparisons of the micromorphological appearance of the MCP in MCD-negative and MCD-positive joints demonstrated that MCD was initially associated with a disturbance of endochondral ossification, namely a delay in the calcification of the calcifying zone, without concurrent abnormalities in the superficial layers of the joint cartilage. Cartilage canals containing patent blood vessels were only detected in dogs <12weeks old, but the role of these channels in impaired ossification requires further investigation. Retained hyaline cartilage might ossify as the disease progresses, but weak areas can develop into cracks between the retained cartilage and the subchondral bone, leading to cleft formation and fragmentation of the MCP. PMID:23746870

Lau, S F; Hazewinkel, H A W; Grinwis, G C M; Wolschrijn, C F; Siebelt, M; Vernooij, J C M; Voorhout, G; Tryfonidou, M A

2013-06-06

139

Residual depth anomalies on the Iberian, Newfoundland, Labrador and Nova Scotian margins; implications for their lithosphere mass and density distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The break-up of the Iberian and Newfoundland margins has resulted in large scale asymmetry between these conjugate margins. One documented asymmetry is that the oldest oceanic crust on the Newfoundland margin is elevated with respect to that of the Iberian margin. This work employs residual depth anomalies (RDA) to investigate this asymmetry. Observed bathymetry has been compared to the global oceanic bathymetry-age models of Parsons and Sclater (1977) and Stein and Stein (1992) in order to calculate RDA. The oceanic crust on the Nova Scotia and Labrador margins have also been included in this study in order to explore the lithosphere mass and density distribution across the wider region. Seismically derived cross-sections have been flexurally backstripped to correct the RDA for sediments. A correction has also been made to the RDA for seismically observed variation in oceanic crustal thickness, about the global mean thickness, using local isostasy. Key observations of the corrected RDA are: (1) oceanic crust on the Labrador and the Newfoundland margins are over a kilometre shallower than predicted by the global bathymetry-age models; (2) oceanic crust on the Newfoundland margin is elevated by 700 to 900m relative to its conjugate Iberian margin; (3) the RDA decrease oceanwards; (4) the RDA decrease southwards on both sides of the North Atlantic. Potential sources of the observed RDA have been investigated, including flexural coupling of oceanic and continental lithosphere, mantle plume uplift, serpentinization, magmatic intrusions and lithospheric mantle geochemical heterogeneity. Modelling shows flexural coupling of oceanic and continental lithosphere, during thermal subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere, may be the sole source of the ocean-wards decrease in RDA. However, the elevation of the Newfoundland margin relative to the Iberian margin can not be explained by flexural isostatic coupling. The Iceland plume might be the source of the southerly decrease in RDA; however, this is unlikely, due to its large distance from the margins. Moreover, the Iceland and Azores plumes are unlikely to be the source of the elevation of the Newfoundland margin relative to the Iberian margin, since the plumes are approximately the same distance from the margins. A possible explanation for the elevation of the Newfoundland margin relative to the Iberian margin, is a compositional mass deficiency within the ocean-continent transition (OCT) of the Newfoundland margin. Possible compositional deficiencies include gabbroic intrusions, serpentinized lithospheric mantle and lithospheric mantle depletion. The quantities of these compositional deficiencies, required to generate the observed positive RDA, has been estimated using local isostasy. If all the observed positive RDA is caused by a compositional mass deficiency then the required thicknesses of gabbroic intrusions, fully serpentinized mantle or partially serpentinized (50 to 60%) mantle are 4 - 10 km; 2 - 5 km or 3.5 - 9 km respectively. Partial depletion of the entire lithospheric mantle, within the OCT of the Newfoundland margin is an alternative explanation for its elevation relative to the Iberian margin. If mantle depletion is the sole source of the positive RDA of the Galicia Bank (northern Iberia) and Flemish Cap (northern Newfoundland) margins, then the entire lithospheric mantle within their OCT must be depleted by 11 and 23% respectively. These depletion levels are consistent with the measured depletions of mantle rocks from the two margins (Muntener and Manatschal, 2006).

Cooper, C.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.

2007-12-01

140

230Th vs. 14C age of a pre-YD deep coral from Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep coral specimen (Desmophyllum cristagalli) raised from the top of Orphan Knoll (50°25.57N ; 46°22.05W ; appr. depth 1700 m), i.e., at the bottom of the modern Labrador Sea Water mass, has been used to investigate the suitability of such material to document DR 14C values from comparative AMS-14C and 230Th-age measurements. Analyses have been performed along a transect from bottom to top of the colony. Calibrated 14C ages have been calculated using the 400 yr standard marine correction. ......U ppm.........234U/238U.......Age 230Th.....Calib Age 1...2,628±0,022...1,144±0,010...14507±399...13462±40 2...2,531±0,020...1,117±0,012...14588±301 3...2,718±0,022...1,145±0,019...13928±288 4...3,278±0,025...1,141±0,016...18535±740 5...3,600±0,029...1,155±0,044...12727±729...13339±42 6...4,256±0,028...1,296±0,010...14709±226 7...3,436±0,022...1,130±0,009...16860±332 8...3,521±0,024...1,137±0,010...17491±271...13398±21 From the above numbers, the following inferences have been made: 1. Such corals develop very rapidly as indicated by the narrow range of 14C-ages yielded by the study specimen. 2. They do not constitute closed systems with respect to U (as illustrated by the strong U-enrichment of samples 4 to 8); this confirms earlier observations made by Pons-Branchu et al. (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 2005). 3. The uranium diagenetically incorporated into the skeleton occasionally shows departure from the isotopic composition of marine uranium (e.g., samples 6 or 5), suggesting U-relocation from embedding sediment with variable 234U excesses (or deficit). The lowermost samples (with a narrow range of U content) may possibly provide a reasonable estimate for the 230Th age of the coral (ca. 14000-14500). If true, this age would indicate a high DR value (600-1000) during this time interval, at intermediate depths of the Labrador Sea. It is concluded from the study that, despite strong initial expectations with respect to their use for the setting of coupled 230Th-14C ages, such deep-water corals are unlikely to provide reliable U-series ages due to post- mortem U-mobility in their skeleton. In view of their relatively fast growth rates, of the fact that they do not precipitate aragonite/calcite in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water (e.g., Adkins et al., 2003. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67), their overall suitability for paleoceanography studies seems limited.

Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

2006-12-01

141

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

142

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

143

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

144

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

145

Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic island sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original island sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.

146

Silicate-Oxide Equilibria in the Wilson Lake Terrane, Labrador - Evidence for a Pre- Metamorphic Oxidizing Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of Fe3+ and Ti in silicates and their presumed equilibration with Fe2+-Fe3+-Ti oxide minerals has long been recognized as an important factor in metamorphic phase equilibria. The Red Wine Mountains massif is a granulite facies unit in the Wilson Lake terrane of central Labrador, where this equilibration is especially important for estimating both temperature and fO2 during peak metamorphism. Peak assemblages are sapphirine + quartz, and orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz. The coexisting oxides, which are largely responsible for the pronounced aeromagnetic high of the massif, consist of nearly pure magnetite and an exsolved titanohematite. Estimates of fO2 based on magnetite + integrated titanohematite compositions are slightly below that defined by the pure magnetite-hematite buffer. This assemblage is also responsible for the magnetic signature of metagabbro and metanorite dikes, a fact which challenges the conventional wisdom that the high Fe3+ content of the host paragneisses was inherited from a highly oxidized ferruginous shale. We suggest here that prior to granulite facies metamorphism, an oxidizing hydrothermal event either coeval or following the emplacement of mafic dikes into the paragneiss host was responsible for the highly oxidized nature of the massif as a whole. Subsequent metamorphism then produced the observed assemblages. This scenario is supported by recent U-Pb zircon and monazite ages of ca. 1626 ± 10 Ma, which indicate that both metagabbro dikes and host paragneiss were metamorphosed at the same time. Dike emplacement and the oxidizing event must have preceded 1626 Ma. The implications of this pre-metamorphic oxidizing event is that Fe3+ becomes an inherent and fixed component in the chemical system during metamorphism. Phase relationships, preliminary thermodynamic modeling, and geothermobarometric constraints indicate that peak temperatures are lower than those previously determined for Fe3+-absent systems. More appropriate modeling of these rocks would benefit from a sapphirine mixing model involving Fe3+.

Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.

2006-05-01

147

Birthdate for the Iapetus Ocean A precise U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite age for the Long Range dikes, southeast Labrador  

SciTech Connect

Mafic dike swarms represent direct evidence of early tensional environments that may have eventually led to ocean formation. The first precise U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite age of 615 {plus minus} 2 Ma for a Long Range dike, southeastern Labrador, could mark the beginning of Iapetus Ocean formation. Baddeleyite (ZrO{sub 2}) is more widespread than previously recognized. It is ideal for use with the U-Pb system because it has low initial common lead and sufficient uranium levels, and it does not lose significant radiogenic lead with time. Baddeleyite therefore provides a unique opportunity for dating dikes associated with rift-related events with unprecedented accuracy.

Kamo, S.L.; Krogh, T.E. (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (Canada)); Gower, C.F. (Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy (Canada))

1989-07-01

148

Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis. Figure Principal component analysis of scattered region of x-ray fluorescence spectra of Labrador dog nails, demonstrating the differentiation towards dogs with high and low Cu liver levels (respectively positive and negative PC2 values) reflecting hepatitis, as well as gender (PC1: negative values for female and positive values for males)

Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Rothuizen, Jan

2008-01-01

149

Christmas Island birds returning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

150

Coalescence of magnetic islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of coalescence of magnetic islands is studied in an incompressible resistive MHD model. For intermediate values of resistivity, reconnection rate is independent of the resistivity, although the reconnection process is basically different from a Petschek-type model.

D. Biskamp; H. Welter

1980-01-01

151

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)

2007-09-21

152

Long Island Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dedicated librarians at the Stony Brook University Library have created this most excellent research guide and digital archive that covers all things Long Island. On their homepage, visitors can use the Long Island Documents area to view recently acquired items from key figures in local (and national) history, such as George Clinton, James Jay, and Benjamin Tallmadge. Also on the site is the Books, Pamphlets, and Journals area. Here visitors can make their way through key documents, such as "Early Long Island: A Colonial Study" and "The Evolution of Long Island: A Story of Land and Sea." Also, the site pays tribute to a very exciting new acquisition: several letters from George Washington, donated by Dr. Henry Laufer, a history enthusiast. This site is a tremendously valuable resource and one that will serve as a model to other institutions seeking to do similar work.

2012-08-24

153

Relationship between Holocene climate variations over southern Greenland and eastern Baffin Island and synoptic circulation pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake pollen records from southwest Greenland and eastern Baffin Island show strong regionalism in climate trends of the last 7000 cal years. July surface air temperature reconstructions from pollen indicate larger amplitude cooling in southwest Greenland (>3.0°C) than in eastern Baffin Island (<1.0°C). This west-east gradient in climate change is consistent with August sea-surface temperature reconstructions from dinocyst records that indicate decreasing temperature and/or strength of the North Atlantic Current to the east during the Holocene while the eastern Canadian margins under the Labrador Current influence display slight warming. Complementary to air and sea-surface temperature records, the lake pollen data led to reconstruct increased cloudiness in southern Greenland, which points to increasing cyclonic activity since 7000 cal years BP west of Greenland. Together, the terrestrial and marine records of the northwest North Atlantic therefore suggest a shift from a dominant NAO+ during the early-mid Holocene to dominant NAO- in the late Holocene.

Fréchette, B.; de Vernal, A.

2009-07-01

154

High-Resolution Magnetostratigraphy of Core MD99-2236 (Cartwright Saddle, Offshore Labrador) Since the Last Deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of a long and well-dated (18 AMS 14C dates) piston core (MD99-2236) sampled offshore Labrador (Cartwright Saddle) on board the R/V Marion Dufresne II in 1999 were analyzed at high- resolution in order to reconstruct the geomagnetic field behavior and to characterize several detrital carbonate events. The Natural, Anhysteretic, Isothermal and Saturated Isothemal Remanent Magnetizations were studied by progressives stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization at 1 cm intervals on u-channel samples using a cryogenic magnetometer at the Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER). Hysteresis curves were also determined with an alternating gradient force magnetometer in order to characterize the magnetic mineralogy and grain size. The results indicate that the NRM is characterized by a strong, stable and single component magnetization most likely carried low coercivity minerals such as magnetite in the pseudo-single domain grain size range. The component inclination and declination were calculated by principal component analysis and exhibit maximum angular deviation values generally lower than 5°, highlighting well-defined directional data, except for some specific intervals characterized by higher carbonate content and multi-domain grains. Moreover, the component inclinations vary around the expected inclination (70.3°) for the latitude of the coring site based on a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model. Component inclination and declination are presented and compared with other high-resolution paleomagnetic records from Eastern Canada, Iceland (MD99-2322 and -2269) and Europe. This comparison reveals that the sediments recorded coherent paleomagnetic secular variations (PSV), especially from 8 to 14 ka, where sedimentation rates are higher, the data of high quality and where previously published high-resolution RPI and PSV records for this period are rare. In addition, relative paleointensity (RPI) proxies were constructed by normalizing the NRM by the ARM. The quality of these proxies will be assessed and comparison with previously published RPI records will be presented. Finally, the ongoing rock-magnetic measurements performed in the detrital carbonate layers will be discussed.

St-Onge, M.; Guillaume, S.; Jennings, A.; Andrews, J. T.

2009-05-01

155

Retrospective Analysis for Genetic Improvement of Hip Joints of Cohort Labrador Retrievers in the United States: 1970-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common inherited disease that affects dog wellbeing and causes a heavy financial and emotional burden to dog owners and breeders due to secondary hip osteoarthritis. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) initiated a program in the 1960's to radiograph hip and elbow joints and release the OFA scores to the public for breeding dogs against CHD. Over last four decades, more than one million radiographic scores have been released. Methodology/Principal Findings The pedigrees in the OFA database consisted of 258,851 Labrador retrievers, the major breed scored by the OFA (25% of total records). Of these, 154,352 dogs had an OFA hip score reported between 1970 and 2007. The rest of the dogs (104,499) were the ancestors of the 154,352 dogs to link the pedigree relationships. The OFA hip score is based on a 7-point scale with the best ranked as 1 (excellent) and the worst hip dysplasia as 7. A mixed linear model was used to estimate the effects of age, sex, and test year period and to predict the breeding value for each dog. Additive genetic and residual variances were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis also provided an inbreeding coefficient for each dog. The hip scores averaged 1.93 (±SD?=?0.59) and the heritability was 0.21. A steady genetic improvement has accrued over the four decades. The breeding values decreased (improved) linearly. By the end of 2005, the total genetic improvement was 0.1 units, which is equivalent to 17% of the total phenotypic standard deviation. Conclusion/Significance A steady genetic improvement has been achieved through the selection based on the raw phenotype released by the OFA. As the heritability of the hip score was on the low end (0.21) of reported ranges, we propose that selection based on breeding values will result in more rapid genetic improvement than breeding based on phenotypic selection alone.

Lust, George; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Todhunter, Rory J.

2010-01-01

156

Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25, identified in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice, has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover. We tested the reliability of this biomarker as a sea ice proxy against observational sea ice data (sea ice concentrations from the global HadISST1 database) and against a more established sea ice proxy (sea ice diatom abundance in sediments) in the South-West (SW) Labrador Sea. Furthermore, our study location at the southern margin of Arctic sea ice drift provided a new environmental setting in which to further test the novel PIP25 index. Our two study sites are located North-East (NE) and South-East (SE) of Newfoundland where box cores covering the last ca 100–150 years were collected. IP25 concentrations are nearly an order of magnitude higher and sea ice diatoms more abundant in sediments from NE of Newfoundland, where sea ice prevails 2–4 months per year compared to the sediments SE of Newfoundland, where conditions are generally ice-free year round. The IP25 fluxes NE of Newfoundland agree well with multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) trends in the study area, which in previous studies have been shown to affect the climatic and sea ice conditions in the region. When assessed against observational sea ice data, IP25 appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sea ice variability in this setting compared to sea ice diatoms and proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing low-frequency variability in past sea ice concentrations. The PIP25 index results clearly differ from the observed sea ice data underlining that caution needs to be exercised when using the index in different environmental settings.

Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis G.; Hanhijärvi, Sami; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Schmidt, Sabine; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Andersen, Morten L.; Hill, Brian; Kuijpers, Antoon

2013-11-01

157

Island Inequality Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two islands, and their fish always swims toward the island with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-01-15

158

The Long Island Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multi-faceted approach that combines analysis of existing statistical data, original research, survey data, and comparative\\u000a case studies, the Long Island Index has helped to clarify the complex dynamics of the region and succeeded in reaching a wide audience including leaders who\\u000a shape regional policy. This chapter explores the nature of the target area, Long Island, defining the characteristics

Ann Golob

159

Modification and Application of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for the Communication of Drinking Water Quality Data in Newfoundland and Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), drinking water quality monitoring is conducted by the provincial government on all public water supply systems and results are communicated to communities on a quarterly basis. This paper describes the application of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) as a communica- tions tool for reporting the drinking water

Amir Ali Khan; Renée Paterson; Haseen Khan

160

Development of Pabelokan Island  

SciTech Connect

Pertamina and Iiapco has an expanding complex of offshore production platforms in the S.E. Sumatra contract area of the Java Sea. One of the requirements for this complex is a treatment facility for water to be used in secondary recovery operations. Because of the water quality required, the water treatment system is substantially larger than that normally used off shore. Instead of constructing one or more platforms for the treatment system, a small coral island named Pabelokan Island has been utilized for this purpose. Although the water treatment system is the primary reason for the base, other facilities were co-located to centralize electric power generation, living quarters and recreation facilities, and facilities for storage and maintenance of offshore equipment. Future plans for the island include a gas-liquids recovery system. This work describes the island facilities, and provides a case study in responsible planning and construction techniques in the development of a coral island for use as an offshore base. The experience gained should be useful in the planning of other coral islands for similar purpose.

Powell, D.R.

1982-01-01

161

77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary...Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY in the Federal Register (77 FR...

2012-08-24

162

78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice...Long Island Power Authority (Authority), and Long Island Lighting Company (LIPA); (the Authority and LIPA together,...

2013-08-09

163

Adapting remotely sensed snow data for daily flow modeling on the Upper Humber River, Newfoundland and Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigated the use of remotely sensed snow information to help improve flood forecasting in western Newfoundland's Humber River Basin. Flood forecasting on the Humber River is important because of the large population settlements within the Humber Valley. In this research, two types of remotely sensed snow data were considered for analysis: (1) snow cover (or snow extent) and (2) snow water equivalent (SWE). The majority of this thesis focuses on the remotely sensed snow cover data. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra snow cover images were acquired over the Humber Valley watershed throughout the snowmelt period, from March to June, for the years 2000 to 2009. MODIS is an optical sensor on NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. Its daily temporal data are advantageous and the data are free and easily accessible. Daily snow cover data were extracted from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) daily snow product, specifically MOD10A1: a product derived from MODIS data, using a custom EASI script run in PCI Geomatica. PCI Geomatica is a robust remote sensing and image processing software. One major obstacle, regarding the acquisition of MODIS imagery over the Humber Valley watershed, is the presence of over 50% cloud cover for 80% of the days on average from March to June every year. This was a concern for data collection: affecting the sample size of acquired data and the accuracy of the snow cover data. When cloud cover is high there is a greater chance that it may be misclassified as snow and/or snow is misclassified as cloud cover. For this reason, a cloud-cover threshold was determined. The Rango-Martinec snowmelt runoff model, a widely used degree-day model which incorporates snow cover data as a direct input, was evaluated. It was found that the next day's flow is highly dependent on the previous day's flow and less dependent on the meteorological data: rainfall, snow cover, and temperature. The results from the snowmelt runoff model using the snow cover data provided very good final Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.85 for the calibration stage and 0.81 for the validation stage, but a consistent one-day lag of the modeled flow values was also observed. Although these results were not superior to currently employed flood forecasting models for the Upper Humber (because of a one-day lag in the modeled flows), the methodology developed herein may be useful for other river basins in NL where the flows are dominated by snowmelt during the spring such as the Exploits River Basin located in central NL. Remotely sensed snow water equivalent (SWE) data obtained from an advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E), aboard the Aqua satellite, was also investigated for daily flow modeling applications. SWE often provide a better estimate of snowmelt than snow cover but this data had several disadvantages in the Humber River Basin. The major obstacles included large spatial resolution (25 km), data inaccuracy for wet snow, boreal forest, mountainous regions, and time step irregularities. Extremely large variances in the SWE data rendered the information inaccurate and ineffective for streamflow forecasting on Newfoundland and Labrador's Humber River. This research makes significant contributions to the field of hydrology providing a valuable methodology in adapting remotely sensed snow data to daily flow simulation and will be helpful to local authorities.

Tom, Melissa

164

Vegetation History of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoenvironmental investigations were undertaken on Laysan Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to investigate its flora before his- torical observations. Substantial impacts occurred to the island as a result of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century guano mining, commercial feather col- lecting, and denudation of vegetation by feral rabbits. An account of Laysan's historically known vegetation is presented, followed by

John Stephen. Athens; James V. Ward; Dean W. Blinn

2007-01-01

165

Polar lows over the Nordic and Labrador Seas: Synoptic circulation patterns and associations with North Atlantic-Europe wintertime weather regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lows (PLs) are intense meso-cyclones forming in winter at high latitudes over open water. Using several datasets of PLs over the North Atlantic, the synoptic environment conducive to their development is determined. The 500 hPa geopotential height, the difference between the sea surface temperature and the 500 hPa air temperature, the near-surface wind and air temperature, and the 300 hPa potential vorticity present significant anomaly patterns over large areas centered over PL genesis zones, suggesting cold air outbreaks and stratospheric intrusions. PLs develop within a northerly flow in the Norwegian Sea, a northeasterly flow in the Barents Sea and a westerly flow in the Labrador Sea. PLs form after a certain build-up, the outbreak day being marked by strong winds and PV intensification. The relationship between PLs and daily weather regimes over North Atlantic-Europe is then investigated. Regimes have a typical lifetime of 8-10 days, similar to the large-scale anomalies associated with PLs. Over the Norwegian and Barents seas from 1999 to 2011, 37% of PLs are observed during the Atlantic Ridge regime (AR) and 28% in the negative phase regime of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), whereas PL probability of occurrence is reduced by half for the positive phase of NAO and the Scandinavian blocking (SB) regimes. Over the Labrador Sea, most PLs occur during NAO+ while they are almost absent during NAO-. Demonstrating the temporal variation of key factors based on an updated dataset and relating PLs to weather regimes will introduce novel and important elements in PL forecasting methodology.

Mallet, Paul-Etienne; Claud, Chantal; Cassou, Christophe; Noer, Gunnar; Kodera, Kunihiko

2013-03-01

166

Fanning Island Expedition, January 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interdisciplinary studies consisted of a sea phase, involving measurements in the South Equatorial Current and Undercurrent and measurement of the contribution of detritus from Fanning Island to the open sea; and an island phase, aimed at the physical...

K. E. Chave B. S. Gallagher F. I. Gonzalez D. C. Gordon G. Krasnick

1970-01-01

167

Geology of the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geology of the 15 Cook Islands in the south-central Pacific is briefly described and their geological history outlined. All are the summit portions of extinct Tertiary volcanoes; six of the seven Northern Group islands are atolls, four of the Southern Group are makatea-type islands, and the others include a high mountainous volcanic island, a hilly near-atoll, an atoll, and

B. L. Wood

1967-01-01

168

Chapter 2 The Erythroblastic Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythroblastic islands are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These islands consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic island is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the

Deepa Manwani; James J. Bieker

2008-01-01

169

Nurse Practitioner in Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the future role of the nurse practitioner in Rhode Island is reported. The study was conducted by the Rhode Island Health Science Education Council under contract to the Rhode Island Department of Education, in response to a resolution of the 1...

1976-01-01

170

Three Mile Island revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the

B. L. Lipford; N. M. Cole; T. J. Friderichs

1991-01-01

171

Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

1988-01-01

172

Why the islands move.  

PubMed

Micronesian navigators routinely make voyages across large expanses of open ocean. To do this, a navigator must judge both the direction in which he is sailing and the distance he has travelled. The rising and setting points of the stars (and other cues) provide instantaneous information about direction, but distance can only be judged by integrating velocity-related information over time. Micronesian navigators judge distance in a way that seems odd. When they are out of sight of land, they imagine that the canoe is stationary and that the islands move back past them. For each voyage, they 'attend' to an island off to the side of the course which is out of sight over the horizon. As they sail, they imagine the island moving back along the horizon changing in bearing until it is imagined to be under the bearing it is known to have from the destination island. Then they know they are near their destination. There is good reason for using a frame of reference whose origin is defined by the boat. We show how it finesses a perceptual paradox--the rising and setting points of the stars do not exhibit motion parallax. PMID:6535986

Hutchins, E; Hinton, G E

1984-01-01

173

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

174

The Flores Island tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

175

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

176

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

177

Magnetic-island formation  

SciTech Connect

The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

Boozer, A.H.

1983-08-01

178

Man made floating island  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial island is described for use in energy production from ocean waves, comprising: a platform disposed atop the ocean surface; vertically disposed rigid posts extending beneath the platform short of the ocean floor; a stationary wave amplifier affixed to the posts, the wave amplifier of a conical shape with inclined sides for directing water upwardly from substantially any lateral

Martinak

1987-01-01

179

Earth Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this homepage can learn about the Earth Island Institute and its mission, origins, and purpose. Materials include summaries of projects designed to promote conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth, a biography of the organization's founder, news articles, and information for people who wish to become involved in conservation or outreach efforts.

180

Rhode Island's Health 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth annual report on the health conditions and health expenditures of the people of Rhode Island and is the only such report to be issued by any State in the Nation. Topics covered include population trends, health status (natality, mortali...

1979-01-01

181

Islands and despots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges a conventional wisdom: that when discussing political systems, small is democratic. And yet, can there be paradises without serpents? The presumed manageability of small island spaces promotes and nurtures dispositions for domination and control over nature and society. In such dark circumstances, authoritarian rule is a more natural fit than democracy. By adopting an inter-disciplinary perspective, this

Godfrey Baldacchino

2012-01-01

182

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2002-01-10

183

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

184

Animal Island Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an island and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.

2011-01-01

185

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that ÂÂthere is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place. Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

186

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

Overpeck, Jonathan

2004-02-01

187

Island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a magnetic island is imbedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter | | for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If is high enough, the magnetic island is stable or, in other words, self-healing. The theory provides an explanation as to why an m = 2 island is not as commonly observed as m =3, 4, or 5 island in tokamaks. Here, m is the poloidal mode number. This mechanism also indicates an alternative route to stabilize the island in the long mean-free-path regime.

Land, I. S.

2005-10-01

188

High-resolution climate reconstructions from the Labrador Sea area, Part I: Validation of the sedimentary sea ice proxy record against observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the current debate on the contributions of natural processes and anthropogenic emissions to the present climate warming, which is greatly amplified in the Arctic, it is crucial to obtain a detailed account of long-term natural climate variations and their controlling factors. The aim of this study is to reconstruct Late Holocene variability in regional sea ice extent and sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Labrador Sea area using high-resolution marine sediment records. The study area is of particular climatological importance, since meltwater from sea ice and icebergs entrained by the Labrador Current directly affects the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which presently drives the redistribution of heat between the hemispheres. The first part of the study, presented here, consists of two short core records covering the last ca. 150 years, for most of which air and sea surface temperatures and sea ice observations are available. The study sites are located just north and south of Newfoundland, respectively. These short cores were analysed for IP25, a novel chemical tracer for the presence of seasonal sea ice, and alkenones, which are well-established as a proxy for SST. IP25 has previously been applied to produce records both in the Canadian Arctic and east of Greenland in the Fram Strait and North Icelandic Shelf area over millenial time scales. Studies enabling the comparison with climate-related modern observations are still required to further establish this highly promising proxy.The results show 1) significantly higher IP25 concentrations north of Newfoundland, which is consistent with modern sea-ice observations, 2) a good correlation between IP25 and alkenone data, particularly for the northern site, 3) an overall good agreement between our proxy data and measured air and sea surface temperature data and local and regional sea ice extent. Furthermore, the general trends in these proxy records can also be correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation, with a positive NAO indicating colder conditions and more sea ice in the area. These results are encouraging for the second part of the study, which reconstructs IP25 and alkenones over the past ca. 5000 years at these sites in order to shed light on longer-term trends in sea ice and SST in this climatically sensitive area.

Weckström, K.; Massé, G.; Kuijpers, A.

2011-12-01

189

Late colonization of Easter Island.  

PubMed

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement. PMID:16527931

Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

2006-03-09

190

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative

Pytlinski

1992-01-01

191

Polyfaceted Psychological Acculturation in Cook Islanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on acculturation were collected from five groups of Cook Islanders who have been differentially exposed to traditional and Western (New Zealand) influences: Residents of a small, outer island; residents of the much larger capital island; Cook Islanders who have migrated to New Zealand, and others who were born in New Zealand; and non-Cook Island New Zealanders. Comparison of the

John Altrocchi; Laurel Altrocchi

1995-01-01

192

IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.  

PubMed

IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species. PMID:23677610

Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

2013-05-15

193

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

194

Rain on small tropical islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow rather than elevated surface heating.

Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

2011-04-01

195

A Mutation in the SUV39H2 Gene in Labrador Retrievers with Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNPK) Provides Insights into the Epigenetics of Keratinocyte Differentiation.  

PubMed

Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK), an inherited monogenic autosomal recessive skin disorder, leads to crusts and fissures on the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 13 HNPK cases and 23 controls. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 2 (praw?=?4.4×10(-14)). The analysis of shared haplotypes among the 13 cases defined a critical interval of 1.6 Mb with 25 predicted genes. We re-sequenced the genome of one case at 38× coverage and detected 3 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval with respect to the reference genome assembly. We genotyped these variants in larger cohorts of dogs and only one was perfectly associated with the HNPK phenotype in a cohort of more than 500 dogs. This candidate causative variant is a missense variant in the SUV39H2 gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase, which mediates chromatin silencing. The variant c.972T>G is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved asparagine into a lysine in the catalytically active domain of the enzyme (p.N324K). We further studied the histopathological alterations in the epidermis in vivo. Our data suggest that the HNPK phenotype is not caused by hyperproliferation, but rather delayed terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Thus, our data provide evidence that SUV39H2 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of keratinocyte differentiation ensuring proper stratification and tight sealing of the mammalian epidermis. PMID:24098150

Jagannathan, Vidhya; Bannoehr, Jeanette; Plattet, Philippe; Hauswirth, Regula; Drögemüller, Cord; Drögemüller, Michaela; Wiener, Dominique J; Doherr, Marcus; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Galichet, Arnaud; Welle, Monika M; Tengvall, Katarina; Bergvall, Kerstin; Lohi, Hannes; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Linek, Monika; Paradis, Manon; Müller, Eliane J; Roosje, Petra; Leeb, Tosso

2013-10-03

196

Nature of mantle source contributions and the role of contamination and in situ crystallisation in the petrogenesis of Proterozoic mafic dykes and flood basalts Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proterozoic tholeiitic dyke swarms share many compositional features with, and pose similar petrogenetic problems to, Phanerozoic continental flood basalts, but there are few extrusive equivalents of such swarms. The Mesoproterozoic (1.27 Ga) Harp dyke swarm in Labrador is one where possible extrusive equivalents exist in the Seal Lake group, but are slightly displaced in space and time, and can probably be related by models of progressive crustal extension. Here we try to evaluate the roles of crystal differentiation, in situ crystallisation, crustal assimilation and the relative contributions of asthenosphere- and lithosphere-derived melts in the petrogenesis of the mafic magmas. Modelling of the major and trace element variations both within individual dykes and between dykes, and within the lava sequence, does not suggest an important role for continental crust involvement. While in situ crystallisation processes could account for some of the compositional variations, the most successful models invoke mixing or contamination of asthenospheric magmas with/by veined material in the lower lithosphere / upper asthenosphere which carries the ‘continental’ characteristics. The results imply an important role for hydrous phases such as phlogopite and hornblende in the sub-lithosphere mantle. Much of the low-MgO character of mafic dykes may result from significant removal of mafic phases during in situ crystallisation within the lithosphere.

Cadman, A. C.; Tarney, J.; Baragar, W. R. A.

1995-12-01

197

The early development of medial coronoid disease in growing Labrador retrievers: Radiographic, computed tomographic, necropsy and micro-computed tomographic findings.  

PubMed

Medial coronoid disease (MCD) encompasses lesions of the entire medial coronoid process (MCP), both of the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone. To detect the earliest signs of MCD, radiography and computed tomography were used to monitor the development of MCD in 14 Labrador retrievers, from 6 to 7weeks of age until euthanasia. The definitive diagnosis of MCD was based on necropsy and micro-computed tomography findings. The frequency of MCD in the dogs studied was 50%. Radiographic findings did not provide evidence of MCD, ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis or blunting of the cranial edge of the MCP. Computed tomography was more sensitive (30.8%) than radiography (0%) in detecting early MCD, with the earliest signs detectable at 14weeks of age. A combination of the necropsy and micro-computed tomography findings of the MCP showed that MCD was manifested as a lesion of only the subchondral bone in dogs <18weeks of age. In all dogs (affected and unaffected), there was close contact between the base of the MCP and the proximal radial head in the congruent joints. Computed tomography and micro-computed tomography findings indicated that the lesions of MCD probably originated at the base of the MCP. PMID:23702281

Lau, S F; Wolschrijn, C F; Hazewinkel, H A W; Siebelt, M; Voorhout, G

2013-05-20

198

A Mutation in the SUV39H2 Gene in Labrador Retrievers with Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNPK) Provides Insights into the Epigenetics of Keratinocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK), an inherited monogenic autosomal recessive skin disorder, leads to crusts and fissures on the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 13 HNPK cases and 23 controls. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 2 (praw?=?4.4×10?14). The analysis of shared haplotypes among the 13 cases defined a critical interval of 1.6 Mb with 25 predicted genes. We re-sequenced the genome of one case at 38× coverage and detected 3 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval with respect to the reference genome assembly. We genotyped these variants in larger cohorts of dogs and only one was perfectly associated with the HNPK phenotype in a cohort of more than 500 dogs. This candidate causative variant is a missense variant in the SUV39H2 gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase, which mediates chromatin silencing. The variant c.972T>G is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved asparagine into a lysine in the catalytically active domain of the enzyme (p.N324K). We further studied the histopathological alterations in the epidermis in vivo. Our data suggest that the HNPK phenotype is not caused by hyperproliferation, but rather delayed terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Thus, our data provide evidence that SUV39H2 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of keratinocyte differentiation ensuring proper stratification and tight sealing of the mammalian epidermis.

Jagannathan, Vidhya; Bannoehr, Jeanette; Plattet, Philippe; Hauswirth, Regula; Drogemuller, Cord; Drogemuller, Michaela; Wiener, Dominique J.; Doherr, Marcus; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Galichet, Arnaud; Welle, Monika M.; Tengvall, Katarina; Bergvall, Kerstin; Lohi, Hannes; Rufenacht, Silvia; Linek, Monika; Paradis, Manon; Muller, Eliane J.; Roosje, Petra; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

199

Benthic foraminifera as palaeo sea-ice indicators in the subarctic realm – examples from the Labrador Sea–Baffin Bay region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminifera are found in a wide range of environments and may at times be one of few proxies available for the study of palaeoenvironmental conditions. However, the response of benthic foraminifera to changing sea-ice conditions is not well understood. This paper discusses benthic foraminifera as potential sea-ice proxies, with special emphasis on their use in shelf regions of the sub-arctic realm. Four marine sediment records from the Labrador Sea–Baffin Bay region serve as examples; in all four records independent sea-ice proxy will be used for testing the foraminiferal response to changing sea ice conditions. This test suggests that 1) Benthic foraminifera provide information on variations in sea-ice cover, but they are not direct proxies for sea-ice cover and no true sea-ice species has yet been identified. 2) Foraminifera mainly respond to the surplus of food often available at sea-ice edges. 3) Dominance of agglutinated foraminifera may suggest corrosive bottom-water conditions which may at times be linked to seasonal sea-ice cover.

Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

2013-11-01

200

Interaction between alcohol drinking and obesity in relation to colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background While substantive epidemiological literature suggests that alcohol drinking and obesity are potential risk factors of colorectal cancer (CRC), the possible interaction between the two has not been adequately explored. We used a case-control study to examine if alcohol drinking is associated with an increased risk of CRC and if such risk differs in people with and without obesity. Methods Newly diagnosed CRC cases were identified between 1999 and 2003 in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Cases were frequency-matched by age and sex with controls selected using random digit dialing. Cases (702) and controls (717) completed self-administered questionnaires assessing health and lifestyle variables. Estimates of alcohol intake included types of beverage, years of drinking, and average number of alcohol drinks per day. Odds ratios were estimated to investigate the associations of alcohol independently and when stratified by obesity status on the risk of CRC. Results Among obese participants (BMI ? 30), alcohol was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-4.0) relative to the non-alcohol category. Among obese individuals, 3 or more different types of drinks were associated with a 3.4-fold higher risk of CRC relative to non-drinkers. The risk of CRC also increased with drinking years and drinks daily among obese participants. However, no increased risk was observed in people without obesity. Conclusion The effect of alcohol of drinking on CRC seems to be modified by obesity.

2012-01-01

201

Invasive Rodent Eradication on Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to

GREGG HOWALD; C. JOSH DONLAN; JUAN PABLO GALVÁN; JAMES C. RUSSELL; JOHN PARKES; ARACELI SAMANIEGO; YIWEI WANG; DICK VEITCH; PIERO GENOVESI; MICHEL PASCAL; ALAN SAUNDERS; BERNIE TERSHY

2007-01-01

202

Roosevelt Island Tramway System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Roosevelt Island Tramway serves as an urban transit system in New York City. The system is based on conventional cable technology and connects a new urban community on Roosevelt Island in the East River to Manhattan. This system is the first urban tra...

C. P. Elms H. H. Hosenthien W. Bamberg W. Voss

1979-01-01

203

Newport Harbor Lighthouse Goat Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Newport Harbor Lighthouse may not be the best-known light in Newport Harbor, but its place in history is unchallenged as the first beacon to guide mariners into the bustling Newport of the early 1800s. The lighthouse stands on Goat Island, so named because early Newport residents pastured their goats there, and is known locally as Goat Island Lighthouse. This

Chet Smolski

1971-01-01

204

Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythroblastic islands, the specialized niches in which erythroid precursors pro- liferate, differentiate, and enucleate, were first described 50 years ago by analysis of transmission electron micrographs of bone marrow. These hematopoietic sub- compartments are composed of erythro- blasts surrounding a central macrophage. A hiatus of several decades followed, during which the importance of erythro- blastic islands remained unrecognized as erythroid

Joel Anne Chasis; Narla Mohandas

2008-01-01

205

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

206

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

207

Global Collembola on Deception Island  

PubMed Central

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

208

Inshore Fishes of Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Kingman Reef. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 585.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A list is given of shore fishes known from Howland and Baker Islands, outliers of the Phoenix Islands group, and Jarvis Island, Palmyra Atoll, and Kingman Reef in the Line Islands group. The list was compiled from literature sources, museum collection dat...

B. Greene B. Zgliczynski B. C. Mundy C. Museberger E. Demartini R. Wass R. E. Schroeder

2010-01-01

209

Paleomagnetic study of Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleomagnetic study was carried out on recent volcanic rocks exposed on Deception Island (63.0°S, 60.6°W), Antarctica. Sampling comprised all stratigraphic units exposed on the island, which include basaltic, andesitic and trachytic lavas, basaltic dykes and pyroclastic flows. Following stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures, consistent characteristic remanence directions were determined at 21 sites, using principal-component analysis. The overall

Andrés Baraldo; Augusto E. Rapalini; Harald Böhnel; Mabel Mena

2003-01-01

210

Are metal mining effluent regulations adequate: identification of a novel bleached fish syndrome in association with iron-ore mining effluents in Labrador, Newfoundland.  

PubMed

Water quality guidelines for industrial effluents are in place in many countries but they have generally evolved within a limited ecotoxicological framework. Effluents from iron-ore mines have traditionally been viewed by regulatory bodies as posing little or no risk to the aquatic environment. However, it was recently reported that lake trout taken from a large iron-ore contaminated Lake in Labrador (Wabush Lake) had elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage and were markedly depleted in levels of vitamin A (Payne et al., 1998) in comparison with fish from a Lake (Shabogamo Lake) receiving lesser levels of effluents. Through further observations, it has now been established that the lake trout in Wabush Lake are commonly affected with a marked skin bleaching syndrome in comparison with fish in Shabogamo Lake and a nearby Lake (Ashuanipi) which does not receive effluents. To the authors' knowledge such a syndrome which is characterized by marked reduction in skin pigmentation and overall increase in skin whitening has not been reported before in any fish population in association with contamination. Preliminary information for liver histopathological and blood cell differences have also been obtained in fish in Wabush Lake in comparison with Ashuanipi Lake. It has also been observed through studies on phosphatidyl liposomes that iron-ore leachate contains redox-active material (iron but possibly other transition metals) that has considerable potential for causing oxidative damage to cellular constituents. Using the weight of evidence approach it is indicated that iron-ore effluents may pose more of a risk to the aquatic environment than traditionally considered by regulatory agencies. PMID:11239690

Payne, J F; French, B; Hamoutene, D; Yeats, P; Rahimtula, A; Scruton, D; Andrews, C

2001-05-01

211

Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

Pepin, Pierre

2013-05-01

212

Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); P<0.05 was considered significant. Increasing dietary moisture significantly increased total moisture intake (P=0.001), and reduced urine specific gravity (P=0.003), urinary oxalate concentration (P=0.04), and CaOx relative supersaturation (P=0.04) in the MS. Urinary parameters remained unchanged in the LR, indicating that feeding a high moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups. PMID:12589739

Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

2003-04-01

213

Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland.  

PubMed

The need to obtain ocean color essential climate variables (OC-ECVs) using hyperspectral technology has gained increased interest in recent years. Assessing ocean color on a large scale in high latitude environments using satellite remote sensing is constrained by polar environmental conditions. Nevertheless, on a small scale we can assess ocean color using above-water and in-water remote sensing. Unfortunately, above-water remote sensing can only determine apparent optical properties leaving the sea surface and is susceptible to near surface environmental conditions for example sky and sunglint. Consequently, we have to rely on accurate in-water remote sensing as it can provide both synoptic inherent and apparent optical properties of seawater. We use normalized water leaving radiance LWN or the equivalent remote sensing reflectance RRS from 27 stations to compare the differences in above-water and in-water OC-ECVs. Analysis of above-water and in-water RRS spectra provided very good match-ups (R2 > 0.97, MSE < 1.8*10(-7)) for all stations. The unbiased percent differences (UPD) between above-water and in-water approaches were determined at common OC-ECVs spectral bands (410, 440, 490, 510 and 555) nm and the classic band ratio (490/555) nm. The spectral average UPD ranged (5 - 110) % and band ratio UPD ranged (0 - 12) %, the latter showing that the 5% uncertainty threshold for ocean color radiometric products is attainable. UPD analysis of these stations West of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait and West of Iceland also suggests that the differences observed are likely a result of environmental and instrumental perturbations. PMID:23842380

Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Zielinski, Oliver

2013-07-01

214

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)|

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

215

The Three Mile Island Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

Crosby, Emeral

1980-01-01

216

America's Islands (Revised April 1974).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal islands of the United States have been surveyed and charted by the National Ocean Survey, formerly the Coast and Geodetic Survey, for well over a century. This important work is performed pursuant to hydrographic surveying, nautical charting and o...

1974-01-01

217

Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

2011-11-01

218

Magnetic island formation in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

Yoshikawa, S.

1989-04-01

219

Plant fossils from White Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the D.S.I.R. expedition to White Island in January 1947, plant fossils were discovered in bedded tuffaceous sands on the south side of the island, about 17 chains north-west of Ohauora Point. On this and other coastal headlands a formation of well bedded tuffaceous sands, locally including water-worn pebbles, is exposed from high-tide level to a height of at least

C. A. Fleming

1963-01-01

220

Developing and Applying a Transportation Model for Aquidneck Island, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project focuses on Aquidneck Island in the State of Rhode Island. The research project has two primary objectives. First, the project builds the foundation for coordinated transportation and land use planning on Aquidneck Island using TransC...

F. Atash K. Woodward J. Boyce S. Eisenbeiser

2004-01-01

221

Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

Schofield, W. B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S. L.

2004-01-01

222

Construction of an eco-island: A case study of Chongming Island, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chongming Island is the largest alluvial island in the world and is an ecologically sensitive area. It has been planned as a world famous eco-island for future development. Eco-island is a special concept of sustainable development for a small island. This paper explores the applicability of the eco-island concept with respect to six characteristics: integrated ecosystem structure and function, powerful

Baorong Huang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hua Zheng; Huizhi Zhang; Xiaoke Wang

2008-01-01

223

One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility  

SciTech Connect

Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

Malloy, M.G.

1997-11-01

224

A 750-kyr detrital-layer stratigraphy for the North Atlantic (IODP Sites U1302-U1303, Orphan Knoll, Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1302-U1303, drilled on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), preserve a record of detrital layers and other proxies of hydrographic change that extend the record of ice-sheet/ocean interactions through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (?18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), and an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (wt.% > 106 ?m). The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich (H) layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~ 2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~ 3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 16 and have near-synchronous analogs at Site U1302/03. Detrital layers at Site U1302/03 are distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. We distinguish Heinrich-like layers associated with IRD from detrital layers marked by multiple detrital-layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to lofted sediment derived from drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). The prominent detrital layers at Sites U1302/03 and U1308 can be correlated to millennial scale features in the Chinese speleothem (monsoon) record over the last 400 kyr, implying a link between monsoon precipitation and Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) instability. The detrital-layer stratigraphy at Site U1302/03 provides a long record of LIS dynamics against which other terrestrial and marine records can be compared.

Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Röhl, U.

2012-02-01

225

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

226

Rhode Island Critical Resource Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is used to assist planners, scientists, geographers, and others to visualize data sets. This particular project created draws on data from the state of Rhode Island's Geographic Information System (RIGIS) database in order to assist land managers and other interested parties. The project was created with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension, and a number of other organizations. On the site, visitors can click on maps of forests and wetlands, land use patterns, groundwater resources, soil hydrology, and biodiversity. On the site's homepage, visitors can also use the "Towns" drop down menu to look at information for different cities throughout the state. Additionally, the "Watershed Atlas" area provides detailed maps of the twelve watersheds located in Rhode Island.

227

Atoll reef-island formation and response to sea-level change: West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef islands around the margin of coral atolls generally comprise unconsolidated Holocene sands and gravels, overlying a reef flat or cemented conglomerate platform. Such islands have accreted within the last 3000–4000 years, since sea level has reached a level close to present and the reef flat and conglomerate platform have formed. Island morphology consists of an oceanward ridge, a less

C. D Woodroffe; R. F McLean; S. G Smithers; E. M Lawson

1999-01-01

228

Hawaiian Monk Seal on Laysan Island, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on population size, reproduction, and factors affecting survival were collected on the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, on Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 23 April to 21 July 1983. Beach counts excluding weaned and...

D. J. Alcorn E. K. Buelna

1989-01-01

229

Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... but they are twice as likely to have stomach cancer. Although Asian/Pacific Islander women are 30% less ... are almost three times as likely to have stomach cancer. Both Asian/Pacific Islander men and women have ...

230

Citizens' council protecting Sky Island wildlife corridor  

Treesearch

Pacific Northwest · Pacific Southwest ... Bookmark and Share. Title: Citizens' council protecting Sky Island wildlife corridor ... Connecting mountain islands and desert seas: biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago II. Proc.

231

Recent Algal Stromatolites from the Canary Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algal stromatolites (oncolites) occur on the insular shelves of the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic. Specimens from an unnamed bank in these islands are made up predominantly of the encrusting nullipore, Goniolithon accretum; vary in size between 0...

R. L. McMaster J. T. Conover

1966-01-01

232

Coordinating Human Services Delivery in Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses some theoretical aspects of service delivery coordination in Rhode Island, examines coordination projects undertaken by other States, presents an overview of coordination efforts in Rhode Island, evaluates results of a special survey...

G. J. Beiser

1979-01-01

233

Bidding the CpG island goodbye  

PubMed Central

Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands.

2013-01-01

234

U–Pb geochronology of the eastern Hall Peninsula, southern Baffin Island, Canada: a northern link between the Archean of West Greenland and the Paleoproterozoic Torngat Orogen of northern Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corridor east of Iqaluit that crosses several regionally significant lithologic boundaries has been mapped and sampled for geochronology. Zircon, monazite and titanite were analysed by the isotope dilution U–Pb method to characterize igneous and metamorphic events, and Pb–Pb ages of detrital zircons were determined by laser ablation microprobe ICP-MS. Tonalitic gneisses at the eastern end of the corridor are

David J Scott

1999-01-01

235

How can endemic proboscideans help us understand the “island rule”? A case study of Mediterranean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain size-change processes in terrestrial vertebrates on islands and in island-like ecosystems. Extinct endemic insular proboscideans are especially appropriate subjects for investigating this issue, given the frequency with which proboscideans colonised islands, and the multiple patterns in size reduction experienced by endemic taxa on different islands, as well as on a single one. To

Maria Rita Palombo

2007-01-01

236

77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY. The proposed safety zone is...

2012-06-12

237

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and... Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light...

2010-07-01

238

33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and... Seventh District § 80.720 St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light...

2009-07-01

239

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2010-07-01

240

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2009-07-01

241

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2013-07-01

242

Tiber Island in ancient and medieval Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether formed from an alluvial deposit or from the erosion of a tufa ridge, Tiber Island existed at least as early as the eighth century BC. According to Roman tradition, however, the island was formed only in 509 BC, after the expulsion of the Tarquins. It is probable that this tradition arose from an early taboo placed on the island

Margaret Angela Brucia

1990-01-01

243

Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island  

EPA Science Inventory

Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

244

27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section is âLong Island.â (b) Approved...boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are three United States Geological...Boundaries. The Long Island viticultural area includes...approximately 1,170 square miles or 749,146...

2013-04-01

245

Beneath the Waters of Cocos Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cocos Island, a remote volcanic summit in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, serves as a beacon for hungry predators, including thousands of hammerhead sharks that travel here each year in search of prey. This video segment from NOVA: "Island of Sharks" depicts some of the common predator-prey interactions that take place in the nutrient-rich waters surrounding the island.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-27

246

The island-mainland species turnover relationship  

PubMed Central

Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M–M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland–island (M–I) and island–island (I–I) species turnover with predictions of the M–M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M–M model should successfully predict M–I and I–I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M–I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I–I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland–island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

Stuart, Yoel E.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Algar, Adam C.

2012-01-01

247

Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

Benz, Richard

248

Economic Impact of Block Island Race Week.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Block Island, an area of 11 square miles lies 15 miles off the Rhode Island Coast. Biennially since 1965, the Storm Trysail Club of New York has sponsored a week of yacht races at Block Island. The event, which takes place in the third week of June, comes...

J. F. Farrell

1973-01-01

249

Chasing land crabs on Christmas Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Christmas Island, or 'Kiritimati', is the world's largest coral atoll. It is located in the Line Island group, some 3240 km (2015 miles) from Tarawa, Kiribati's main island. About 4810 people (2002 fig- ures) live scattered around the atoll, mainly in four villages on the eastern side. The atoll covers 575 square km (222 square miles), but land resources are

Mecki Kronen

2007-01-01

250

Water Island Study. Attachment 2. Development Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attachment 2 of the Water Island Feasibility Study: Development Options, describes the potential uses of the undeveloped lands on Water Island to be examined. The most significant finding of this study for the Government of the Virgin Islands may be that ...

1980-01-01

251

The Foraminifera of the Pitcairn Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminifera were recovered from 18 samples collected in the Pitcairn Islands, 12 from Henderson Island (including the best and most comprehensive collections) and three each from Oeno Atoll and Pitcairn Island itself. Although both algae and sediment samples were collected, the living Foraminifera came, almost exclusively, from phytal (attached or clinging) habitats. Foraminifera in the sediment samples are mainly thanatocoenoses.

JOHN E. WHITTAKER; RICHARD L. HODGKINSON

1995-01-01

252

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

253

Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

Benz, Richard

254

Gravity Anomalies in the Galapagos Islands Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a recent report Case et al, (1973) presented a free-air gravity map of the Galapagos Islands based on 32 gravity stations on the islands. They state that the Galapagos Islands are associated with an east-west trending 'residual negative anomaly' superi...

A. B. Watts J. R. Cochran

1973-01-01

255

The island-mainland species turnover relationship.  

PubMed

Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts. PMID:22874754

Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

2012-08-08

256

Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

Bjornstad, Bruce N.

2006-08-08

257

Island Explorers Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes science curriculum facilitated through hands-on marine science activities correlated with the California Science Framework. Curriculum focuses on major ocean concepts and Catalina Island. Program involves overnight field trip to Wrigley Institute. Teacher training component is in development. Two student activities focusing on garibaldi and kelp are available on the site.

258

The Three Mile Island crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample

P. S. Houts; P. D. Cleary; T. W. Hu

1988-01-01

259

Three Mile Island population registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and

M. K. Goldhaber; G. K. Tokuhata; E. Digon; G. G. Caldwell; G. F. Stein; G. Lutz; D. Gur

2009-01-01

260

ITURUP AND SAKHALIN ISLAND STRAWBERRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A plant collecting expedition to Iturup and Sakhalin Islands, Russian Federation, occurred between 21 July and 12 September 2003. Actinidia, Rubus, Ribes, and Vaccinium, as well as seven accessions of strawberries, Fragaria L., were collected. Among them, a wild strawberry, Fragaria iturupensis Stau...

261

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

262

Impact of Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of nuclear power began before the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. The primary reason for deflation afflicting the nuclear industry is the oil price increase followed by other fuel price increases. These, along with the associated effects of conservation and increased energy productivity has led to reduced growth in electricity use and thus to reduced demand forecasts.

Gilinsky

1980-01-01

263

Magdalen Islands VAWT field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1977, an experimental large vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) was installed in the Magdalen Islands. The main objectives of the project are installation, operation and evaluation of the VAWT. The turbine has been operated at up to about 80 percent of design rpm. The information presented includes data from some of the 31 rpm tests which

P. South; A. Watts

1979-01-01

264

On a Crowded Desert Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

Rothstein, Samuel

1989-01-01

265

Long Island Sound Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resource Center is a central clearinghouse for an ongoing web project to provide access to information and data related to the Long Island Sound. Visitors can learn about scientific research, access data, view interactive maps, search literature related to the Sound, browse a directory of organizations and information sources, or look for locations to access the Sound.

266

The Virgin Islands robotic telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Etelman Observatory of the University of the Virgin Islands is the southernmost and easternmost optical observatory in the United States. The observatory is located at an elevation of 420 meters on the island of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. The site has exceptionally good seeing (frequently better than 1 arc-second), dark skies, and the ability to reach deep into the southern hemisphere and to plug the northern-hemisphere longitude gap between the US and Europe. Astronomers at the College of Charleston, South Carolina State University, and the University of the Virgin Islands have formed a consortium to refurbish the facility, conduct detailed site surveys, purchase a 0.5-meter telescope and instrumentation, and operate the facility robotically. The telescope, instrumentation, and dome have all been installed, and we are remotely obtaining commissioning observations. Our operations mode (manual, remote-controlled, or fully robotic) will simultaneously support our research, participation in multi-site campaigns, and the educational and outreach missions of our institutions. Further details are available at http://astro.uvi.edu/.

Neff, J. E.

2004-10-01

267

Chaos in easter island ecology.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems. PMID:21933513

Sprott, J C

2011-10-01

268

Literacy in the Pacific Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The post-colonial governments of the Pacific Islands are demanding universal literacy in European languages through the introduced social institutions of education, government, law, and economics. This shift from oral to literate societies is contributing significantly to the erosion of traditional languages and cultures. (Author/MT)

Topping, Donald M.

1987-01-01

269

78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety zone in the waters of Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH...restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the fireworks event at Catawba Island...display will be taking place on Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton,...

2013-09-25

270

Mineral-Scale and Regional Isotopic Heterogeneity within the Kiglapait Intrusion and Other Mafic Intrusions of the ca. 1.3 Ga Nain Plutonic Suite, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For years, stratigraphic variations in the radiogenic isotopic compositions of whole rocks from layered intrusions have been used to document compositional changes (e.g., magma recharge, mixing, contamination) associated with the filling, crystallization, and cooling of crustal magma chambers. However, recent studies are revealing pronounced isotopic disequilibrium or heterogeneity between minerals from many major layered intrusions, including Pb isotopes in coexisting plagioclase and sulfide from the Bushveld (Mathez & Waight, 2003, GCA) and the Stillwater (McCallum et al, 1999, CMP), Sr and Nd isotopes in whole rock, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene from the Skaergaard (McBirney & Creaser, 2003, JP), and Sr isotopes in single plagioclase crystals from the Rum layered intrusion (Tepley & Davidson, 2003, CMP). Except for the Stillwater intrusion, these isotopic variations are not related to low-temperature secondary alteration. Instead, slow cooling (105-106 years) of these large bodies from near-liquidus to subsolidus temperatures appears to allow for complex geochemical evolution of partially molten systems. Proterozoic anorthosite plutonic suites are especially attractive targets for investigating the significance and extent of isotopic differences between crystals, whole rocks, and different intrusions given their typically protracted emplacement histories, range of magma compositions, and slow cooling at mid-crustal depths. To this list of intrusions that record mineral-mineral isotopic disequilibrium, we can add the large 1308 Ma troctolitic Kiglapait layered intrusion in the Nain Plutonic Suite, Labrador. Plagioclase separates and whole rocks show significant differences in both measured and initial Pb isotopic compositions. Bulk mafics and separated minerals (apatite, magnetite, augite and olivine) give internal Pb-Pb and U-Pb isochron ages consistent with the crystallization age. Measured 206Pb/204Pb is highest in apatite (30-73), indicating that apatite is the main U/radiogenic Pb carrier. The clear distinction between the Pb isotopic composition of plagioclase and mafics persists after correction for the crystallization age for in situ U decay. A similar distinction is observed in Sr-isotope initial ratios. All minerals appear in textural equilibrium at mm to mm scales and the isotopic disequilibrium has existed since the time of crystallization of the intrusion. The lack of detectable oxygen isotope exchange with surrounding rocks rules out a role for fluid-assisted alteration within rocks of the Kiglapait intrusion during cooling. The mafic components in the Kiglapait seem to have acquired their relatively evolved Pb-isotopic compositions from late apatite-, Fe-rich residual liquids that have interacted with the enveloping anorthositic rocks of the Nain Plutonic Suite. This interpretation is strengthened by a comparison of the Pb isotope systematics of the Kiglapait intrusion with those of the 1333 Ma Voisey's Bay and 1317 Ma Mushuau intrusions (Amelin et al, 2000, Econ Geol), located about 75 km SSW of the Kiglapait. The Pb isotope compositions of these two intrusions overlap the compositions of the Kiglapait plagioclases (Mushuau) and the mafics (Voisey's Bay). The remarkable conclusion that arises from this comparison is that mineral-scale isotopic differences in the Kiglapait intrusion are matched by regional differences in magma source and contamination compositions from different intrusions across the large Nain Plutonic Suite.

Weis, D.; Morse, S. A.; Scoates, J. S.

2004-05-01

271

Beachrocks from the island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beachrocks on La Palma Island developed on platform-forming lavas of the Cumbre Vieja volcano. Some of these lavas are related to the 1585 (Puerto Naos), 1677 and 1971 (Echentive) eruptions. Radiocarbon dating of the Charco Verde beachrock gives a conventional age of 33?330±490 BP, while that at Playa Chica beach gives a calibrated age of 14?940±525 BP. The beachrocks, up

F. Calvet; M. C. Cabrera; J. C. Carracedo; J. Mangas; F. J. Pérez-Torrado; C. Recio; A. Travé

2003-01-01

272

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed Central

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island.

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-01-01

273

Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15

274

The island rule: made to be broken?  

PubMed Central

The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency.

Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

2007-01-01

275

Pine Island Glacier Calving (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event. This series of images from the MISR instrument on the Terra satellite not only shows the crack expanding and the iceberg breakoff, but the seaward moving glacial flow in the parts of the Pine Island Glacier upstream of the crack.

Perkins, Lori; Mitchell, Horace; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2005-03-09

276

Okhotskia: International Kuril Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of the Kuril Archipelago." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal -- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University -- to view text and images describing project Objectives, Rationale and Scope, Anticipated Future Research, and more. Links are also provided to project Results (including IKIP databases, publications, and presentations) and Island Info including sections on Vascular Plants, Stoneflies, Nesting Birds, and many more. Additionally, a very nicely organized photo gallery features maps and many beautiful photographs taken by project participants during collecting expeditions to the Kuril Archipelago.

277

Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

Renteria, W.

2012-04-01

278

Stranded on a Desert Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are stranded on a tropical desert island. At an abandoned science lab on the island, they explore the properties of different materials to determine which are best to construct a shelter, boat, and path to aid in their survival. The properties investigated are: magnetism, conductivity, opacity, buoyancy, and elasticity. Learners practice research techniques, must work together, and need to design within constraints. This lesson plan includes definitions of key words, scenario sheet, lab sheets,and handouts. This activity is the third in a four part series of pre/post activities (Matter, Matter, What's the Matter?) created for an exhibit on material science, but can be used on its own.

Houston, Children'S M.

2009-01-01

279

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario;)

2004-11-01

280

An Island Made of Ice  

NASA Video Gallery

This time-lapse video shows the calving of an ice island from Greenland's Petermann Glacier and the drifting of the ice down the fjord and southward through Nares Strait. The images were captured between July 9 and September 13, 2012, by NASA's Terra and Aqua earth-observing satellites. This is the second time in three years that a city-sized hunk of ice has ripped off from the glacier. Credit: NASA's Earth Observatory > Related story > Download high-res video

gsfcvideo

2012-10-17

281

Flora of the Marquesas Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology offers online access to taxonomic and geographical information on the vascular plants of the Marquesas Islands. An easy-to-use search tool retrieves plant checklists, which include species distribution and status information. Other features of this well-presented Web site include a searchable image gallery, curatorial information on collected specimens, a general account of the Marquesas, and some gorgeous panoramic photos. Look for additional features as the site develops.

282

The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, Roanoke Island, located between the coast of North Carolina and the Outer Banks, became a refuge for escaped slaves, called contrabands or freedmen. This site, created by University of Virginia professor Patricia C. Click presents an account of the history and selected documents and maps of the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, as the community was known. Documents include letters from Superintendent of the Colony, Horace James, a minister and abolitionist from Massachusetts, and letters from Freedmen themselves. The documents have been transcribed and are in .pdf format, so users should not expect to see scanned versions of 19th century originals. The projects section includes seven projects for high school and college students, using historical materials at the site, and from other related Web sites. Professor Click has written a book, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island FreedmenÂs Colony, 1862-1867, and the Preview section contains the table of contents and Chapter One. Links in the site refer to this book for more information; in the Maps section users are referred to its online ordering instructions for more information on the layout of the colony.

Click, Patricia C.

2001-01-01

283

Dense water formation around islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic constraints on the dense water formation rate and circulation resulting from cooling around an island are discussed. The domain under consideration consists of an island surrounded by a shelf, a continental slope, and a stratified ocean. Atmospheric cooling over the shelf forms a dense water that penetrates down the sloping bottom into the stratified basin. Strong azimuthal flows are generated over the sloping bottom as a result of thermal wind. Thermally direct and indirect mean overturning cells are also forced over the slope as a result of bands of convergent and divergent Reynolds stresses associated with the jets. The Coriolis force associated with the net mass flux into the downwelling region over the slope is balanced by these nonlinear terms, giving rise to a fundamentally different momentum budget than arises in semienclosed marginal seas subject to cooling. A similar momentum balance is found for cases with canyons and ridges around the island provided that the terms are considered in a coordinate system that follows the topography. Both eddy fluxes and the mean overturning cells are important for the radial heat flux, although the eddy fluxes typically dominate. The properties of the dense water formed over the shelf (temperature, diapycnal mass flux) are predicted well by application of baroclinic instability theory and simple heat and mass budgets. It is shown that each of these quantities depends only on a nondimensional number derived from environmental parameters such as the shelf depth, Coriolis parameter, offshore temperature field, and atmospheric forcing.

Spall, Michael A.

2013-05-01

284

Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastic islands, the specialized niches in which erythroid precursors proliferate, differentiate, and enucleate, were first described 50 years ago by analysis of transmission electron micrographs of bone marrow. These hematopoietic subcompartments are composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. A hiatus of several decades followed, during which the importance of erythroblastic islands remained unrecognized as erythroid progenitors were shown to possess an autonomous differentiation program with a capacity to complete terminal differentiation in vitro in the presence of erythropoietin but without macrophages. However, as the extent of proliferation, differentiation, and enucleation efficiency documented in vivo could not be recapitulated in vitro, a resurgence of interest in erythroid niches has emerged. We now have an increased molecular understanding of processes operating within erythroid niches, including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, positive and negative regulatory feedback, and central macrophage function. These features of erythroblast islands represent important contributors to normal erythroid development, as well as altered erythropoiesis found in such diverse diseases as anemia of inflammation and chronic disease, myelodysplasia, thalassemia, and malarial anemia. Coupling of historical, current, and future insights will be essential to understand the tightly regulated production of red cells both in steady state and stress erythropoiesis.

Mohandas, Narla

2008-01-01

285

Public Health Assessment for Island Chemical Corporation/Virgin Island Chemical Corporation, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. CERCLIS No. VID980651095.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Island Chemical/Virgin Island Chemical site is an inactive facility in the south central portion of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Historical operations at the site resulted in contamination by various organic compounds, including chloroform, pyridin...

1998-01-01

286

The island wind buoyancy connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent studies have suggested that the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is at least partially controlled by the Southern Ocean (SO) winds. The paradoxical implication is that a link exists between the global surface buoyancy flux to the ocean (which is needed for the density transformation between surface and deep water) and the SO winds. Although the dependency of buoyancy forcing on local wind is obvious, the global forcings are usually viewed independently with regard to their role as drivers of the global ocean circulation. The present idealized study is focused on understanding this wind buoyancy connection. In order to isolate and investigate the effect of SO winds on the overturning we have neglected other important key processes such as SO eddies.We present the wind buoyancy connection in the framework of a single gigantic island that lies between latitude bands free of continents (such as the land mass of the Americas). The unique geometry of a gigantic island on a sphere allows for a clear and insightful examination of the wind buoyancy connection. This is because it enables us to obtain analytical solutions and it circumvents the need to calculate the torque exerted on zonal sills adjacent to the island tips (e.g. the Bering Strait). The torque calculation is notoriously difficult and is avoided here by the clockwise integration, which goes twice through the western boundary of the island (in opposite directions) eliminating any unknown pressure torques.The link between SO winds and global buoyancy forcing is explored qualitatively, using salinity and temperature mixed dynamical-box models and a temperature slab model, and semiquantitatively, employing a reduced gravity model which includes parametrized thermodynamics. Our main finding is that, in all of these cases the island geometry implies that the stratification (and, hence, the air sea heat flux) can always adjust itself to allow the overturning forced by the wind. We find that, in the mixed dynamical-box models, the salinity and temperature differences between the boxes are inversely proportional to the MOC. In spite of the resulting smaller north south temperature difference, the meridional heat transport is enhanced.

de Boer, Agatha M.; Nof, Doron

2005-10-01

287

Interaction between magnetic island and electrostatic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between electrostatic turbulence and a magnetic island is investigated numerically. The physical model used is a 2-D version of the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations extended to include a curvature term and to account for the presence of a magnetic island. This is the simplest model of electrostatic turbulence that takes into account the effect of magnetic shear. The magnetic curvature makes the model linearly unstable to interchange instability. As a first approximation, it is assumed that the island growth is not affected by the surrounding turbulence since the latter evolves on a much faster time scale. Thus, the model is electrostatic and the island can be treated as a fixed object. The equations are solved numerically in a slab box by using a finite difference, fully implicit code that uses PETSc libraries. The interchange turbulence with and without the magnetic island is compared. In particular, the response of the turbulence to different magnetic island widths and collisionality values is examined.

Militello, Fulvio; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Waelbroeck, Francois

2006-10-01

288

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-24

289

Swimming from island to island: healing practice in Tonga.  

PubMed

The health care system of the Pacific island nation of Tonga serves as an example of enduring medical pluralism which incorporates traditional and Western medical practice and accommodates contemporary political and social change. Biomedicine is represented by the hospital and the community health centers; traditional medicine is practiced in homes by healers. Both types of therapies are popularly utilized for different ailments or for the same problem at different points in the illness. Contemporary healing is described and is also analyzed as an expression of social change occurring in Tonga as a result of a political movement toward democracy. PMID:10626277

McGrath, B B

1999-12-01

290

Solar and Atmospheric Radiation Data for Broughton Island, eastern Baffin Island, Canada, 1971-73.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three years partial record of radiation for Broughton Island reported here tends to support the thesis already demonstrated elsewhere for other climatological parameters that conditions on the eastern coast of Baffin Island and, implicitly, in Davis S...

J. D. Jacobs

1974-01-01

291

Social identity in the modern United States Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Virgin Islands (USVI) is a complex society with multiple diverse ethnic groups: Black Virgin Islanders, Eastern Caribbean islanders, Puerto Ricans, Spanish Dominicans, French Islanders, Americans (Continentals), Arabs and Asians. These ethnic differences as well as United States cultural imperialism have stymied any uniform Virgin Islands identity. Even though various ethnic groups share fundamental social characteristics, they nonetheless

Lomarsh Roopnarine

2010-01-01

292

Reading the geography of Sri Lankan island-ness: colonial repetitions, postcolonial possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the cultural dimensions of Sri Lanka's island geography. In particular it argues the importance of regarding the geography of Sri Lankan island-ness as a representational and imaginative trope repetitively and textually inscribed over time. I trace the contours of a topological enclosure that seem so matter-of-fact, natural and characteristic of the Sri Lankan island-state. Inviolability and

Tariq Jazeel

2009-01-01

293

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

294

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

295

Effect of sheared flow on magnetic islands  

SciTech Connect

The effect of sheared flow on a magnetic island is examined. In contrast to the density and temperature gradients which are flattened for sufficiently wide islands, it is found that the velocity gradient persists inside the separatrix whenever the constant-{psi} approximation is satisfied. It follows that velocity shear has a negligible effect on island amplitude in that approximation. The effect of the violation of the constant-{psi} approximation is explored by using the Kelvin-Stuart family of islands, and it is found that flattening is modest even when the separatrix encloses virtually all the current.

Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Grasso, Daniela [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Burning Plasma Research Group, Department of Energetics, Politecnico di Torino and CNISM, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2007-02-15

296

Crustal Thickness Beneath Ocean Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the thickness of the Earth's crust beneath about two dozen of the GDSN or GEOSCOPE stations located on ocean islands by stacking moveout-corrected high-quality P-to-S receiver functions (RFs). The RFs were filtered in the 0.05-0.5 Hz frequency bands to compress strong noises that are common for ocean island stations. Given the small (less than 2 s) time separation between the direct P and the P-to-S converted phase from the Moho, the PSmS phase, which has a negative polarity and can be clearly observed at almost all the stations, is used for the stacking. Preliminary resulting thickness at each of the stations is as follows: AFI (12.4 km), AIS (13.6), ASCN (9.6), BBSR (9.9), BORG (9.4), CRZF (6.6), GUMO (8.0), HNR (8.0), HOPE (19.0), KIP (13.0), MSEY (10.7), MSVF (15.1), NOUC (15.1), PAF (8.9), POHA (17.0), PPT (12.3), PTCN (10.4), RAR (12.8), RER (13.8), RPN (9.3), SEY (14.9), SHEL (17.5), TBT (14.1), XMAS (11.8). Crustal thickness at some of the stations has been measured previously, and our results are in general agreement with those measurements. Possible age-dependence of the resulting thickness and geological implications in the understanding of plume-lithosphere interactions and formation of ocean islands will be presented.

Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Cullers, R. L.

2005-12-01

297

Energizing the Island Community: A Review of Policy Standpoints for Renewable Energy in Small Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines public policy towards energy production in small islands. It provides an overview of social and economic obstacles and opportunities affecting the supply of energy. On the whole, small islands tend to have better sources of renewable energy and fewer sources of fossil fuels. Islands tend to rely heavily on imported fossil fuels to generate electricity. Energy production

E. Kathy Stuart

298

Operation Ward's Island, A Guide to the Trees and Other Features of Ward's Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide for teachers, students, and adults illustrates how it is possible to use Ward's Island as an outdoor laboratory. It contains a guide to 30 kinds of trees on the island, along with clearly drawn maps and illustrations. The guide helps the user to locate these trees along two nature trails. A section called "Ward's Island Roundup"…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

299

RCN: SEAPRE: Seabird Islands and Introduced Predators: Impacts of Presence and Eradication on Island Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTELLECTUAL MERIT: Seabird islands (islands with large populations of seabirds) are crucial to the survival of native animals and plants due to the large subsidies provided by nutrient inputs of marine origin. Seabird predators have devastated seabird populations and drastically altered vegetation processes and ecosystem function all over the world. These predators are now being eradicated on hundreds of islands,

Christa Mulder; Wendy Anderson; Don Croll; Josh Donlan; Julie Ellis; Stephen Kress; Bernie Tershy; Alexander Wait; Peter Bellingham; Robbie McDonald; José Miguel Fariña; Dave Towns; Eric Vidal; David Wardle; Chris Wilcox

300

The Late Holocene Stratigraphy of an Inlet-Dominated Barrier Island, Pea Island, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological, foraminiferal, geochemical, and geophysical data sets as well as aerial photographs have been used to investigate the natural processes (inlet dynamics, ocean\\/estuarine washover, and sea-level change) responsible for the late Holocene units preserved in the barrier island subsurface at Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. Historic nautical charts indicate that three inlets characterized Pea Island between early European exploration (1590)

C. G. Smith; D. Ames; D. R. Corbett; S. Culver; D. Mallinson; S. R. Riggs; D. Vance

2002-01-01

301

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drawn from the south-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1ⲠW.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

2013-07-01

302

Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Ha?eg Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islands are fascinating natural laboratories of evolution. One much debated theme among evolutionary ecologists is whether there is an ‘island rule’, the observation that large animals tend to become smaller and small animals larger. Franz Nopcsa was the first, in 1914, to suggest that the latest Cretaceous dinosaurs from Ha?eg, Romania were an island fauna, based on its low diversity

Michael J. Benton; Zoltan Csiki; Dan Grigorescu; Ragna Redelstorff; P. Martin Sander; Koen Stein; David B. Weishampel

2010-01-01

303

Collapse of Easter IslandLessons for Sustainability of Small Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of Easter Island is one of the world's major archeological and anthropological mysteries. Small islands are closed systems, and they represent a microcosm of the planet Earth, which is also a closed system on a planetary scale. Observing and comprehending interconnected economic, social and ecological changes taking place in small islands is relatively straightforward. This article contends that

Palanisamy Nagarajan

2006-01-01

304

The effects of island diffusion and breakup in island growth during ion-beam assisted deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) island growth is in clear contrast with growth obtained without a bombardment. In this contribution we study the effects of island mobility and island breakup in IBAD by computer simulations. It is shown that during the initial stage of growth a scaling description similar to irreversible growth applies. However, eventually growth attains a quasi-stationary state

M. Rusanen; I. Koponen; J. Heinonen; J. Sillanpää

1999-01-01

305

Spiders from Some Pacific Islands, Part IV The Cook Islands and Niue  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE COOK ISLANDS are a group of small islands in the region of th e central South Pacific bounded by 8°_23° S. and 156°-16r W. They are di visible into two groups, th e northern Cooks which are small ato lls, and the southern Cooks which, wi th one exception , are volcanic islands. Th e sout hern Cooks are

B. J. MARPLES

306

Operation Ward's Island, A Guide to the Trees and Other Features of Ward's Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for teachers, students, and adults illustrates how it is possible to use Ward's Island as an outdoor laboratory. It contains a guide to 30 kinds of trees on the island, along with clearly drawn maps and illustrations. The guide helps the user to locate these trees along two nature trails. A section called "Ward's Island Roundup" briefly…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

307

An island approach to industrial ecology: towards sustainability in the island context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fields of study have employed geophysical islands in experimental design with a great deal of success. An island is a closed and bounded system in many respects and presents a manageable unit of study. The island microcosm has been the basis for significant advances in areas such as evolutionary biology, ecosystem ecology and physical anthropology. The same properties that

P. J. Deschenes; Marian Chertow

2004-01-01

308

Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people…

Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

2013-01-01

309

Magnesian halotrichite from White Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnesian halotrichite [(Fe0.63Mg0.37).Al2(SO4)4.22H2O] from a fumarole deposit on the active andesitic volcano of White Island, New Zealand, occurs as the major component in the mixture halotrichite—H2S04-H20—alunogen, with accessory gypsum, alunite, anhydrite, quartz, cristo-balite, and tridymite. Optical, physical, and chemical data are given for the halotrichite. K :Na ratios in the alunite (85K:15Na) and in the solution (28K:72Na) show equilibrium

A. D. Cody; T. R. Grammer

1979-01-01

310

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Isometric drawing, "early plan for Mare Island", 1870. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

311

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2012-10-01

312

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2009-10-01

313

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2011-10-01

314

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2010-10-01

315

Terrestrial Vertebrate Monitoring, Channel Islands National Park, 1993 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Terrestrial vertebrate monitoring was begun at Channel Islands National Park during the spring of 1993. Previously developed monitoring protocols for island fox, island deer mice, pacific slender salamanders, and several species of lizard were implemented...

C. A. Schwemm

1995-01-01

316

Perspective overview of Brunot's Island Bridge, looking ENE from west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Perspective overview of Brunot's Island Bridge, looking ENE from west bank of Ohio River. - Ohio Connecting Railway, Brunot's Island Bridge, Spanning Ohio River at Brunot's Island, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

317

7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

2010-01-01

318

7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with Plum Island regulations. Persons in and on...

2009-01-01

319

30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939...OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

2009-07-01

320

30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section 939...OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part...

2010-07-01

321

75 FR 17178 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00006  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12098 and 12099] Rhode Island Disaster RI-00006 AGENCY...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03...Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Rhode Island: Bristol. Connecticut: New...

2010-04-05

322

6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

323

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2013-07-01

324

16. Photocopy of illustration from Rattray, Jeannette Edwards, Gardiner's Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of illustration from Rattray, Jeannette Edwards, Gardiner's Island, East Hampton, 1958; Photograph by Morton Pennypacker of painting MANOR HOUSE, GARDINER'S ISLAND, 1639 - Gardiner's Island Windmill, Napeague, Suffolk County, NY

325

Rangiferine brucellosis on Baffin Island.  

PubMed

The standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from three populations on Baffin Island, Canada. During late winter from 1983 to 1986, sera from 17 of 40 North Baffin (43%), 11 of 33 Northeast Baffin (33%) and 12 of 82 South Baffin (15%) adult caribou had antibodies in the STAT at 1:50 or the CFT at 1:5. Seroprevalence increased as caribou matured with one (4%) of 25 calves, four (13%) of 31 yearlings, and 40 (26%) of 155 adult caribou being positive. However, seroprevalence did not differ with sex in any age class. Positive antibody titers were higher in adult females sampled in May, 3 to 4 wk before parturition, than in adult females sampled in late March and April. The strength of positive titers did not differ with the time of sampling among adult males. Pathologic signs of brucellosis were found in three (13%) of 23 caribou that were assumed to have active infections (caribou with CFT titers > 1:160). Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from 24 (60%) of 40 caribou from which lesions were submitted. Between 1986 and 1990, the annual incidence of reported human (Homo sapiens) cases averaged 3.4 (34:100,000) on Baffin Island. PMID:9249700

Ferguson, M A

1997-07-01

326

[Tuberculosis epidemiology in Mayotte Island].  

PubMed

Mayotte is a French territory island, part of the Comoros Archipelago in the Indian Ocean with 200,000 inhabitants. The tuberculosis control program started in 1976, although available epidemiological data remains incomplete. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based survey in 202 outpatients and hospital medical records from the Hospital Centre of the main city to contribute to the epidemiological evaluation of tuberculosis patterns. The tuberculosis frequency remains unchanged since 2000. It affects a young population partly coming from the other neighbouring Comoro Islands (69%) with illegal immigrate status (53% in 2004). The systematic diagnostic screening efficiency of the condition appears marginal. Pulmonary involvement is the most frequent clinical manifestation (78%), although severe extrapulmonary manifestations are not exceptional. Co-infection with HIV and multi resistance to antituberculosis agents are not frequent. Up to 60% of cases have been proven to be bacteriologically linked. The notification rate remains critically low with an estimate of 39% of notifications to the local sanitary authorities in charge of secondary cases screening. The case coverage seems limited both by low socio-economical status and poor health facility accessibility The loss of follow up is dramatically high, 41% on the overall period, and up to 51% in 2004. Our results make mandatory the reinforcement of a tuberculosis survey and control involvement within the context of this French territory. Screening, care and follow up are to be implemented particularly for vulnerable and precarious groups and for patients. PMID:18956814

Woessner, J; Receveur, M C; Malvy, D; Taytard, A

2008-10-01

327

Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections.

Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

2004-01-01

328

Records of plant viruses for the Pacific Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper lists the known distribution of 57 plant viruses and viroids in the 22 Pacific Island countries covered by the\\u000a Secretariat of the Pacific Community (American Samoa, Cook Islands, FSM (Micronesia), Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati,\\u000a Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Solomon\\u000a Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and

Michael N. Pearson; Michel Grisoni

2002-01-01

329

Assessing selected natural and anthropogenic impacts on freshwater lens morphology on small barrier Islands: Dog Island and St. George Island, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater lens morphologies of the barrier islands Dog Island and St. George Island on the panhandle coast of Florida (FL), USA, are controlled to varying degrees by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Variable-density groundwater flow models confirm that spatial variability of recharge values can account for the observed lens asymmetry on these islands. The depth to the base of

James C. Schneider; Sarah E. Kruse

2006-01-01

330

Geology Fieldnotes: Padre Island National Seashore, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chain of barrier islands off the coast of Texas supports an abundance of wildlife, and is composed of a variety of environments, such as dunes, grasslands, and tidal flats. This National Park Service (NPS) site offers a brief profile of islands, as well as photos, maps, and links to visitor information and additional resources.

331

Long Island Geographic Information System (LI GIS)  

Cancer.gov

The Geographic Information System for Breast Cancer Studies on Long Island (LI GIS) is a unique research tool combining an extensive collection of data and other geospatial resources. The LI GIS is designed primarily to study potential relationships between environmental exposures and breast cancer in Nassau and Suffolk counties (Long Island), NY; however, its application can be extended to the study of other diseases.

332

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

333

DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016  

EPA Science Inventory

The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

334

Aboriginal and Islander Education: Perspectives and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The seminar in this report focused on perspectives, recent developments, directions for improvement, and community involvement with regard to the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia. The seminar underscored that there is considerable interest in Aboriginal and Islander education with attention centered on…

Taylor, Sandra C., Ed.; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr., Ed.

335

Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

Bush, Susan

336

The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, breast cancer advocates petitioned the United States Congress to investigate the high rates of breast cancer on Long Island in the state of New York. The resulting law led to the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) — more than ten research projects designed to study the possible causes of this increased incidence of cancer.

Deborah M. Winn

2005-01-01

337

Rhode Island Election Tickets: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhode Island was the first English colony in America to issue printed election ballots, with the first issued in the mid-1740s. This survey of Rhode Island election tickets, while not exhaustive, is representative of the use of tickets in elections spanning a period of over 150 years and documents state and local politics, political factions and election results from the

Russell J. DeSimone; Daniel C. Schofield

2007-01-01

338

IceBridge Flight Over Baffin Island  

NASA Website

Canada's Baffin Island. This island, the largest one in Canada, is home to an ice formation known as the Penny Ice Cap. This mission was a repeat of airborne surveys by the ATM and radar teams flown in 1995, 2000 and 2005, and added new ...

339

Falkland Islands - War For National Sovereignty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1982 the first modern North-South conflict was waged when a north, major NATO power was confronted by a south, Third World nation over the possession of over 200 small islands in the South Atlantic--the Falkland Islands. During this conflict, modern, s...

R. A. Korkin B. A. Sanders

1985-01-01

340

Seed island formation by forced magnetic reconnection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical tearing modes observed in experiments often grow from seed magnetic islands induced by triggers like sawteeth. The formation of seed islands is studied in this paper using both the reduced MHD and two-fluid equations, with the trigger being modelled by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbations. In the linear phase the growth rate of the driven mode is found to

Q. Yu; S. Günter; K. Lackner; M. Maraschek

2012-01-01

341

Marine Recreational Fishing in Rhode Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine recreational fishing in Rhode Island is a very important part of the economy in the Ocean State. A major tourist attraction, as well as a strong local interest, recreational fishing draws approximately 350,000 people to Rhode Island's waters each year for a total of 1.2 million fishing trips. More than 45 percent of these anglers are from out of

Erik Williams; Tony Corey

342

2008 Archaeological Excavations at Three Island Crossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Island Crossing (190EL0294) is located along the Snake River near Glenns Ferry, Idaho. It is situated near the Three Island Crossing on the Oregon Trail. Boise State University conducted excavations at the site in 1986 and 1987. These excavations documented three Late Archaic occupations dating during the past 1500 years. Evidence of multiple occupations\\/uses of the site is documented

Juli Walker; Dianna Bentley

2009-01-01

343

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection...Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode IslandâTSP Designated area Does not meet...

2010-07-01

344

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection...Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode IslandâTSP Designated area Does not meet...

2012-07-01

345

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 17 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection...Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode IslandâTSP Designated area Does not meet...

2009-07-01

346

The vegetation of Cockburn Island, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cockburn Island, off the north-east Antarctic Peninsula, is important in the history of Antarctic terrestrial biology as it was here where the first botanical collections were made by JD Hooker in 1843. These, and a subsequent collection made by IM Lamb one hundred years later, are described here. A much more detailed survey of the vegetation of the island was

R. I. Lewis Smith

1993-01-01

347

The Canary Islands origin: a unifying model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model, partially based on the three most widely cited previous hypotheses, is proposed to explain the genesis of the Canary Islands. From the hotspot hypothesis it retains the notion that the islands originated from a thermal anomaly in the mantle. From the propagating fracture hypothesis it takes the critical role of regional fractures in the onset of magmatism.

F. Anguita; F. Hernán

2000-01-01

348

Submarine landslides around the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and structure of the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands were mapped using the GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar system, bathymetric multibeam systems, and sediment echosounders. Twelve young (<2 Ma) giant landslides have been identified on the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands up to now. Older landslide events are long buried under a thick sediment cover due to

Sebastian Krastel; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke; Colin L. Jacobs; Roland Rihm; Timothy P. Le Bas; Bárbara Alibés

2001-01-01

349

Asymmetry of magnetic islands in sheared flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present day tokamak plasma discharges, the plasma confinement and maximum operational plasma beta are strongly limited by the destabilization of neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs). These modes, stable at low beta, are excited by the bootstrap current loss within the island as a result of a local pressure flattening. The problem of islands stabilization has been largely investigated using schemes based on the electron cyclotron current drive. On the other hand, variations of the plasma pressure along the magnetic field may induce stabilization effects due to the ion neoclassical viscous forces for finite heat conductivity and inertial ion drift off the magnetic surfaces. Asymmetric deformation of magnetic islands may arise due to the effect of torque associated with the sheared viscous flow and are equivalent to an additional source of the longitudinal current. The deformation is described by a dependence of the island helical phase on the distance x from the rational surface. We reconsider reconnection, in rotating plasmas, allowing for deformed islands. Modifications of the Rutherford evolution equations are obtained taking into account the nonlinear ion inertia and the neoclassical viscosity that affect the longitudinal current and the island rotation frequency. As a consequence the critical island width for NTM onset changes and leads to significant effects on the estimate of value of the added rf power needed for the island control.

Nowak, Silvana; Lazzaro, Enzo; Marchetto, Chiara

2006-10-01

350

Asymmetry of magnetic islands in sheared flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present day tokamak plasma discharges, the plasma confinement and maximum operational plasma beta are strongly limited by the destabilization of neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs). These modes, stable at low beta, are excited by the bootstrap current loss within the island as a result of a local pressure flattening. The problem of islands stabilization has been largely investigated using

Silvana Nowak; Enzo Lazzaro; Chiara Marchetto

2006-01-01

351

Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

Payne, Diana, Ed.

2009-01-01

352

Ascension Island, ecosystem construction and ecological fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To use the ecosystem on Green Mountain, Ascension Island, to illustrate aspects of ecosystem construction and function as well as possible mitigation of human caused global environmental change. Location Ascension Island, tropical south Atlantic. Main conclusions The cloud forest on Green Mountain is a man-made system that has produced a tropical forest without any coevolution between its constituent species.

David M. Wilkinson

353

Island wakes in shallow coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rattray Island, northeast Australia, is 1.5 km long, 300 m wide, and lies in well-mixed water approximately 25 m deep. Its long axis is inclined at about 60° into the direction of the dominant semidiurnal tidal current. The length of the wake in the lee of the island, as documented by aerial photographs and satellite imagery, appears to equal that

E. Wolanski; J. Imberger; M. L. Heron

1984-01-01

354

Desert Island Column: A Trip to Carthea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We travel from the port of Piraeus to the island of Kea by private boat. It takes ninety minutes to reach cape Sounio, and then another ninety minutes in the open seas of the Aegean to reach Kea. We follow the southern edge of the island moving east. The landscape is barren: small bushes, hills and mountains in the background,

John Mylopoulos

2000-01-01

355

Professional Development for Rhode Island School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a survey of Rhode Island school administrators (n=523) and open-ended interviews of administrators (n=28) that would provide information for the design of leadership and staff development activities as part of Rhode Island's LEAD project--an attempt to improve the leadership capacity of school administrators.…

Turley, James; Brittingham, Barbara E.

356

The Karst Geomorphology of Manitoulin Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manitoulin Island is formed of glacially-abraded dolomite and limestone bedrock widely exposed across the island. The dominant karst landform is dolomite pavement, its form strongly controlled by lithology and classified according to appearance and karren characteristics. Pavement was found to be most extensive and well developed on the Amabel Formation, which also featured a pitted littoral zone along the southern

Susan Rose Enyedy-Goldner

1994-01-01

357

Bird communities on habitat islands in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds were recorded in 20 small woods (islands) and 8 control sites within larger woods in Oxfordshire. The number of species on islands was most highly correlated with area, but vegetation and isolation were also important. The number of species on control sites was significantly correlated only with the amount of vegetation above 5 m. Density of birds was correlated

Hugh A. Ford

1987-01-01

358

Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.  

PubMed

Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water. PMID:22048924

Vlahovi?, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

2011-11-03

359

Electron energization during magnetic island coalescence  

SciTech Connect

Radio emission from colliding coronal mass ejection flux ropes in the interplanetary medium suggested the local generation of superthermal electrons. Inspired by those observations, a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic island coalescence models the magnetic reconnection between islands as a source of energetic electrons. When the islands merge, stored magnetic energy is converted into electron kinetic energy. The simulation demonstrates that a mechanism for electron energization originally applied to open field line reconnection geometries also operates near the reconnection site of merging magnetic islands. The electron heating is highly anisotropic, and it results mainly from an electric field surrounding the reconnection site that accelerates electrons parallel to the magnetic field. A detailed theory predicts the maximum electron energies and how they depend on the plasma parameters. In addition, the global motion of the magnetic islands launches low-frequency waves in the surrounding plasma, which induce large-amplitude, anisotropic fluctuations in the electron temperature.

Le, A.; Egedal, J. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Daughton, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-07-15

360

Rhode Island Jurisdictions Enrolled in the Draft Voluntary ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Rhode Island Jurisdictions Enrolled in the Draft Voluntary National Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards. ... October 2012. Rhode Island. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

361

Erosion and deterioration of Isles Dernieres Barrier Island arc, Louisiana: 1842-1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Isles Dernieres barrier island arc is the most rapidly eroding coastline in the US. Located on the Mississippi River delta plain in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, the Isles Dernieres consists of four smaller islands in a 32-km long chain. From west to east, these islands are known as Raccoon Island, Whiskey Island, Trinity Island, and East Island. The barrier island

R. A. McBride; K. Westphal; S. Penland; B. Jaffe; FL St. Petersburg; S. J. Williams

1989-01-01

362

Crystalline islands of semiconductor films  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide (SiC) nucleation in the form of powder in a discharge plasma and the formation of thin film islands on a Si(100) substrate in the course of gas-phase epitaxy are simulated numerically. Models of plasma-like media and nonequilibrium processes accompanying phase transitions of the first kind (such as condensation and crystallization) in the initial fast (fluctuation) stage are described. The nonstationary evolution of nuclei size distribution functions is modeled by solving kinetic equations in partial derivatives and stochastic Ito-Stratonovich analog equations. This makes it possible to refine the formation mechanisms of microcrystalline state polytypes and calculate the nucleation rate and the initial roughness of a SiC coating.

Zmievskaya, G. I.; Bondareva, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15

363

Water resources of the Yap Islands  

SciTech Connect

The Yap Islands consist of four major islands, Yap, Gagil-Tamil, Maap, and Rumung. Of these, Yap Island has more than half the total land area, most of the population, and almost all of the economic development. The islands of Maap and Rumung together compose only 15% of the land area and population. Average annual rainfall over the Yap Islands amounts to 122 inches. Rainfall-runoff comparisons indicate that about half of the annual rainfall runs off to the ocean on Yap Island and Gagil-Tamil. Streams on Gagil-Tamil are perennial but streams on Yap Island are dry an average of 3 months per year due to geologic differences. Analyses of water samples from 23 sources show the good quality and the chemical similarity of surface and ground water. This report summarizes the hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used by the planning and public works officials of Yap to make decisions concerning development and management of their water resources. 33 refs., 35 figs., 81 tabs.

van der Brug, O.

1983-01-01

364

Calcified cartilage islands in rat cortical bone.  

PubMed

Rats display little to no haversian remodeling of cortical bone. This fact, combined with the endochondral formation of cortical bone, means that rat femoral cortical bone contains highly mineralized cartilage islands in a central band of mid-femoral cross sections. We demonstrate that these islands have a significantly higher degree of mineralization than the surrounding bone, using quantitative backscattered electron imaging. The cartilaginous nature of the islands was verified by immunostaining for collagen type II. Toluidine blue staining of longitudinal sections and three-dimensional synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy confirmed that the islands are elongated along the femoral long axis. Nanoindentation revealed significantly higher values of both reduced modulus and hardness in the islands compared to the surrounding bone, reflecting a higher degree of mineralization. The calcified cartilage islands were distributed in a central zone of the bone, from the growth plates through the mid-femoral bone. The presence of these cartilage islands and their possible effect on mechanical properties could be an additional reason why haversian remodeling is observed in higher-order species. PMID:23274728

Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Irvine, Sarah Catherine; Brüel, Annemarie; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birkedal, Henrik

2013-01-01

365

Divergent genetic strata in five Bahamian islands.  

PubMed

Based on historical records, the genetic landscape of the Bahamian archipelago is presumed to be complex and to exhibit island-specific characteristics, yet the genetic composition of the island chain, which could corroborate or refute these past accounts, remains poorly defined. As such, the current investigation was undertaken to genetically characterize 5 Bahamian populations representing the Northwest (Grand Bahama and Abaco) and Central (Eleuthera, Exuma and Long Island) Bahamas across the 15 autosomal Identifiler loci routinely employed in forensic analyses. Altogether, our findings suggest that Bahamians are a genetically heterogeneous group, with each island sampled receiving differential contributions from African, European, East Asian and Native American sources. Even though the strongest genetic signal in all 5 collections emanates from continental Africa, inter-island differentiation is noted in both the Structure and admixture analyses. The presence of alleles not in common among the 5 insular populations also signals genetic heterogeneity among the islands of the archipelago. This is especially the case when considering the Long Island population, which exhibits statistically significant genetic differences in relation to the other Bahamian collections and the New World groups of African descent (Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean) in the G-test pair-wise comparisons, even after application of the Bonferroni adjustment. PMID:21482214

Simms, Tanya M; Barrett, Dianne A; McCartney, Quinn; Herrera, Rene J

2011-04-08

366

Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

2000-06-28

367

[Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date. PMID:8278694

Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

1993-06-01

368

Urban Heat Islands Remote Sensing Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urban heat islands are "a critical environmental issue in many large cities. The consequences of UHIs are elevated temperature, increased pollution and related health risks, and higher energy consumption. Planners need to be able to identify and quantify urban heat islands with GIS and remote sensing." This lesson from iGETT includes a learning unit summary, instructor and student guides, curriculum and other support documents and a series of data files. The lesson plan will be helpful for students looking at the issue of heat islands in the remote sensing context. A quick, free registration is required to view or download any of the materials.

2012-03-12

369

Sex Trafficking and Decriminalized Prostitution in Rhode Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhode Island is the only state in the United States where prostitution is decriminalized indoors. Since decriminalization in 1980, the sex industry has expanded and Rhode Island has become a destination for commercial sex in New England. Rhode Island is one of only three states that have not had a human trafficking prosecution. Rhode Island has had no prosecutions of

Melanie Shapiro

2009-01-01

370

Application of Island Biogeography Theory to Temporary Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of island biogeography theory contends that a direct correlation exists between the size of an island and the species richness of an island. We applied this aspect of island biogeography theory to temporary pools. Six temporary pools were randomly selected and placed into three size categories based on the volume of water contained in each. The contents were

Ferrella March; David Bass

1995-01-01

371

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. MOTORIZED MACHINING EQUIPMENT USED IN MANUFACTURE OF MACHINE GUN PARTS. SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND IS A PRATT & WHITNEY VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE. DATED JANUARY 21, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

372

Distributed generation islanding-implications on power system dynamic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed generation can potentially support unintentional system islands, isolated from the remainder of the system. These islands pose a significant risk to safety and equipment, and need to be quickly detected and eliminated. Islands are detected by sensitive under- and over-voltage and frequency functions, sometimes aided by active island destabilization techniques. Both the passive voltage and frequency trip point and

R. A. Walling; N. W. Miller

2002-01-01

373

Controls of Magnetic Islands by Pellet Injection in Tokamaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma

K. C. Shaing; Wayne A Houlberg; Yueng Kay Martin Peng

2007-01-01

374

Control of magnetic islands by pellet injection in tokamaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma

K. C. Shaing; W. A. Houlberg; M. Peng

2007-01-01

375

The petrology of the Las Canadas volcanoes, Tenerife, Canary islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tenerife is the largest of the seven Tertiary to Recent volcanic islands that make up the Canary Archipelago. The island is composed of volcanics belonging to the basanitetrachyte-phonolite assemblage that characterises many Atlantic islands. The most voluminous development of intermediate and salic volcanics has been in the centre of the island where the Las Canadas volcanoes arose upon a basement

William Ian Ridley

1970-01-01

376

24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

377

Norwegian Arctic Expansionism, Victoria Island (Russia) and the Bratvaag Expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victoria Island (Ostrov Viktoriya in Russian) is the westernmost island of the Russian Arctic. The legal status of this island and neighbouring Franz Josef Land was unclear in 1929 and 1930. At that time Norwegian interests attempted, through a secret campaign, to annex Victoria Island and gain a foothold on parts of Franz Josef Land. We describe the events leading

IAN GJERTZ; BERIT MØRKVED

378

2. Photocopy of photograph. View, looking southeast, showing Shooters Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopy of photograph. View, looking southeast, showing Shooters Island with standard ship building plant in operation. Circa 1930 by Airmap Corporation of America. (Original in Staten Inland Historic Society, Staten Island, New York) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

379

Introduced house mice as a conservation concern on Gough Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

House mice have previously been identified as a significant threat to both species and ecosystems on Southern Ocean islands. To date, these impacts have been quantified on several sub-Antarctic islands, but the role of house mice on more temperate islands is poorly known. On South Atlantic Gough Island, non-commensal house mice (Mus musculus L.) were probably introduced in the early

A. G. Jones; S. L. Chown; K. J. Gaston

2003-01-01

380

Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides have been a key process in the evolution of the western Canary Islands. The younger and more volcanically active Canary Islands, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, show the clearest evidence of recent landslide activity. The evidence includes landslide scars on the island flanks, debris deposits on the lower island slopes, and volcaniclastic turbidites on the floor of the

D. G. Masson; A. B. Watts; M. J. R. Gee; R. Urgeles; N. C. Mitchell; T. P. Le Bas; M. Canals

2002-01-01

381

Geochemistry of manganese nodules from offshore areas of Mariana Islands and Johnston Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manganese nodules near the Mariana Islands generally range from 2 to 4 cm in diameter and some samples have porous surfaces. The nodules near Johnston Island are larger in size (5–8 cm in diameter) and more compact than the Mariana nodules. The major FeMn minerals found in Mariana Islands samples are todorokite, birnessite and akaganeite (?-FeOOH) while, in the

Ju-chin Chen; Yung-chang Yao

1995-01-01

382

Seed island formation by forced magnetic reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoclassical tearing modes observed in experiments often grow from seed magnetic islands induced by triggers like sawteeth. The formation of seed islands is studied in this paper using both the reduced MHD and two-fluid equations, with the trigger being modelled by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbations. In the linear phase the growth rate of the driven mode is found to be the same as that of the trigger. A slowly growing trigger drives a tearing mode, while a fast one drives a kink-like mode, which becomes a tearing mode later when the trigger's growth slows down. A finite ion sound Larmor radius (ion Larmor radius by using electron temperature) and electron inertia are found to lead to a larger seed island for a given external perturbation. The electron diamagnetic drift and plasma rotation, if increasing the relative rotation between the trigger and the driven mode, decrease the seed island width.

Yu, Q.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Maraschek, M.

2012-06-01

383

In the Shadow of Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how teachers turned the reality of the nuclear reactor incident at Three Mile Island into a learning experience for children by recreating the sequence of events through creative dramatics. (CM)|

Blair-Clough, Ida; Wheeler, Brenda

1979-01-01

384

Water conservation for Rhode Island lawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, water professionals in Rhode Island developed a program for home lawn irrigation scheduling that adapted an agricultural soil moisture model for use on home lawns. The key to the program, which emphasized supplemental watering only, was a \\

Alyson McCann; Arthur J. Gold; Kathleen Mallon; Josef Gorres

1994-01-01

385

A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)|

Mammano, Nicholas J.

1980-01-01

386

Nitrogen Gas Permeability Tests at Avery Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several nitrogen gas permeability tests have been performed at the Avery Island field site. These included a preliminary suite of tests performed at various locations around the site, tests performed in conjunction with the brine movement studies, and a s...

D. A. Blankenship R. G. Stickney

1983-01-01

387

A Survey of the Island Province.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews some of the findings of the 1984 survey of public attitudes toward the provincial education system conducted by Prince Edward Island's School System Review Commission and discusses some of the commission's resulting 94 recommendations for improvement. (PGD)

McDowell, Stirling

1985-01-01

388

Three Guidance Programs in Providence, Rhode Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three programs implemented in the Providence, Rhode Island, elementary schools to improve students' self-image. These include a guidance/puppetry program, student of the week awards, and a behavioral management system. (JAC)

Chirico, John

1985-01-01

389

Photovoltaic Applications for Remote-Island Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electric power supply options available to many of the central and south Pacific island governments are severely constrained by remoteness, limited infrastructures, a corrosive natural environment, and the high delivered costs of many conventional energy ...

D. A. Schaller

1983-01-01

390

One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.|

Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

2011-01-01

391

Climate Change: Effects on Reef Island Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the nea...

J. A. Oberdorfer R. W. Buddemeier

1988-01-01

392

Maintenance Dredging, Bullocks Point Cove, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project consists of maintenance dredging of channels, and mooring and turning basins in Bullocks Point Cove, Providence River, Rhode Island. Dredging, and turbidity created by the proposal might produce localized, short-term damages to the marine biot...

1972-01-01

393

Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Description: The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all ... mangrove forests revealed numerous gaps in quantitative understanding of man-grove functions and values.

394

In the Shadow of Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how teachers turned the reality of the nuclear reactor incident at Three Mile Island into a learning experience for children by recreating the sequence of events through creative dramatics. (CM)

Blair-Clough, Ida; Wheeler, Brenda

1979-01-01

395

Outpatient Mental Health Benefits in Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last several years considerable attention has been devoted to the need for public policies to influence the availability of outpatient mental health insurance coverage in Rhode Island. A number of experts have expressed opinions on this issue a...

1983-01-01

396

RX Acculink® Carotid Stent System Standard Surgical Risk ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Manitoba Ontario Quebec New Brunswick Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island Newfoundland & Labrador Washington Oregon California Nevada ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

397

9 CFR 93.400 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland (including Labrador), Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, and Yukon Territory. Camelid . All species of the...

2010-01-01

398

9 CFR 93.400 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland (including Labrador), Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, and Yukon Territory. Camelid . All species of the...

2009-01-01

399

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones

Siegrist; H. G. Jr

1988-01-01

400

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and

Siegrist; H. G. Jr

1988-01-01

401

Relict shoreline features at Cockburn Island, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cockburn Island, Ontario (45°55? N, 83°20? W), holds at least six sets of elevated lake bluffs, scarps and bar deposits that\\u000a mark distinctive water planes above the Nipissing Great Lakes water plane (?198 m). These relict shoreline features occur\\u000a at elevations that correspond closely with the elevations of others at nearby St. Joseph Island and in eastern upper Michigan.\\u000a Together, the elevations and

Scott A. Drzyzga

2007-01-01

402

Mitochondrial DNA variation in Karkar Islanders.  

PubMed

We analyzed 375 base pairs (bp) of the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and intergenic COII/tRNALys 9-bp deletion from 47 Karkar Islanders (north coast of Papua New Guinea) belonging to the Waskia Papuan language group. To address questions concerning the origin and evolution of this population we compared the Karkar mtDNA haplotypes and haplogroups to those of neighbouring East Asians and Oceanic populations. The results of the phylogeographic analysis show grouping in three different clusters of the Karkar Islander mtDNA lineages: one group of lineages derives from the first Pleistocene settlers of New Guinea-Island Melanesia, a second set derives from more recent arrivals of Austronesian speaking populations, and the third contains lineages specific to the Karkar Islanders, but still rooted to Austronesian and New Guinea-Island Melanesia populations. Our results suggest (i) the absence of a strong association between language and mtDNA variation and, (ii) reveal that the mtDNA haplogroups F1a1, M7b1 and E1a, which probably originated in Island Southeast Asia and may be considered signatures of Austronesian population movements, are preserved in the Karkar Islanders but absent in other New Guinea-Island Melanesian populations. These findings indicate that the Karkar Papuan speakers retained a certain degree of their own genetic uniqueness and a high genetic diversity. We present a hypothesis based on archaeological, linguistic and environmental datasets to argue for a succession of (partial) depopulation and repopulation and expansion events, under conditions of structured interaction, which may explain the variability expressed in the Karkar mtDNA. PMID:18307577

Ricaut, F X; Thomas, T; Arganini, C; Staughton, J; Leavesley, M; Bellatti, M; Foley, R; Mirazon Lahr, M

2008-02-28

403

Gravity survey in the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed Bouguer gravity anomalies on the four volcanic islands (Mangaia, Mauke, Mitiaro, and Rarotonga) in the Southern Cook Group and Manihiki Atoll in the Northern Group are consistent with the calculated gravitational effects of uncompensated island platforms of average density 2·32 g\\/cm containing volcanic cores of average density 2·88 g\\/cm. However, the anomalies on Rakahanga Atoll in the Northern

E. I. Robertson

1967-01-01

404

Testing island biosecurity systems for invasive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats continue to invade rat-free islands around the world, and it remains difficult to successfully intercept them before they establish populations. Successful biosecurity methods should intercept rats rapidly, before they can establish a population. Current island biosecurity practice employs techniques used for high-density rat eradication, assuming that they will be equally effective on low-density invaders. However, such approaches are often

James C. Russell; Brent M. Beaven; Jamie W. B. MacKay; David R. Towns; Mick N. Clout

2008-01-01

405

Rainsford Island Shoreline Evolution Study (RISES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RISES conducted a shoreline change study in order to accurately map, quantify, and predict trends in shoreline evolution on Rainsford Island occurring from 1890-2008. It employed geographic information systems (GIS) and analytical statistical techniques to identify coastal hazard zones vulnerable to coastal erosion, rising sea-levels, and storm surges. The 11-acre Rainsford Island, located in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, consists of two

Christopher V. Maio

2009-01-01

406

9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin...of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and...

2013-01-01

407

On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life: Introducing a Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionarily Stable Island Economic Development Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discourse offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded

Matt Funk

2009-01-01

408

KAr ages and magnetic stratigraphy of a hotspot-induced, fast grown oceanic island: El Hierro, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined use of accurate radiometric dating and magnetic stratigraphy can be applied to define the main stages of the building of oceanic volcanic islands. This method has been successfully applied on the island of El Hierro, the westernmost island of the Canaries Archipelago. For the emerged part of this island, built in the last 1.2 Ma, magnetic stratigraphy and

H. Guillou; J. C. Carracedo; F. Pérez Torrado; E. Rodriguez Badiola

1996-01-01

409

Trophic theory of island biogeography.  

PubMed

MacArthur and Wilson's Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) is among the most well-known process-based explanations for the distribution of species richness. It helps understand the species-area relationship, a fundamental pattern in ecology and an essential tool for conservation. The classic TIB does not, however, account for the complex structure of ecological systems. We extend the TIB to take into account trophic interactions and derive a species-specific model for occurrence probability. We find that the properties of the regional food web influence the species-area relationship, and that, in return, immigration and extinction dynamics affect local food web properties. We compare the accuracy of the classic TIB to our trophic TIB to predict community composition of real food webs and find strong support for our trophic extension of the TIB. Our approach provides a parsimonious explanation to species distributions and open new perspectives to integrate the complexity of ecological interactions into simple species distribution models. PMID:21806744

Gravel, Dominique; Massol, François; Canard, Elsa; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas

2011-08-02

410

Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K. M.

1976-01-01

411

Waves and islands in the sunset  

SciTech Connect

The CRAY-1 vector pipeline computer and the Dicomed D-48 color film recorder are used efficiently to create a movie of the sun setting over islands in the ocean. The water waves are represented as a sum of cosine terms, arranged to be periodic in time but not in space. The islands are represented by elloptic paraboloids, to make ray tracing simple. Hidden surface computation is done using the single valued wave height in the plane for each vertical raster line, and using comparisons to the distances of any islands intercepted by the line of sight. Each ray from the eye reflecting off the ocean is continued to meet the nearest island, or to the sky. If a pixel's direct or reflected ray meets the sky, its eight output bits code for the angle of this ray from the zenith, and also indicate whether the ray comes close to the sun's track. If the ray meets an island, similar information is coded for the normal vector to the island surface.

Max, N.L.

1981-01-05

412

Morphological Evolution Is Accelerated among Island Mammals  

PubMed Central

Dramatic evolutionary changes occur in species isolated on islands, but it is not known if the rate of evolution is accelerated on islands relative to the mainland. Based on an extensive review of the literature, I used the fossil record combined with data from living species to test the hypothesis of an accelerated morphological evolution among island mammals. I demonstrate that rates of morphological evolution are significantly greater—up to a factor of 3.1—for islands than for mainland mammal populations. The tendency for faster evolution on islands holds over relatively short time scales—from a few decades up to several thousands of years—but not over larger ones—up to 12 million y. These analyses form the first empirical test of the long held supposition of accelerated evolution among island mammals. Moreover, this result shows that mammal species have the intrinsic capacity to evolve faster when confronted with a rapid change in their environment. This finding is relevant to our understanding of species' responses to isolation and destruction of natural habitats within the current context of rapid climate warming.

Millien, Virginie

2006-01-01

413

Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.  

PubMed

The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands. PMID:12269067

Johnson, G

1988-01-01

414

Eye of a human hurricane: Pea Island, Oregon Inlet, and Bodie Island, northern Outer Banks, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea Island, Oregon Inlet, and Bodie Island, North Carolina, are severely human- modifi ed barrier-island segments that are central to an age-old controversy pitting natural barrier-island dynamics against the economic development of coastal North Carolina. Bodie Island extends for 15 km from the Nags Head-Kitty Hawk urban area to the north shore of Oregon Inlet and is part of Cape

Stanley R. Riggs; Dorothea V. Ames; Stephen J. Culver; David J. Mallinson; D. Reide Corbett; John P. Walsh

415

Hydrogeology of Southern Cumberland Island, Georgia. Kings Bay Environmental Monitoring Program Cumberland Island National Seashore, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aqueous geochemistry of three aquifers at a 9-square mile study site on the southern end of Cumberland Island, Georgia was investigated at 10 wells on the southern end of the island. The geochemistry of the surficial aquifer varied spatially across th...

S. K. Wilson

1991-01-01

416

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Island 257° true across the North Edisto River Entrance to the shore of Botany Bay Island. (d) A line drawn from the microwave antenna tower on Edisto Beach charted in approximate position latitude 32°29.3ⲠN. longitude 80°19.2ⲠW....

2013-07-01

417

Ecological Effects of an Artificial Island, Rincon Island, Punta Gorda, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study documents marine ecological conditions at Rincon Island, located approximately 0.8 kilometer offshore between Ventura and Santa Barbara, California, in a depth of 14 meters. The island, which was constructed between 1957 and 1958 to serve as a ...

G. F. Johnson L. A. DeWit

1978-01-01

418

Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and barrier Islands: Case study of long beach Island, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to cause a global warming that could raise sea level a few feet in the next century. This article examines four options by which barrier?island communities could respond, focusing on Long Beach Island, New Jersey. For the next few decades, the most common response will probably be to raise

James G. Titus

1990-01-01

419

Soils and vegetation of Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifaceted development of an erosion surface on Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, has led to this study of the relationship between soils and vegetation. A dry Mediterranean climate and past attempts at farming and introductions of alien species have led to vegetative degradation accompanied by both gully and surface erosion. Soil and vegetation analyses show this

William L. Halvorson; Dennis B. Fenn; William R. Allardice

1988-01-01

420

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Seabrook Island 257° true across the North Edisto River Entrance to the shore of Botany Bay Island. (d) A line drawn from the microwave antenna tower on Edisto Beach charted in approximate position latitude...

2010-07-01

421

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Seabrook Island 257° true across the North Edisto River Entrance to the shore of Botany Bay Island. (d) A line drawn from the microwave antenna tower on Edisto Beach charted in approximate position latitude...

2009-07-01

422

Children's Mental Health Services in Rhode Island. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Rhode Island KIDS COUNT issue brief, one of a series presenting an in-depth look at issues affecting the health, safety, education, and economic well-being of children, focuses on children's mental health services in the state. The brief reports that mental health services for children in Rhode Island are fragmented, with inadequate capacity…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

423

Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.  

PubMed

We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years. PMID:19040433

Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

2008-11-25

424

Island biogeography of populations: an introduced species transforms survival patterns.  

PubMed

Population phenomena, which provide much of the underlying basis for the theoretical structure of island biogeography, have received little direct study. We determined a key population trait-survival-in the Bahamian lizard Anolis sagrei on islands with an experimentally introduced predatory lizard and on neighboring unmanipulated islands. On unmanipulated islands, survival declined with several variables, most notably vegetation height: The island with the shortest vegetation had nearly the highest survival recorded for any lizard. On islands with the introduced predator, which forages mostly on the ground, A. sagrei shifted to taller vegetation; unlike on unmanipulated islands, its survival was very low on islands with the shortest vegetation but was higher on the others. Thus, species introduction radically changed a resident species' relation of survival to a key island-biogeographical variable. PMID:16357259

Schoener, Thomas W; Losos, Jonathan B; Spiller, David A

2005-12-16

425

Control of magnetic islands by pellet injection in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma pressure profile inside the island. This localized bootstrap current replenishes the missing equilibrium bootstrap current density that causes the island to grow in the first place. It is shown that the effect of the localized bootstrap current tends to reduce or eliminate the original drive for the growth of the island in the island evolution equation. The theory is also valid for the localized bootstrap current created by localized heating, but with much less effectiveness. A possibility of eliminating the island by controlling the equilibrium profiles is also discussed. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Shaing, K. C. [University of Wisconsin; Rome, James A [ORNL; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

2007-01-01

426

Controls of Magnetic Islands by Pellet Injection in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma pressure profile inside the island. This localized bootstrap current replenishes the missing equilibrium bootstrap current density that causes the island to grow in the first place. It is shown that the effect of the localized bootstrap current tends to reduce or eliminate the original drive for the growth of the island in the island evolution equation. The theory is also valid for the localized bootstrap current created by localized heating, but with much less effectiveness. A possibility of eliminating the island by controlling the equilibrium profiles is also discussed.

Shaing, K. C. [University of Wisconsin; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

2007-01-01

427

Saturated Widths of Magnetic Islands in Tokamak Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ISLAND module described in reference [1] implements a quasi-linear model to compute the widths of multiple magnetic islands driven by saturated tearing modes in toroidal plasmas of arbitrary aspect ratio and cross sectional shape. The distortion of the island shape caused by the radial variation in the perturbation is computed in the new module. In transport simulations, the enhanced transport caused by the magnetic islands has the effect of flattening the pressure and current density profiles. This self consistent treatment of the magnetic islands alters the development of the plasma profiles. In addition, it is found that islands closer to the magnetic axis influence the evolution of islands further out in the plasma. In order to investigate such phenomena, the ISLAND module is used within the BALDUR predictive modeling code to compute the widths of multiple magnetic islands in tokamak discharges. The interaction between the islands and sawtooth crashes is examined in simulations of DIII-D and JET discharges. The module is used to compute saturated neoclassical tearing mode island widths for multiple modes in ITER. Preliminary results for island widths in ITER are consistent with those presented [2] by Hegna. [1] F.D. Halpern, G. Bateman, A.H. Kritz and A.Y. Pankin, ``The ISLAND Module for Computing Magnetic Island Widths in Tokamaks,'' submitted to J. Plasma Physics (2005). [2] C.C. Hegna, 2002 Fusion Snowmass Meeting.

Halpern, F.; Pankin, A. Y.

2005-10-01

428

Numerical studies of heat island circulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two dimensional model has been set up to investigate the circulation induced by an urban heat island in the absence of synoptic winds. The boundary conditions need to be formulated carefully and due to difficulties arising here, we restrict our attention to cases of initially stable thermal stratification. Heat island circulations are allowed to develop from rest and prior to the appearance of the final symmetric double cell pattern, a transitional multi-cell pattern is observed in some cases. The influence on the steady state circulation of various parameters is studied, among which are eddy transfer coefficients, the heat island intensity, the initial temperature stratification and the heat island size. Some results are presented for a case in which differential surface cooling beneath an initially stable atmosphere produces a circulation and an unstable layer capped by an elevated inversion over the city. It is hoped that this case is vaguely representative of the night-time heat island with no geostrophic wind.

Delage, Yves; Taylor, P. A.

1970-11-01

429

Seabird Modulations of Isotopic Nitrogen on Islands  

PubMed Central

The transport of nutrients by migratory animals across ecosystem boundaries can significantly enrich recipient food webs, thereby shaping the ecosystems’ structure and function. To illustrate the potential role of islands in enabling the transfer of matter across ecosystem boundaries to be gauged, we investigated the influence of seabirds on nitrogen input on islands. Basing our study on four widely differing islands in terms of their biogeography and ecological characteristics, sampled at different spatial and temporal intervals, we analyzed the nitrogen isotopic values of the main terrestrial ecosystem compartments (vascular plants, arthropods, lizards and rodents) and their relationship to seabird values. For each island, the isotopic values of the ecosystem were driven by those of seabirds, which ultimately corresponded to changes in their marine prey. First, terrestrial compartments sampled within seabird colonies were the most enriched in ?15N compared with those collected at various distances outside colonies. Second, isotopic values of the whole terrestrial ecosystems changed over time, reflecting the values of seabirds and their prey, showing a fast turnover throughout the ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that seabird-derived nutrients not only spread across the terrestrial ecosystems and trophic webs, but also modulate their isotopic values locally and temporally on these islands. The wealth of experimental possibilities in insular ecosystems justifies greater use of these model systems to further our understanding of the modalities of trans-boundary nutrient transfers.

Caut, Stephane; Angulo, Elena; Pisanu, Benoit; Ruffino, Lise; Faulquier, Lucie; Lorvelec, Olivier; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pascal, Michel; Vidal, Eric; Courchamp, Franck

2012-01-01

430

S saturation history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Voisey's Bay deposit is hosted in a 1.34-Ga intrusion composed of troctolite, olivine gabbro, and ferrogabbro. The sulfide mineralization is associated with magmatic breccias that are enveloped by weakly mineralized olivine gabbros and troctolites, and also occurs as veins along structures in adjacent paragneiss. A dyke is connected to the base of the north wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion, and the entry point of this dyke into the chamber is the locus of the Eastern Deeps nickel sulfide deposit. A detailed exploration in the area between the Eastern Deeps and the Ovoid has shown that these intrusions and ore deposits are connected by a splayed dyke. The Eastern Deeps Deposit is surrounded by a halo of moderately to weakly mineralized variable-textured troctolite (VTT) that reaches a maximum thickness above the axis of the Eastern Deeps Deposit along the northern wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion. The massive sulfides and breccia sulfides are petrologically and chemically different when compared to the disseminated sulfides in the VTT, and there is a marked break in Ni tenor of sulfide between the two. Sulfides hosted in the dyke tend to have low metal tenors ([Ni]100 = 2.5-3.5%), sulfides in Eastern Deeps massive and breccia ores have intermediate Ni tenors ([Ni]100 = 3.5-4%), and disseminated sulfides in overlying rocks have high Ni tenors ([Ni]100 = 4-8%). Four principal processes control the compositions of the Voisey's Bay sulfides. Coarse-grained loop-textured ores consisting of pyrrhotite crystals separated by chalcopyrite and pentlandite exhibit a two orders of magnitude variation in the Pd/Ir ratio which is due to mineralogical variations where pentlandite is enriched in Pd and Ir is dispersed throughout the mineral assemblage. A decrease in Ir and Rh from the margin of the Ovoid toward cubanite-rich parts at the central part of the Ovoid is consistent with fractionation of the sulfide from the margins toward the center of the Ovoid. The Ovoid ores have higher Ni and Pd tenor than the Eastern Deeps massive sulfides; this is consistent with both a higher R factor and greater degree of silicate parental magma evolution in the Ovoid than the Eastern Deeps. The disseminated sulfides surrounding the Eastern Deeps deposit have some of the highest Ni and Pd tenors at Voisey's Bay, which are indicative of not only more primitive magmas but also higher R factors than the Ovoid or the Eastern Deeps. VTT and normal-textured troctolite of the Eastern Deeps that contain trace sulfide have 0.1-3 ppb Pt and 0.1-3 ppb Pd, whereas weakly to heavily mineralized variable troctolites in the same unit have one to two orders of magnitude higher abundances of Pt and Pd. Troctolites and olivine gabbros from other parts of the Voisey's Bay Intrusion and other Nain Plutonic Suite Intrusions, including the Kiglapait, Newark Bay, Barth Island, Mushua, and Nain Bay South Intrusion, also have low platinum group element abundances. Although it is possible that this is a signature of a widespread sulfide saturation event that pre-dated ore formation at Voisey's Bay, it is more likely that platinum group element (PGE) depletion is a product of the source melting process where low degrees of melting resulted in the retention of PGE in the mantle source. If so, this indicates that PGE depletion should be used with caution as an exploration tool in the Nain Plutonic Suite.

Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert

2012-01-01

431

Sculpting the shape of semiconductor heteroepitaxial islands: fromdots to rods  

SciTech Connect

In the Ge on Si model heteroepitaxial system, metal patterns on the silicon surface provide unprecedented control over the morphology of highly ordered Ge islands. Island shape including nanorods and truncated pyramids is set by the metal species and substrate orientation. Analysis of island faceting elucidates the prominent role of the metal in promoting growth of preferred facet orientations while investigations of island composition and structure reveal the importance of Si-Ge intermixing in island evolution. These effects reflect a remarkable combination of metal-mediated growth phenomena that may be exploited to tailor the functionality of island arrays in heteroepitaxial systems.

Robinson, J.T.; Walko, D.A.; Arms, D.A.; Tinberg, D.S.; Evans,P.G.; Cao, Y.; Liddle, J.A.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.; Dubon, O.D.

2006-06-20

432

[The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island. PMID:15264530

Lizano, O G

2001-12-01

433

The Holocene Isolation of Dalma Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dalma Island can be broadly defined as an emergent salt diapir formed through the halokinetic emplacement of the Precambrian-Cambrian Hormuz Complex. The outline of the island, as seen today, has been much modified by anthropogenic dredge-and-fill activities. The lithofacies of Dalma Island can be subdivided into three distinct geological and geographical provinces. The core of the island is dominated by the sedimentary, evaporitic and volcanic lithologies of the Hormuz Complex. These chaotically distributed units are unconformably overlain by sediments and evaporites of the Miocene Fars Formation. The island's coastline is dominated by Recent bioclastic sediments, primarily derived from reefs at the island's northern coast. Following exposure of the Arabian Gulf floor during the Last Glacial Maximum, marine waters entered the Strait of Hormuz in the latest Pleistocene and the Gulf once again became a shallow epicontinental seaway. Bathymetric surveys reveal that the sea floor surrounding Dalma Island and separating it from the mainland lies at a depth shallower than 40 m. The Holocene transgression would not have had any effect on this area until after 10.2 Ka. After this time, rising ground water levels, associated with the advancing shoreline, may have resulted in the localised formation of shallow lakes or marshes in depressions. As sea level continued to rise, these lakes coalesced and the Dalma Salt Dome became increasingly isolated from the mainland. Once the transgression had reached the -15 m contour, by 8.5 Ka, Dalma would have been completely isolated from the mainland. By 6 ka sea level had reached present levels with continued rise eventually peaking between 1-2 m higher than today. At this time the area of the island would have been much reduced with wide areas of the island's low-lying coastal plain being either submerged or lying in the intertidal environment. The above figures for the isolation of Dalma make two assumptions. Firstly, it is extremely unlikely that the modern day bathymetry of the Gulf is exactly the same as that seen at the time of transgression. During transgression, marine waters would first have flooded areas to the north and east of Dalma Island thereby removing the source of much of the wind-blown sediment that contributed to the Gulf floor dune system. This resulted in deflation to the depth of the water table as sediment continued to be transported south-eastward. Flooding resulted in carbonate sedimentation becoming the dominant depositional process on the floor of the Gulf. Warm shallow water carbonate factories produce sediments at a rate far exceeding all but the most catastrophic rates of relative sea level rise. The sediment tail extending to the south of Dalma is formed of carbonate sediments up to 30 m thick and, as such, represents a considerable shallowing in the bathymetry to the south and south east of the island. Both of these factors would have resulted in a considerable reduction in water depths since flooding occurred. It is, therefore, very likely that the pre-flood topography/bathymetry around Dalma was much lower than that seen on bathymetric maps today. In this case isolation of the island would have occurred much sooner. Secondly, the above flooding history assumes that there has been little subsidence or uplift since the last glacial maximum. The combined effects of the glacio-eustatic and hydro-isostatic components would result in isostatic perturbations over the Gulf region throughout the initial phase of flooding (Late Pleistocene). However, it is widely inferred that, with the exception of the northern side of the Strait of Hormuz, there was no significant Holocene tectonic subsidence in the region of the Gulf.

Lokier, Stephen

2010-05-01

434

Island arc debris avalanches and tsunami generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the early morning of 13 March 1888, roughly five cubic kilometers of the Ritter Island volcano fell violently into the sea northeast of Papua New Guinea (Figure 1). This event, the largest lateral collapse of a volcanic island in historical time, flung devastating tsunamis tens of meters high onto adjacent shores [Cooke, 1981].Calamitous as they might be, natural disasters like these must be viewed in perspective. One should ask, “Were the events of that March day unique, or are they common geological occurrences?” Partly to address this question, a seafloor imaging and sampling program was conducted around Ritter Island and elsewhere along the Bismarck volcanic arc during November-December 2004 on the research vessel Kilo Moana.

Silver, Eli; Day, Simon; Ward, Steve; Hoffmann, Gary; Llanes, Pilar; Lyons, Amelia; Driscoll, Neal; Perembo, Russ; John, Susan; Saunders, Steve; Taranu, Felix; Anton, Lawrence; Abiari, Isabela; Applegate, Bruce; Engels, Jenny; Smith, Jamie; Tagliodes, Jones

435

Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world's islands.  

PubMed

The Earth's islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world's marine islands >1 km(2) (?98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity-key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world's islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment-richness relationships. PMID:24003123

Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

2013-09-03

436

Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world's islands  

PubMed Central

The Earth’s islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world’s marine islands >1 km2 (?98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity—key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world’s islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment–richness relationships.

Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

2013-01-01

437

Expression Islands Clustered on the Symbiosis Island of the Mesorhizobium loti Genome  

PubMed Central

Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that are associated with host legumes. The establishment of rhizobial symbiosis requires signal exchanges between partners in microaerobic environments that result in mutualism for the two partners. We developed a macroarray for Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, a microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus, and monitored the transcriptional dynamics of the bacterium during symbiosis, microaerobiosis, and starvation. Global transcriptional profiling demonstrated that the clusters of genes within the symbiosis island (611 kb), a transmissible region distinct from other chromosomal regions, are collectively expressed during symbiosis, whereas genes outside the island are downregulated. This finding implies that the huge symbiosis island functions as clustered expression islands to support symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Interestingly, most transposase genes on the symbiosis island were highly upregulated in bacteroids, as were nif, fix, fdx, and rpoN. The genome region containing the fixNOPQ genes outside the symbiosis island was markedly upregulated as another expression island under both microaerobic and symbiotic conditions. The symbiosis profiling data suggested that there was activation of amino acid metabolism, as well as nif-fix gene expression. In contrast, genes for cell wall synthesis, cell division, DNA replication, and flagella were strongly repressed in differentiated bacteroids. A highly upregulated gene in bacteroids, mlr5932 (encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase), was disrupted and was confirmed to be involved in nodulation enhancement, indicating that disruption of highly expressed genes is a useful strategy for exploring novel gene functions in symbiosis.

Uchiumi, Toshiki; Ohwada, Takuji; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Nukui, Noriyuki; Dawadi, Pramod; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Tejima, Kouhei; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Omori, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Makoto; Maekawa, Takaki; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Simomura, Kenshiro; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Sioya, Kouki; Abe, Mikiko; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2004-01-01

438

How a bird is an island.  

PubMed

Replicate adaptive radiations occur when lineages repeatedly radiate and fill new but similar niches and converge phenotypically. While this is commonly seen in traditional island systems, it may also be present in host-parasite relationships, where hosts serve as islands. In a recent article in BMC Biology, Johnson and colleagues have produced the most extensive phylogeny of the avian lice (Ischnocera) to date, and find evidence for this pattern. This study opens the door to exploring adaptive radiations from a novel host-parasite perspective. PMID:22715854

Lapoint, Richard; Whiteman, Noah

2012-06-20

439

Mosquito fauna of Ubin Island, Singapore.  

PubMed

We report the mosquito species and their distribution records for Ubin Island, Singapore, based on our field collections in February 2010, routine adult and larval surveys from 1993 to 2009 by Singapore operational officers, and accessioned specimens deposited in the Environmental Health Institute, Singapore, and the US National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC. A total of 25 species and 6 unidentified species belonging to 9 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Lutzia, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina) were identified and recorded from Ubin Island, based on specimens collected from 1993 to 2010. PMID:23833906

Lee, Ruth Mee Lian; Lam-Phua, Sai Gek; Tan, Wilson Cheong Huat; Pang, Sook Cheng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee Ching; Rueda, Leopoldo M

2012-09-01

440

Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate-related resources useful to coastal managers currently can be found in a variety of sources. Unfortunately, these sources are scattered in different locations, making access difficult and time-consuming. This site was developed to improve access to climate resources for managers in the Pacific Islands region. Originally designed to meet the needs of decision makers in Samoa and American Samoa, this site will likely be of value throughout the region, as different managers in the Pacific Islands often wrestle with the same issues. The Virtual Library provides access to web-based climate change tools including case studies, guidebooks, and methodologies for assessing vulnerabilities.

2010-01-01

441

New methanol plant for Kharg Island  

SciTech Connect

Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-04-08

442

How a bird is an island  

PubMed Central

Replicate adaptive radiations occur when lineages repeatedly radiate and fill new but similar niches and converge phenotypically. While this is commonly seen in traditional island systems, it may also be present in host-parasite relationships, where hosts serve as islands. In a recent article in BMC Biology, Johnson and colleagues have produced the most extensive phylogeny of the avian lice (Ischnocera) to date, and find evidence for this pattern. This study opens the door to exploring adaptive radiations from a novel host-parasite perspective. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/52

2012-01-01

443

76 FR 21826 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Drummond Island, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Class E Airspace; Drummond Island, MI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...amend Class E airspace at Drummond Island, MI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary...Drummond Island Airport, Drummond Island, MI. Adjustments to the geographic...

2011-04-19

444

A comparison of motivations between island tourists visiting Penghu ...  

Treesearch

Title: A comparison of motivations between island tourists visiting Penghu, ... The island tourism market is a major growth segment in international tourism. ... on their socio-demographic characteristics and travel behaviors, and to identify and  ...

445

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Coal sheds with coals; 1906. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Coal Sheds, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fourth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

446

78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Meeting...SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Boston Harbor Islands...agenda includes discussion of 2016 celebration planning for...

2013-08-26

447

25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a)...

2009-04-01

448

25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3 Section...OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a)...

2010-04-01

449

33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. 165.1703 Section 165.1703 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.1703 Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following...

2013-07-01

450

Rhode Island Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report, FY 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rhode Island Water Resources Center has supported one information transfer project, 'Clean Drinking Water in Rhode Island,' and two research projects, 'Long-term, State-wide Analysis of the Relationship Between Water Quality and Demographic Changes in...

2008-01-01

451

78 FR 21492 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13528 and 13529] Rhode Island Disaster RI-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated 03/22/2013....

2013-04-10

452

75 FR 19666 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00007  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12116 and 12117] Rhode Island Disaster RI-00007 AGENCY: Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010....

2010-04-15

453

3. AERIAL VIEW SOUTHWEST ON RHODE ISLAND AVENUE CORRIDOR FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. AERIAL VIEW SOUTHWEST ON RHODE ISLAND AVENUE CORRIDOR FROM BEYOND THE HISTORIC BOUNDARY AT TWELFTH STREET, NE. (Photograph enlarged from a 4x5 negative.) - Rhode Island Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

454

9. GENERAL VIEW OF ISLAND PLANT LOOKING NORTH (negative reversed) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. GENERAL VIEW OF ISLAND PLANT LOOKING NORTH (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

455

29. ISLAND PLANT: INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ON GROUND FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. ISLAND PLANT: INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST ON GROUND FLOOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

456

The Effect of Small Islands of Telluric Currents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The telluric current data of Macquarie Island show complete polarization of the induced electric field. This phenomenon can be explained by assuming that Macquarie Island is an insulator imbedded in the highly conducting sea with a uniform electric field ...

D. W. Swift E. M. Wescott

1964-01-01

457

Atoll Research Bulletin Nos. 330-338. Marshall Island Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A review of the natural history of the Marshall Islands; An annotated bibliography of the natural history of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean; Vegetation and floristics of the Tonga-tapu Outliers; Kiribati agroforestry: trees, people an...

F. R. Fosberg M. M. Litller I. G. Macintyre J. I. Tracey

1990-01-01

458

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of Franklin D. Roosevelt walking past old Marine Corps Barracks; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

459

GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES BUILDING, WATER TOWER, POWER PLANT, AND RECREATION YARD IN LEFT FOREGROUND - Alcatraz, Power Plant, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

460

1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES BUILDING, WATER TOWER, POWER PLANT, AND RECREATION YARD IN LEFT FOREGROUND - Alcatraz, Power Plant, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

461

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of collier site showing building 64 in background; 1905. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

462

78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial harbors are...

2013-10-24

463

74 FR 27948 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Central and Western Long Island Sound is available at: http...dragging, lobster, and shellfish fishing. This proposed...overlap with leased shellfish beds. The NOAA Navigation...location of wrecks within Long Island Sound. No historical...

2009-06-12

464

36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA