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1

Peromyscus maniculatus, a possible reservoir host of Borrelia garinii from the Gannet Islands off Newfoundland and Labrador.  

PubMed

Thirty-five deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, were trapped on Gannet Cluster 2 (GC-2), one of a group of islands numbered by convention in the Gannet Island Archipelago, and examined for ectoparasites. One species each of Acari (Ixodes uriae) and Siphonaptera (Orchopeas leucopus) were recovered. Samples of mice favored males to females (3.4?1). Twenty-nine percent (10) of the mice were free of ectoparasites. Males were more heavily parasitized than females when both parasites were considered. No ticks were recovered from the female mice, while the males that were parasitized carried adult Ixodes uriae. These 2 ectoparasites parasitizing P. maniculatus, which is a known reservoir host for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), may carry B. garinii and their presence would have serious implications for the spread of this human pathogen northward in continental North America. PMID:21506809

Baggs, Eric M; Stack, Stephanie H; Finney-Crawley, Jean R; Simon, Neal P P

2011-10-01

2

Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.  

PubMed

Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

2015-02-01

3

Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals. PMID:24361782

Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

2014-03-01

4

Pursuit plunging by northern gannets (Sula bassana) feeding on capelin (Mallotus villosus).  

PubMed Central

Northern gannets (Sula bassana) are considered to obtain prey usually by rapid, vertical, shallow plunge dives. In order to test this contention and investigate underwater foraging behaviour, we attached two types of data-logging systems to 11 parental northern gannets at Funk Island in the North-Wiest Atlantic. We documented, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, gannets performing long, flat-bottomed, U-shaped dives that involved underwater wing propulsion as well as rapid, shallow, V-shaped dives. The median and maximum dive depths and durations were 4.6 and 22.0 m and 8 and 38 s, respectively. Short, shallow dives were usually V-shaped and dives deeper than 8 m and longer than 10 s were usually U-shaped, including a period at constant depth (varying between 4 and 28s with median 8s). Diving occurred throughout the daylight period and deepest dives were performed during late morning. On the basis of motion sensors in the loggers and food collections from telemetered birds, we concluded that extended, deep dives were directed at deep schools of capelin, a small pelagic fish, and we hypothesized that V-shaped dives were aimed at larger, pelagic fishes and squids. Furthermore, these V-shaped dives allowed the birds to surprise their pelagic prey and this may be critical because the maximum swimming speeds of the prey species may exceed the maximum dive speeds of the birds. PMID:12233767

Garthe, S; Benvenuti, S; Montevecchi, W A

2000-01-01

5

Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: Can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?  

PubMed

Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and ?-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony. PMID:25449633

Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

2015-03-01

6

Windscape and tortuosity shape the flight costs of northern gannets.  

PubMed

When animals move across a landscape, they alternate between active searching phases in areas with high prey density and commuting phases towards and in-between profitable feeding patches. Such active searching movements are more sinuous than travelling movements, and supposedly more costly in energy. Here we provide an empirical validation of this long-lasting assumption. To this end, we evaluated simultaneously energy expenditure and trajectory in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) using GPS loggers, dive recorders and three-dimensional accelerometers. Three behavioural states were determined from GPS data: foraging, when birds actively searched for prey (high tortuosity, medium speed); travelling, when birds were commuting (straight trajectory, high speed); and resting (straight trajectory, low speed). Overall dynamic body acceleration, calculated from acceleration data, was used as a proxy for energy expenditure during flight. The impact of windscape characteristics (wind force and direction) upon flight costs was also tested. Energy expenditure of northern gannets was higher during sinuous foraging flight than during more rectilinear travelling flight, demonstrating that turns are indeed costly. Yet wind force and direction also strongly shaped flight energy expenditure; within any behavioural state it was less costly to fly with the wind than against it, and less costly to fly with strong winds. Despite the major flight costs of wind action, birds did not fully optimize their flight track relative to wind direction, probably because of prey distributions relative to the coastline and wind predictability. Our study illustrates how both tortuosity and windscape shape the foraging costs of marine predators such as northern gannets. PMID:24622894

Amélineau, Françoise; Péron, Clara; Lescroël, Amélie; Authier, Matthieu; Provost, Pascal; Grémillet, David

2014-03-15

7

CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving.  

PubMed

Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode. PMID:23851321

Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

2013-09-01

8

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste  

PubMed Central

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds now feed extensively on fishery wastes. These are beneficial to non-breeding birds, which show reduced feeding effort and high survival. By contrast, breeding gannets double their diving effort in an attempt to provision their chicks predominantly with high-quality, live pelagic fishes. Owing to a scarcity of this resource, they fail and most chicks die. Our study supports the junk-food hypothesis for Cape gannets since it shows that non-breeding birds can survive when complementing their diet with fishery wastes, but that they struggle to reproduce if live prey is scarce. This is due to the negative impact of low-quality fishery wastes on the growth patterns of gannet chicks. Marine management policies should not assume that fishery waste is generally beneficial to scavenging seabirds and that an abundance of this artificial resource will automatically inflate their populations. PMID:18270155

Grémillet, David; Pichegru, Lorien; Kuntz, Grégoire; Woakes, Anthony G; Wilkinson, Sarah; Crawford, Robert J.M; Ryan, Peter G

2008-01-01

9

Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet  

PubMed Central

Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Howland, Howard C.; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E.; Katzir, Gadi

2012-01-01

10

Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet.  

PubMed

Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Howland, Howard C; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E; Katzir, Gadi

2012-10-22

11

Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

2014-09-01

12

Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador  

SciTech Connect

Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

1980-08-01

13

Observations of the Labrador Sea eddy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an observational study of small-scale coherent eddies in the Labrador Sea, a region of dense water formation thought to be of considerable importance to the North Atlantic overturning circulation. Numerical studies of deep convection emphasize coherent eddies as a mechanism for the lateral transport of heat, yet their small size has hindered observational progress. A large part

Jonathan M. Lilly; Peter B. Rhines; Friedrich Schott; Kara Lavender; John Lazier; Uwe Send; Eric D’Asaro

2003-01-01

14

Newfoundland Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador  

E-print Network

to these challenges and provides direction for both the Provincial Government and other groups and stakeholders is vital to sustaining a community's innate creativity and sense of identity. Therefore, the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador has included the preservation of ICH as a key initiative in its Provincial Strategic

Oyet, Alwell

15

Excess Baggage for Birds: Inappropriate Placement of Tags on Gannets Changes Flight Patterns  

PubMed Central

Devices attached to flying birds can hugely enhance our understanding of their behavioural ecology for periods when they cannot be observed directly. For this, scientists routinely attach units to either birds' backs or their tails. However, inappropriate payload distribution is critical in aircraft and, since birds and planes are subject to the same laws of physics during flight, we considered aircraft aerodynamic constraints to explain flight patterns displayed by northern gannets Sula bassana equipped with (small ca. 14 g) tail- and back-mounted accelerometers and (larger ca. 30 g) tail-mounted GPS units. Tail-mounted GPS-fitted birds showed significantly higher cumulative numbers of flap-glide cycles and a higher pitch angle of the tail than accelerometer-equipped birds, indicating problems with balancing inappropriately placed weights with knock-on consequences relating to energy expenditure. These problems can be addressed by carefully choosing where to place tags on birds according to the mass of the tags and the lifestyle of the subject species. PMID:24671007

Vandenabeele, Sylvie P.; Grundy, Edward; Friswell, Michael I.; Grogan, Adam; Votier, Stephen C.; Wilson, Rory P.

2014-01-01

16

The Condor 102:703-708 0 TheCooperOrnithologicalSociety2000  

E-print Network

-activity budgetsof Harlequin Ducks(Histrionicus histrionicus) molting at the Gannet Islands,Labrador in the summerof to fly at an earlier stageof wing molt. Key words: foraging, Harlequin Ducks, Histrion- icus histrionicusDuck (Histrionicus histrionicus) becausethey areaccessibleandeasilyob- served while they molt (Robertsonet al. 1997

Jones, Ian L.

17

Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

1982-09-01

18

Fine scale bio-physical oceanographic characteristics predict the foraging occurrence of contrasting seabird species; Gannet (Morus bassanus) and storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we begin to manage our oceans in much more spatial detail we must understand a great deal more about oceanographic habitat preferences of marine mobile top predators. In this unique field study we test a hypothesis on the mechanisms defining mobile predator foraging habitat characteristics by comparing temporally and spatially detailed bio-physical oceanographic data from contrasting topographical locations. We contrast the foraging locations of two very different seabird species, gannets and storm petrels, by repeatedly sampling a bank and a nearby flat area over daily tidal cycles during spring and neap tides. The results suggest that storm petrels are linked to foraging in specific locations where internal waves are produced, which is mainly on banks. These locations can also include the presence of high biomass of chlorophyll. In contrast, the location where more gannets are foraging is significantly influenced by temporal variables with higher densities of foraging birds much more likely during the neap tide than times of spring tide. The foraging times of both species was influenced by differences between the vertical layers of the water column above and below the thermocline; via either vertical shear of horizontal currents or absolute differences in speed between layers. Higher densities of foraging gannets were significantly more likely to be found at ebb tides in both bank and flat regions however over the bank, the density of foraging gannets was higher when the differences in speed between the layers were at a maximum. Both gannets and storm petrels appear to be more likely to forage when wind direction is opposed to tidal direction. This detailed understanding links foraging behaviour to predictable spatial and temporal bio-physical vertical characteristics and thus can be immediately used to explain variance and increase certainty in past abundance and distributional surveys. These results also illuminate the types of variables that should be considered when assessing potential changes to the distribution and characteristics of habitats from increased anthropogenic disturbances such as large scale offshore wind, wave and tidal renewable deployments.

Scott, B. E.; Webb, A.; Palmer, M. R.; Embling, C. B.; Sharples, J.

2013-10-01

19

The seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland current system in the Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

The Labrador Sea, as one of a few places of deep water formation, plays an important role in the Meridional Overturning Circulation. While the interior of the Labrador Sea, where the deepest convection takes place, is known ...

Rykova, Tatiana A

2010-01-01

20

Germacrone defends labrador tea from browsing by snowshoe hares.  

PubMed

Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), a slow-growing late successional evergreen, is highly unpalatable to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Germacrone, a sesquiterpene that is the major component of the essential oil ofL. groenlandicum, was shown by bioassay to be a potent antifeedant to hares. Its concentrations in leaves and intemodes of the plant are high enough to defendL. groenlandicum from hares. This chemical defense of Labrador tea from herbivory is consistent with the resource availability theory of antiherbivore defense. PMID:24263998

Reichardt, P B; Bryant, J P; Anderson, B J; Phillips, D; Clausen, T P; Meyer, M; Frisby, K

1990-06-01

21

Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.  

PubMed Central

To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region. Images PMID:7236572

Johnson, G J

1981-01-01

22

Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)); Berggren, W.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (USA)); Kaminski, M.A. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)); D'Lorio, M.A. (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Nepean, Ontario (Canada)); Cloetingh, S. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Griffiths, C.M. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway))

1990-05-01

23

Labrador current variability over the last 2000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice-loaded Labrador Current (LC) is an important component of the western North Atlantic circulation that influences the position and strength of the northern limb of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). This flow of cold and fresh Polar Waters originating from the Arctic has a marked impact on the North Atlantic climate, yet little is known about its variability beyond the instrumental period. In this study, we present the first sub-decadal alkenone-based 2000-year long sea-surface temperature (SST) records from the western Labrador Sea, a climatically crucial region at the boundary between the LC and the NAC. Our results show a clear link between the LC strength and the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), with a stronger NAM and a more vigorous LC during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). This suggests enhanced LC activity upon future global warming with implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC).

Sicre, M.-A.; Weckström, K.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Kuijpers, A.; Benetti, M.; Masse, G.; Ezat, U.; Schmidt, S.; Bouloubassi, I.; Olsen, J.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

2014-08-01

24

Germacrone defends labrador tea from browsing by snowshoe hares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), a slow-growing late successional evergreen, is highly unpalatable to snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Germacrone, a sesquiterpene that is the major component of the essential oil ofL. groenlandicum, was shown by bioassay to be a potent antifeedant to hares. Its concentrations in leaves and intemodes of the plant are high enough to defendL. groenlandicum from hares. This

P. B. Reichardt; J. P. Bryant; B. J. Anderson; D. Phillips; T. P. Clausen; M. Meyer; K. Frisby

1990-01-01

25

Export of Labrador Sea Water through Flemish Pass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Labrador Sea of the North Atlantic the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is formed at times of deep convection events. LSW propagates southward as part of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) which constitutes the cold return flow of the climate relevant Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Changes in the AMOC strength modulate climate variability; such changes are thought to be linked to variations in LSW formation. Topographic obstacles at the southern exit of the Labrador Sea split the DWBC into an upper branch carrying LSW through Flemish Pass (~1200m sill depth) and a branch carrying all DWBC components along the continental slope around Flemish Cap. Up to now, transports of LSW through Flemish Pass and their contribution to the AMOC are still uncertain, the importance of the pass for the export of LSW and its associated variability is yet unknown. Based on observations and model data, in this project we investigate the magnitude of LSW transports and its associated variability through Flemish Pass as well as the processes which drive the variability. For this reason two moorings were deployed in Flemish Pass in summer 2011 and will be recovered and redeployed in summer 2012. Here, first results from available ship-based measurements of hydrography and current velocity are presented.

Schneider, L.; Kieke, D.; Jochumsen, K.; Rhein, M.; Quadfasel, D.; Varotsu, E.; Serra, N.; Colbourne, E.; Yashayaev, I.

2012-04-01

26

Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

Niiler, Pearn P.

2002-01-01

27

Seasonal to interannual variability of the eddy field in the Labrador Sea from satellite altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level anomalies measured by the altimeters aboard the TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS satellites for the periods 1993-2001 and 1997-2001, respectively, are used to investigate the eddy field in the subpolar North Atlantic and in the Labrador Sea. A quadratic correction of the obtained eddy kinetic energy (EKE) with respect to significant wave height is applied that led to an increased correlation between moored and altimetric EKE in the central Labrador Sea. The mean EKE field shows higher levels associated with the main currents and a strong seasonality in the Labrador Sea. The annual cycle of the EKE shows a propagation of West Greenland Current (WGC) EKE into the central Labrador Sea with a mean southward propagation speed of about 3 cm s-1, while the EKE maximum in the Labrador Current is well separated from the interior by local EKE minima. The interannual variability of the EKE in the Labrador Sea shows distinct regional differences. In the WGC region, strong early winter maxima are found during 1993 and 1997-1999. In the central Labrador Sea, maxima are found during March/April 1993-1995 and 1997. Variations in the annual cycle of the WGC EKE are observed: While there is a weak annual cycle in the WGC region during 1994-1996 with more continuous EKE generation, during 1997-2000, there is a strong seasonal cycle with maximum EKE during January and particularly low EKE during summer. The propagation of WGC EKE into the central Labrador Sea is enhanced during 1997-2000, leading to a long persistence of EKE in the central Labrador Sea. During 1993-1995 and 1997 the central Labrador Sea EKE almost instantaneously increased during March/April, followed, in the earlier years, by a relatively fast destruction of the winterly generated EKE.

Brandt, Peter; Schott, Friedrich A.; Funk, Andreas; Martins, Carlos S.

2004-02-01

28

Ageostrophic linear stability analysis of the Labrador Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water mass transformation process in the Labrador Sea during winter plays an important role for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the global climate system. The Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is exported within the deep Labrador Current (LC) after the convection process. LSW takes up large amounts of atmospheric tracer gases as CO2 and oxygen, and is thus one of the major agent for ventilation of the abyssal ocean. It is shown that enhanced eddy kinetic energy (EKE) along the LC shows up in a 1/12° ocean model simulation during the transformation process. Moored in-situ measurements within the LC also show enhanced EKE levels during winter. This instability processes within the LC is important as it might alter the water mass properties of the (LSW) by frontal mixing processes during the water mass transformation and export within the LC. The frontal instability process, which lead to enhanced EKE along the LC during winter is investigated using ageostrophic linear stability analysis. Dense and weakly stratified water masses produced during the wintertime transformation process lead to weaker stratification and a strengthening of the lateral density gradients within the LC. Weak stratification and enhanced vertical shear result in low Richardson numbers and the growth rate of baroclinic waves increases significantly within the shelf break LC during winter. Rapid frontogenesis along the whole LC sets in resulting in enhance EKE. During the rest of the year strong stratification and weak vertical shear leads to larger Richardson numbers and smaller growth rates. Ageostrophic linear stability analysis shows that a geostrophic interior mode has similar wavelengths as the first wavelike disturbances in the model simulations. A shallow mode with lateral scales O (1 km) is also predicted, which can be associated with mixed layer instabilities and submesoscale variability but remains unresolved by the model simulation.

Thomsen, S.; Eden, C.

2012-12-01

29

Endoscopic transcervical intrauterine artificial insemination in Labrador Retriever bitches.  

PubMed

Besides post-thawing reduced semen quality, there are some difficulties in the execution of the endoscopic transcervical intrauterine artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen in bitches. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate behavioral and reproductive parameters (i.e., vaginal cytology and serum progesterone level) to determine time of insemination and to investigate the particularities and difficulties of this technique in bitches using fresh semen. Ten Labrador Retriever bitches were submitted to three endoscopic transcervical intrauterine AIs (with 48 h intervals). Oestrus and ovulation period were established by behaviour evaluation, progesterone assays and vaginal cytology, enabling optimal timing for AI during oestrus. During AI, the following aspects were evaluated: cervical os catheterization difficulty, semen deposition resistance, occurrence of semen backflow, and time required to perform the AI. In this study, it was possible to catheterize the cervical os in all bitches, with different degrees of difficulty, by manipulating the equipment to allow cervical visualization and catheter introduction in the cervical canal. Serial serum progesterone assays enabled estimation of LH surge day, and thus of ovulation. The pregnancy rate was 90%, with a litter size of 5.0 ± 2.6 puppies per bitch. It was concluded that the difficulties in the execution of the endoscopic transcervical intrauterine AI technique in Labrador Retriever bitches were minimized by the equipment manipulation and practical experience. PMID:21592538

Macedo, Sabrina Pereira; Malm, Christina; Henry, Marc Roger Jean Marie; Telles, Luiz Flávio; Figueiredo, Mariana Silva; Fukushima, Fabíola Bono; Neves, Mariana Machado; Cavalcanti, Guilherme Albuquerque de Oliveira; Chaves, Marcela Silva; Mascarenhas, Rebeca Marques; Lagares, Monique de Albuquerque; Gheller, Valentim Arabicano

2012-06-01

30

Instabilities in the Labrador Sea water mass structure during the last climatic cycle  

E-print Network

Hillaire-Marcel and Guy Bilodeau Abstract: In the modern Labrador Sea, the North Atlantic deep water of the North Atlantic deep water, respectively. A drastically different structure characterized the glacial

Long, Bernard

31

Dolomitization on an evaporitic Paleoproterozoic ramp: Widespread synsedimentary dolomite in the Denault Formation, Labrador Trough, Canada  

E-print Network

Dolomitization on an evaporitic Paleoproterozoic ramp: Widespread synsedimentary dolomite. Jones Keywords: Labrador Trough Paleoproterozoic Evaporite Gypsum Synsedimentary dolomite The Denault lithofacies indicates that the Denault margin was restricted and evaporitic. Four paragenetic stages

Hiatt, Eric E.

32

Jets over Labrador and Quebec: noise effects on human health.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the noise from low-level flights over Labrador and Quebec is harmful to human health. DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: Search of MEDLINE for articles on the effect of noise, particularly impulse noise associated with low-level flights, and a search of the references from identified articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: The noise levels from low-level flights could affect hearing acuity. However, the more important consequences appear to be stress-mediated physiologic effects, especially cardiovascular ones, and psychologic distress, particularly in children. Subjective perception of control over the noise has been found to mitigate some physiologic effects. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to show that the noise from low-level flights is harmful to human health. PMID:2007238

Rosenberg, J

1991-01-01

33

Protein 53 expression in a mixed Labrador subcutaneous lymphoma  

PubMed Central

An 11 year – old mixed female Labrador was presented with two masses in trunk and neck. The tumoral masses were excised and sent for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histopathological examination of masses revealed diffuse infiltration of small sized lymphoid cells in subcutaneous tissue which were intense around the blood vessels. More than 10% lymphoid cells were CD3 positive in the immunohistochemical staining and most of them were accumulated around vessels. Protein 53 (p53) expression was detected by brown nuclei in immunohistochemical staining. Subcutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed according to histopathological results. After 6 months the case was referred with multicentric lymphoma and based on the owner request euthanasia was performed. These findings emphasize on poor prognosis for tumors with p53 mutation.

Rezaie, Annahita; Tavassoli, Abbas

2012-01-01

34

Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

1985-01-01

35

Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements  

PubMed

The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000 m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations of the ocean currents that lead to this distribution of Labrador Sea water have, however, been difficult and therefore scarce. We have used more than 200 subsurface floats to measure directly basin-wide horizontal velocities at various depths in the Labrador and Irminger seas. We observe unanticipated recirculations of the mid-depth (approximately 700 m) cyclonic boundary currents in both basins, leading to an anticyclonic flow in the interior of the Labrador basin. About 40% of the floats from the region of deep convection left the basin within one year and were rapidly transported in the anticyclonic flow to the Irminger basin, and also eastwards into the subpolar gyre. Surprisingly, the float tracks did not clearly depict the deep western boundary current, which is the expected main pathway of Labrador Sea water in the thermohaline circulation. Rather, the flow along the boundary near Flemish Cap is dominated by eddies that transport water offshore. Our detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that we may have to revise our picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation. PMID:10993072

Lavender; Davis; Owens

2000-09-01

36

Multivariate behavioural response of harlequin ducks to aircraft disturbance in Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effects of low-level aircraft over-flights on behaviour of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) breeding in central Labrador were quantified during 2000-2002. The Canadian Department of National Defence supports a low-level training programme in the 130000 km2 Military Training Area of Labrador involving military jets. The Institute for Environ- mental Monitoring and Research (IEMR) undertakes scientific research into environmental impacts

R. IAN GOUDIE

2006-01-01

37

Genotyping of exercise-induced collapse in Labrador retrievers using an allele-specific PCR.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) is an autosomal recessive disorder in Labrador retrievers. In this study, an allele-specific PCR was developed to detect the point mutation G767T in exon 6 of canine DNM1, previously shown to be responsible for canine EIC. Of 133 Labrador retrievers tested in Japan, 6 (4.5%) were homozygous (EIC) and 50 (37.6%) were heterozygous (carriers) for the G767T mutation. PMID:22104507

Takanosu, Masamine; Mori, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Suzuki, Katsushi

2012-07-01

38

Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period.  

PubMed

The two main constituent water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean-North Atlantic Deep Water at the bottom and Labrador Sea Water at an intermediate level-are currently formed in the Nordic seas and the Labrador Sea, respectively. The rate of formation of these two water masses tightly governs the strength of the global ocean circulation and the associated heat transport across the North Atlantic Ocean. Numerical simulations have suggested a possible shut-down of Labrador Sea Water formation as a consequence of global warming. Here we use micropalaeontological data and stable isotope measurements in both planktonic and benthic foraminifera from deep Labrador Sea cores to investigate the density structure of the water column during the last interglacial period, which was thought to be about 2 degrees C warmer than present. Our results indicate that today's stratification between Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water never developed during the last interglacial period. Instead, a buoyant surface layer was present above a single water mass originating from the Nordic seas. Thus the present situation, with an active site of intermediate-water formation in the Labrador Sea, which settled some 7,000 years ago, has no analogue throughout the last climate cycle. PMID:11323666

Hillaire-Marcel, C; de Vernal, A; Bilodeau, G; Weaver, A J

2001-04-26

39

Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945?m, 250?km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400?km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ?10 to 58?ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the?Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

Andrews, J.T.; Barber, D.C.; Jennings, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M.E.; Stoner, J.S.

2012-01-01

40

Granulomatous lymphadenitis caused by Talaromyces helicus in a Labrador Retriever.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was presented for right prescapular lymphadenomegaly. Examination of fine-needle aspirates and impression smears of the node revealed many short hyphal structures found within macrophages and extracellularly. Hyphae were approximately 3 ?m in diameter, were irregularly septate with nonparallel walls, and had a small clear halo surrounding a partially stained basophilic internal structure. Hyphae were tapered on one end and had oval to pyriform swellings of 7-10 ?m on the other, resulting in a bulbous appearance. Fungal elements stained positively with Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid-Schiff stains. The dog was euthanized at the owner's request, and necropsy revealed marked peripheral and visceral lymphadenomegaly. Histopathologic examination of lymph nodes confirmed granulomatous lymphadenitis with many fungal hyphae. Fungal culture yielded pure cultures of organisms that failed to produce ascospores or conidia precluding morphologic identification. PCR was performed using pan-fungal primers, ITS-1 and ITS-2, to amplify the intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal RNA; the PCR product was sequenced and a BLAST search of the GenBank databases at NCBI revealed 100% identity of the organism with Talaromyces helicus, the sexual form of Penicillium helicum. Talaromyces helicus has not previously been reported to cause disease in people or animals. PMID:22136479

Tomlinson, Julie Kristy; Cooley, Avery James; Zhang, Shuping; Johnson, Melanie Elaine

2011-12-01

41

Pollakiuria and stranguria in a Labrador retriever with penile HSA.  

PubMed

An approximately 8 yr old castrated male Labrador retriever presented for evaluation of weight loss, stranguria, and pollakiuria. Lysis of the proximal one-third of the os penis was diagnosed on abdominal radiographs, and a positive contrast urethrography revealed a smoothly marginated filling defect along the dorsal aspect of the urethra at the level of the radiographically observed osteolysis. Regional ultrasound revealed an echogenic mass at the proximal aspect of the os penis with a severely irregular and discontinuous periosteal surface. A penile hemangiosarcoma (HSA) was confirmed on histopathologic evaluation after a penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy were performed. Although HSA is a common malignant neoplasm in dogs, lysis of the os penis has not previously been documented. Adjunctive chemotherapy, although recommended, was declined, and the patient survived 236 days postoperatively. That survival time is considerably longer than the average survival time for patients with HSA, other than cutaneous forms of HSA. Although an uncommon presentation, HSA of the penis should be considered a differential diagnosis in older canines with signs of lower urinary tract disease, especially in breeds that have been documented to be predisposed to HSA. PMID:24446403

Fry, Joanna K; Burney, Derek; Hottinger, Heidi; Fabiani, Michelle; Feagin, Clint

2014-01-01

42

The influence of meltwater on the Labrador Current in Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Labrador Current transports freshwater from the Arctic regions to the northern Atlantic and the freshwater flux can influence the meridional overturning circulation. The response of the Labrador Current to meltwater processes is unclear during the deglaciation of the ice sheets around the northwest Atlantic. This study utilized cores from Flemish Pass to monitor variations in the strength of the Labrador Current by using the sortable-silt proxy. The carbonate content, the amount of ice-rafted detritus and XRF chemical data were measured to identify the main meltwater events during the last deglaciation. This study observed a clear enhancement of the flow strength of the Labrador Current in Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas, with the greatest flow strength during the Younger Dryas event. The onset of the current enhancement was dated at ca 13 cal ka BP, which preceded the enhanced ice-rafted deposition in Hudson Strait by about one thousand years. The current enhancement in Flemish Pass during the Younger Dryas event corresponds to the freshening of the surface water. Thus meltwater preceding significant iceberg supply has an important effect on the Labrador Current in Heinrich events on the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin.

Li, Gang; Piper, David J. W.

2015-01-01

43

Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador

Anderson, Kirk David

2007-01-01

44

Did the Great Salinity Anomaly really prevent deep convection in the Labrador Sea from 1968 to 1971?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1960's an anomalously fresh water mass, known as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA), reached the Labrador Sea. Coincident with this arrival, between 1968 and 1971 no intermediate to deep convection took place in this area. As a result, the Labrador Sea became increasingly more stratified, due to the accumulation of cold and fresh water at the surface

Renske Gelderloos; Fiammetta Straneo; Caroline A. Katsman

2010-01-01

45

2 - 4 million years of sedimentary processes in the Labrador Sea: implication for North Atlantic stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine sedimentary records from the western North Atlantic show that a significant portion of sediment deposited since the Pliocene originated from the Canadian Shield. In the Labrador Sea, previous studies have shown that bottom currents .strongly influenced sedimentation during the Pliocene, while during the Quaternary, intensification of turbidity current flows related to meltwater events were a dominant factor in supplying sediment to the basin and in the development of the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). Despite understanding this general pattern of sediment flux, details regarding the transfer of sediment from the Labrador Shelf to deep water and from the Labrador Sea to the North Atlantic remain poorly understood. Our study focuses on sedimentary processes occurring along the Labrador margin since the Pliocene and their consequences on the margin architecture, connection to the NAMOC, and role in sediment flux from the Labrador basin to the Sohm Abyssal Plain. Piston core and high resolution seismic data reveal that during the Pliocene to mid Pleistocene, widespread slope failures led to mass transport deposition along the entire Labrador continental slope. After the mid Pleistocene, sedimentation along the margin was dominated by the combined effects of glaciation and active bottom currents. On the shelf, prograded sedimentary wedges filled troughs and agraded till sheets form intervening banks. On the slope, stacked glaciogenic fans developed seaward of transverse troughs between 400 and 2800 mbsl. On the lower slope, seismic data show thick sediment drifts capped by glacio-marine mud. This unit is draped by well stratified sediment and marks a switch from a contourite dominated regime to a turbidite dominated regime. This shift occurred around 0.5 - 0.8 ka and correlates to the intensification of glaciations. Late Pleistocene sediments on the upper slope consist of stratified sediments related to proglacial plume fall-out. Coarse grained sediments, other than ice rafted detritus, by-passed the upper and middle slope and were transported to the lower slope and deep ocean. Seismic profiles and multibeam data along the Labrador Slope show a complex network of channels, with wide flat-bottomed channels off Saglek Bank to narrow channels off Cartwright Bank. The channels merge around 3000 mbsl to form single wide (~20 km) channels that eventually intersect, or flow parallel to the NAMOC. Rapid development of the NAMOC from the mid to late Pleistocene affected depositional patterns for sediment sourced from the Labrador margin. Downslope-transported sediment from the Labrador margin mostly tends to fill the basin or feed into NAMOC through tributary systems, whereas sediments derived from Hudson Strait feed the NAMOC and eventually the Sohm Abyssal plain. Sediment transported southward by the Western Boundary Undercurrent and Labrador Current likely reflect input along the margin, from Hudson Strait to Orphan Basin. Turbidite spill-over deposits are observed onlapping the continental margin of Labrador and Newfoundland as far south as Newfoundland Ridge.

Mosher, D. C.; Saint-Ange, F.; Campbell, C.; Piper, D. J.

2012-12-01

46

A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

Wan, Jennifer

2014-11-01

47

The genetic defect of fragmented coronoid process in Labrador retrievers and other skeletal diseases in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP) is the main component of elbow dysplasia (ED) in dogs, which also includes osteochondrosis of the humeral condyle (OCD), elbow incongruity (INC), and ununited anconeal process (UAP). FCP is recognized as a hereditary disease in many breeds and is a major concern in working dog breeds such as the Labrador Retriever. Different aspects of FCP

J. Temwichitr

2009-01-01

48

Cerebellar granuloprival degeneration in an Australian kelpie and a Labrador retriever dog  

PubMed Central

A 7-month-old Australian kelpie dog and a 14-month-old Labrador retriever dog were diagnosed with an uncommon form of cerebellar abiotrophy called cerebellar granuloprival degeneration. This was characterized by a loss of the granular neurons with relative sparing of the Purkinje neurons. PMID:23814302

Huska, Jonathan; Gaitero, Luis; Snyman, Heindrich N.; Foster, Robert A.; Pumarola, Marti; Rodenas, Sergio

2013-01-01

49

Clinical Phenotype of X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy in Labrador Retriever Puppies  

PubMed Central

Background Seven male Labrador Retriever puppies from 3 different litters, born to clinically normal dams and sires, were evaluated for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsies identified a congenital myopathy with pathologic features consistent with myotubular myopathy. Further investigations identified a pathogenic mutation in the myotubularin gene, confirming that these puppies had X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). Objective To review the clinical phenotype, electrodiagnostic and laboratory features of XLMTM in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Results Male puppies with XLMTM were small and thin compared with their normal littermates. Generalized weakness and muscle atrophy were present by 7 weeks of age in some puppies and evident to most owners by 14 weeks of age. Affected puppies stood with an arched spine and low head carriage, and walked with a short, choppy stride. Muscle atrophy was severe and progressive. Patellar reflexes were absent. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction, and weakness of the masticatory muscles occurred in puppies surviving beyond 4 months of age. Serum creatine kinase activity was normal or only mildly increased. EMG findings were nonspecific and included positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials. Clinical signs progressed rapidly, with most affected puppies unable to walk within 3–4 weeks after clinical signs were first noticed. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Although initial clinical signs of XLMTM are similar to the phenotypically milder centronuclear myopathy in Labrador Retrievers, XLMTM is a rapidly progressive and fatal myopathy. Clinicians should be aware of these 2 distinct myopathies with similar clinical presentations in the Labrador retriever breed. PMID:25581576

Snead, E.C.R.; Taylor, S.M.; van der Kooij, M.; Cosford, K.; Beggs, A.H.; Shelton, G.D.

2015-01-01

50

Natural and forced air temperature variability in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of Labrador air temperatures over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate variability and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of variability and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air temperature variability for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate variability in Labrador air temperature. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the variability in annual Labrador air temperatures over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air temperature response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.

Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.

2014-08-01

51

Grammar without Speech Production: The Case of Labrador Inuttitut Heritage Receptive Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine morphosyntactic knowledge of Labrador Inuttitut by Inuit receptive bilinguals (RBs)--heritage speakers who are capable of comprehension, but produce little or no speech. A grammaticality judgment study suggests that RBs possess sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations, though to a lesser degree than fluent bilinguals. Low-proficiency…

Sherkina-Lieber, Marina; Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Johns, Alana

2011-01-01

52

Successfully Implementing a Native Teacher Education Program through Distance Education in Labrador.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1978, Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada) has offered preservice and inservice teacher education courses to seven isolated Native communities in Labrador. The courses may lead to a 2-year degree with teacher certification or to a 5-year baccalaureate degree. Students are usually Native teachers and teacher aides in community…

Sharpe, Dennis B.

53

Activity patterns, diet, and feeding efficiency of Harlequin Ducks breeding in northern Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of data on summer diet and feeding behaviour for the endangered eastern North American population of Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) prompted a study of activity patterns and feeding ecology in a coastal stream in Hebron Fiord, Labrador. Diurnal activity patterns varied by habitat and changed through the season. Extensive feeding occurred in slow-moving waters, contrary to expectation. Females

Michael S. Rodway

1998-01-01

54

ACTION CANADA PAPERS on Labrador Mining, Aboriginal Governance and Muskrat Falls  

E-print Network

ACTION CANADA PAPERS on Labrador Mining, Aboriginal Governance and Muskrat Falls Dr. Keith Storey, Dr. Larry Felt, and David Vardy November 2011 #12;#12;Preface to the Action Canada Report. The papers were drafted at the request of Action Canada, a non-profit organization

deYoung, Brad

55

Rare-earth elements and Nd and Pb isotopes as source indicators for Labrador Sea clay-size sediments during Heinrich event 2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elemental abundances and Nd and Pb isotope ratios were determined on samples from the carbonate-free, clay-size fractions of sediments from intervals above, within, and below Heinrich event 2 (H-2) in core HU87-9 from the Northwest Labrador Sea slope. In HU87-9, rare-earth element (REE) distributions and elemental concentrations within the H-2 event are distinct from those outside this event, ??Nd(0) and 206Pb/204Pb data also indicate different values for sediments deposited within and outside the H-2 event. Comparisons of REE patterns from the H-2 interval with those from bedrock units in Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and Labrador indicate that the Lake Harbour Group (LHG), which crops out on the north side of the Hudson Strait, is the most probable bedrock source of the clay-size fraction found within the H-2 interval in HU87-9. The Tasiuyak Gneiss (TG) and Lac Lomier Complex (LLC) have REE patterns (including a negative Eu anomaly) similar to those found in H-2 sediments; however, the La/Yb ratios of these units are smaller than those associated with H-2 sediments. The Nd and Pb isotope data support and complement REE-based interpretations of provenance; i.e., the Nd-Pb signatures of sediments deposited at the HU87-9 site during the H-2 event are similar to Nd-Pb signatures obtained on diamicts from the western end of Hudson Strait. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Benson, L.; Barber, D.; Andrews, J.T.; Taylor, H.; Lamothe, P.

2003-01-01

56

Changes of the deep circulation and erosional inputs in the Labrador Sea over the late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of Labrador Sea Water has been one of the main contributors to the Atlantic thermohaline circulation influences the strength of NADW formation. In addition, the Labrador Sea has received weathering inputs of highly variable strength and sources. A high resolution downcore record recovered from south of Greenland (core MD99-2227) together with surface sediment samples from western part of Labrador Sea provides detailed information on deep sea and surface water circulation and through the Latest Quaternary. Radiogenic Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes are used as proxies for changes in water mass mixing and weathering inputs. Nd isotope data produced by leaching early sedimentary ferromanganese coatings reflect seawater compositions and show a pronounced trend towards less radiogenic values from the LGM to 12 kyr and then became less radiogenic again through the Holocene, which was most likely either linked to enhanced erosional input in the course of the retreat of the Laurentide Ice sheet or indicates enhanced contributions of a highly unradiogenic water mass such as Labrador Sea Water or diminished contributions of radiogenic Denmark Strait Overflow water. A major change in isotopic composition at 12 kyr towards more radiogenic isotope compositions is also observed in the leached 208,207,206Pb/204Pb data. Most notably, there was a pronounced change in the Pb isotope compositions at 8 kyr as well, which is not reflected by Nd or Hf isotope data and which reflects a major change in source provenance of the weathering inputs, most likely linked to the 8.2 kyr event, during which glacially dammed lakes Agassiz and Ojibway rapidly drained into the North Atlantic. This interpretation will be compared to the evidence from the radiogenic isotope evolution of the detrital fraction and of the clays. In contrast, with time leached Hf isotope data appear to be too radiogenic for Labrador Seawater but also show a marked unradiogenic peak at 12 kyr pointing to a strong influence of coatings preformed on land and in rivers. This is supported by the Hf isotope data being well above the seawater array when plotted against Nd isotopes. Based on the obtained data we reconstruct changes in the weathering inputs into the Labrador Sea and its current system, which has important implications for the reconstruction of the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and of North Atlantic Deep Water.

Filippova, A.; Frank, M.; Kienast, M.; Hillarie-Marcel, C.

2013-12-01

57

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

2005-12-16

58

On the mid-depth circulation in the Labrador and Irminger Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical circulation model with 1/6° resolution and an accurate topography formulation explains details of the observed circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas that were recently revealed by Lavender et al. [2000]. We show that the recirculation pattern is established through a locally wind induced flow controlled by the bottom topography and enhanced through remote baroclinic forcing by the dense plume of Denmark Strait overflow water. The basic circulation is a robust feature in a hierarchy of model setups. It exists in the purely barotropic case driven by steady winds and is even maintained when realistic daily forcing is added. The narrow recirculation zone is manifested by a sea level depression spanning from the Denmark Strait across the Irminger into the Labrador Sea.

Käse, R. H.; Biastoch, A.; Stammer, D. B.

59

Evaluation of candidate genes as a cause of chondrodysplasia in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

Chondrodysplasia (CD) is a disabling, hereditary disease in Labradors with short limbs, warranting genetic screening in families at risk. Segregation analysis of eight litters with 13 affected dogs showed that autosomal recessive inheritance was consistent with the observed incidence of CD in the litters. Possible involvement of eight candidate collagen genes (COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COMP, MATN3, COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2) and of a sulfate transporter glycoprotein (SLC26A2) gene in eight affected dogs and in 14 related control Labradors was investigated. Assuming recessive inheritance, the candidate genes could not be implicated in CD. PMID:20018534

Smit, Jelke Jan; Temwitchitr, Jedee; Brocks, Bouvien A W; Nikkels, Peter G J; Hazewinkel, Herman A W; Leegwater, Peter A J

2011-02-01

60

Linking the 8.2 ka Event and its Freshwater Forcing in the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in (delta)18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that approx. 3 C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an 1.0 % decrease in western Labrador Sea (delta)18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic (delta)18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, C.

2012-01-01

61

The Newfoundland and Labrador Heart Health Program dissemination story: the formation and functioning of effective coalitions.  

PubMed

Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada (O'Loughlin et al., Figure 1) with a population of 537,000. Rural in nature, 50% of the population resides in widely-dispersed communities of less than 2500 people. The economy traditionally relied on the fishing industry, but with the closure of the once lucrative cod fishery in 1991, the poorest province in Canada faced a difficult economic climate with up to 20% unemployment rates. With little funding available to supplement or sustain expensive initiatives, the Demonstration Phase of the Newfoundland and Labrador Heart Health Program (1990-1996) focused on how community-based programs are developed and sustained, with a view to diffusion throughout the province. The whole province was defined as the demonstration site for the project, and a community mobilization strategy was used with extensive reliance on community health professionals and volunteer contributions. PMID:11677826

Holmes, P; Neville, D; Donovan, C; MacDonald, C A

2001-01-01

62

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory: Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiment Data Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory conveys its goal to improve the understanding of the Labrador Sea deep convective process and the reliability of parametric representations used in large scale models. Students can find a brief introduction to the convective process and its impacts on world climate. Researchers can find links to datasets organized by contributor, type of data, and by the number of the dataset. The website furnishes maps of the locations of the velocity, T and S, and meteorological measurements as well as the floaters and drifters and the model and ice data. Visitors can find links to references, manuscripts, homepages of groups and individuals working on the Labrador Sea, and related data sources.

63

Decadal variations in Labrador Sea ice cover and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal evolution of winter sea ice anomalies in the Labrador Sea and associated sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the North Atlantic are documented for three periods of above-normal ice cover: 1972-1974, 1983-1985, and 1990-1992. These events are notable for their winter-to-winter persistence, despite the fact that the ice margin retreats to northern Baffin Bay each summer,

Clara Deser; Marika Holland; Gilles Reverdin; Michael Timlin

2002-01-01

64

The effects of clearcutting on snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus) relative abundance in central Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of clearcutting on snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) relative abundance, we surveyed pellets in 1m2 circular plots and, vegetation and browse surveys in 4.5m2 circular plots among four different aged clearcut (30, 20, 10, 5 years post-harvest) and mature forests (>150 years old) in central Labrador, Canada. Data were modelled at three grain sizes: transect (4400m2), plot

Tina L. Newbury; Neal P. P. Simon

2005-01-01

65

Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

2013-01-01

66

Glucocorticoid-dependent hypoadrenocorticism with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia mimicking sepsis in a Labrador retriever dog  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism (GDH) with immune-mediated-neutropenia (IMN) and -thrombocytopenia (IMT) were diagnosed in a 3-year-old Labrador retriever dog. Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism is rare and diagnostically challenging as clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities are often nonspecific. Immune-mediated cytopenias and other autoimmune disorders, as part of an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome have been reported with hypoadrenocorticism in humans. This is the first reported case of hypoadrenocorticism and bicytopenia in a dog. PMID:22467971

Snead, Elisabeth; Vargo, Cheryl; Myers, Sherry

2011-01-01

67

Labrador Sea convection and subpolar North Atlantic Deep Water export in the SODA assimilation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labrador Sea convection was most intense and reached the greatest depths in the early 1990s, followed by weaker, shallower, and more variable convection after 1995. The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) version 2.0.2\\/2.0.4 assimilation model is used to explore convective activity in the North Atlantic Ocean for the period from 1992 to 2007. Hydrographic conditions, which are relatively well observed

Friedrich A. Schott; Lothar Stramma; Benjamin S. Giese; Rainer Zantopp

2009-01-01

68

D-penicillamine treatment of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

d-penicillamine is effectively used in the lifelong treatment of copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers and Wilson's disease in humans. A complex form of copper-associated hepatitis has recently been characterized in the Labrador retriever. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of d-penicillamine treatment for copper-associated hepatitis in this breed, to study the effects on hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate parameters to predict optimal duration of treatment. Forty-three client owned Labrador retrievers that were diagnosed with increased hepatic copper were treated with d-penicillamine and underwent at least one follow-up examination including a liver biopsy for histopathological scoring of inflammatory lesions. Hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations were determined in the initial and follow-up biopsies by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The influence of initial hepatic copper concentration, sex, age, d-penicillamine formulation and the occurrence of side effects were investigated for their influence on hepatic copper concentration after a certain period of treatment by generalized mixed modelling. d-penicillamine proved to be effective in reducing hepatic copper concentration and associated inflammatory lesions. Parameters derived from the model can be used to estimate the necessary duration of d-penicillamine treatment for Labrador retrievers with increased hepatic copper concentration. Continuous, lifelong d-penicillamine treatment is not recommended in this breed, as there may be a risk for hepatic copper and zinc deficiency. PMID:23375251

Fieten, Hille; Dirksen, Karen; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Winter, Esther A; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

2013-06-01

69

Surface changes in the eastern Labrador Sea around the onset of the Little Ice Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the relative climate stability of the present interglacial, it has been punctuated by several centennial-scale climatic oscillations; the latest of which are often colloquially referred to as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). The most favored explanation for the cause of these anomalies is that they were triggered by variability in solar irradiance and/or volcanic activity and amplified by ocean-atmosphere-sea ice feedbacks. As such, changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are widely believed to have been involved in the amplification of such climatic oscillations. The Labrador Sea is a key area of deep water formation. The waters produced here contribute approximately one third of the volume transport of the deep limb of the AMOC and drive changes in the North Atlantic surface hydrography and subpolar gyre circulation. In this study, we present multiproxy reconstructions from a high-resolution marine sediment core located south of Greenland that suggest an increase in the influence of polar waters reaching the Labrador Sea close to MCA-LIA transition. Changes in freshwater forcing may have reduced the formation of Labrador Sea Water and contributed toward the onset of the LIA cooling.

Moffa-Sánchez, Paola; Hall, Ian R.; Barker, Stephen; Thornalley, David J. R.; Yashayaev, Igor

2014-03-01

70

LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

2013-01-01

71

Reconciling tracer and float observations of the export pathways of Labrador Sea Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than fifty years, it has been generally accepted by oceanographers that the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) is the principal conduit of recently-convected Labrador Sea Water (LSW) exported from the high-latitude North Atlantic to the equator. Supporting this supposition is observational evidence that the waters of the DWBC have consistently greater equatorward velocities, higher concentrations of passive tracers, and younger ages compared to ocean interior waters. However, recent observations and simulations of floats launched in the DWBC in the Labrador Sea show that most water parcels are quickly ejected from the DWBC and follow instead interior pathways to the subtropics. Here, we show that tracer observations from the last three decades are compatible with the existence of both DWBC and basin-interior export pathways. From analyses of observational data and model output, we find that equatorward transport in the basin interior is consistent with the large-scale vorticity balance at mid-depth. Furthermore, from the modeling analysis we show that despite higher, localized concentrations of tracer and particles in the DWBC, only 5% of particles released in the Labrador Sea are transported from the subpolar to subtropical gyre via a continuous DWBC pathway. Thus, the interior pathway is a significant contributor to LSW export.

Gary, S. F.; Lozier, M. S.; Biastoch, A.; Böning, C. W.

2012-12-01

72

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

73

Decadal and multi-decadal variability of Labrador Sea Water in the north-western North Atlantic Ocean derived from tracer distributions: Heat budget, ventilation, and advection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series of profiles of potential temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and planetary potential vorticity at intermediate depths in the Labrador Sea, the Irminger Sea, and the Iceland Basin have been constructed by combining the hydrographic sections crossing the sub-arctic gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean from the coast of Labrador to Europe, occupied nearly annually since 1990, and historic hydrographic

Hendrik M. van Aken; M. Femke de Jong; Igor Yashayaev

2011-01-01

74

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

75

Eastern and Western Boundary Currents in the Labrador Sea, 1995-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1995, the annual occupation of AR7W in the Labrador Sea has usually included LADCP data in addition to hydrographic measurements and tracers. We have previously presented results discussing the section-wide circulation for particular years, comparison with geostrophic velocities, and heat flux as determined from individual as well as composite sections. In this work, we present boundary current transports for a sampling of AR7W sections from 1995 through 2008. Both eastern and western boundary currents (EBCs, WBCs) are examined by combining LADCP data with density (or hydrographic) measurements from ships and profiling floats (Argo, PALACE). The transport estimates from LADCP data are also compared with the currents based on along-track multi-mission altimetry and with the lagrangian velocities from historic float and drifter trajectories. We find that WBC transports are mostly weaker than EBC transports, with slightly less variability year to year. Transports may be underestimated by 2 - 4 Sv when LADCP data are not available far enough onshore, so we extrapolate the velocities (carefully) to improve our estimate. Geostrophic velocities from hydrographic data can also be used to extend the coverage. WBC transports are about 32 Sv in the mean, but range from 22 to as much as 55 Sv. EBC transports range from 26 to 70 (!) Sv, with a mean of about 45 Sv. Higher transports, year to year, result from a combination of greater current width and faster velocities. Baroclinic transport relative to 1500 dbars for the upper level current ranges from 2.5 - 4.6 Sv, in good agreement with Lazier and Wright (1993). Using hydrographic data to determine transport in prescribed density layers, we find reasonable agreement with other recent observations in the Labrador Sea: for the western boundaries, Fischer et al. (2004) and Dengler et al. (2006) (CTD, LADCP and moored array data near 53 N and 56 N, respectively); for the eastern boundaries, Holliday et al. (2009), their Labrador Sea section near 59 N (CTD and LADCP data). For our sections, transport in density layers (in the mean) is conserved only below sigma-theta = 27.8, that is, in the overflow waters of the DWBC. References: Dengler, M., J. Fischer, F. A. Schott and R. Zantopp (2006), Deep Labrador Current and its variability in 1996-2005, Geophys. Res. Letters, vol. 33, L21S06, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026702. Fischer, J., F. Schott, and M. Dengler (2004), Boundary circulation at the exit of the Labrador Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1548-1570. Holliday, N. P., S. Bacon, J. Allen, and E. L. McDonagh (2009), Circulation and transport in the western boundary currents at Cape Farewell, Greenland, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1854-1870. Lazier, J. R. N., and D. G. Wright (1993), Annual velocity variations in the Labrador Current, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 659-678.

Hall, M. M.; Torres, D. J.; Yashayaev, I.

2010-12-01

76

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

77

Labrador Sea Water production and the strength of the Subpolar Gyre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade saw substantial changes in the characteristic and the production rate of Labrador Sea Water. It is still an open question, whether these changes influence the strength of the subpolar gyre and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Here we will present time series of the LSW formation rates inferred from changes in tracer inventories and time series of the baroclinic transport variablity of the subpolar gyre, complemented by transport estimates calculated from four Inverted Echo Sounders, deployed parallel to the Midatlantic Ridge in August 2006.

Rhein, M.

2009-04-01

78

Interannual variability of physical oceanographic characteristics of Gilbert Bay: A marine protected area in Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gilbert Bay on the southeast coast of Labrador is the site of the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) established in the subarctic coastal zone of eastern Canada. The MPA was created to conserve a genetically distinctive population of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. This article presents results from a study of the interannual variability in atmospheric and physical oceanographic characteristics of Gilbert Bay over the period 1949-2006. We describe seasonal and interannual variability of the atmospheric parameters at the sea surface in the bay. The interannual variability of the atmosphere in the Gilbert Bay region is related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and a recent warming trend in the local climate of coastal Labrador. The related changes in seawater temperature, salinity and sea-ice thickness in winter are simulated with a one-dimensional water column model, the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). A warming Gilbert Bay ecosystem would be favorable for cod growth, but reduced sea-ice formation during the winter months increases the danger of traveling across the bay by snowmobile.

Best, Sara; Lundrigan, Sarah; Demirov, Entcho; Wroblewski, Joe

2011-10-01

79

Ultrasound evaluation of common carotid artery blood flow in the Labrador retriever  

PubMed Central

Background Doppler ultrasound (DUS) examination provides quantitative and qualitative information concerning the blood flow in veins and arteries, enabling their morphological evaluation and the collection of hemodynamic data. Dogs and cats as well as humans may display neurological signs of brain hypoperfusion secondary to common carotid alterations. Hence, DUS examination might aid in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of ischemic origin, among other causes. The objective of this study was to register normal values for systolic peak velocity, minimum diastolic velocity, diameter and resistance index of both common carotid arteries of 12 healthy Labrador retriever dogs between 2 and 5 years of age. By gathering these values, we might be able to improve the sensitivity of hemodynamic studies in clinically important brain disorders. Results There were no statistical differences between the values for the right and left vessels: the systolic peak velocity was 75.8?±?16 cm/s, minimum diastolic velocity was 12.2?±?4 cm/s, common carotid diameter was 0.545?±?0.063 cm, and resistance index was 0.83?±?0.07. Conclusions The results of this study might be used to establish normal parameters for Labrador retriever dogs and thus help in the diagnosis of neurological disorders associated with alterations of the carotid arteries. Similar studies must be performed to evaluate the same parameters in other dog breeds of different sizes and skull conformations. PMID:24094043

2013-01-01

80

A COL11A2 Mutation in Labrador Retrievers with Mild Disproportionate Dwarfism  

PubMed Central

We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height. PMID:23527306

Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

2013-01-01

81

Island Panoramic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

82

25. PALYNOLOGY AND DINOCYST STRATIGRAPHY OF THE UPPER MIOCENE AND LOWERMOST PLIOCENE, ODP LEG 105, SITE 646, LABRADOR SEA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 58 productive samples have been palynologically analyzed from the upper Miocene and lowermost Plio­ cene of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 646B in the central Labrador Sea. Pollen and spores are a major compo­ nent of the assemblages and indicate a temperate-source vegetation, although they mainly comprise forms that are long- ranging in high latitudes. Reworking may

Martin J. Head; Geoffrey Norris; Peta J. Mudie

83

KIGLAPAIT BIBLIOGRAPHY 13 October 2011 1969 The Kiglapait Layered Intrusion, Labrador. Geol. Soc. Amer. Memoir 112, 204 pp.  

E-print Network

Labrador, with Emphasis on Anorthosite. XXIV Internat. Geol. Cong. Guidebook A54, Ottawa, Canada, 72pp. 1994 Berg, Emslie, Hamilton, Morse, Ryan, Wiebe: Anorthositic, granitoid, and related rocks of the Nain above the Snyder Group. In Morse, S. A., Ed., Nain Anorthosite Project, Field Report 1974, UMass Dept. G

Bradley, Raymond S.

84

Late Quaternary history of contourite drifts and variations in Labrador Current flow, Flemish Pass, offshore eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contourite drifts of alternating sand and mud, shaped by the Labrador Current, formed during the late Quaternary in Flemish Pass seaward of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The drifts preserve a record of Labrador Current flow variations through the last glacial maximum. A high-resolution seismic profile and a transect of four cores were collected across Beothuk drift on the southeast side of Flemish Pass. Downcore and lateral trends in grain size and sedimentation rate provide evidence that, between 16 and 13 ka, sediment was partitioned across Beothuk drift and the adjacent Flemish Pass floor by a strong current flow but, from 29 to 16 ka, sedimentation was more of a blanketing style, represented by draped reflections interpreted as being due to a weaker current. The data poorly resolve the low sedimentation rates since 13 ka, but the modern Labrador Current in Flemish Pass is the strongest it has been in at least the past 29 ka. Pre-29 ka current flow is interpreted based on reflection architecture in seismic profiles. A prominent drift on the southwestern side of Flemish Pass formed above a mid-Miocene erosion surface, but was buried by a mass-transport deposit after the penultimate glacial maximum and after drift deposition switched to eastern Flemish Pass. These findings illustrate the temporal complexity of drift sedimentation and provide the first detailed proxy for Labrador Current flow since the last glacial maximum.

Marshall, Nicole R.; Piper, David J. W.; Saint-Ange, Francky; Campbell, D. Calvin

2014-10-01

85

Labrador Sea: the extent of continental and oceanic crust and the timing of the onset of seafloor spreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional reflection seismic profiles across the Labrador Sea originally acquired in 1977 have been reprocessed and reinterpreted. Zones of different structural style have been identified. The seismic interpretations have been used to constrain magnetic modelling and oceanic crust has been confirmed from magnetic anomaly 27N and seaward. However, all attempts to model the area landward of magnetic anomaly 27N as

James A. Chalmers; Kirsten Holt Laursen

1995-01-01

86

Geochronological and lead-isotope evidences for rapid crust formation in middle-proterozoic time: The Labrador example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive U-Pb geochronological studies in the Grenville and Makkovik provinces have shown that eastern Labrador is underlain by two distinct crustal blocks. In order to substantiate the juvenile character of the middle-Proterozoic crustal block, the isotopic compositon of lead in leached k-feldspars from the same rocks were analyzed. The results of the analysis are briefly discussed.

Schaerer, Urs

1988-01-01

87

The Inclusive Classroom - Can the Teachers Keep Up? A Comparison of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland & Labrador Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the results of a previous study on 725 Nova Scotia teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and confidence in their abilities with those of 287 teachers from Newfoundland & Labrador. No provincial differences in teachers' perceptions of inclusion were found despite differences in provincial policy/practice. (Contains…

Edmunds, Alan

2003-01-01

88

Technical Analysis of Textile Remains from a 17th-Century English Plantation at Ferryland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of textiles was recovered from the archaeological excavation of a privy and elsewhere inside the palisade of Sir George Calvert's first English colony, established in 1621 in what is now Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. These textile fragments were compared to those in museum collections in England and Canada. Many of the samples with higher thread counts (over

Cathy Mathias; Elizabeth Moffatt; Alison Murray

2004-01-01

89

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around the Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea Dorthe Paulsen (1), Antoon Kuijpers (2), Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz (3) and Tove Nielsen (2) 1) Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K 2) Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgde 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. 3) Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C The southern end of the Davis Strait, the comparatively shallow-water area separating the Labrador Sea from the Baffin Bay, is cut by two deep submarine canyons of west Greenland, on the western and eastern side of the Fylla Banke, respectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate Late Pleistocene sedimentary processes governing the area of the two canyons in order to test if gravity flows or ocean currents are the most important factors governing canyon sedimentary processes in this region. Furthermore, an account is given on the formation of the two canyons in order to explain the significant difference between them. The study was carried out based on seismic profiles combined with bathymetric information, and a single sidescan sonar profile from one of the canyons (western canyon). Sedimentary information and an age model are derived from of a 5-m long gravity core (TTR13-AT-479G) collected from the mouth of the western canyon (southern end). The data indicates that the sedimentary regime is today highly affected by northward transport of the ocean currents and that gravity flows (southward from shallower to deep waters) are only of limited significance today. The deep southern end of the canyons are influenced by the upper parts of the deep North Atlantic Deep Water, but the majority of the sediment transport is linked to the strong northward flow of the lower parts of the West Greenland Current. For comparison the sediment transport is held up against earlier studies from the Davis Strait area, where 2D seismic profiles were carried out several places of the west coast of Greenland. These studies are from a contourite drift complex at the Davis Strait and north of Labrador Sea. A further possible process operating in maintaining active sediment transport through the canyon may be the cascading of dense winter water formed on the West Greenland shelf.

Paulsen, Dorthe; Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Nielsen, Tove

2014-05-01

90

Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

91

Examining the Sedimentary and Paleoclimate Signature of Late Holocene Sedimentary Deposits in Okak Bay, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent coupled ocean-atmosphere model simulations suggest there is a high potential for significant sea surface warming of the northwest North Atlantic Ocean in response to rising anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas concentrations. This continued warming may ultimately result in the shutdown of oceanic convection in the North Atlantic, continuing a history of strong climate shifts for this region throughout the Holocene. In this context, we have undertaken a study of climate proxies preserved in sediment cores from the northwest Atlantic coast to investigate the hypothesized sea surface warming and quantify local late Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the North Atlantic region. To address these objectives, piston and gravity cores have been collected in Okak Bay, a fjord-like bay on the Labrador coast of Canada. The bay receives water from the Labrador Sea (in the North Atlantic), is near the present latitudinal tree line, and is adjacent to a now abandoned community site long inhabited by both European and pre-contact settlers. As a result, this location contains a record of terrestrial and marine environmental change, and anthropogenic influence at the subarctic boundary. To date, cores have been analyzed for physical properties and x-ray fluorescence elemental data, and imaged using x-radiographic techniques. Age models are being developed using Pb-210/Cs-137 and C-14 geochronology, while palynological investigations are ongoing. Our data and a preliminary age model based on regional data suggest: 1) a trend towards increasing terrestrial sediment input to the Bay throughout the latest Holocene, 2) periods of high magnitude variability between terrestrial and marine derived deposition, particularly between 700 and 200 BP, and 3) tree/shrub genera Betula and Alnus dominated the landscape around 4 kBP, while surface sediments contain a much higher abundance of conifer genera (i.e. Picea) and dinoflagellate cysts.

Bambrick Banks, J.; Bentley, S. J.; Warny, S.

2013-12-01

92

Variability and propagation of Labrador Sea Water in the southern subpolar North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of two modes of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) (upper and deep Labrador Sea Water) and their respective spreading in the interior North Atlantic Ocean are investigated by means of repeated ship surveys carried out along the zonal WOCE line A2/AR19 located at 43-48°N (1993-2007) and along the GOOS line at about 48-51°N (1997-2002). Hydrographic section data are complemented by temperature, salinity, and velocity time series recorded by two moorings. They have been deployed at the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the Newfoundland Basin during 1996-2004. The analysis of hydrographic anomalies at various longitudes points to a gradual eastward propagation of LSW-related signals, which happens on time scales of 3-6 years from the formation region towards the MAR. Interactions of the North Atlantic Current (NAC) with the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) close to Flemish Cap point to the NAC being the main distributor of the different types of LSW into the interior of the Newfoundland Basin. Comparisons between the ship data and the mooring records revealed that the mooring sites are located in a region affected by highly variable flow. The mooring time series demonstrate an elevated level of variability with eddy activity and variability associated with the NAC considerably influencing the LSW signals in this region. Hydrographic data taken from Argo profiles from the vicinity of the mooring sites turned out to mimic quite well the temporal evolution captured by the moorings. There is some indication of occasional southward flow in the LSW layer near the MAR. If this can be considered as a hint to an interior LSW-route, it is at least of minor importance in comparison to the DWBC. It acts as an important supplier for the interior North Atlantic, distributing older and recently formed LSW modes southward along the MAR.

Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Birgit; Stramma, Lothar; Rhein, Monika; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

2009-10-01

93

Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection  

SciTech Connect

Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

Emslie, R.F.

1985-01-01

94

Recruitment in the Barents Sea, Icelandic, and eastern Newfoundland/Labrador capelin (Mallotus villosus) stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a short-lived, coldwater, pelagic species that occurs in large populations in the Barents Sea, around Iceland and in the Newfoundland-Labrador area in the North Atlantic. Most individuals spawn only once at age three or four and die shortly after spawning. The commercial fisheries for capelin in the three areas are prosecuted on the pre-spawning and spawning age groups and knowledge of recruitment to the spawning stock and factors affecting recruitment are important in the management of the fisheries. Herein, we review the state of knowledge regarding recruitment in the three areas and factors that affect recruitment. Year class strength of capelin is fixed fairly early in life; at 0-group stage in the Barents Sea, by age 1 or earlier for Icelandic capelin, and within 2 weeks of hatching for the beach spawners in the Newfoundland area. No obvious single factor, common to the three stocks, has been proven to exert a significant influence on recruitment. In the Barents Sea, juvenile herring prey heavily on capelin larvae and when the estimates of the abundance of these juvenile herring were accounted for in the capelin stock-recruitment analysis, the fit in the stock-recruitment relationship improved. In Iceland, there is no reason to implicate predation as a dominant factor, although detailed studies have not been carried out. In the Newfoundland and Labrador area earlier studies suggested two factors were important for recruitment success: the frequency of onshore winds at a critical period during the residence of newly hatched larvae in the beach gravel and the presence of warm waters during the early larval phase in the pelagic environment. With further testing using more data, the temperature factor was found not to be significant but the frequency of onshore winds still explained a significant portion of the variation in year class strength. There appears to be no significant biological influence, such as predation, that has influenced recruitment in this area.

Carscadden, James E.; Gjøsæter, Harald; Vilhjálmsson, Hjálmar

2013-07-01

95

Grain shape variation and sedimentary processes of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments in Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea  

E-print Network

and sedimentary sources in Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea, were thought to be quite complex. Sedimentary processes includes contour currents, turbidity currents, eolian influences, pelagic settling and glacial ice ral'ting (Srivastava et al. , 1987. Aksu..., the dominant contour current deposition in earlier stages decreased while in ? basin turbidity, pelagic deposition and early seasonal glacial ice-rafting became more important. The grain shape harmonic amplitude varies from a, high interval (590-710 mbsf...

Shan, Yongtang

2012-06-07

96

Impacts of a bottom trawling exclusion zone on Snow Crab abundance and fish harvester behavior in the Labrador Sea, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawke Box trawling exclusion zone off southern Labrador is a 8610km2 closed area implemented in 2003 to protect soft-shelled pre-recruit Snow Crab from mortality imposed by shrimp trawling and other bottom-impact fisheries. This study utilizes survey, logbook, and observer data from the Snow Crab and Northern Shrimp fisheries to assess the effectiveness of the Hawke Box in protecting and

Darrell R. J. Mullowney; Corey J. Morris; Earl G. Dawe; Katherine R. Skanes

97

PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997–1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during

Z. A. Kuzyk; J. P. Stow; N. M. Burgess; S. M. Solomon; K. J. Reimer

2005-01-01

98

Thermal Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

99

Streamlined Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2003-01-01

100

On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

2013-07-01

101

A 1600-Year History of the Labrador Current off Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments in Emerald Basin, on the continental shelf off Halifax, N.S., accumulate at a rate of about 30 cm/thousand years. This rate is great enough to record century to millennial scale changes in the surface and deep (~230m) waters in the basin. In 1998 we cored Emerald Basin, and other locations in the nearby slope water system, in order to develop an ocean-climate history of the region using paleoceanographic techniques. The core top has a modern 14C age, and other 14C dates indicate approximately linear sedimentation rates to 1600 calendar years B.P. Today the continental shelf off Nova Scotia is bathed by a mixture of coastal and slope waters. This mixture varies on interannual to interdecadal timescales. For example, the work of Petrie and Drinkwater and others of the Bedford Institute clearly shows that during the very strong minimum phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 1960s, the Labrador Current was colder and fresher than today and intruded into Emerald Basin. Sea surface temperatures (SST) decreased by 1-2 degrees on an annual average basis, and bottom water temperatures dropped by about 4 degrees. We applied 5 proxies for seawater temperature changes to the sediments of Emerald Basin. Surface water temperature changes are reflected in the percent abundance of the polar planktonic foraminifer N. pachyderma (s.), in the oxygen isotope ratio (d18-O) of the shells of this species, and in the unsaturation ratio of alkenones produced by phytoplankton. Bottom water temperature changes are recorded by the d18-O of benthic forams, and by the Mg/Ca in their shells. All five of these proxies indicate the ocean warmed suddenly sometime in the past 150 years or so. The exact date is uncertain because 14C dating is inaccurate in recent centuries, but we believe this abrupt warming probably correlates with the ice melt layer evidence for warming in the ice caps of the Canadian Archipelago. This region is known to be one of the main source regions for the Labrador Current. Before this recent warming, SST was continually lower by 1-2 degrees, and bottom water was colder by about 6 degrees. These results suggest that there was no Medieval Warm Period off Nova Scotia. Because there is no evidence of Medieval warming in the Canadian archipelago, it seems likely that coastal waters from Baffin Bay to at least as far south as Nova Scotia were continually cold for ~1500 of the past 1600 years. The present hydrography on the Scotian Shelf may be strongly influenced by anthropogenic effects.

Keigwin, L. D.; Sachs, J.; Rosenthal, Y.

2001-12-01

102

Eddy Seeding in the Labrador Sea: a Submerged Autonomous Launching Platform (SALP) Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified Submerged Autonomous Launch Platform (SALP) was used to release profiling floats into warm-core Irminger Rings (IRs) in order to investigate their vertical structure and evolution in the Labrador Sea from September 2007 - September 2009. IRs are thought to play an important role in restratification after convection in the Labrador Sea. The SALP is designed to release surface drifters or subsurface floats serially from a traditional ocean mooring, using real-time ocean measurements as criteria for launch. The original prototype instrument used properties measured at multiple depths, with information relayed to the SALP controller via acoustic modems. In our application, two SALP carousels were attached at 500 meters onto a heavily-instrumented deep water mooring, in the path of recently-shed IRs off the west Greenland shelf. A release algorithm was designed to use temperature and pressure measured at the SALP depth only to release one or two APEX profiling drifters each time an IR passed the mooring, using limited historical observations to set release thresholds. Mechanically and electronically, the SALP worked well: out of eleven releases, there was only one malfunction when a float was caught in the cage after the burn-wire had triggered. However, getting floats trapped in eddies met with limited success due to problems with the release algorithm and float ballasting. Out of seven floats launched from the platform using oceanographic criteria, four were released during warm water events that were not related to passing IRs. Also, after float release, it took on average about 2.6 days for the APEX to adjust from its initial ballast depth, about 600 meters, to its park point of 300 meters, leaving the float below the trapped core of water in the IRs. The other mooring instruments (at depths of 100 to 3000 m), revealed that 12 IRs passed by the mooring in the 2-year monitoring period. With this independent information, we were able to assess and improve the release algorithm, still based on ocean conditions measured only at one depth. We found that much better performance could have been achieved with an algorithm that detected IRs based on a temperature difference from a long-term running mean rather than a fixed temperature threshold. This highlights the challenge of designing an appropriate release strategy with limited a priori information on the amplitude and time scales of the background variability.

Furey, Heather H.; Femke de Jong, M.; Bower, Amy S.

2013-04-01

103

Prevalence of childhood eczema and food sensitization in the First Nations reserve of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background The Mushua Innu of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada seem to have a high rate of childhood eczema. Anecdotally this problem seems to be more common now than 20 years ago. There has been speculation that this could be related to food sensitization that may have arisen coincident with a move away from a traditional Innu diet. We undertook to assess the prevalence and severity of pediatric eczema in Natuashish (population 792), and investigate the level of sensitization to common food antigens. Methods Over a three-month period we performed a population survey of all children in the community from the ages of 2–12 inclusive. The one-year prevalence of eczema was assessed using the United Kingdom Working Party’s diagnostic criteria, and graded on the Nottingham Severity Scale. All children with eczema and twice as many age/sex matched controls were offered complete blood counts, total IgE, and food specific IgE levels for egg white, cow’s milk protein and wheat. Results One hundred and eighty two (95% of the eligible children) were assessed. Of the 182 children examined eczema was diagnosed in 30 (16.5%) - 22 females and 8 males. The majority of children with eczema (20/30) were classified as being in the moderate and severe category. Of the 22 with eczema and 40 controls who consented to venipuncture all but 3 had IgE levels above the lab's reference range. Food specific antibody assays showed that 32, 23, and 5 percent of children with eczema were sensitized to egg, milk, and wheat respectively. None of the controls were sensitized. Conclusions The children of Natuashish, Labrador have a high rate of eczema, much of it graded as moderate or severe. IgE levels were markedly elevated in children with and without eczema, with average values at least ten-fold higher than other populations. There is no evidence of an unusual amount of sensitization to egg, milk or wheat. PMID:24649812

2014-01-01

104

Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer isotope data from the same minerals indicate that the syenite and ore have initial Nd within a single ?Nd unit. This combined with their field relationship to the foliation and the microtextures observed in thin section suggests that the REE minerals experienced syndeformational growth from a hydrothermal fluid, acting on both host and ore, where REEs in aqueous hard ligand complexes became saturated in silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate minerals through the changing T, P and chemical conditions brought on by deformation.

Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

2012-12-01

105

Antimicrobial resistance and characterisation of staphylococci isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background Coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci are normal commensals of the skin and mucosa, but are also opportunist pathogens. Meticillin-resistant (MR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Healthy humans and other animals harbour a variety of staphylococci, including MR-CoPS and MR-CoNS. The main aims of the study were to characterise the population and antimicrobial resistance profiles of staphylococci from healthy non-vet visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers in the UK. Results Nasal and perineal samples were collected from 73 Labrador retrievers; staphylococci isolated and identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods. They were also confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), PCR of the nuc gene and PCR and sequencing of the tuf gene. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials. In total, 102 CoPS (S. pseudintermedius n?=?91, S. aureus n?=?11) and 334 CoNS isolates were detected from 99% of dogs in this study. In 52% of dogs CoNS only were detected, with both CoNS and CoPS detected in 43% dogs and CoPS only detected in 4% of dogs. Antimicrobial resistance was not common among CoPS, but at least one MDR-CoNS isolate was detected in 34% of dogs. MR-CoNS were detected from 42% of dogs but no MR-CoPS were isolated. S. epidermidis (52% of dogs) was the most common CoNS found followed by S. warneri (30%) and S. equorum (27%), with another 15 CoNS species isolated from ? 15% of dogs. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were detected in 44% and 8% of dogs respectively. Conclusions MR- and MDR-CoPS were rare. However a high prevalence of MR- and MDR-CoNS were found in these dogs, even though they had no prior antimicrobial treatment or admission to veterinary premises. These findings are of concern due to the potential for opportunistic infections, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from these bacteria to coagulase positive staphylococci. PMID:24423104

2014-01-01

106

Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

2013-01-01

107

Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. Avian influenza A virus (AIV) infection appears to be most common in Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some Charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of AIV. Here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for AIV. We tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between May 2008 and December 2011 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. We also tested 156 serum samples for evidence of previous infection of AIV in Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica). Avian influenza A virus was detected in breeding Common Murres and nonbreeding Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), and Common Murres also had high antibody prevalence (44%). From these findings, combined with other studies showing AIV infection in murres, we conclude that murres are important for the ecology of AIV. For other species (Razorbill, Alca torda; Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla; Atlantic Puffin) with good coverage (>100 samples) we did not detect AIV. However, serology indicates infection does occur in Atlantic Puffins, with 22% antibody prevalence found. The possibility of virus spread through dense breeding colonies and the long distance movements of these hosts make a more thorough evaluation of the role for seabirds as hosts of AIV important. PMID:24171570

Wille, Michelle; Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Wilhelm, Sabina I; Fifield, David; Bond, Alexander L; Granter, Alissa; Munro, Hannah; Buxton, Rachel; Jones, Ian L; Fitzsimmons, Michelle G; Burke, Chantelle; Tranquilla, Laura McFarlane; Rector, Megan; Takahashi, Linda; Kouwenberg, Amy-Lee; Storey, Anne; Walsh, Carolyn; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-01-01

108

Late Quaternary (Stage 2 and 3) Meltwater and Heinrich Events, Northwest Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major meltwater events are documented in cores from the NW Labrador Sea. One occurred ca. 20,000 14C yr B.P. in association with deposition of a major detrital carbonate unit. Both prior to and after this event, ? 18O values of near-surface planktonic foraminifera were 4.5%, indicating fully enriched glacial values. A younger event (ca. 14,000 14 C yr B.P.) is characterized by a dramatic change in ? 18O from 4.5 to 2.0% and coincided with the retreat of ice from the outer SE Baffin Shelf, possibly into Hudson Strait. These meltwater events coincide with Heinrich (H) layers 1 and 2 from North Atlantic sediments. The 14,000 14C yr B.P. meltwater event indicates that the eastern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet also underwent rapid retreat at approximately the same time as other ice sheet margins around the NE North Atlantic. A third major detrital carbonate event at the base of HU87-033-009, possibly correlative with Heinrich layer 3, occurred ca. 33,960 ± 675 14 C yr B.P.; however, this is older than the accepted date for H-3 of 27,000 14C yr B.P. and may be H-4.

Andrews, John T.; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Tedesco, Katherine; Aksu, Ali E.; Jull, A. J. Timothy

1994-01-01

109

Labrador slope water entering the Gulf of Maine—response to the North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The percent of Labrador Slope Water (%LSW) in the waters entering the Gulf of Maine at depth (150-200 m) through the Northeast Channel is estimated from temperature/salinity measurements for the period 1964-2008. Comparison of the annual average %LSW with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) lagged two years shows that both series have very similar, but opposite, long term trends. High %LSW in the 1960s decreased to low values in the 1990s as the NAO increased from low to high values over the same period. A regression of the residuals of the two series from their long term trends also is significant at the 5% level, indicating that the %LSW at the Northeast Channel has a persistent relationship on a year-to-year basis with the NAO over the full range of variation in the NAO. The response of the %LSW to the NAO, however, appeared substantially reduced after about 1990. Changes in the potential nutrient flux into the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank system associated with changes in the %LSW cannot account for changes in chlorophyll a concentrations estimated for three multi-year stanzas during the sampling period.

Mountain, David G.

2012-09-01

110

Magma evolution in the Nain Complex, Labrador, and implications for the origin of anorthosite  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of over 50 chilled margins of plutons and contemporaneous dikes in the anorthositic Nain Complex reveal a well-defined trend of liquid evolution along a plagioclase-olivine cotectic. Fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase has resulted in extreme enrichment of TiO/sub 2/ and FeO/sub T/ and depletion of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the more evolved compositions. The contemporaneous Harp Dikes and Seal Lake Volcanics of southern Labrador also fall along this trend. Although rare, other dikes in the Nain complex are very olivine-rich and the olivine is quench-textured. Modeling of major and trace elements indicates that the leucotroctolitic liquids can be derived from the melatroctolites by olivine removal, and that the more evolved cotectic liquids can be derived from the leucotroctolitic liquids by removal of o1 + plag in a 25:75 ratio. If the equilibrium saturation surface of plagioclase is ignored, continued olivine removal from the leucotroctolites is capable of producing compositions very similar to compositions of hypothesized anorthositic magmas. In the Nain Complex, field evidence for supersaturation of plagioclase is abundant. Since all of the compositions discussed above are low in normative diopside, it may be that such liquids are less capable of nucleating plagioclase than liquid with more normal diopside contents, thus permitting the supersaturation.

Berg, J.H.

1985-01-01

111

Rock magnetism and Paleomagnetism of Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35.8±1.0 Ma Mistastin Lake impact structure (Labrador, Canada) is characterized by a dominantly anorthositic target, which makes it a good terrestrial analogue for a lunar highland crater. The 28 km-diameter Mistastin structure contains impact melt rocks whose thickness reaches up to 80 meters. We collected 116 oriented cores in melt lithologies from four locations around the crater. Rock magnetic analyses show that the remanent magnetization is carried both by Ti-rich and Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Microscopic observations show that the latter probably resulted from high-temperature oxidation of the Ti-rich titanomagnetite. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization initially removes a viscous overprint, and then isolates what appears to be a stable thermoremanent magnetization at higher unblocking temperatures and peak fields. The mean direction, assumed to be parallel to the ambient geomagnetic field at the time of the impact, is consistent with the 30 Ma polar wander path of North America. We also collected 25 cores from anorthosite and mangerite from the Mesoproterozoic basement (around 1400 Ma), in order to study the pressure and thermal effects of the impact on the magnetic remanence and rock magnetic properties. Saturation remanence and coercivity increase from the periphery to the centre of the crater. Most samples have remanent magnetization directions similar to those expected for the Mesoproterozoic. Only basement rocks from the South shore lying very close to the contact of the melt rocks have a magnetization parallel to that of the melt.

Hervé, Gwenaël; Gilder, Stuart; Marion, Cassandra; Osinski, Gordon; Pohl, Jean; Sylvester, Paul

2014-05-01

112

Two Loci on Chromosome 5 Are Associated with Serum IgE Levels in Labrador Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response. PMID:22720065

Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Béatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T.; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

2012-01-01

113

Two loci on chromosome 5 are associated with serum IgE levels in Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response. PMID:22720065

Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Béatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Ake; Andersson, Göran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

2012-01-01

114

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

115

Folly Island Tidal Lines  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

116

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

â??The Rockâ?, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay Areaâ??s most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâ??s best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of Americaâ??s most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from Alcatrazâ??s past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous â??Battle of Alcatrazâ? and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

117

Phytoplankton production and growth regulation in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparative study of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland shelves and Barents/Norwegian/Greenland seas and shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of phytoplankton (distribution, phenology, physiology, productivity and community composition) and environment properties that influence their growth (light and nutrients) comparing the western Subarctic Atlantic (Labrador Sea, Labrador/Newfoundland shelves) with the eastern Subarctic (Barents, Norwegian and Greenland Seas and shelves) and drawing on ship-based observations, satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) and output from a 3D coupled ecosystem-ocean circulation model, covering the last 15-25 yrs. Similarities between regions were seen in geographic variability (e.g. latitudinal gradients), seasonal cycles and magnitude of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and community composition. Regional differences were related to geographic location, presence/absence of ice, seasonal mixing, source waters (Arctic versus Atlantic) and nutrient supply, and response to atmospheric forcing. With regard to the latter, most of the observations considered in this study cover the recent period of rapid warming and the historical out-of-phase response (e.g. ice conditions, air and ocean temperatures, hydrography) of the western and eastern Subarctic Atlantic to atmospheric forcing is no longer apparent. Observations and modelling looking back over the last two decades suggest that the timing of the spring bloom and peak seasonal productivity are occurring progressively earlier in the year, particularly at high latitudes in both the western and eastern Subarctic. Climate change (ocean warming) is projected to increase overall phytoplankton productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic and will be manifest particularly in ice-influenced regions Labrador/Newfoundland Shelves, Barents/Greenland Seas and shelves and regions where Arctic outflow and Atlantic inflow influence phytoplankton dynamics. Northward movement of Atlantic waters as a result of climate change, manifest earliest in the eastern Subarctic (Norwegian/Barents Seas) will displace cold-water phytoplankton species with warm-water species and shift community transitions zones farther north in the coming decades.

Glen Harrison, W.; Yngve Børsheim, K.; Li, William K. W.; Maillet, Gary L.; Pepin, Pierre; Sakshaug, Egil; Skogen, Morten D.; Yeats, Philip A.

2013-07-01

118

Decadal and multi-decadal variability of Labrador Sea Water in the north-western North Atlantic Ocean derived from tracer distributions: Heat budget, ventilation, and advection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of profiles of potential temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and planetary potential vorticity at intermediate depths in the Labrador Sea, the Irminger Sea, and the Iceland Basin have been constructed by combining the hydrographic sections crossing the sub-arctic gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean from the coast of Labrador to Europe, occupied nearly annually since 1990, and historic hydrographic data from the preceding years since 1950. The temperature data of the last 60 years mainly reflect a multi-decadal variability, with a characteristic time scale of about 50 years. With the use of a highly simplified heat budget model it was shown that this long-term temperature variability in the Labrador Sea mainly reflects the long-term variation of the net heat flux to the atmosphere. However, the analysis of the data on dissolved oxygen and planetary potential vorticity show that convective ventilation events, during which successive classes of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) are formed, occurring on decadal or shorter time scales. These convective ventilation events have performed the role of vertical mixing in the heat budget model, homogenising the properties of the intermediate layers (e.g. temperature) for significant periods of time. Both the long-term and the near-decadal temperature signals at a pressure of 1500 dbar are connected with successive deep LSW classes, emphasising the leading role of Labrador Sea convection in running the variability of the intermediate depth layers of the North Atlantic. These signals are advected to the neighbouring Irminger Sea and Iceland Basin. Advection time scales, estimated from the 60 year time series, are slightly shorter or of the same order as most earlier estimates, which were mainly based on the feature tracking of the spreading of the LSW 94 class formed in the period 1989-1994 in the Labrador Sea.

van Aken, Hendrik M.; Femke de Jong, M.; Yashayaev, Igor

2011-05-01

119

Comparing mercury concentrations across a thirty year time span in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr from Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

Anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from multiple sample sites in Labrador, Canada were used to investigate possible differences in total mercury concentration ([THg]) between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean [THg] of anadromous Arctic charr was 0.03?g/g wet weight (ww) in 1977-78 and 0.04?g/g ww in 2007-09, while mean concentrations in non-anadromous conspecifics were 0.18?g/g ww in 1977-78 and 0.14?g/g ww in 2007-09. After correcting for the effects of fish age and fork-length, there was no widespread difference in the mean [THg] of anadromous or non-anadromous fish between the two time periods. However, at individual sites sampled during both time periods, [THg] increased, decreased, or did not change. The mean age of sampled fish declined from 9.0years in 1977-78 to 8.2years in 2007-09 for anadromous fish, and from 11.7years to 10.5years in non-anadromous Arctic charr. Similarly, mean fork-lengths decreased from 450mm to 417mm in anadromous and from 402mm to 335mm in non-anadromous fish between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean annual temperature at four Labrador weather stations increased by 1.6°C to 2.9°C between the two sampling periods. The lack of an overall trend in anadromous or non-anadromous Arctic charr [THg] despite warming temperatures that favour increased mercury methylation suggests that regional changes in climate-driven factors have had limited impacts on mercury exposure in Labrador freshwater or marine fish. PMID:24373639

van der Velden, S; Dempson, J B; Power, M

2015-03-15

120

78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final...165.T09-0840 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba...

2013-09-25

121

Lipid [corrected] classes, fatty acids, and sterols in seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern labrador.  

PubMed

Seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern Labrador, was sampled for lipid classes, fatty acid, and sterol composition. Gilbert Bay is a proposed Marine Protected Area, and the composition of seafood from this region is interesting from both human health and ecological perspectives. Analyses included four species of bivalves and flesh and liver samples from four fish species. Lipids from a locally isolated population of northern cod (Gadus morhua) were also compared to lipids from other cod populations. Lipid classes were analyzed by Chromarod/Iatroscan TLC-FID, fatty acids by GC, and sterols by GC-MS. Three cod populations had similar levels of total lipid per wet weight (0.6%) with triacylglycerols (TAG), sterols, and phospholipids comprising on average 13, 11, and 51%, respectively, of their total lipids. Fatty fish such as capelin and herring contained on average 8.4% lipid with 86% present as TAG. Fish livers from cod and herring showed opposite trends, with cod having elevated lipid (27%) and TAG (63%) and herring containing only 3.8% lipid and 20% TAG. Shellfish averaged 0.6% lipid; however, significant lipid class differences existed among species. Fatty acid analysis showed few significant differences in cod populations with on average 57% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and 24% saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cod livers had lower PUFA (34%) and elevated MUFA (44%) relative to flesh. Bivalves averaged 25% SFA, 18% MUFA, and 57% PUFA, whereas scallop adductor muscle had the highest PUFA levels (63%). Bivalves contained 20 different sterols with cholesterol present as the major sterol (19-39%). trans-22-Dehydrocholesterol, brassicasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, and campesterol individually accounted for >10% in at least one species. High levels of PUFA and non-cholesterol sterols observed in Gilbert Bay seafood demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition. PMID:15264928

Copeman, Louise A; Parrish, Christopher C

2004-07-28

122

Nutritional management of inherited copper-associated hepatitis in the Labrador retriever.  

PubMed

Canine hereditary copper-associated hepatitis is characterized by gradual hepatic copper accumulation eventually leading to liver cirrhosis. Therapy is aimed at creating a negative copper balance with metal chelators, of which D-penicillamine is the most commonly used. D-penicillamine often causes gastro-intestinal side effects and life-long continuous therapy may lead to a deficiency of copper and zinc. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a low-copper, high-zinc diet as an alternative to continuous D-penicillamine treatment for the long-term management of canine copper-associated hepatitis. Sixteen affected Labrador retrievers were followed for a median time period of 19.1 months (range, 5.9-39 months) after being effectively treated with D-penicillamine. The dogs were maintained on a diet containing 1.3±0.3 mg copper/1000 kcal and 64.3±5.9 mg zinc/1000 kcal. Liver biopsies were taken every 6 months for histological evaluation and copper determination. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum albumin were determined. Dietary treatment alone was sufficient to maintain hepatic copper concentration below 800 mg/kg dry weight liver in 12 dogs during the study period. Four dogs needed re-treatment with D-penicillamine. ALT activity and albumin concentration were not associated with hepatic copper concentration, but showed a significant association with the stage and grade of hepatitis respectively. In conclusion, a low-copper, high-zinc diet can be a valuable alternative to continuous d-penicillamine administration for long-term management of dogs with copper-associated hepatitis. The copper re-accumulation rate of an individual dog should be considered in the design of a long-term management protocol and in determining re-biopsy intervals. PMID:24439471

Fieten, Hille; Biourge, Vincent C; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

2014-03-01

123

Bio-optical observations of the 2004 Labrador Sea phytoplankton bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique time series of moored bio-optical measurements documented the 2004 spring-summer bloom in the southern Labrador Sea. In situ and satellite chlorophyll data show that chlorophyll levels in the 2004 bloom were at the upper end of those typically observed in this region. Satellite chlorophyll and profiling float temperature/salinity data show that the main bloom, which typically peaks in June/July, is often preceded by ephemeral mixed layer shoaling and a lesser, short-lived bloom in May; this was the case in 2004. The particulate backscatter to beam attenuation ratio (bbp[470 nm]/Cp[660 nm]) showed peaks in the relative abundance of small particles at bloom initiation and during the decline of the bloom, while larger particles dominated during the bloom. Chlorophyll/Cp and bbp/chlorophyll were correlated with carbon export and dominated by changes in the pigment per cell associated with lower light levels due to enhanced attenuation of solar radiation during the bloom. An NPZ (nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton) model captured the phytoplankton bloom and an early July peak in zooplankton. Moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data showed an additional mid-June peak in zooplankton biomass which was attributed to egg-laying copepods. The data reported here represent one of the few moored time series of Cp, bbp and chlorophyll extending over several months in an open ocean region. Interpretation of data sets such as this will become increasingly important as these deployments become more commonplace via ocean observing systems. Moreover, these data contribute to the understanding of biological-physical coupling in a biogeochemically important, yet poorly studied region.

Strutton, Peter G.; Martz, Todd R.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; McGillis, Wade R.; Drennan, William M.; Boss, Emmanuel

2011-11-01

124

A comparison of ground reaction forces during level and cross-slope walking in Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

BackgroundInclined or slippery surfaces and various other types of obstacles are common demands in our environment. Dogs with impaired locomotion might have difficulties to manage rough terrain. Gait analyses using force plates or pressure plates, which are well established to characterize limb loads in human medicine as well as in animals, are mostly limited to level surfaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cross-slope walking in ten healthy Labrador Retrievers using a pressure plate walkway system. The dogs walked over the pressure plate on a level surface, with a lateral elevation angle of 10° (CS1) or 15° (CS2) until five valid trials were achieved. Three measurements were obtained at weekly intervals. Peak vertical force (PFz), vertical impulse (IFz), step length, and velocity were determined.ResultsCompared to level walking (LW), cross-slope walking was associated with a significant decrease in GRF of the up-slope (US) hindlimb, which was compensated for by the down-slope (DS) forelimb. The other diagonal limb pair showed less pronounced effects during CS1, but in CS2 more weight was shifted onto the DS hindlimb during the first two measurements, thus reducing weight on the US forelimb (for IFz). The effect diminished from trial to trial, with GRF values approaching LW standards finally. The IFz was a more sensitive measure than the PFz. The step length of the DS forelimb was significantly decreased in both cross-slope conditions, while the step length of the US forelimb only decreased during CS2.ConclusionsThe dogs adapted their gait pattern and step length to compensate for the discrepancy in apparent leg length caused by the cross-slope. The results suggest that cross-slope walking requires functional musculoskeletal adaptations that may be difficult for animals with impaired locomotion. Further, this knowledge might be of clinical impact for early diagnosis of neurological disorders, mild lameness and proprioceptive deficits. PMID:25262070

Strasser, Therese; Peham, Christian; Bockstahler, Barbara A

2014-09-28

125

Variability and pathways of Labrador Sea Water in the southern subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the variability and spreading of two different modes of Labrador Sea Water (upper and deep LSW) in the southern part of the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic. The analysis is based on hydrographic data gathered along the zonal WOCE-line A2/AR19 located at 43°-48°N (1993-2007) and along the GOOS-line at about 48°-51°N (1997-2002). This data set is complemented by time series records from two moorings installed at the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) during 1996-2004. The results show that due to interactions with the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) close to Flemish Cap, the North Atlantic Current (NAC) detaches these LSW modes away from the boundary and shifts them into the interior of the Newfoundland Basin. The temporal and spatial progressions of hydrographic anomalies point to an eastward spreading from the DWBC towards the MAR with a time scale of 3-6 years. The analysis of the mooring time series reveals an elevated level of variability. This is superimposed on the long-periodic evolution and points to intense eddy activity, thereby considerably influencing the circulation in this region. Despite the large eddy activity the results yield a clear indication of southward spreading of the two LSW components in the western basin as well as near the MAR. Though the interior LSW-route is less pronounced in comparison to the export within the DWBC, it is an important supplier for the interior North Atlantic, thus distributing older and recently formed LSW modes southward along the MAR.

Kieke, D.; Stramma, L.; Klein, B.; Rhein, M.; Koltermann, K.

2009-04-01

126

Export of Labrador Sea Water from the subpolar North Atlantic: A Lagrangian perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from 59 acoustically tracked RAFOS floats obtained during 2003-2008 are analyzed here to study the spreading pathways of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) from the subpolar to subtropical North Atlantic. An earlier paper based on a subset of these float data presented evidence of a potentially important interior pathway for the southward spreading of LSW. Here those results are reinforced with the full data set and new information on LSW pathways around the Grand Banks is presented. About 70% of the RAFOS floats were expelled into the ocean interior east of the Grand Banks and meandered slowly eastward toward the mid-Atlantic ridge, a pathway observed previously with profiling floats. Less than 10% was advected continuously around the Grand Banks by the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). A larger fraction (˜17%) drifted into the subtropical interior from the Tail of the Grand Banks, suggesting that this pathway is at least if not more important than the DWBC pathway for the export of LSW to the subtropics. RAFOS floats released closest to the continental slope at 700 m depth were more likely to rapidly reach subtropical latitudes, mainly because they drifted through Flemish Pass, a 1100 m deep channel between the Grand Banks and the Flemish Cap, which protects fluid parcels from being swept off the continental slope by meanders of the North Atlantic Current. A statistical comparison of the RAFOS trajectories with more than 5000 simulated floats obtained from the Family of Linked Atlantic Models Experiment (FLAME) high-resolution ocean general circulation model reveals a similar pattern of LSW spreading. The RAFOS and simulated floats are also used to show that contrary to a previous modeling study, the isobaric RAFOS floats do not underestimate the amount of LSW that continuously follows the DWBC around the Grand Banks compared to isopycnal floats. These results have implications for the connectivity of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation between the subpolar and the subtropical North Atlantic.

Bower, Amy; Lozier, Susan; Gary, Stefan

2011-09-01

127

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

128

Hawaiian Island Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

1985-01-01

129

Spreading of Labrador Sea Water in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the central subpolar North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its contribution to the deep cold return flow of the meridional overturning circulation Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is probably one of the best studied water masses in the world ocean. Knowledge concerning changes in the formation of LSW in the Labrador Sea has been gained from hydrographic and tracer data now spanning several decades. Time series revealing temporal changes of LSW properties in other regions key regions like the Irminger Sea and the Newfoundland Basin reveal the arrival of the different dense and light types of LSW one to two years after formation. These regions adjacent to the formation region of LSW are easily invaded by LSW since the flow is not particularly hindered by topographic obstacles or barriers. However, for entering the eastern basins of the North Atlantic, LSW has to cross the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) which is facilitated by the existence of several fracture zones. Based on historical, WOCE, and recent hydrographic data derived from ship surveys and Argo profiles, here, we report on the spreading of LSW in the vicinity of the MAR in the central subpolar North Atlantic. We investigate LSW water mass properties in this region and discuss observed changes in the light of the changing formation history of LSW as well as spatial shifts in the location of the Subpolar Front.

Kieke, D.; Rhein, M.; Yashayaev, I.; Klein, B.

2012-04-01

130

Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally

A. E Stevenson; W. K Hynds; P. J Markwell

2003-01-01

131

"Borrowed Black": A Labrador Fantasy from the Book by Ellen Bryan Obed, Adapted for Stage by Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. Cue Sheet for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Borrowed Black: A Labrador Fantasy," by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven reproducible activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) The Story (orienting students to the characters and places…

Brown, Victoria

132

Detrital carbonate-rich sediments, northwestern Labrador Sea: Implications for ice-sheet dynamics and iceberg rafting (Heinrich) events in the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the bed of the central and eastern sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was underlain by Paleozoic carbonates. We propose that pulses of detrital carbonate-rich sediments in two cores from the northwestern Labrador Sea reflect episodes when an ice stream from the Hudson Strait extended to the shelf break and delivered sediment onto the slope and deep-sea plain.

J. T. Andrews; K. Tedesco

1992-01-01

133

Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by direct assimilation of early Archean crustal rocks and/or by fluids that have interacted with such crust. Adjacent anorthositic rocks also show variable ??{lunate}Nd some as low as -14.7, implying larger degrees if crustal assimilation, perhaps by parental magmas during lower crustal ponding prior to emplacement. These contamination effects preclude straightforward determination of the isotopic character of mantle sources for both BLI and the anorthositic rocks. ?? 1992.

Ashwal, L.D.; Wiebe, R.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Snyder, D.

1992-01-01

134

Response to Natural Hazards: Multi-Level Governance Challenges in Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newfoundland and Labrador's perspective on emergency measures in response to natural hazards is shaped by several factors. Climate, meteorology, and terrain are the dominant factors both in the occurrence of events and the responses to them. The economy, dominated by resource-based activities, is a significant influence in accentuating exposure to natural hazards. In this situation, the role of earth scientists is critical. However, effective input from geographers, geomorphologists, and climatologists requires an understanding of the governance regime. For emergency services, both formal public policy responses, informal mechanisms, and the interfacing that exists between public policy mechanisms and social forces are significant. In an era where more and more problems are considered as "interdependent", and require different governmental, social, and professional expertise forces to come together to address objectives, there is interest in exploring and analyzing patterns of communication, interactions and policy learning across inherited silos. A major political-policy struggle is the challenge of managing rural-urban differences in capacity and perspective. Another challenge involves finding ways for professions to merge their protocols and cultures. Embracing best practices associated with natural hazards and emergency preparedness is influenced by the power and independence of various groups involved. Critical events provide windows of opportunity for urging new approaches, but whether these become institutionalized or not normally depends on the interplay of ideas, interests, individuals, and institutions. In coping with natural hazards, renewing governance required finding new incentives to integrate across jurisdictions and disciplinary and governmental-society boundaries. Perception and response to natural hazards is very much connected with the historical-policy context. The pace of effective response indicates the impact of culture, capacity, institutions, and interests in the struggle to shift priorities, especially if these are being imposed externally. Emergency planning involves contestation, shifting priorities, building knowledge capacity, and merging policy and jurisdictional networks based on best practices. It requires renewing governance, coordinating planning, data collection, building infrastructure and establishing a common vision where different interests can work together to promote common values and objectives. However, emergency planning is difficult to change and reform based on a common vision and approach, because the inherited formal and informal structures tend to be very complex multi-disciplinary systems. Not only does this pose difficulties in renewing governance, establishing clear lines of authority, and responsibility across jurisdictions, it is very difficult for previously unrecognized groups to participate. Natural hazard researchers, unfortunately, frequently fit into this latter category.

Catto, N.; Tomblin, S.

2009-04-01

135

Dynamic sedimentation of Paleoproterozoic continental margin iron formation, Labrador Trough, Canada: Paleoenvironments and sequence stratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic Sokoman Formation (ca. 1.88 Ga) of the Labrador Trough, eastern Canada, is a ca. 100-m-thick succession of interbedded iron formation and fine-grained, terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks. Detailed examination of drill cores and outcrops indicates a dynamic paleoshelf where an oxygen-stratified water column, coastal upwelling of hydrothermally derived Fe and Si, as well as tide- and storm-generated currents controlled lithofacies character. Vertical and lateral facies stacking patterns record deposition through two relative sea-level cycles that produced seven distinct lithofacies comprising two unconformity-bounded sequences. Sequence 1 reflects deposition of hematitic peritidal iron formation as deep as the upper shoreface. Sequence 2 is truncated by later erosion and encompasses the change to deeper-water accumulation of magnetite and Fe silicate-rich iron formation. The character and lateral distribution of redox-sensitive facies indicate that iron formation accumulation was controlled as much by shelf hydraulics as oxygen levels. The development of a suboxic surface ocean is interpreted to reflect photosynthetic oxygen production from a combination of peritidal stromatolites and cyanobacterial phytoplankton that flourished in nutrient-rich, upwelled waters offshore. Deposition of other continental margin iron formations also occurred on Paleoproterozoic shelves that were favorably positioned for coastal upwelling. Variability between iron formations reflects intrinsic factors such as shelf profile, fluvial contribution, eolian input, evaporation rates, and coastal current systems, which influenced upwelling dynamics and the delivery of Fe, Si, and nutrients. Aridity onshore was a primary depositional control since it governed the transport and type of diluting terrigenous clastics as well as evaporative precipitation along the coastline. As in the Phanerozoic, unconformities, and transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces frame iron formation sequences, but with important differences. The absence of trace and body fossils as well as lack of terrestrial vegetation can make the recognition of these surfaces difficult. Transgressive surfaces can also be easily mistaken for Phanerozoic-style maximum flooding surfaces since stratigraphic condensation was restricted to inboard environments during ravinement. Outboard the accumulation of fresh precipitates increased sedimentation to produce a maximum flooding surface not usually marked by a prominent depositional hiatus. Understanding these differences is essential for establishing an accurate sequence stratigraphic framework. Such context is the backdrop for properly interpreting the sedimentology, oceanography, microbial ecology, and geochemistry of continental margin iron formations.

Pufahl, P. K.; Anderson, S. L.; Hiatt, E. E.

2014-07-01

136

Correlation of Brunhes detrital-layer stratigraphy into the North Atlantic from Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Site U1302-U1303, on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), has a record of detrital layers that extends through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (?18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (>106 ?m), magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic grain-size peaks. The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 (re-drill of DSDP Site 609) in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to MIS16, however, these same proxies at Site U1302/03 indicate detrital layers distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. At Site U1302/03, we distinguish Heinrich-type layers in glacial stages, which are associated with IRD (some of which have near-synchronous analogues at Site U1308), from detrital layers within interglacial stages manifested by multiple detrital layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to a distinct depositional process, namely drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby NAMOC (North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel).

Channell, J. E.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O. E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Roehl, U.

2011-12-01

137

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

138

Pine Island Glacier  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View Larger Image ... (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left ...

2013-04-16

139

Galapagos Islands Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-03-13

140

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

141

Overwash on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

142

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

143

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

144

Malignant uveal schwannoma with peripheral nerve extension in a 12-week-old color-dilute labrador retriever.  

PubMed

The formalin-fixed, amber-colored right globe from a 12-week-old female silver Labrador Retriever dog was submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for light microscopic evaluation. The clinical history described a collapsed anterior chamber and multifocal nodular lesions in the peripheral iris. Histologically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally, the uveal mass was consistent with a malignant schwannoma; there was extension along peripheral nerves within the sclera. The signalment and behavior of the neoplasm distinguish it from the uveal schwannoma of blue-eyed dogs and bear some resemblance to the ocular lesions in human neurofibromatosis. The dilute color mutation may contribute to the cause. Six weeks later, the dog did not develop any additional masses. PMID:24513800

Duke, F D; Teixeira, L B C; Galle, L E; Green, N; Dubielzig, R R

2015-01-01

145

Anonymous HIV testing: what does it mean in policy and practice? A case study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.  

PubMed

HIV infection is not a legally notifiable disease at the national level in Canada; however, provincial and territorial officials voluntarily undertake notification to the Public Health Agency of Canada. A case study involving four community-based sites in Newfoundland and Labrador found that the absence of clear legislation concerning HIV testing presented challenges for nurses who had to interpret and comply with provincial legislation and agency policy while meeting the needs of test-seekers. This ambiguous messaging is part of other conflicting information about the availability of anonymous HIV testing that, along with other factors, may contribute to under-testing and under-diagnosis in the province. From a social justice perspective, developing a national HIV strategy and amending legislation to facilitate anonymous HIV testing might provide clearer direction to nurses and agencies, and promote public health by improving service delivery and increasing testing in under-tested, higher-risk-taking populations. PMID:24759055

Hancock, Amanda; Gustafson, Diana L

2014-01-01

146

Geochronology and Thermochronology of the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure, Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and precise dating of terrestrial impact structures is one of our most powerful tools for constraining the bombardment history of the inner Solar System, but reliable data are available for only about 10% of the known structures on Earth. Most of the reliable dates were obtained by applying the U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic techniques to glasses and minerals crystallized from impact melts. Unfortunately, impact melt-bearing impactites are easily eroded and have not been found in many impact structures. Recent research has shown, however, that impact events also have the capacity to reset some target rock isotopic systems that are typically used on Earth for low-temperature thermochronometry (e.g., (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite). For impact structures sufficiently large to have produced impact melt sheets, the combination of geochronology of neoblastic minerals from the impact sheet as well as thermochronology of appropriate minerals from the target rocks can provide valuable insights regarding not just the age of impact but the thermal evolution of the structure during and after impact. We are conducting such research at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in northern Labrador, Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The 28 km-diameter Mistastin structure is regarded as an excellent analogue for lunar impact structures in that the target rocks are Mesoproterozoic anorthosites, mangerites, and granodiorites. Previous attempts to date the Mistastin impact event using by U-Pb geochronology of zircons found within its thick impact melt sheet yielded only pre-impact target rock ages (Marion and Sylvester, 2010, Planetary and Space Science 58), implying that impact temperatures did not reach high enough temperatures for long enough to reset the U-Pb chronometer. Mak et al. (1976, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 31) reported several whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dates for crystalline impact melt rock that imply an impact age of ca. 36 Ma. We are exploring the use of two different mineral-isotopic techniques for dating the Mistastin impact event: conventional zircon (U-Th)/He and laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar on impact melts. Thus far, we have (U-Th)/He zircon data for both target rocks and impact melt rocks that indicate an impact age of 35.8 × 1.0 Ma at the 95% confidence level but also show that the degree of resetting of the (U-Th)/He zircon chronometer was highly variable within the impact site. In addition to these data, the presentation will include new laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar data for impact melt rocks collected throughout the crater that should reveal the extent of Ar isotopic homogeneity in sampled materials.

Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.; Mercer, C. M.; Osinski, G. R.; Marion, C.

2013-12-01

147

Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results with allergen sampling data for male and female job areas showed a gender difference in median cumulative exposures (duration of exposurexlevel of exposures) for health assessment participants. Health assessment participants with estimated higher median cumulative exposures were more likely to receive a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable OA and allergy. Semistructured interviews with 27 health assessment participants (24 female/ 3 male) with a diagnosis of almost certain/highly probable or possible snow crab OA indicated that these workers can experience substantial quality of life impacts while working and that they seek to reduce the economic impact of their illness by remaining at their jobs as long as possible. Indications of selection bias and other study limitations point to the need for more research exploring the relationship between the gender division of labor and knowledge, beliefs, and concerns about snow crab processing, as well as gender differences in prevalence, quality of life, and socioeconomic impact.

Howse, Dana [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., Canada A1B 3V6 (Canada); Gautrin, Denyse [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Neis, Barbara [SafetyNet, Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, Nfld., A1B 3V6 (Canada)]. E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre [Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Que., H4J 1C5 (Canada); Horth-Susin, Lise [Valley Regional Hospital, Kentville, NS, B4N 5E3 (Canada); Jong, Michael [Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University and Health Labrador Corporation, Happy Valley, NL, AOP 1EO (Canada); Swanson, Mark C. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

2006-06-15

148

Assessment of articular cartilage and subchondral bone using EPIC-microCT in Labrador retrievers with incipient medial coronoid disease.  

PubMed

The aetiopathogenesis of medial coronoid disease (MCD) remains obscure, despite its high prevalence. The role of changes to subchondral bone or articular cartilage is much debated. Although there is evidence of micro-damage to subchondral bone, it is not known whether this is a cause or a consequence of MCD, nor is it known whether articular cartilage is modified in the early stages of the disease. The aim of the present study was to use equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent with micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate changes to both the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone of the medial coronoid processes (MCP) of growing Labrador retrievers at an early stage of the disease and at different bodyweights. Of 14 purpose-bred Labrador retrievers (15-27 weeks), six were diagnosed with bilateral MCD and one was diagnosed with unilateral MCD on the basis of microCT studies. The mean X-ray attenuation of articular cartilage was significantly higher in dogs with MCD than in dogs without MCD (P<0.01). In all dogs, the mean X-ray attenuation of articular cartilage was significantly higher at the lateral (P<0.001) than at the proximal aspect of the MCP, indicating decreased glycosaminoglycan content. Changes in parameters of subchondral bone micro-architecture, namely the ratio of bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/TV), bone surface to volume ratio (BS/BV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; mm), size of marrow cavities described by trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp; mm), and structural model index (SMI), differed significantly by litter (P<0.05) due to the difference in age and weight, but not by the presence/absence of MCD (P>0.05), indicating that subchondral bone density is not affected in early MCD. This study demonstrated that cartilage matrix and not subchondral bone density is affected in the early stages of MCD. PMID:23846028

Lau, S F; Wolschrijn, C F; Siebelt, M; Vernooij, J C M; Voorhout, G; Hazewinkel, H A W

2013-10-01

149

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

150

Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization  

PubMed Central

In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

2012-01-01

151

The Merits of Piping Jeanne D'arc Gas to the AvalonThe Merits of Piping Jeanne D'arc Gas to the Avalon Dr. Stephen Bruneau, P.EngDr. Stephen Bruneau, P.Eng  

E-print Network

, P.Eng 22 -- Labrador Hydro PowerLabrador Hydro Power Sell Labrador hydro power at a premium Capacity OptionsNew Electrical Capacity Options 1.1. OilOil--based thermal.based thermal. 2.2. HVDC Hydro infeed from Labrador.HVDC Hydro infeed from Labrador. 3.3. OnOn--Island Hydro procurement.Island Hydro

Bruneau, Steve

152

Surface evolution of faceted islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ge islands were grown on Si(0 0 1) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy and their surface was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The facets composing the island surface were identified and their area was measured as a function of island size. Three kinds of islands were observed: pyramids, dome shaped islands and large dislocated islands. A statistical analysis revealed that domes do not ripen in a self-similar way. The main facets composing the surface of dislocated islands were identified.

Rastelli, Armando; von Känel, Hans

2002-09-01

153

Island Biogeography and Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MacArthur and Wilson’s theory (1967) set out to identify and measure the variables involved in the colonisation of islands\\u000a by biota and their subsequent evolution or extinction. The key biogeographical variables identified by their theory were island\\u000a size and distance from the mainland. They suggested that an island’s biodiversity is proportionate to the island’s size (i.e.\\u000a the larger the island

Ioannis Vogiatzakis; Geoffrey H. Griffiths

154

9/18/09 2:30 PMYour Newz -LifeCoach: alternative activities for Labradors -Similar news Page 1 of 4http://www.yournewz.com/similar/12592136/2009/08/25/category=0/source=0/0/LifeCoach:+alternative+activities+for+Labradors  

E-print Network

' Theory Offers Alternative to Dark Energy (SPACE.com) »Read it SPACE.com - Mathematicians have proposed idea of dark energy. Alternative proposal for Army training site also draws concerns »Read it A day9/18/09 2:30 PMYour Newz - LifeCoach: alternative activities for Labradors - Similar news Page 1

Temple, Blake

155

Evaluation of Labrador Sea Water formation in a global Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model setup, based on a comparison with observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

deep water formation in the Labrador Sea is simulated with the Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM) in a regionally focused, but globally covered model setup. The model has a regional resolution of up to 7 km, and the simulations cover the time period 1958-2009. We evaluate the capability of the model setup to reproduce a realistic deep water formation in the Labrador Sea. Two classes of modeled Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the lighter upper LSW (uLSW) and the denser deep LSW (dLSW), are analyzed. Their layer thicknesses are compared to uLSW and dLSW layer thicknesses derived from observations in the formation region for the time interval 1988-2009. The results indicate a suitable agreement between the modeled and observational derived uLSW and dLSW layer thicknesses except for the period 2003-2007 where deviations in the modeled and observational derived layer thicknesses could be linked to discrepancies in the atmospheric forcing of the model. It is shown that the model is able to reproduce four phases in the temporal evolution of the potential density, temperature, and salinity, since the late 1980s, which are known in observational data. These four phases are characterized by a significantly different LSW formation. The first phase from 1988 to 1990 is characterized in the model by a fast increase in the convection depth of up to 2000 m, accompanied by an increased spring production of deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW). In the second phase (1991-1994), the dLSW layer thickness remains on a high level for several years, while the third phase (1995-1998) features a gradual decrease in the deep ventilation and the renewal of the deep ocean layers. The fourth phase from 1999 to 2009 is characterized by a slowly continuing decrease of the dLSW layer thickness on a deeper depth level. By applying a composite map analysis between an index of dLSW and sea level pressure over the entire simulation period from 1958 to 2009, it is shown that a pattern which resembles the structure of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the main triggers for the variability of LSW formation. Our model results indicate that the process of dLSW formation can act as a low-pass filter to the atmospheric forcing, so that only persistent NAO events have an effect, whether uLSW or dLSW is formed. Based on composite maps of the thermal and haline contributions to the surface density flux we can demonstrate that the central Labrador Sea in the model is dominated by the thermal contributions of the surface density flux, while the haline contributions are stronger over the branch of the Labrador Sea boundary current system (LSBCS), where they are dominated by the haline contributions of sea ice melting and formation. Our model results feature a shielding of the central Labrador Sea from the haline contributions by the LSBCS, which only allows a minor haline interaction with the central Labrador Sea by lateral mixing. Based on the comparison of the simulated and measured LSW layer thicknesses as well as vertical profiles of potential density, temperature, and salinity it is shown that the FESOM model is a suitable tool to study the regional dynamics of LSW formation and its impact on a global, not regional restricted, scale.

Scholz, P.; Kieke, D.; Lohmann, G.; Ionita, M.; Rhein, M.

2014-03-01

156

Warming and salinification of Labrador Sea Water and deep waters in the subpolar North Atlantic at 60°N in 1997-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative estimate of the temperature and salinity variations in the Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is given on the basis of the analysis of repeated observations over a transatlantic section along 60°N in 1997, 2002, 2004, and 2006. The changes distinguished in the research evidence strong warming and salinification in the layers of the Labrador Sea Water and deep waters at the latitude of the section. The maximum increments of the temperature (+0.35°C) and salinity (+0.05 psu) were found in the Irminger Basin in the core of the deep LSW, whose convective renewal in the Labrador Sea stopped in the mid-1990s. The long-term freshening of the ISOW, which started in the mid-1960s, changed in the mid-1990s to a period of intense stable warming and salinification of this water. By 2005, the salinity in the core of the ISOW in the Iceland Basin increased to the values (˜34.99 psu) characteristic of the mid-1970s. In 2002, the warming “signal” of the ISOW reached the Irminger Basin. From 1997 to 2006, the warming and salinification of the columns of the Labrador Sea Water and deep waters became as high as 0.2°C and 0.03 psu, respectively. The character of the long-term variations in the thermohaline properties of the LSW and ISOW from the 1950s evidence that these variations were nearly in-phase and correlated with the low-frequency component of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Sarafanov, A. A.; Sokov, A. V.; Falina, A. S.

2009-04-01

157

Fluvial features in the deep-sea: new insights from the glacigenic submarine drainage system of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel in the Labrador Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-scan sonar imagery and seismic profiles from the submarine drainage system of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC) of the Labrador Sea reveal the presence of a variety of fluvial features in the deep-sea. The analogies extend from meso-scale features to the basin-wide drainage pattern. At basin-scale, the NAMOC submarine drainage system consists of downslope converging tributary canyons on the

Ingo Klaucke; Reinhard Hesse

1996-01-01

158

The Flores Island tsunamis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On

Harry Yeh; Fumihiko Imamura; Costas Synolakis; Yoshinobu Tsuji; Philip Liu; Shaozhong Shi

1993-01-01

159

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

160

Stewart Head from Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

161

On the formation of ultra-thick sedimentary basins on rifted margins: a comparison of the Scotian and Labrador margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary basins that form on rifted continental margins exhibit a great variety of shapes and sizes. In particular, the total sediment thickness can vary significantly and in certain sub-basins can approach 15-20 km. The deeper structure of these ultra-thick basins is typically not well resolved by seismic reflection profiles due to poor penetration within the thickest parts of the basin. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles can help resolve these deeper features. We compare two such sub-basins that occur on the eastern Canadian margins, where reflection and refraction profiles are able to define the complete sedimentary and crustal structures: the Sable sub-basin on the northeast Nova Scotian margin and the Hopedale sub-basin on the central Labrador margin. We compare the development of these basins by converting the sediment refraction velocities to density and back-stripping assuming local isostasy. Although these basins formed during completely different episodes of rifting on different types of continental crust, we find a surprising similarity in the characteristics of crustal thinning across each margin, especially for the lower crust. Initial thinning of the crust by 50-60% occurs within 50 km followed by more gradual thinning over the subsequent 100 km. This leaves a tongue of lower continental crust extending 150 km seaward of the unstretched continental crust. This outer region becomes the location of the thickest initial sediment deposition, followed by up-building and out-building of the shelf. The local form of this deposition differs between the two margins: with much larger syn- and immediately post-rift sediments on the Scotian margin and thicker recent deposition on the Labrador margin, probably controlled by the local availability of sediment fill. Comparison with previous models of rifting based on borehole observations for the Scotia margin compare well with the overall width of the rifting (150 km), but our results suggest more rapid initial crustal thinning. By comparison, the conjugate margins of SW Greenland and Morocco are much narrower, do not have the broad region of thinned lower continental crust and have much smaller sediment thicknesses primarily located seaward of the continental shelf and slope. These features are all evidence for asymmetric rifting during late stages of extension.

Louden, K.; Funck, T.

2003-12-01

162

PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997-1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during 1997-1999 ranged from 0.24 to 62000 ng/g (dry weight) and decreased exponentially with distance from the contaminated beach. Given this gradient, spatial trends of PCBs in the food web were examined over four zones, according to distance from the contaminated beach: within 1.5 km--zone one, 1.5-4.5 km--zone two, 4.5-7.5 km--zone three, and greater than 7.5 km--zone four. PCB concentrations in a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), decreased significantly from zone one to zone two, three, four, and distant Labrador reference sites. PCB concentrations in the eggs of a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle) were as high as 48000 ng/g during 1997-1999 and average concentrations in zones one and two were 84 and 13 times higher than in zone four. Marine invertebrates closely reflected the concentrations of PCBs in the associated sediment. In contrast to the benthic-based food web, anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) showed no evidence of PCB accumulation from the contaminated sediments. Relatively high PCB concentrations were discovered in some great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) but appear to relate more to their high trophic level than sampling location. Those species that fed on or near the seabed and had limited foraging ranges were strongly influenced by the local contamination. Total PCB concentrations in the benthic-based food web were significantly higher than background levels for a distance of at least 7.5 km from the contaminated beach. This area is small in the context of widely distributed contamination from long-range transport but the area's high concentrations are comparable to levels associated with adverse effects elsewhere. Our findings should be useful to better assess the environmental impacts of PCB contamination at other coastal sites in the Arctic. PMID:16085280

Kuzyk, Z A; Stow, J P; Burgess, N M; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

2005-12-01

163

Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Emslie, R.F.

1986-01-01

164

Barnacles on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

165

Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic island sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original island sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.

166

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

167

Intervention in Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late 1990s Solomon Islands had been moving towards the status of a ‘failed state’. Corruption was widespread and there was considerable resentment expressed by Guadalcanal people towards immigrants from the neighbouring island of Malaita, because of the perceived economic gains made by the latter at the former's expense. Conflict over this issue led to the coup of 5

Derek McDougall

2004-01-01

168

A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Results One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. Conclusion The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL. PMID:24690512

2014-01-01

169

Stable isotope analysis of some representative fish and invertebrates of the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of 17 fish and 16 invertebrate taxa common to the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) continental shelf food web. Particular sampling emphasis was placed on Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and related prey species (e.g. shrimp, Pandalus borealis, and capelin, Mallotus villosus). We found highly significant ( p < 0.0001) differences between near-shore (bays) and offshore (shelf edge) ?15N signatures for cod, 'other fish' (pooled) and invertebrates (pooled). In contrast, there were only minor differences in ?13C signatures of 'other fish' ( p < 0.05) and no difference for cod and invertebrates among the two habitats. We sampled at two times of the year (January and June) and found no systematic effect of season on both ?13C and ?15N in cod, 'other fish' and invertebrates. We calculated isotopic fractionation factors for cod from the entire shelf (mixed diet) and for cod with diets composed mainly of capelin or shrimp. These values ranged between 2.2‰ and 3.9‰ for ?15N and -0.4‰ and 0.8‰ for ?13C and, for ?15N, may reflect diet-related differences in bioenergetic status. We discuss potential mechanisms for near-shore versus offshore enrichment of ?15N signatures, and demonstrate the implications of this spatial variation on ?15N-derived trophic position estimates.

Sherwood, Graham D.; Rose, George A.

2005-06-01

170

Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

171

Conservation Strategy for Sable Island  

E-print Network

Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

Jones, Ian L.

172

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

173

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles; Geography Department)

2007-09-21

174

Island Watershed Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

Benson, Rod

2003-01-01

175

Heat Island Effect  

MedlinePLUS

... temperatures also promote the formation of ground-level ozone. Compromised human health and comfort : Warmer days and ... island mitigation is part of a community's energy, air quality, water, or sustainability effort. Activities to reduce heat ...

176

Christmas Island birds returning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

177

Mapping Staten Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Staten Island has been in the news recently due to the severity of the damage wrought by Hurricane Sandy. For those wishing to know more about the history of this venerable community, this website is a gem. Mapping Staten Island is part of an in situ exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York that looks at the geography and history of Staten Island. The exhibit examines the borough's historical transformation through maps, government documents, and newspapers. By clicking on the Explore the Maps section, visitors can use a graphic interface that overlays dozens of historic maps, including an 1845 land use map and a 1781 chart and harbor map of the area, on the contemporary geography of Staten Island. Also, visitors can use the scroll bar near the bottom of the page to look at the maps in a chronological fashion.

178

Photographs of Tinian Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of photographs depicts the 509th Composite Bomb Group on Tinian Island in the Pacific, the crews of the Enola Gay and Bock's Car, and actual atomic bombs that were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Christopher Griffith

179

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

180

Island Inequality Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two islands, and their fish always swims toward the island with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

2009-01-15

181

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Lisa Gardiner

182

Younger Dryas and Holocene oceanography of the western Labrador Sea region based on foraminifera and sediment proxies from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical analyses from three marine sediment cores from Placentia Bay on the southwest coast of Newfoundland captured the evolving surface and subsurface environment of the eastern Labrador Sea during the late glacial and Holocene. The area, which is today located in the boundary zone between the Arctic Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream in the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea was during the early part of the Younger Dryas (13.0-12.3 cal. kyr BP) dominated by cold, Arctic conditions and heavy sea-ice cover linked to a strong Polar Water component of the Inner Labrador Current. In the later part of the Younger Dryas (12.3-11.5 kyr BP) the influence of the Labrador Current (LC) became less pronounced resulting in more unstable conditions with varying sea-ice cover and increased influence of Gulf Stream water, presumably linked to an increased strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The earliest Holocene (11.5-10.4 kyr BP) saw slightly warmer subsurface conditions in Placentia Bay and increased productivity, presumably caused by a decreased southward transport of Polar Water via the LC. The onset of a strong AMOC caused the northward movement of the frontal zone between the Subpolar Gyre and the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre in the western North Atlantic region to closer proximity to the southern coast of Newfoundland compared to previously. From ca. 10.4-9.65 kyr BP increased bottom-current speeds and the presence of species often found in connection to oceanic fronts, suggest a further strengthening of the AMOC causing inflow of Atlantic-source water into Placentia Bay. This tendency was further strengthened at 9.65-7.3 kyr BP, which saw a relatively strong inflow of Atlantic-source Gulf Stream water into Placentia Bay, evidenced by high frequencies of Cassidulina neoteretis. This inflow of Atlantic was however temporarily halted around 8.2 kyr BP, when a short-lived, extreme peak in Globobulimina auriculata arctica suggests reduced bottom-water stratification. This may have been caused by an increased freshwater release from the Canadian Arctic, linked to the well-known 8.2-kyr event. Around 7.3 kyr BP, the inflow of warmer subsurface waters decreased, when subsurface waters of Placentia Bay returned to relatively cold, subarctic conditions. An enhanced influx of lower-saline water is inferred both by the presence of Elphidium bartletti, indicating an increased flux of meltwater from the Arctic entering Placentia Bay. This fresher water was likely transported by the Labrador Current and strong northerly winds. This scenario was again interrupted around ca 4.4 kyr BP, when higher C. neoteretis again suggest increase influx of Gulf Stream water, a tendency that continued until today, although with possibly slightly better mixing of LC and GS water after ~2.7 kyr BP. This decrease in the strength of the LC, may be linked to a decreased southward flow of LC water due to decreased meltwater release from the Canadian Arctic or due to a shift to a generally more negative Northern Annular Mode.

Sheldon, Christina; Pearce, Christof; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Reynisson, Njáll F.; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Juncker Hansen, Mette

2014-05-01

183

Conservation of the Island Spotted Skunk and Island Fox in a Recovering Island Ecosystenl  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review available information on the ecolo­ gy of island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis santacruzae) on Santa Cruz Island, with a focus on recent research, and present new infonnation on distribution and abundance. Our objective is to evaluate the present and future status of skunks and foxes in the context of ongoing island recov­

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

184

Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.  

PubMed

Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a ?(2) statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001). Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia. PMID:24498183

Lavrijsen, Ineke C M; Leegwater, Peter A J; Martin, Alan J; Harris, Stephen J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Heuven, Henri C M; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

2014-01-01

185

Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs.  

PubMed

Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5-25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance the osseointegration of SLA surfaces and have the potential for future use. PMID:25609967

Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

2015-01-01

186

Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs  

PubMed Central

Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5–25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance the osseointegration of SLA surfaces and have the potential for future use. PMID:25609967

Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

2015-01-01

187

Analysis of Labrador Sea Water in the subpolar North Atlantic by using sulphurhexafluoride as a transient tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate two different modes of Labrador Sea Water (upper and deep LSW) by means of combined measurements of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) and chlorofluorocarbon (component CFC-12). In 2008 and 2009, two basin-wide surveys including hydrographic and tracer measurements have been conducted in the western subpolar North Atlantic. Both surveys aimed at estimating the recent formation and describing subsequent spreading of these two LSW types in the subpolar gyre. The SF6 signal observed in the water column of the subpolar gyre, basically, has two sources. On the one hand side, SF6 has been artificially added to the ocean in the framework of an deliberate tracer release experiment conducted in the Nordic Seas back in 1996. While leaving the Greenland Sea parts of this signal entered the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) which represents the bottom layer in the subpolar gyre. Away from the overflow regions LSW is well separated from the bottom layer by Iceland Scotland Overflow Water that originates in the eastern basin and has a tracer minimum. The tracer load in the LSW layers stems from atmosphere-ocean interaction. This transient signal has a well known atmospheric time history with an linearly increasing trend, whereas tracers chlorofluorocarbons meanwhile have a stagnant or even declining atmospheric history. SF6 is therefore much more appropriate to clearly allocate any gain of SF6 in the LSW layers to water mass formation during winter time. In this study we will present first basin-wide inventories from combined SF6 and CFC-12 measurement and analyze and compare the different fingerprints of LSW formation and spreading. Respective results will be compared to a large-scale survey conducted in 2003 that also yielded SF6 and CFC-12 data.

Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Bulsiewicz, Klaus; Tanhua, Toste

2010-05-01

188

Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will also investigate the conditions necessary for a barrier island attractor similar to those found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to become unstable.

Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

2012-12-01

189

Heron Island, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

2002-01-01

190

Restoration of a tropical island: Cousine Island, Seychelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical island species and ecosystems are threatened worldwide as a result of increasing human pressure. Yet some of these\\u000a islands also lend themselves to restoration, as they are physically defined units that can be given focused attention, as\\u000a long as resources are available and clear conservation targets are set. Cousine Island, Seychelles, is a tropical island that\\u000a has received such

Michael J. Samways; Peter M. Hitchins; Orty Bourquin; Jock Henwood

2010-01-01

191

Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

Edwards, Edmundo

192

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

193

Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

194

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

195

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

196

Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks  

E-print Network

SpeciesArea Curve H.C. Watson (1859) Arrhenius(1921) S = cAz Gleason (1922) log(S) = log(c) + zlog(A) Is the relationship between species and area linear? Island Biogeography Theory ­ (1963 with increase in species richness? #12;Both immigration and extinction lines are curved. (?) Any assumptions

Jodice, Patrick

197

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

198

GREEN HOMES LONG ISLAND  

E-print Network

energy bill, reduce your carbon footprint... at little or no cost to you. #12;A Message From Supervisor energy-efficient and reduce our community's carbon footprint. Why do we call it Long Island Green Homes to yourevery day. By making basic improvements to yourevery day home, you can reduce your carbon footprint

Kammen, Daniel M.

199

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

200

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2002-01-10

201

Syntactic Islands in Uyghur  

E-print Network

...........................................................................................................................55 vi Abbreviations 1 1st person 2 2nd person 3 3rd person ABL ablative case ACC accusative case ATB Across the Board Movement AUX auxiliary CAUS causative CNPC Complex Noun Phrase Constraint CSC Coordinate Structure... the complex noun phrase constraint (CNPC), wh-islands, and the coordinate structure constraint (CSC) in Uyghur. With regard to the CNPC, I provide evidence that nominalized embedded clauses, non-nominal embedded clauses, and relative clauses (nominal...

Major, Travis

2014-05-31

202

Leyte Island, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991, three weeks prior to the taking of this photo can still be seen on Leyte, (10.5N, 125.0E). Flash floods and mud slides triggered by the heavy rainfall and aggravated by logging operations on the mountain slopes, added to the general destruction caused by the storm. Fresh water runoff (lens) into the ocean are still evident as numerous bright semi circles around the island perimeter.

1991-01-01

203

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

204

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

205

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that âÂÂâ¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

206

A possible outburst flood early during the last interglacial (MIS 5e) recorded in sediments on Orphan Knoll and Eirik Drift, Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identified a distinct red, detrital-carbonate layer deposited during early MIS 5e in cores from the Labrador Sea. Sediment records from Orphan Knoll (IODP site U1302/3: 50o 10' N, 45o 38' W) and Eirik Drift (IODP site U1305: 57o 29' N, 48o 32' W) both contain obvious red layers (~30 and ~10 cm thick respectively) marked by high values of the a* parameter in colour reflectance space. The first derivative of the reflectance spectrum suggests that the red colour is imparted by hematite in the sediment. We present high-resolution core-scanning XRF records from both sites showing increases in Ca/Sr indicating high concentrations of detrital carbonate in the red layers. The wt% of >106?m size fraction is negligible across the layer and the layer is marked by a low in magnetic susceptibility, indicating that the layer is mostly clay to very fine sand without a noticeable IRD component. The detrital carbonate in the red layer is similar to deposits associated with Heinrich Events that are sourced from Hudson Strait; however, the absence of IRD and deposition during an interglacial period preclude the possibility of surging of a large ice sheet. We therefore speculate that the red, fine-grained detrital-carbonate layer may have been deposited by a glacial outburst flood from Hudson Strait during early MIS 5e. The final drainage of lake Agassiz at 8.2ka resulted in the deposition of a red layer in the western Hudson Strait, but there is no evidence of a similar red, detrital-carbonate layer in the open Labrador Sea. The 8.2ka event is known to have several climatic repercussions and if, as we speculate, a similar event occurs during the Eemian its impact should be recorded in other high-resolution regional climate records.

Hodell, D. A.; Nicholl, J. A.; Channell, J. E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; McCave, I. N.; Romero, O. E.

2011-12-01

207

Pathogenicity islands: the tip of the iceberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity islands represent distinct genetic elements encoding virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenicity islands belong to the class of genomic islands, which are common genetic elements sharing a set of unifying features. Genomic islands have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In recent years many different genomic islands have been discovered in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic

Ute Hentschel; Jörg Hacker

2001-01-01

208

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

209

Galveston Island and erosion  

E-print Network

. VITA 73 74 80 85 97 101 115 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Ai rphoto Scale Determination with the Aid of a Base Map . . 16 2. Actual-vs-l4easured Photo Scale and Resulting Error 3. Tropical Cyclones Affecting the Texas Coast from 1952...-1983 17 64 4. Projected Sea-level Rise 72 5. Potential Sand Sources and Sinks for Galveston Island . . . . 80 Al. Vegetation-line Changes on West Beach from July 3, 1977 to September 22, 1983; Impact of Recent Storm Events AZ. Changes...

Bolleter, Jim Mason

2012-06-07

210

Urban heat island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

Kim, Hongsuk H.

1991-01-01

211

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

212

19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

213

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand  

E-print Network

Racquel Maronde Location: North Island and South Island, New Zealand Term: January Term ESPM Track in New Zealand Visiting New Zealand was the most amazing experience of my life. You travel a lot and get to see every possible landscape of New Zealand - rainforests, mountains, caves, beaches, etc. The most we

Minnesota, University of

214

Dermaptera of Niue Island, and material from the Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dermapteran faunas of Niue Island and the Cook Islands are composed entirely of cosmopolitan species. Niue I. has two species, Chelisoches morio and Euborellia annulipes (the latter is a new record). The Cook Is have three species—the two found on Niue, and Marava arachidis, which is a new record.

Logan Hudson

1974-01-01

215

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

216

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Yow, Donald M.

217

FIRST COMPLETE MIGRATION CYCLES FOR JUVENILE BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) FROM LABRADOR DAWN K. LAING AND DAVID M. Brad Arian Science and Conservation Centre, McGill University, 2i, ii i Laheshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented complete annual migratory cycles for five hatch-year Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from central Labrador, Canada. We attached backpack-mounted Platform Transmitter Ter- minals (PTT) to track hatch-year eagle movements from their natal areas. The median departure date from natal areas was 26 October 2002, with the earliest departure occurring on 7 October 2002 and the latest on 12 November

TONY E. CHUBBS

218

Murre Colony on Prince Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

219

Tidal Pool on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

220

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

221

The Theory of Island Biogeography  

E-print Network

The Theory of Island Biogeography Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson The young biologists" dominated by the collection of data. In The Theory of Island Biogeography they set out to change that by devel- oping a general mathema- tical theory that would make sense of a key ecological problem

Landweber, Laura

222

Roentgenologic aspects of bone islands.  

PubMed

A review of radiographs of 143 Adult Health Study and 46 non-sample subjects made over a period of 23 years established sites, sizes, ages at detection, and prevalence of 209 bone islands in 189 subjects. Except for 18 new bone islands, all appeared during the period of observation. Twenty-six of them changed: of these, 21 enlarged, 4 became smaller, and 1 disappeared. There was no association with atomic bomb radiation dose. Bone islands were more frequent in the pelvis and femora but often occurred in the ribs. Five bone islands in adolescents enlarged proportionally to bone growth, suggesting that they often participate metabolically in the normal osseous system. Bone islands must be differentiated from osteoblastic metastases. PMID:870936

Onitsuka, H

1977-06-01

223

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

224

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

225

Investigation of islands in stellarator designs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Islands are a crucial issue in designing stellarators such as NCSX. The presence of islands is associated with radial magnetic fields and results in poor plasma confinement. It is important to identify what is the physical cause of the islands, and whether the islands may be controlled using boundary perturbations, provided by trim coils. Computationally, equilibria with islands are calculated using PIES, and island widths and resonant perturbations may be determined. Analytic expressions of island width are used to identify the causes of island formation. Perturbations to the plasma boundary can be used in an attempt to manipulate island formation. A numerical procedure is described, and the results of island optimization are presented. By manipulating the phase of zero beta islands, self-healing effects are examined.

Hudson, S. R.; Monticello, D. A.; Reiman, A. H.

2000-10-01

226

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

227

PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software  

PubMed Central

The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

2012-01-01

228

Global Collembola on Deception Island.  

PubMed

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

229

Global Collembola on Deception Island  

PubMed Central

Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

2012-01-01

230

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

Theme Park at the Universal Studios Orlando Resort. Islands of Adventure is a wonderful world of fantasyHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun This Saturday, February 7th, the ELI is headed to Islands of Adventure

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

231

Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices  

E-print Network

Highlights Islands of Adventure New ELI Offices Notes from the Office Manners, Culture, & Grammar TheELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! Islands of Adventure is a theme park in Orlando: The cost of transportation is $20 for a seat on the bus. Islands of Adventure tickets cost $92. What

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

232

Turbulence in Coastal Fronts near the Mouths of Block Island and Long Island Sounds  

E-print Network

Turbulence in Coastal Fronts near the Mouths of Block Island and Long Island Sounds Edward R near the mouths of Block Island Sound (BIS) and Long Island Sound (LIS). These measurements extend from; Finestructure; Mixing processes; Coastal; Autonomous underwater vehicle; USA, New York, Long Island Sound; USA

Goodman, Louis

233

Wild Ponies on Assateague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

234

Oil Spill Threatens Galapagos Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 16, the aging Ecuadorean tanker "Jessica" ran aground on San Cristobal Island, threatening the delicate ecosystem of the Galapagos Islands, famous as the location for much of Charles Darwin's key research. The Galapagos, 97 percent of which is a national park, is perhaps the last complete and preserved island archipelago. The captain of the ship has since accepted responsibility for misjudging his entry into the bay and running the ship aground, spilling approximately 160,000 gallons of oil. Efforts continue to refloat the ship and remove the 10,000 gallons left inside. Fortunately, favorable winds and currents have limited the amount of oil washing up on the Galapagos Islands, but the long-term effects remain to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

2001-01-01

235

Vanishing Island: Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features interviews with native people living on atoll islands in Micronesia, so viewers are able to understand the real, current threats that these people are facing due to climate change.

Halbert, Massy; Lyon, Jim; Yasutake, Mike; Lyon

236

Tsunami trapping near circular islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trapping of long water waves that are induced by submarine earthquakes and that attack circular islands is studied by applying a theoretical model ( Tinti and Vannini, 1994) that is based on the linear shallow water approximation. The solution is computed as the superposition of the eigenmodes of the water basin. The tsunami trapping is seen in terms of the capability of the source to excite the “trapped” eigenmodes of the basin. The bottom depth dependence around the island is shown to be quite important in determining the trapping capability of the island: a depth profile that is downwardly concave as the distance from the island coasts increases is substantially more efficient in amplifying the incoming waves and in trapping their energy than a profile exhibiting an upward concavity.

Tinti, Stefano; Vannini, Cesare

1995-09-01

237

Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July - August 1990 joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with 'background' air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forest region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region.

Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R. W.; Klemm, K.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L. A.

1994-01-01

238

Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C. PMID:25320380

Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

2014-10-01

239

The Francisella pathogenicity island.  

PubMed

The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) is a cluster of 16-19 genes, which is found duplicated in most of the Francisella genomes that have been sequenced. Although 16 FPI genes are highly conserved there are 2-3 putative genes that are absent or interrupted by stop codons in some strains. Francisella strains with experimentally induced mutations in FPI genes are highly attenuated in virulence and show defects in intramacrophage growth. There is experimental evidence indicating that the regulation of most FPI genes is affected by the presence of the virulence regulator MglA and by the concentration of iron in the growth medium. Although studies of mRNA expression show that essentially all FPI genes are transcribed, only a handful of FPI-encoded proteins have been detected by biochemical methods. The cumulative biochemical and genetic data to date have not yet been able to ascribe a biochemical function to any of the FPI-encoded proteins. However, bioinformatics analysis suggests that some of the FPI-encoded proteins are part of a type VI secretion system. PMID:17395722

Nano, Francis E; Schmerk, Crystal

2007-06-01

240

Habitat selection by South Island saddlebacks and Stewart Island robins reintroduced to Ulva Island  

E-print Network

Abstract: Determining whether animals select some habitats over others provides basic information about how animals meet their requirements for survival and reproduction. Habitat selection is therefore an important component of conservation research. Studies involving the release and establishment of threatened species on island refuges can be particularly insightful because breeding pairs should be able to select habitat of the highest quality within the range available. This study uses GIS technology to investigate the spatial distribution of breeding territories in relation to overall habitat availability of two threatened passerines, South Island saddlebacks (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus) and Stewart Island robins (Petroica australis rakiura) two years after their release onto predator-free Ulva Island. Both species established breeding territories around the periphery of the island in coastal forest fringe habitat and away from mature forest in the interior of the island. Compositional analysis suggested that both species prefer dense, fringe-type habitat with open ground cover and deep litter layers and avoid more mature forests, especially with moss cover. Thus habitat structure is likely to be more important for both species than plant-species composition. However, the possibility exists that the preference of coastal fringe habitat could represent an ‘ecological trap’, where habitat preference does not correspond to better quality habitat in terms of reproductive fitness. It will be useful to continue monitoring saddlebacks and robins to obtain data on survival and fecundity as the density of birds increases, and breeding

Kate E. Steffens; Philip J. Seddon; Renaud Mathieu; Ian G. Jamieson

241

Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S.S.; Talbot, S.L.

2004-01-01

242

Treeline Dynamics on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

E-print Network

Vancouver Island marmot. Keywords: dendroecology, subalpine meadows, seedling establishment, tree rings, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot. *Corresponding author Western Geography, 10/11(2000/01), pp. 43

Smith, Dan

243

Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

2014-01-01

244

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

245

Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

2014-11-01

246

Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.  

PubMed

Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 ?mol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 ?mol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

2014-06-28

247

Investigating public perceptions and knowledge translation priorities to improve water safety for residents with private water supplies: a cross-sectional study in Newfoundland and Labrador  

PubMed Central

Background The first objective of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water and alternative sources with respect to safety, quality, testing and treatment in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. The second objective was to provide public health practitioners with recommendations for improving knowledge translation (KT) efforts in NL, based on assessments of respondents’ perceived information needs and preferred KT methods. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of 618 households with private water supplies was conducted in March-April, 2007. Questions pertained to respondents’ perceptions of their tap water, water concerns, alternative water use, well characteristics, and water testing behaviours. Results Approximately 94% of households were supplied by private wells (50% drilled and 50% dug wells), while 6% obtained water from roadside ponds, rivers or springs (RPRS). While 85% rated their water quality highly, 55% nevertheless had concerns about its overall safety. Approximately 11% of respondents never tested their water, and of the 89% that had, 80% tested at frequencies below provincial recommendations for bacterial testing. More than one-third of respondents reported treating their water in the home, and 78% employed active carbon filtration methods. Respondents wanted more information on testing options and advice on effective treatment methods. Targeted advertising through television, flyers/brochures and/or radio is recommended as a first step to increase awareness. More active KT methods involving key stakeholders may be most effective in improving testing and treatment behaviour. Conclusions The results presented here can assist public health practitioners in tailoring current KT initiatives to influence well owner stewardship behaviour. PMID:24365203

2013-01-01

248

Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

Pepin, Pierre

2013-05-01

249

State of the marine environment at Little Bay Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 10 years after a "do nothing" response to a mine tailings spill.  

PubMed

In 1989, the tailings pond dam at the site of a former copper mine near Little Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, ruptured and tailings spilled into Little Bay Arm. At the time, no action was taken to arrest the flow of tailings or to mitigate the effects of the spill. To date, no action has been taken to repair the dam and tailings continue to flow into Little Bay Arm. As a result, the marine environment around Little Bay Arm has become contaminated with heavy metals from the tailings. However, the tailings are not the only source of heavy metals to the ecosystem. An old slag heap and what is presumably concentrated copper ore spilled during the loading of ore freighters, are also contributing to the ecosystem's metal load. Marine sediment throughout the Arm contained elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, V, Co, and Mn. Beach material also contained elevated concentrations of metals with material near the slag heap being the most contaminated. At this site, Cu concentrations were in excess of 5000 mg kg(-1) dry weight, Zn greater than 3000 mg kg(-1) and Co concentrations exceeded 700 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations of metals in biota were found near the slag heap, near the tailings dam breach, and at the site of the former concentrate loading dock. Despite elevated metal concentrations, the tailings and nearby sediment were not devoid of life. Bivalves and seaweed were abundant in the area and there were no obvious signs of tissue damage or disease in soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) living in the tailings. These clams may be suffering from chronic exposure to the tailings, however, evidence of lipid peroxidation in the clams was inconclusive. PMID:12948239

Veinott, Geoff; Sylvester, Paul; Hamoutene, Dounia; Anderson, M Robin; Meade, Jim; Payne, Jerry

2003-08-01

250

Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Methods Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland–Altman plots. Results The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p?

2013-01-01

251

Terrestrial ecosystem recovery following removal of a PCB point source at a former pole vault line radar station in Northern Labrador.  

PubMed

Saglek Bay (LAB-2), located on the northeast coast of Labrador is a former Polevault station that was operated by the U.S. Air Force from 1953 to 1971 when it was abandoned. An environmental assessment carried out in 1996 determined that the site was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with concentrations in soils far exceeding the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) regulation of 50 ?g/g in three areas of the site (Beach, Site Summit, Antenna Hill). This led to remediation work carried out between 1999 and 2004 to remove and/or isolate all PCB-contaminated soil exceeding 50 ?g/g and to further remediate parts of the site to <5 ?g/g PCBs. In this study, spatial and temporal trends of PCB concentrations in soil, vegetation (Betula glandulosa and Salix spp.), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were investigated over a period of fourteen (1997-2011) years in an effort to track ecosystem recovery following the removal of the PCB point sources. The data collected shows that PCB levels in vegetation samples are approximately four times lower in 2011 than pre-remediation in 1997. Similarly, PCB concentrations in deer mice in 2011 are approximately three times lower than those measured in 1997/98. Spatial trends in vegetation and deer mice continue to demonstrate that areas close to the former point sources of PCBs have higher PCB concentrations than those further away (and higher than background levels) and these residual PCB levels are not likely to decrease in the foreseeable future given the persistent nature of PCBs in general in the environment, and in particular in cold climates. PMID:23712118

Ficko, Sarah A; Luttmer, Carol; Zeeb, Barbara A; Reimer, Kenneth

2013-09-01

252

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Mel Goodwin

253

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

254

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

255

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

256

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

257

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

258

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

259

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

260

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

261

9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

262

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

263

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

264

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

265

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

266

Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy  

E-print Network

sustainable development planning to incorporate adaptation to climate change, sought greater scientifica) Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy for Small Island Developing States #12;Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy for Small Island Developing States

Delaware, University of

267

3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

268

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST FAÇADE AND BLAST WALL, DATE UNKNOWN - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

269

Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

270

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

271

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

272

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

273

Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized catastrophic floods that came through Ares Valles. The Story In symbolism only, these guppy-shaped islands and current-like flutes of land beside them may conjure up a mental image of a flowing Martian river. This picture would only be half-right. Scientifically, no fish ever swam this channel, but these landforms do reveal that catastrophic floods of rushing water probably patterned the land in just this way. Geologists who study flood areas believe that a tremendous force of moving water probably carved both the islands and the small, parallel, 'current-like' ridges around them. The blunt end of the islands (the 'heads' of the 'fish') are probably ancient impact craters that posed obstacles to the water as it rushed down the channel in torrents. Because a crater is resistant to erosion, it creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water makes its way downstream, the crater's interference with the water flow is reduced, so the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins at the narrow end of the island (the 'tail' of the 'fish'). Therefore, from this information, you can tell that the water flowed from the southeast to the northwest. As a rule of thumb for the future, you can say that the narrow end of the island points downstream. The result may be the island behind the crater, but geologists disagree about the exact process by which the island forms. Some scientists argue that the erosive power of the water is directed outward, leaving the area behind, or in the lee of, the obstacle relatively untouched. Other scientists argue that the water slows when it encounters the crater obstacle, and small particles of sand and 'dirt' drop out of the water and are deposited in the lee. There's another small associated uncertainty too. Look closely at the edges of the islands and notice how the land is terraced. These ledges might mark the height of the water at various times during the flood . . . or they might be an indication that layering occurred. It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the stream

2002-01-01

274

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY  

E-print Network

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

Luther, Douglas S.

275

Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island  

E-print Network

created species­area curves from previously published lizard species richness and island area data. We islands. Keywords Lizards, spatial subsidies, small island effect, species­area curve, species richness species richness to deviate from species­area predictions, especially on small islands. Next, we examine

Wait, D. Alexander

276

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands  

E-print Network

basin situated behind the extinct South Shetland Islands arc. Deception Island has been well studied but its submerged flanks have not. A multibeam bathymetry survey was conducted around the island in 2005 Shetland island arc or of simple shear between the Scotia and Antarctic plates (Lawver et al. 1996, Barker

Wilcock, William

277

A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands  

E-print Network

Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions the carbon footprint of typical households within the US Virgin Islands. We find the average carbon footprint

Kammen, Daniel M.

278

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2012-07-01

279

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2013-07-01

280

33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

2014-07-01

281

JASON Project: Flying over the Channel Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By using Landsat-7-ETM+ data and USGS DEM Elevation data, we are able to take a virtual tour of the Channel Islands and the coast of California. For more information on the Channel Islands, please visit (http:--www.channel.islands.national-park.com).

Stuart Snodgrass

2003-01-09

282

Islands of Adventure Notes from the Office  

E-print Network

ELIWeekly Islands of Adventure Theme Park Fun! On Saturday, September 15th, we will be headed to Universal StudiosHighlights · Islands of Adventure · Notes from the Office · Birthdays · Manners The' Islands of Adventure. We will meet at the TRiP office in Reitz Union at 8:00am. We will return

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

283

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM  

E-print Network

ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 :y .iiJA/i-3ri ^' WUUUi. ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1959 by Paul D. Zimmer, Clifton and observations 10 Summary 13 #12;#12;ANNUAL FISH PASSAGE REPORT - ROCK ISLAND DAM COLUMBIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

284

Island-finding ability of marine turtles  

E-print Network

, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden 3 Dipartimento di Etologia, Ecologia grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle the fate of the early pilots flying to Ascension Island, a remote island in the middle of the Atlantic

Hays, Graeme

285

Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

Bjornstad, Bruce N.

2006-08-08

286

Birds are islands for parasites.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

2014-08-01

287

HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

288

Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

Legowski, Margaret

289

Long Island Sound Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Resource Center is a central clearinghouse for an ongoing web project to provide access to information and data related to the Long Island Sound. Visitors can learn about scientific research, access data, view interactive maps, search literature related to the Sound, browse a directory of organizations and information sources, or look for locations to access the Sound.

290

On a Crowded Desert Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

Rothstein, Samuel

1989-01-01

291

ANTHROPOLOGY 343 PACIFIC ISLANDS ARCHAEOLOGY  

E-print Network

process more than 50,000 years ago. The subsequent cultural patterns of adaptation to life on remote adaptations made by peoples moving into the Pacific and for clarifying their relationships to complex cultures and historic to contemporary island peoples, including issues of cultural resource management will be explored

292

Island Explorers Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes science curriculum facilitated through hands-on marine science activities correlated with the California Science Framework. Curriculum focuses on major ocean concepts and Catalina Island. Program involves overnight field trip to Wrigley Institute. Teacher training component is in development. Two student activities focusing on garibaldi and kelp are available on the site.

293

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

294

Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

2007-12-12

295

Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

2015-02-01

296

Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands  

SciTech Connect

All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

Pytlinski, J.T. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico))

1992-01-01

297

Island-finding ability of marine turtles.  

PubMed Central

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. PMID:12952621

Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

2003-01-01

298

Fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility and its role in REE ore formation: Evidence from the Strange Lake rare metal deposit, Québec-Labrador, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pegmatites and adjacent subsolvus granites (two alkali feldspars) of the Mid-Proterozoic Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) host potentially economic concentrations of high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), zirconium and niobium. Previous studies have proposed that these concentrations were the result of a combination of extreme fractionation of a peralkaline granitic magma and later hydrothermal remobilization. However, the recent discovery of melt inclusions which, after heating to 900 or 950 °C, quench to immiscible fluoride and silicate glasses, suggests an additional mechanism of HFSE concentration. Crystallized melt inclusions are common in quartz phenocrysts of the early hypersolvus and transsolvus granite. After heating, four types of inclusions were discerned. Type 1 inclusions quench to a single silicate glass containing a high concentration of Zr, Nb and Ti. Quenching of Type 2 inclusions produces a Zr, Nb, Ti-rich silicate glass containing a globule of calcium-rich fluoride glass with a high concentration of the REE. The third inclusion type is similar to Type 2, except that the calcium-rich fluoride glass contains a globule of REE-fluoride glass (up to 50 wt.% total REE). Type 4 inclusions contain calcium-fluoride glass with multiple silicate globules. We propose that during or soon after emplacement, the early granitic magma exsolved a calcium fluoride melt into which rare earth elements (REE) partitioned preferentially. The conjugate silicate melt was consequently depleted in Ca and the REE, and enriched in Zr, Nb and Ti. Crystallization of the fluoride melt occurred late in the crystallization history of the silicate magma allowing it to accumulate in the volatile-rich residual magma that formed the pegmatites. This played a major role in the extreme enrichment of the pegmatites in Ca, F and REE. Crystallization of the pegmatites proceeded inwards from an outer zone in which feldspars, quartz, arfvedsonite and zirconosilicate minerals dominate to a core where the immiscible fluoride liquid collected and crystallized fluorite and REE minerals. Fluid exsolved from the silicate melt reacted with the products of both the silicate and fluoride melts, remobilizing most of the HFSE including the REE. This study reports a rare example of silicate-fluoride melt immiscibility and the first in which such immiscibility played a role in concentrating the REE to potentially economic levels.

Vasyukova, Olga; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

2014-08-01

299

A 750-kyr detrital-layer stratigraphy for the North Atlantic (IODP Sites U1302-U1303, Orphan Knoll, Labrador Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1302-U1303, drilled on the SE flank of Orphan Knoll (Labrador Sea), preserve a record of detrital layers and other proxies of hydrographic change that extend the record of ice-sheet/ocean interactions through most of the Brunhes Chron. The age model is built by tandem matching of relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope data (?18O) from Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) to reference records, indicating a mean Brunhes sedimentation rate of 14 cm/kyr. Sedimentation back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 18 is characterized by detrital layers that are detected by higher than background gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) density, peaks in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicators for detrital carbonate (Ca/Sr) and detrital silicate (Si/Sr), and an ice-rafted debris (IRD) proxy (wt.% > 106 ?m). The age model enables correlation of Site U1302/03 to IODP Site U1308 in the heart of the central Atlantic IRD belt where an age model and a similar set of detrital-layer proxies have already been derived. Ages of Heinrich (H) layers H1, H2, H4, H5 and H6 are within ~ 2 kyr at the two sites (H0, H3 and H5a are not observed at Site U1308), and agree with previous work at Orphan Knoll within ~ 3 kyr. At Site U1308, Brunhes detrital layers are restricted to peak glacials and glacial terminations back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 16 and have near-synchronous analogs at Site U1302/03. Detrital layers at Site U1302/03 are distributed throughout the record in both glacial and most interglacial stages. We distinguish Heinrich-like layers associated with IRD from detrital layers marked by multiple detrital-layer proxies (including Ca/Sr) but usually not associated with IRD, that may be attributed to lofted sediment derived from drainage and debris-flow events funneled down the nearby Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC). The prominent detrital layers at Sites U1302/03 and U1308 can be correlated to millennial scale features in the Chinese speleothem (monsoon) record over the last 400 kyr, implying a link between monsoon precipitation and Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) instability. The detrital-layer stratigraphy at Site U1302/03 provides a long record of LIS dynamics against which other terrestrial and marine records can be compared.

Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Romero, O.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Mazaud, A.; Röhl, U.

2012-02-01

300

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2011-04-01

301

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2012-04-01

302

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2013-04-01

303

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2010-04-01

304

25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

2014-04-01

305

Pine Island Glacier Calving (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event. This series of images from the MISR instrument on the Terra satellite not only shows the crack expanding and the iceberg breakoff, but the seaward moving glacial flow in the parts of the Pine Island Glacier upstream of the crack.

Perkins, Lori; Mitchell, Horace; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2005-03-09

306

Okhotskia: International Kuril Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of the Kuril Archipelago." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal -- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University -- to view text and images describing project Objectives, Rationale and Scope, Anticipated Future Research, and more. Links are also provided to project Results (including IKIP databases, publications, and presentations) and Island Info including sections on Vascular Plants, Stoneflies, Nesting Birds, and many more. Additionally, a very nicely organized photo gallery features maps and many beautiful photographs taken by project participants during collecting expeditions to the Kuril Archipelago.

307

Urban Heat Islands: Hotter Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how as cities add roads, buildings, industry, and people heat islands are created in urban areas. Some consequences include:human discomfort and sometimes human health risks, increase in energy use, leading to release of more greenhouse gases, air pollution and increased levels of urban ozone, and higher costs because of greater water and energy use.

Urban Heat Islands (University of Western Ontario;)

2004-11-01

308

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

309

Flora of the Marquesas Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Systematic Biology offers online access to taxonomic and geographical information on the vascular plants of the Marquesas Islands. An easy-to-use search tool retrieves plant checklists, which include species distribution and status information. Other features of this well-presented Web site include a searchable image gallery, curatorial information on collected specimens, a general account of the Marquesas, and some gorgeous panoramic photos. Look for additional features as the site develops.

310

Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

2005-01-01

311

Island biology: looking towards the future.  

PubMed

Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

2014-10-01

312

Circulation around a thin zonal island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and numerical experiments are used to study flow of a uniform-density fluid on the [beta]-plane around a thin zonally elongated island (or ridge segment in the abyss). This orientation is chosen specifically to highlight the roles of the zonal boundary layer dynamics in controlling the circulation around the island. There are examples of deep ocean topography that fall into this category which make the work directly applicable to oceanic flows. Linear theory for the transport around the island and the flow structure is based on a modification of the Island Rule (Pedlosky et al. 1997; Pratt & Pedlosky 1999). The linear solution gives a north south symmetric flow around the island with novel features, including stagnation points which divide the zonal boundary layers into eastward and westward flowing zones, and a western boundary layer of vanishing length, and zonal jets. Laboratory experiments agree with the linear theory for small degrees of nonlinearity, as measured by the ratio of the inertial to Munk boundary layer scales. With increasing nonlinearity the north south symmetry is broken. The southern stagnation point (for anticyclonic forcing) moves to the eastern tip of the island. The flow rounding the eastern tip from the northern side of the island now separates from the island. Time-dependence emerges and recirculation cells develop on the northern side of the island. Mean transport around the island is relatively unaffected by nonlinearity and given to within 20% by the modified Island Rule. Numerical solutions of the shallow water equations are in close agreement with the laboratory results. The transition from zonal to meridional island orientation occurs for island inclinations from zonal greater than about 20°.

Wells, J. R.; Helfrich, K. R.

2001-06-01

313

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

314

A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345 Marseille (France); France-Japan Magnetic Fusion Laboratory, LIA 336 CNRS, Marseille (France); Poyé, A. [Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Yagi, M. [Plasma Theory and Simulation Gr., JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan); Garbet, X. [IRFM, CEA, St-Paul-Lez-Durance 13108 (France); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2014-09-15

315

75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-R-2010-N051...Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and Charlotte Counties, FL AGENCY: Fish and...

2010-05-21

316

46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...19.2? W. across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island charted in approximate position latitude...26.5? W. (d) A line drawn from the abandoned lighthouse on Hunting Island in approximate position latitude...

2013-10-01

317

46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...19.2? W. across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island charted in approximate position latitude...26.5? W. (d) A line drawn from the abandoned lighthouse on Hunting Island in approximate position latitude...

2012-10-01

318

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...easternmost tip of Folley Island to the abandoned lighthouse tower on the northside of Lighthouse Inlet; thence west to the shoreline of Morris...across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island. (e) A...

2012-07-01

319

46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...19.2? W. across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island charted in approximate position latitude...26.5? W. (d) A line drawn from the abandoned lighthouse on Hunting Island in approximate position latitude...

2014-10-01

320

The Beetles of the Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided in collaboration by researchers at Montana State and Ohio State universities, this database of the Beetles of the Virgin Islands contains records for over 34,000 specimens of 489 beetle species. The database also offers mapping capabilities for identifying beetle collection locations. Query by Island, Family, or Specimen to find details for each species -- including scientific name, number of specimens in the database, islands where this species has been collected, and collecting methods.

321

Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set  

DOE Data Explorer

During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

Long, Chuck

322

Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set  

SciTech Connect

During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

Long, Chuck

2010-07-15

323

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

324

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Parking Lot  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................ 1 Table of Figures............................................................................................................. 4 SECTION 4 - Significant Meteorological Events........................................................................................................................ 16 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 - Site location at Deer Island Parking Lot site................

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

325

WIND DATA REPORT Deer Island Outfall  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................ 1 Table of Figures............................................................................................................. 4 SECTION 4 - Significant Meteorological Events........................................................................................................................ 16 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 - Site location at Deer Island Outfall site. ......................

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

326

Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.  

PubMed

We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes. PMID:16803325

Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

2006-06-01

327

Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands  

SciTech Connect

We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-06-09

328

Saving the ‘disappearing islands’: Climate change governance, Pacific island states and cosmopolitan dispositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘disappearing islands’ is a distinct idea that emerged out of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report to describe the vulnerability of small island states in the Pacific to sea-level rise as a result of climate change. In this article I deploy the ‘disappearing islands’ to map the complex politics of climate change governance. Through various governmental rationalities the

F. R. Cameron

2011-01-01

329

76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0216] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...from portions of Lake Erie for the Catawba Island Club Memorial Day Fireworks. This temporary safety...

2011-05-11

330

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drawn from the south-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

2013-07-01

331

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...drawn from the south-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

2011-07-01

332

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...drawn from the south-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

2010-07-01

333

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...drawn from the south-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

2012-07-01

334

33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...drawn from the south-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

2014-07-01

335

75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...10-AWP-14] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands...System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz...corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the...

2010-10-07

336

Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Haeg Island Michael J. Benton a,  

E-print Network

Dinosaurs and the island rule: The dwarfed dinosaurs from Haeg Island Michael J. Benton a, , Zoltan 2009 Accepted 21 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Dinosaurs Cretaceous, in 1914, to suggest that the latest Cretaceous dinosaurs from Haeg, Romania were an island fauna, based

Benton, Michael

337

Resource utilization by two insular endemic mammalian carnivores, the island fox and island spotted skunk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared resource utilization of two insular endemic mammalian carnivores, the island spotted skunk and island fox, along niche dimensions of space, food, and time on Santa Cruz Island. We predicted that resource use by foxes and skunks would differ along one or more niche dimensions, and that both species would have broader niches or higher densities compared with mainland

Kevin R. Crooks; Dirk Van Vuren

1995-01-01

338

Hematology and Serum Chemistry of the Island Spotted Skunk on Santa Cruz Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined serum biochemis- try and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet sea- son). One parameter, glucose, significantly

Kevin R. Crooks; D. K. Garcelon; Cheryl A. Scott; Jeffery T. Wilcox; Steven F. Timm; Dirk H. Van

2003-01-01

339

RCN: SEAPRE: Seabird Islands and Introduced Predators: Impacts of Presence and Eradication on Island Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTELLECTUAL MERIT: Seabird islands (islands with large populations of seabirds) are crucial to the survival of native animals and plants due to the large subsidies provided by nutrient inputs of marine origin. Seabird predators have devastated seabird populations and drastically altered vegetation processes and ecosystem function all over the world. These predators are now being eradicated on hundreds of islands,

Christa Mulder; Wendy Anderson; Don Croll; Josh Donlan; Julie Ellis; Stephen Kress; Bernie Tershy; Alexander Wait; Peter Bellingham; Robbie McDonald; José Miguel Fariña; Dave Towns; Eric Vidal; David Wardle; Chris Wilcox

340

183BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND: RARE SPECIES  

E-print Network

183BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND: RARE SPECIES THAT ONCE OCCURRED ON THE MAINLAND of the Rhode Is- land beetle fauna. In addition to the federally listed American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus), the Island is also home to the only population of the Clay Banks Tiger Beetle (Cicindela

Sikes, Derek S.

341

Evaluating alternative rodenticides for island conservation: roof rat eradication from the San Jorge Islands, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced commensal rats (Rattus spp.) are a major contributor to the extinction and endangerment of island plants and animals. The use of the toxin brodifacoum to completely eradicate rats from islands is a powerful conservation tool. However, brodifacoum is toxic to animals other than rats and on some islands its use may not be feasible without prohibitively expensive mitigation. As

C. Josh Donlan; Gregg R. Howald; Bernie R. Tershy; Donald A. Croll

2003-01-01

342

Classical treatment of island cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Computing the perturbation spectrum in the recently proposed Island Cosmology remains an open problem. In this paper we present a classical computation of the perturbations generated in this scenario by assuming that the NEC-violating field behaves as a classical phantom field. Using an exactly solvable potential, we show that the model generates a scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations, as well as a scale-invariant spectrum of gravitational waves. The scalar perturbations can have sufficient amplitude to seed cosmological structure, while the gravitational waves have a vastly diminished amplitude.

Dutta, Sourish [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States)

2006-03-15

343

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

344

Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.

The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.

The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.

Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2000-01-01

345

CRCHD SPN Project: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Project: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network INVESTIGATOR: Allan Hubbell, M.D. INSTITUTION: Pacific

346

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Isometric drawing, "early plan for Mare Island", 1870. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

347

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2013-10-01

348

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2011-10-01

349

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2010-10-01

350

50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section 216...Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird...

2012-10-01

351

Recovery Act Invests $116,000 at Apostle Islands  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar checks out the island's photovoltaic solar panels. Solar panels are the sole source of electricity for the islands and are used to run the interior of the lighthouse on Michigan Island....

2009-08-10

352

CRCHD SPN Publications: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Publications: Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Publications Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN) Pacific Islander Cancer Control Network (PICCN) Principal Investigator:

353

Rangiferine brucellosis on Baffin Island.  

PubMed

The standard tube agglutination test (STAT) and the complement fixation test (CFT) were used to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from three populations on Baffin Island, Canada. During late winter from 1983 to 1986, sera from 17 of 40 North Baffin (43%), 11 of 33 Northeast Baffin (33%) and 12 of 82 South Baffin (15%) adult caribou had antibodies in the STAT at 1:50 or the CFT at 1:5. Seroprevalence increased as caribou matured with one (4%) of 25 calves, four (13%) of 31 yearlings, and 40 (26%) of 155 adult caribou being positive. However, seroprevalence did not differ with sex in any age class. Positive antibody titers were higher in adult females sampled in May, 3 to 4 wk before parturition, than in adult females sampled in late March and April. The strength of positive titers did not differ with the time of sampling among adult males. Pathologic signs of brucellosis were found in three (13%) of 23 caribou that were assumed to have active infections (caribou with CFT titers > 1:160). Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from 24 (60%) of 40 caribou from which lesions were submitted. Between 1986 and 1990, the annual incidence of reported human (Homo sapiens) cases averaged 3.4 (34:100,000) on Baffin Island. PMID:9249700

Ferguson, M A

1997-07-01

354

Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections. PMID:14726454

Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

2004-01-01

355

DICKINSON BAY ISLANDS RESTORATION PROJECT MX964016  

EPA Science Inventory

The restoration of three islands in Dickinson Bay will be accomplished by transporting clean clay to the designated sites. The islands will then be sculpted to the prescribed slopes and elevations. Vegetation will be transplanted along slopes and in the intertidal zones of each...

356

Geology Fieldnotes: Padre Island National Seashore, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chain of barrier islands off the coast of Texas supports an abundance of wildlife, and is composed of a variety of environments, such as dunes, grasslands, and tidal flats. This National Park Service (NPS) site offers a brief profile of islands, as well as photos, maps, and links to visitor information and additional resources.

357

Aleutian Island prehistory: Living in insular extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peoples of the Aleutian Islands lived under a number of stressful environmental constraints, including extreme isolation, volcanic eruptions, seismic activity (including tsunamis), frequent storms, rough seas, gale?force winds, frequent fog and precipitation, and an exclusive marine diet. Nevertheless, the Aleutian Islands supported a large maritime population during late prehistoric times. Cultural adaptations to these conditions included the use of relatively

Allen P. McCartney; Douglas W. Veltre

1999-01-01

358

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY 2002 CCMP IR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Long Island Sound Study Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the for the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. The LISS CCMP identified six major areas requiring management action: 1...

359

Sedimentary system of Long Island Sound  

SciTech Connect

Long Island Sound displays many of the characteristics of estuaries in simple form and is in many ways typical of estuaries on glaciated terraim that surround and North Atlantic. This article reviews previous research on the geology and related oceanography of Long Island Sound.

Gordon, R.B.

1980-12-01

360

40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...noted. Virgin Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR X Virgin Islands—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2011-07-01

361

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2012-07-01

362

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR 120 X Rhode Island—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2011-07-01

363

40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Rhode Island—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...AQCR 120 X Rhode Island—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2010-07-01

364

Bone island (enostosis): current concept — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enostosis or bone island represents a focus of mature compact (cortical) bone within the cancellous bone (spongiosa). Thought by some to be a tumor-like condition and by others a hamartoma, this benign lesion is probably congenital or developmental in origin and reflects failure of resorption during endochondral ossification. A bone island can be virtually diagnosed based on its characteristic

Adam Greenspan

1995-01-01

365

Tin diselenide quantum-sized island films  

SciTech Connect

Island films based on the intermediate phases forming in Ge-Se and Sn-Se systems are prepared by the incongruent evaporation of film structures of a Sn{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} composition. The surface morphology of these structures is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of growth conditions on the size distribution of islands is established.

Kushkhov, A. R., E-mail: askerk@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology 'MISIS,' (Russian Federation); Gaev, D. S., E-mail: dahir@mail.ru [Kabardino-Balkarian State University (Russian Federation); Rabinovich, O. I., E-mail: olegr@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology 'MISIS,' (Russian Federation); Stolyarov, A. G. [Kabardino-Balkarian State University (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

366

Helminths parasitising endemic geckoes from Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological studies on geckoes in Europe are scarce but there are even fewer in the Canary Islands. A complete survey of the helminth communities of Tarentola boettgeri boettgeri, T. b. hierrensis, T. gornerensis, T. delalandii\\u000aand T. angustirnentalis (Sauria, Lacertidae) in the Canary Islands, Spain, was recently carried out. Larval cestodes constitute a significant part of the helminth community parasitising

V. Roca; J. E. Martin; E. Carbonell

1999-01-01

367

Mantle reservoirs and ocean island basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mantle part of the continental lithosphere possesses in part Sr and Nd isotopic compositions similar to those of ocean island basalts. Here we investigate circumstances under which this mantle material may become detached from continental lithosphere, incorporated into the convective flow and thereby providing a source for some ocean island basalts.

Dan McKenzie; R. K. O'Nions

1983-01-01

368

The Coleoptera of the Seychelles islands  

E-print Network

, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical of Endomychidae found in the Seychelles Islands. Key to the Endomychidae of the Seychelles Islands 1. Antennae 5-segmented and stout Trochoideus desjardinsi Antennae 9- or 10-segmented 2 2. Antennae 9-segmented; elytra

Mathis, Wayne N.

369

The Pacific Island Health Care Project  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

Person, Donald Ames

2014-01-01

370

Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.  

PubMed

Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water. PMID:22048924

Vlahovi?, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

2012-10-01

371

Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

2007-01-01

372

Birds of Bylot Island and Adjacent Baffin Island,  

E-print Network

each summer since 1989, revealed an avifauna composed of 63 species, of which 35 were breeding. Thirteen species are new records for the region, including one for the Northwest Territories (black-headed gull Larus ridibundus) and two for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (killdeer Charadrius vociferus; mew gull Larus canus). Two species, Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and red knot (Calidris canutus), were also confirmed as breeders for the first time in the region. A summary of these avifaunal observations, along with a review of previous observations made in the region, allows changes in population size and status of individual species to be identified. These records combined with those from earlier studies give a total of 74 species for the Bylot Island region, 45 confirmed as breeders. This makes the avian community in the area one of the most diverse known north of 70?N latitude in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Denis Lepage; David N. Nettleship; Austin Reed

1997-01-01

373

Effects of magnetic islands on drift wave instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic islands have been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code to study the effects of the islands on microturbulence. The pressure profile flattening is verified in the simulation with the islands. Simulations of ion temperature gradient instability find that different toroidal modes are linearly coupled together and that toroidal spectra become broader when the island width increases. The real frequencies and growth rates of different toroidal modes approach each other with the averaged value independent of the island width. The linear mode structures are enhanced at the island separatrices and weakened at the island centers, consistent with the flattening of the pressure profile inside the islands.

Jiang, P.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Xiao, C.

2014-12-01

374

Phylogeography of Cape Verde Island skinks (Mabuya).  

PubMed

The Cape Verde Islands are of volcanic origin with most having appeared between the early Miocene and mid-Pleistocene. They contain six known species of Mabuya skinks. Phylogeographical relationships within and among the relatively widespread taxa M. stangeri, M. spinalis and M. delalandii were inferred, based on approximately 1 kbp of the cytochrome b gene (mitochondrial DNA). Reciprocal monophyly of M. spinalis and M. stangeri was established, which may have arisen from an early Pliocene/late Miocene cladogenetic event. Considerable between-island sequence divergence was detected among M. spinalis, which appears to have colonized the older islands (Sal and Boavista) first. Much lower sequence divergence was found in M. delalandii, indicating a more recent range expansion. Here, evidence points to colonization of the younger islands of Brava and Fogo soon after appearance. There are similarities between some of the described patterns and those seen in lizards from the Canary Islands. PMID:11412378

Brown, R P; Suarez, N M; Smith, A; Pestano, J

2001-06-01

375

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1994-01-01

376

What are the Spratly Islands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be interpreted as an integral part of Sundaland. Post-MMU dredged samples are predominantly deep-water calcareous mudstones typified by the draping strata of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1143 cored from Recent to Late Miocene.

Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

2010-10-01

377

De Long Islands: sedimentary history and provenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The De Long Islands are an archipelago located in the East Siberian Sea, represent one of the few exposures of the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic rocks in this part of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore are a very important area for study. It consists of 5 islands: Jeannette, Henrietta, Bennett, Vil'kitsky and Zhokhov. Vil'kitsky and Zhokhov Islands are covered by Cenozoic basalts, therefore are not considered here, whilst the Paleozoic rocks of interest for this study outcrop on Jeannette, Henrietta and Bennett islands. Jeannette Island is the smallest, containing exposures of a highly deformed and tectonized sedimentary succession. This succession is represented by siltstones and argillites, with beds of gravel to cobble conglomerates. The defining characteristic of these deposits is the abundance of tuffaceous beds, along with volcanic pebbles within the conglomerates. On Henrietta Island, four different units have been identified. The oldest one is very similar to the rocks which outcrop across Jeannette Island. The second unit consists of sandstones with lenses and layers of polymictic conglomerates. The third unit is represented by red-colored sandstones, whilst the youngest unit comprises basalt flows of an assumed Middle Paleozoic age. Accordingly detrital zircons data the age of sedimentary succession of Henrietta and Jeannette islands is the Neoproterozoic. On Bennett Island, Cambrian and Ordovician strata mainly consist of carbonates with minor interbedded clastics. We determined U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from 4 samples, from Jeannette and Henrietta Islands. Three samples have similar age populations, although there are some variations in the abundance of each population. The samples are dominated by Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic grains with distinct peaks at ca. 550, 660, 1000, 1150, 1450, 1665 Ma. The youngest sedimentary unit on Henrietta Island has a very different detrital zircon distribution. The 550 Ma zircon population prevails (60%), with additional smaller peaks are at 1190 Ma and 1695 Ma. The detrital zircons from two samples collected from the Lower Paleozoic interbedded clastic rocks of Bennett Island have been dated. The zircon age distributions are very similar to those from Jeannette and Henrietta islands. The spectrum of detrital zircons indicates that clastic detritus was derived from multiple sources, including the Grenvillian and Sveconorwegian orogens, as well as a Neoproterozoic ca. 570-550 orogen (Timanian?). This research was supported by RFBR grants 13-05-00700, 13-05-00943, research grant of Saint Petersburg State University and Grant of President of Russia for Young Scientist MK-2902.2013.5.

Ershova, Victoria; Prokopiev, Andrei; Khudoley, Andrei; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Eugeniy

2014-05-01

378

78 FR 42011 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; The Straights, Harkers Island, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; The Straights, Harkers Island, NC AGENCY: Coast...Harkers Island Bridge, across The Straights, mile 0.6, Harkers Island, NC...Harkers Island Bridge, across The Straights, mile 0.6, in Harkers Island,...

2013-07-15

379

Habitat islands and the equilibrium theory of island biogeography: testing some predictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species-area data from a study of marsh birds are used to test five predictions generated by the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. Three predictions are supported: we found a significant species-area relationship, a non-zero level of turnover, and a variance-mean ratio of 0.5. One prediction is rejected: the extinction rates were not greater on small islands. The results of one test are equivocal: the number of species on each island was not always the same. As Gilbert (1980) suggests, a strong species-area relationship alone does not validate the theory. The avian communities we studied were on habitat islands, not true islands, and underwent complete extinction annually. Thus caution must be used before applying the theory to these and other habitat islands.

Brown, M.; Dinsmore, J.J.

1988-01-01

380

Vegetation and flora of the Solander Islands, Southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solander Islands, south of South Island, hold 53 vascular plant species, mostly ferns, orchids, and composites with wind-borne propagules. One-third of the species on Big Solander Island are very rare, being either coastal or confined to a sheltered summit plateau. Peat covers the island, supporting Olearia lyallii and some Senecio stewartiae on the plateau, giving way to S. reinoldii

P. N. Johnson

1975-01-01

381

Two-Dimensional Island Shape Determined by Detachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of an anisotropic detachment on a heteroepitaxial island shape is studied by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a square lattice gas model. Only with molecular deposition followed by surface diffusion, islands grow in a ramified dendritic shape, similar to diffusion-limited aggregate (DLA). Introduction of molecular detachment from edges makes islands compact. To understand an anisotropic island

Yukio Saitoand; Ryo Kawasaki

2007-01-01

382

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SASH WITH CONCRETE BLOCK. DATED APRIL 27, 1956. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

383

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION AFTER ADDITION OF HOSE DRYING TOWER. DATED SEPTEMBER 26, 1919. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

384

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR OF STEEL-FRAMED SECTION showing ASSEMBLING OF GUN MOUNTS. DATED MAY 24, 1939. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 210, Rodman Avenue & Gronen Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

385

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION AFTER ADDITION OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE SECTION WITH CYCLONE SEPARATOR. DATED NOVEMBER 11, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

386

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, DOCUMENTING ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. DATED C. 1875. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

387

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS (ABOVE) DURING FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1922. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 210, Rodman Avenue & Gronen Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

388

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF STAIR TOWERS ON SOUTH FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

389

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH; BUILDING IS SHOWN WITH ORIGINAL COPING. DATED C. 1873. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

390

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET AND AFTER REMOVAL OF SMOKESTACK FROM SOUTH ELEVATION. DATED APRIL 7, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 133, Gillespie Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

391

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING POWER PRESSES FOR LEATHER WORKING IN HARNESS SHOP. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

392

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR; WOOD WORKING EQUIPMENT IN CARPENTRY SHOP, ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

393

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. FIRST FLOOR, WEST WING; SHOWING PRATT & WHITNEY RIFLING MACHINES FOR MANUFACTURING 1903 MODEL SPRING-FIELD RIFLE. DATED JULY 4, 1904. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

394

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF BRICK STAIR TOWERS ON SOUTH FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

395

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS DURING FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. DATED 1871. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

396

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR FLOOR PLAN. DATED C. 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

397

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ASSEMBLING OF ARTILLERY GUN CARRIAGES. DATED MAY 12, 1904. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

398

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ASSEMBLING OF 75MM GUN CARRIAGES. DATED AUGUST 23, 1918. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

399

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF WING TO CENTER OF EAST FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 4, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

400

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS; EAST (REAR) AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEYS AND ADDITION OF WING TO CENTER OF EAST FACADE. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

401

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR SHOWING STORAGE OF WALNUT FOR GUN STOCKS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1922. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

402

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STORAGE OF LUMBER. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

403

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMOVAL OF STRAP-HINGE DOOR. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 139, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

404

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET. DATED MARCH 8, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 251, Gillespie Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

405

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. MOTORIZED MACHINING EQUIPMENT USED IN MANUFACTURE OF MACHINE GUN PARTS. SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND IS A PRATT & WHITNEY VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE. DATED JANUARY 21, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

406

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, IN UNALTERED CONDITION. PROBABLY TAKEN ABOUT 1910. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

407

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SASH WITH CONCRETE BLOCK. DATED NOVEMBER 11, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

408

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. FIRST FLOOR, EAST WING, SHOWING BELT-DRIVEN EQUIPMENT (LATHES, DRILLS, SCREW MACHINES) USED IN MACHINING COMPONENTS FOR ARTILLERY GUN CARRIAGES. DATED MAY 12, 1904. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

409

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STRAP-HINGE DOOR. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

410

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMOVAL OF VENTILATORS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

411

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS IN FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. DATED C. 1870. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

412

THE RUSSIAN FUI~..SEAL ISLANDS. LEONHARD STE]NEGER,  

E-print Network

THE RUSSIAN FUI~..SEAL ISLANDS. BY LEONHARD STE]NEGER, Of the United States National MttSCU1Jl. 1 Acknowledgments................................ 5 II. The Russian SealIslands 7 1. The Commander Islands............ 52 Description 52 History....................................... 54 3. Other Islands

413

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. ORIGINAL STEAM HAMMER USED IN FORGING IRON-WORK FOR CONSTRUCTION OF SHOPS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 64, Rodman Avenue between Second & Third Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

414

2. Photocopy of photograph. View, looking southeast, showing Shooters Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopy of photograph. View, looking southeast, showing Shooters Island with standard ship building plant in operation. Circa 1930 by Airmap Corporation of America. (Original in Staten Inland Historic Society, Staten Island, New York) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

415

Genetic differentiation of island spotted skunks, Spilogale gracilis amphiala  

E-print Network

Genetic differentiation of island spotted skunks, Spilogale gracilis amphiala CHRIS H. FLOYD,* DIRK) * Correspondent: floydch@uwec.edu The island spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) is endemic to the 2) and island subspecies of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the island spotted skunk shows

416

Physical factors affecting the siting of dredged material islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dredge material islands are significant features formed very rapidly in comparison to normal geologic processes. Most geologic, engineering, and environmental studies of dredging and dredged material islands are short term analyses directed toward their environmental impacts. Since these islands are located in a dynamic environment, geologic processes actively erode, transport and redistribute the island material. In many cases, the siting

Christopher C. Mathewson; Robert M. McHam

1977-01-01

417

On atmospheric vortex streets in the wake of large islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Results from laboratory experiments on stably stratified flows over three-dimensional obstacles are related to atmospheric vortex streets formed in the lee of large islands. A quasi horizontal flow around the island can be expected if stable stratification favours the formation of a so-called dividing streamline below the islands top. The subsequent shedding of vortices with vertical axis from islands

D. Etling

1989-01-01

418

Ice island detection and characterization with airborne synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1:300,000 scale airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of an area of the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic, is examined to determine the number and characteristics of ice islands in the image and to assess the capability of airborne and satellite SAR to detect ice islands. Twelve ice islands have been identified, and

M. O. Jeffries; W. M. Sackinger

1990-01-01

419

20. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH (ABOVE) AND SOUTH (BELOW) ELEVATIONS AFTER CONSTRUCTION OF 1903 ADDITION TO EAST ELEVATION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 160, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

420

Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides have been a key process in the evolution of the western Canary Islands. The younger and more volcanically active Canary Islands, El Hierro, La Palma and Tenerife, show the clearest evidence of recent landslide activity. The evidence includes landslide scars on the island flanks, debris deposits on the lower island slopes, and volcaniclastic turbidites on the floor of the

D. G. Masson; A. B. Watts; M. J. R. Gee; R. Urgeles; N. C. Mitchell; T. P. Le Bas; M. Canals

2002-01-01

421

The petrology of the Las Canadas volcanoes, Tenerife, Canary islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tenerife is the largest of the seven Tertiary to Recent volcanic islands that make up the Canary Archipelago. The island is composed of volcanics belonging to the basanitetrachyte-phonolite assemblage that characterises many Atlantic islands. The most voluminous development of intermediate and salic volcanics has been in the centre of the island where the Las Canadas volcanoes arose upon a basement

William Ian Ridley

1970-01-01

422

Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Location: 15.4 degree south latitude, 167.9 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 36.8 by 27.8 kilometers (22.9 by 17.3 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2005-01-01

423

Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles collected in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound reveal previously unrecognized glacial features and modern bedforms. Glacial features include an ice-sculptured bedrock surface, a newly identified recessional moraine, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and remnants of stagnant-ice-contact deposits. Modern bedforms include fields of transverse sand waves, barchanoid waves, giant scour depressions, and pockmarks. Bedform asymmetry and scour around obstructions indicate that net sediment transport is westward across the northern part of the study area near Fishers Island, and eastward across the southern part near Great Gull Island.

Poppe, L. J.; Digiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Smith, S. M.; Stewart, H. F.; Forfinski, N. A.

2006-06-01

424

Hematology and serum chemistry of the island spotted skunk on Santa Cruz Island.  

PubMed

We determined serum biochemistry and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet season). One parameter, glucose, significantly differed with season, with higher levels during the wet season. Serum chemistry and hematologic profiles suggest that method of restraint (manual or chemical), as well as other methodologic details, may influence blood characteristics in the island spotted skunk. PMID:12910779

Crooks, Kevin R; Garcelon, D K; Scott, Cheryl A; Wilcox, Jeffery T; Timm, Steven F; Van Vuren, Dirk H

2003-04-01

425

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may surf fish in...

2011-10-01

426

50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may surf fish in...

2010-10-01

427

Geologic Studies on Sitkinak Island, Alaska  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Geologists examine an exposure of a tidal marsh bank on Sitkinak Island, Alaska. The bank exposes interbedded peat and silt that records sudden vertical land movements associated with megathrust fault slip during large earthquakes....

428

Metromorphosis : evolution on the urban island  

E-print Network

Cities are very much alive. Like islands, they provide a natural testing ground for evolution. With more than half of the world's population living in urban areas now, the influence cities have on the planet's life is ...

Vezina, Kenrick (Kenrick Freitas)

2011-01-01

429

Geologic Studies on Sitkinak Island, Alaska  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A tidal marsh bank exposed during low tide on Sitkinak Island, Alaska. The bank reveals ledges of alternating peat and silt. Abrupt uplift and subsidence during large megathrust earthquakes is interpreted to be the cause of the alternating layers....

430

US Virgin Islands renewable energy future  

E-print Network

The US Virgin Islands must face drastic changes to its electrical system. There are two problems with electricity production in the USVI-it's dirty and it's expensive. Nearly one hundred percent of the electricity in these ...

Oldfield, Brian (Brian K.)

2013-01-01

431

Water conservation for Rhode Island lawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, water professionals in Rhode Island developed a program for home lawn irrigation scheduling that adapted an agricultural soil moisture model for use on home lawns. The key to the program, which emphasized supplemental watering only, was a \\

Alyson McCann; Arthur J. Gold; Kathleen Mallon; Josef Gorres

1994-01-01

432

Energy Audits on Prince Edward Island  

E-print Network

High energy costs and uncertain supplies force industrial operators to seek out energy waste to keep costs down. The Enersave for Industry and Commerce program assists Prince Edward Island industries through an energy audit and grant program. A...

Hall, N. G.; Gillis, D.

1980-01-01

433

One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

2011-01-01

434

Nonequilibrium diffusion of reactive solid islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the observation of the random walk of solid-state silicon islands on SiO2 substrates during annealing at high temperatures. The mean square displacement (MSD) of the islands exhibits three regimes. At short times, the islands undergo equilibrium diffusion and begin to etch the surface thereby creating ringlike trenches. Then, an unusual size independent diffusionlike behavior is observed with a linear increase of the MSD. This behavior is attributed to a pinning instability of the triple line. Finally, as etching proceeds pits are formed in the substrate, and the MSD saturates as the islands are self-trapped in their own pits. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations reproduce the main features of the three regimes, and provide a consistent picture of the microscopic reaction mechanisms at play in the experiments.

Leroy, F.; Saito, Y.; Cheynis, F.; Bussmann, E.; Pierre-Louis, O.; Müller, P.

2014-06-01

435

Lapita colonization of the admiralty islands?  

PubMed

Archeological research in the Admiralty Islands provides evidence of occupation by 3500 years ago and suggests settlement by obsidian-using maritime colonists, whose Lapita pottery style underwent gradual modification within the Admiralties. PMID:17834582

Kennedy, J

1981-08-14

436

MILP formulation for islanding of power networks  

E-print Network

Mar 19, 2012 ... In this paper, a mathematical formulation for the islanding of power. networks is ... of generation; blackout was avoided by local load shedding [5]. ...... blackouts in North America and Europe, and recommended means to im-.

2012-03-19

437

Pacific Islanders—Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

438

Three Guidance Programs in Providence, Rhode Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three programs implemented in the Providence, Rhode Island, elementary schools to improve students' self-image. These include a guidance/puppetry program, student of the week awards, and a behavioral management system. (JAC)

Chirico, John

1985-01-01

439

200607 Catalog University of Rhode Island  

E-print Network

; inside photos by Joe Giblin, Nora Lewis, and Mike Salerno. The University of Rhode Island is committed Produced by the URI Publications Office, Division of University Advancement. Cover photo by Nora Lewis

Rhode Island, University of

440

Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... CHDIR, 2011 Executive Orders & Initiatives Farmworker Health Archive Internships 2015 Student Opportunities in Public Health Programs Millennial ... Pacific Islanders (AAPI) White House Initiative on AAPI Internships White House Executive Order 13515 - Increasing Participation of ...

441

A Survey of the Island Province.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews some of the findings of the 1984 survey of public attitudes toward the provincial education system conducted by Prince Edward Island's School System Review Commission and discusses some of the commission's resulting 94 recommendations for improvement. (PGD)

McDowell, Stirling

1985-01-01

442

Solar School Program in Reunion Island  

E-print Network

system efficiency. In Réunion Island, the industrial engineering laboratory is involved in the regional solar school program. Its aim is to gather some local construction actors (city technical offices, architects, civil engineers, specialized university...

David, M.; Adelard, L.

2004-01-01

443

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones

Siegrist; H. G. Jr

1988-01-01

444

Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and

Siegrist; H. G. Jr

1988-01-01

445

Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related

T. Merdzhanova; S. Kiravittaya; A. Rastelli; M. Stoffel; U. Denker; O. G. Schmidt

2006-01-01

446

26. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SERIES OF VIEWS BEFORE CONSTRUCTION OF LOCK AND DAM, SHOWING RAIL BED ON UPPER DECK (UPPER LEFT), SWING SPAN IN ROTATION (UPPER RIGHT), EAST ELEVATION OF SWING SPAN AND BALTIMORE TRUSSES (CENTER), VEHICULAR ROADWAY ON LOWER DECK (LOWER LEFT), AND DRAW PIER. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island Bridge, Fort Armstrong Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

447

Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Abstract This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/). PMID:23717182

Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

2013-01-01

448

Population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the California Channel Islands.  

PubMed

The loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), a songbird that hunts like a small raptor, maintains breeding populations on seven of the eight California Channel Islands. One of the two subspecies, L. l. anthonyi, was described as having breeding populations on six of the islands while a second subspecies, L. l. mearnsi, was described as being endemic to San Clemente Island. Previous genetic studies have demonstrated that the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike is well differentiated genetically from both L. l. anthonyi and mainland populations, despite the fact that birds from outside the population are regular visitors to the island. Those studies, however, did not include a comparison between San Clemente Island shrikes and the breeding population on Santa Catalina Island, the closest island to San Clemente. Here we use mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellites to investigate the population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the Channel Islands. We confirm the genetic distinctiveness of the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike and, using Bayesian clustering analysis, demonstrate the presence and infer the source of the nonbreeding visitors. Our results indicate that Channel Island loggerhead shrikes comprise three distinct genetic clusters that inhabit: (i) San Clemente Island, (ii) Santa Catalina Island and (iii) the Northern Channel Islands and nearby mainland; they do not support a recent suggestion that all Channel Island loggerhead shrikes should be managed as a single entity. PMID:15245388

Eggert, Lori S; Mundy, Nicholas I; Woodruff, David S

2004-08-01

449

The hydrology of Hatteras Island, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a study of the groundwater hydrology and groundwater-surface-water interactions of barrier islands. Shallow groundwater is typically the sole source of freshwater on barrier islands. It is threatened by increasing coastal populations (both permanent and seasonal residents). Higher demand for groundwater may induce saltwater intrusion through overpumping. Water quality also is often threatened by inadequate waste-management practices and overwash. These factors combine to make understanding of barrier-island hydrology essential for continued development and ecological health of island communities. The hydraulic response of barrier islands is closely tied to island morphology and stratigraphy. The heterogeneity of barrier islands suggests that the underlying geologic framework is critical to barrier-island morphology. Other processes, such as spit growth, are usually imposed on an inherited geologic framework. Barrier islands typically support a freshwater aquifer that "floats" on an underlying saltwater aquifer. The height to which the water table rises depends on the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and the island geometry. In addition, tidal fluctuations, interdunal wetland drainage, and variable recharge rates affect island hydrology. The relative importance of each of these factors was tested with a series of numerical simulations, sensitivity analyses, and field measurements. Field data were collected from Hatteras Island in order to provide calibration data, constrain the shallow stratigraphy, and estimate aquifer parameters. Geophysical studies include borehole geophysics and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The Buxton Woods surficial aquifer is approximately 24.5 meters in thickness and contains upper and lower permeable zones separated by a semi-confining layer. Geophysical methods were used to constrain the shallow stratigraphy and the vertical geometry of the system. Borehole geophysics indicate the large-scale variations in stratigraphy. GPR surveys show several large-scale reflectors including (1) a low-permeability Pleistocene headland, and (2) a low-permeability unit that is interpreted to be a buried wetland. Steady-state simulations show that groundwater flow on barrier islands is not sensitive to tidal fluctuations but is highly sensitive to the rate of surface-water drainage. Moreover, water-table elevations are sensitive to permeability, but the size of the freshwater lens is not. The USGS finite-element model SUTRA was used to simulate more detailed groundwater flow problems. For this study SUTRA was modified to more accurately simulate groundwater-surface-water interaction by allowing the use of pressure-dependent aquifer sources and sinks. Fluctuating tidal boundary conditions at the edge of barrier islands were incorporated into the model using rating curves compiled from field data. Temporal and spatial variations in recharge rates were incorporated into the model using time-varying source terms. Temporal variations use constant rate, Gaussian distribution, exponential distribution, and lognormal distribution methods. Recharge fractions were determined by. transient model calibration. Predictive simulations of Hatteras Island conditions show that (1) a low-permeability layer, interpreted to be a buried wetland, raises water-table elevations; (2) changes in the rate of surface-water drainage greatly alter water-table elevations; (3) the effect of the proposed Buxton Wellfield on the Buxton Woods surficial aquifer depends greatly on recharge conditions; and (4) management of surface drain ages will greatly enhance the reliability of the aquifer. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Anderson, William Paul, Jr.

450

AVIAN MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH A VOLCANIC GAS SEEP AT KISKA ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, ALASKA  

E-print Network

AVIAN MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH A VOLCANIC GAS SEEP AT KISKA ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, ALASKA gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from steam vents, fumaroles, and gas seeps-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) were found near a CO2 seep one year following the eruption (J. C. Williams, pers. comm

Jones, Ian L.

451

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...straight line drawn from the seaward tangent of Folly Island through Folly River Daybeacon 10 across Stono River to the shoreline of Sandy Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Seabrook Island 257° true across the North Edisto River...

2010-07-01

452

The lichen genus Cladonia of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of taxonomical investigation of the genus Clado? nia Hill ex P. Browne from King George Island. Individuals belonging to this lichen genus were studied using methods of classical herbarium taxonomy supported by chemical analy? sis. Fourteen species have been recognized in the study area, with C. asahinae J.W. Thomson being reported from King George Island

Piotr OSYCZKA; Maria OLECH

453

78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This...coordinates in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description was overlooked at that time and is now being corrected. The Rule This...

2013-10-25

454

Revisiting the Metaphor of the Island: Challenging "World Culture" from an Island Misunderstood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits the newly "discovered" island that world culture theorists have repeatedly utilised to explain their theoretical stance, conceptual preferences and methodological approach. Yet, it seeks to (re)connect world culture with the real world by replacing their imagined atoll with a real one--the island-nation of Japan. In…

Rappleye, Jeremy

2015-01-01

455

Tardigrades from Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, with particular reference to freshwater species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen species of Tardigrada from lakes and catchments on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, are described. Two species, Echiniscus punctus and Isohypsibius laevis are new to science, and two, Oreella minor and Pseudechiniscus suillus, are new to the Signy Is. records.

S. J. McInnes

1995-01-01

456

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Seabrook Island 257° true across the North Edisto River Entrance to the shore of Botany Bay Island. (d) A line drawn from the microwave antenna tower on Edisto Beach charted in approximate position latitude...

2011-07-01

457

Using Hydrogeochemical Methods To Evaluate Complex Quaternary Subsurface Stratigraphy Block Island, Rhode Island, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in hydrogeologic investigations of glaciated regions is the determination of complex stratigraphic relationships in the subsurface where insufficient information is available from drilling and geophysical records. In this paper, chemical characteristics of groundwater were used to identify stratigraphic changes in glacial deposits that were previously inferred on Block Island, Rhode Island, USA, an emergent remnant

Anne I. Veeger; Byron D. Stone

1996-01-01

458

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity  

E-print Network

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R geometry. It is found that the phase velocity is fixed by momentum transport across the magnetic flux surfaces in the region immediately surrounding the magnetic separatrix. Analytic predictions for the phase

Fitzpatrick, Richard

459

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in approximate position latitude 32°29.3? N. longitude 80°19.2? W. across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island. (e) A line formed by the centerline of the highway bridge between Hunting Island and Fripp...

2014-07-01

460

33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in approximate position latitude 32°29.3? N. longitude 80°19.2? W. across St. Helena Sound to the abandoned lighthouse tower on Hunting Island. (e) A line formed by the centerline of the highway bridge between Hunting Island and Fripp...

2013-07-01

461

75 FR 18394 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2010-04-12

462

75 FR 5900 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2010-02-05

463

77 FR 52595 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2012-08-30

464

78 FR 51043 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2013-08-20

465

76 FR 16322 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2011-03-23

466

75 FR 20514 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2010-04-20

467

78 FR 24333 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2013-04-25

468

78 FR 28149 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2013-05-14

469

75 FR 5898 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota...Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Michigan,...

2010-02-05

470

Hydrochemical changes in a small tropical island's aquifer: Manukan Island, Sabah, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small islands groundwater are often exposed to heavy pumpings as a result of high demand for freshwater consumption. Intensive exploitation of groundwater from Manukan Island’s aquifer has disturbed the natural equilibrium between fresh and saline water, and has resulted increase the groundwater salinity and leap to the hydrochemical complexities of freshwater-seawater contact. An attempt was made to identify the hydrochemical processes that accompany current intrusion of seawater using ionic changes and saturation indices. It was observed that the mixing between freshwater-seawater created diversity in geochemical processes of the Manukan Island’s aquifer and altered the freshwater and seawater mixture away from the theoretical composition line. This explained the most visible processes taking place during the displacement.

Aris, A. Z.; Abdullah, M. H.; Kim, K. W.; Praveena, S. M.

2009-02-01

471

Recent incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children 0–14 years in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada climbs to over 45/100,000: a retrospective time trend study  

PubMed Central

Background To study and update the provincial incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), a province of Canada with a very high incidence previously reported in 2006, and one of the highest incidences reported worldwide. This is a retrospective time trend study of the incidence of T1DM, in children aged 0–14 years from 1987–2010 inclusive. Findings Over the study period 931 children aged 0–14 years were diagnosed with T1DM. The incidence of T1DM in this population over the period 1987 – 2010 inclusive was 37.7 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 35. 3, 40.2) The incidence from 2007–2010 was 49.9 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 42.2, 57.6). The incidence over this 24 year period increased by a factor of 1.03 per 100,000 per year. Conclusion NL has one of the highest incidences of T1DM reported worldwide. Potential reasons for the very high incidence could be related to the unique genetic background of the population, northern latitude and vitamin D insufficiency, low breastfeeding rates, and high rates of cesarean section. PMID:23146327

2012-01-01

472

Current system east of the Ryukyu Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ryukyu Current System (RCS) is a northeastward current southeast of the Ryukyu Islands. The variation of current structure in the RCS region was investigated on the basis of the absolute geostrophic velocity estimated by inverse calculation using hydrographic data. Three realizations of the RCS are examined from cruises in May, September, and October 2002. It was found that the current structure in the RCS region is divided into upper and lower layers by an isopycnal surface of 26 ??. The currents in both layers proceed northeastward along the eastern slope, east of the Ryukyu Islands. The current in the upper layer merges with the inflow from the interior region, resulting in larger northeastward volume transport southeast of Amami-Oshima Island than southeast of Okinawa Island. The volume transport from the east reaches more than 40% of that southeast of Amami-Oshima Island. On the other hand, the current in the lower layer is not affected by inflow from the east. It is also found that the upper RCS gains heat mainly through the advection of warm water from the east, resulting in an increase in the downstream temperature by about 0.5°C on average.

Nagano, A.; Ichikawa, H.; Miura, T.; Ichikawa, K.; Konda, M.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Obama, K.; Murakami, K.

2007-06-01

473

Environmental monitoring of North Merritt Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental impact of the space shuttle operation on North Merritt Island was studied mainly by means of color infrared photos and field visits. An attempt was also made to generate character maps of the Island using LANDSAT data with a view to decreasing the cost of monitoring and making the process more flexible in terms of rapid estimation of the extent of selected ground features. It seems possible that the IMAGE-100 output can be improved by using it in conjunction with software systems which are used for generating character maps. All the methods for generating maps show six main plant associations on North Merritt Island. It was shown that the six associations are related by ecological succession, merge into their neighbors in terms of component species and can be observed for changes in terms of component species.

Poonai, P.

1975-01-01

474

Island biogeography: Effect of geographical isolation on species composition  

SciTech Connect

Island biogeography theory attempts to explain and predict among-island variation in species richness. However, two islands with the same number of species may still differ from each other considerably in their species composition. In this study the authors test the hypothesis that among-island variation in species composition is predictable and can be related to the corresponding differences in distance to the mainland. They focus on woody plants inhabiting islands in the Clarks Hill Lake, a reservoir completed in 1954 on the Savannah River, between Georgia and South Carolina, US. Two groups of islands were sampled: islands that were logged prior to the filling of the reservoir and islands that were not logged. Each island was surveyed for the presence of all tree and shrub species, and its distance from the mainland was determined. In both groups of islands, the degree to which two islands are similar in their species composition was negatively and significantly correlated with distance to the mainland only on logged islands. The authors conclude that geographic isolation may affect species composition on islands, and that such an effect may occur even in the absence of a corresponding effect on species richness. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Kadmon, R.; Pulliam, H.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

1993-06-01

475

The D-linking effect on extraction from islands and non-islands  

PubMed Central

“D-linked” wh-phrases such as which car are known to increase the acceptability of sentences with island violations. One influential account of this attributes the effect to working memory: the D-linked filler is easier to retrieve at the site of the gap and this leads to the amelioration in acceptability. Such an account predicts that this effect should occur in general with non-trivial wh-dependencies, not just in island environments. An experiment is presented here to test this prediction. Wh-questions with both D-linked and bare wh-phrases and with both island and non-island embedded clauses are presented to participants, who rate their acceptability on a 7-point scale. Results show that D-linking significantly increases acceptability in both island and non-island environments, in accord with analyses that attribute the effect to working memory. In addition, the increase in acceptability is uniform in both types of environments, suggesting that the island effect itself may not be attributable to working memory. PMID:25601844

Goodall, Grant

2015-01-01

476

The tsunamigenic earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands (Aleutian island arc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interpretation of the type, size, and location of the source of the Aleutian earthquake on April 1, 1946, which was characterized by the highest intensity ( I = 4), is proposed. The earthquake source is a subvertical reverse fault striking along the island arc and dipping at an angle of 85° toward the deep-sea trench. The reverse fault is located in the lower part of the island slope, within the eastern termination of the Aleutian terrace. The western end of the reverse fault is located in the area of the Krenitsyn Islands (? ˜ 165°W), where the pattern of isobaths changes, and an abrupt widening of the shelf part of the Fox Islands takes place. Large ( M S ˜ 7) shocks, preceding the 1946 earthquake, occurred here in 1940, 1942, and 1944. Structural inhomogeneities in the island slope in the area of the Sanak Islands (? ˜ 162°W) determine the eastern edge of the source-reverse fault, whose length within the specified boundaries is about 200 km. The mean magnitude of the earthquake corresponding to such a source is ˜8.3. According to the regular relation between the rupture length and the mean movement, the vertical displacement of the ocean floor in the source region could attain 5-6 m. A significant vertical displacement of the ocean floor over its large length (˜200 km) was responsible for the high tsunamigenic ability of this earthquake. A favorable combination in the source area of the topographic and other conditions necessary for the tsunami formation could additionally contribute to an increase in the intensity of the tsunami. The earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands, as well as the tsunamigenic earthquakes of March 9, 1957, in the Andreanof Islands and February 4, 1965, in the Rat Islands, does not belong to the class of “slow” earthquakes.

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2010-06-01

477

Islands in the Midst of the World  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 9495. The image covers an area of 369 kilometers x 567 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 58 to 64 within World Reference System-2 path 181.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

478

78 FR 18789 - Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sound lies an archipelago of over 450 islands, rocks, and pinnacles known as the San Juan Islands. These islands form an unmatched...unappropriated or unreserved islands, rocks, exposed reefs, and pinnacles above mean high tide, within the boundaries described...

2013-03-28

479

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. QUARTERS A IN THE SNOW; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Commandant's Quarters, Walnut Avenue, west side near Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

480

33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island...

2014-07-01

481

33 CFR 117.561 - Kent Island Narrows.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.561 Kent Island Narrows. The draw of the U.S. Route 50/301 bridge, mile 1.0, Kent Island...

2010-07-01

482