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Sample records for garcinia brasiliensis mart

  1. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound. PMID:25905590

  2. Natural products from Garcinia brasiliensis as Leishmania protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivan O; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Maria A; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbieri, Clara L; do Sacramento, Luis V S; Marques, Marcos J; dos Santos, Marcelo H

    2011-06-01

    The infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which cause renal and cardiac toxicity. As part of a search for new drugs against leishmaniasis, we evaluated the in vitro Leishmania protease inhibition activity of extracts (hexanic, ethyl-acetate, and ethanolic) and fukugetin, a bioflavonoid purified from the ethyl-acetate extract of the pericarp of the fruit of Garcinia brasiliensis, a tree native to Brazilian forests. The isolated compound was characterized by using spectral analyses with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet, and infrared techniques. The ethyl-acetate extract and the compound fukugetin showed significant activity as inhibitors of Leishmania's proteases, with mean (±SD) IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration of protease activity) values of 15.0±1.3 μg/mL and 3.2±0.5 μM/mL, respectively, characterizing a bioguided assay. In addition, this isolated compound showed no activity against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and mammalian cells. These results suggest that fukugetin is a potent protease inhibitor of L. (L.) amazonensis and does not cause toxicity in mammalian or Leishmania cells in vitro. This study provides new perspectives on the development of novel drugs that have leishmanicidal activity obtained from natural products and that target the parasite's proteases. PMID:21554130

  3. Antimicrobial activity of benzophenones and extracts from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, F J; Claudino, A L R; Cruz, J W; Chavasco, J K; Faria e Silva, P M; Veloso, M P; Dos Santos, M H

    2009-04-01

    The pericarp and seeds from fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis were subjected to extraction with hexane and ethanol. The pericarp hexane extract (PHE) and seed ethanol extract (SEE) were purified by silica gel column chromatography, which permitted isolation of the prenylated benzophenones 7-epiclusianone (1) and guttiferone-A (2), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of PHE, SEE, and compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were established. The substances presented activity against S. aureus and B. cereus as follows: PHE, 4.0 microg/mL and 2.4 microg/mL; SEE, 10.0 microg/mL and 12.6 microg/mL; 7-epiclusianone, 1.2 microg/mL and 0.6 microg/mL; and guttiferone-A, 2.4 microg/mL and 2.4 microg/mL, respectively. The direct relationship between the lipophilic character of the structure and activity in Gram-positive bacteria was specifically observed. Therefore these extracts and prenylated benzophenones represent an interesting topic for further studies and open possibilities for an alternative control of diseases associated with Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:19459744

  4. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-01

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters. PMID:24491421

  5. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  6. Xanthones from Garcinia propinqua Roots.

    PubMed

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Machana, Theeraphan; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Garcinia propinqua roots led to the isolation and identification of a new xanthone, doitunggarcinone D (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 14, 15 and 16 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with MIC values in the range of 1-4 µg/mL. Compounds 3, 7, 10 and 14 also showed good antibacterial activity against B. cereus TISTR 688 with MIC values ranging from 4-8 µg/mL. PMID:26996028

  7. Constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chang; Weng, Jing-Ru; Won, Shen-Jeu; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2005-07-01

    A new benzophenone, garcinielliptone FA (1), and a new benzoylphloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FB (2), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and supported by computer-generated molecular modeling. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines. PMID:16038565

  8. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. PMID:25727735

  9. Cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex and the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio C C; Rosa, João A; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília V

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the classical cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, T. juazeirensis Costa & Felix, T. melanica Costa, Argolo & Felix, T. melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, T. petrochiae Pinto & Barreto, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, T. sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata, T. tibiamaculata Pinto and T. vitticeps Stal) and the T. brasiliensis complex (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma Neiva & Lent, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). The five members of the T. brasiliensis complex share the same cytogenetic characteristics. Merely T. sherlocki show differences in spermatids, which confirms the status of more differentiated member of the complex. T. lenti also presented the same cytogenetic characteristics described for the species of the T. brasiliensis complex, which supports possible grouping of the species as sixth member of the complex, although further analysis as molecular and experimental crosses are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. T. petrochiae, T. vitticeps, T. tibiamaculata and T. melanocephala presented one or more characteristics that allow questioning grouping in the proposed Brasiliensis subcomplex. Thus, we suggested that Brasiliensis subcomplex and T. brasiliensis complex should be constituted by the same triatomines (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). However, we draw attention to T. lenti and suggest that although new analyzes should be performed, possibly this species is the sixth member of the T. brasiliensis complex.  PMID:25081800

  10. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  11. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  12. A new xanthone from Garcinia nitida.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Foo, C H; Jong, V Y M; Ismail, N H; Sukari, M A; Taufiq Yap, Y H; Awang, K

    2012-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia nitida has led to the isolation of five xanthones. They are 1,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethylpyrano[2',3':2,3]-xanthone (1), inophyllin B (2), osajaxanthone (3), 3-isomangostin (4) and rubraxanthone (5). The structures of these compounds were established using mainly 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HMQC) while molecular masses were determined via MS techniques; 1 is a new compound. PMID:22044165

  13. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2016-03-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as "the queen of fruits". The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  14. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2015-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as “the queen of fruits”. The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  15. Cytotoxic Polyisoprenyl Benzophenonoids from Garcinia subelliptica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Chiou, Chun-Tang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yang Kuo, Li-Ming; Liao, Chia-Chin; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2010-01-01

    Six new polyisoprenyl benzophenonoids, (±)-garcinialiptone A (1, 2), garcinialiptone B (3), (−)-cycloxanthochymol (4), garcinialiptone C (5), and garcinialiptone D (6), along with three known compounds, xanthochymol (7), isoxanthochymol (8), and cycloxanthochymol (9), were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1–6 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Biological evaluation showed that all compounds 1–9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines (A549, DU145, KB, vincristine-resistant KB). PMID:20232858

  16. Xanthones with antimalarial activity from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Likhitwitayawuid, K; Chanmahasathien, W; Ruangrungsi, N; Krungkrai, J

    1998-04-01

    Chromatographic separation of the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia dulcis (Guttiferae) furnished five xanthones, viz 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (2), 1-O-methylsymphoxanthone (3), symphoxanthone (4), and garciniaxanthone (5). These xanthones 1-5 showed inhibitory effects on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.96-3.88 micrograms/ml. In addition, revised 13C-NMR assignments of 3 and complete 13C-NMR assignments of 4 were obtained through analysis of their COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC spectra. PMID:9581528

  17. Marte Vallis Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows platy flow surfaces in the Marte Vallis region of Mars. The origin of the flows is not well-understood, but as some Mars scientists have suggested, the flows may be the product of low viscosity (very fluid), high temperature volcanic eruptions, or perhaps they are the remains of large-scale mud flows. In either case, the materials are solid and hold a record of small meteor impact craters, thus indicating that they are not composed of ice, as still others have speculated.

    Location near: 6.7oN, 182.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  18. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  19. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25675112

  20. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (−)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

  1. Antioxidant and antiplatlet aggregation properties of bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anushi; Joseph, G S; Singh, R P

    2014-08-01

    The bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa, which are abundant in the Northeastern regions of India, were screened for their antioxidant and in vitro antiplatelet aggregating activities. By β-carotene linoleate model for antioxidant assay, acetone extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extracts of G. cowa exhibited higher antioxidant activity (86.47 and 66.94 % respectively, at 25 ppm) than other extracts. Similar pattern was observed for superoxide radical scavenging method for antioxidant assay. The ethyl acetate extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extract of G. cowa exhibited higher antiplatelet aggregation capacity towards ADP induced platelet aggregation (IC50 0.16 and 0.43 ug, respectively) than other extracts. PMID:25114359

  2. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  3. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Wei; Huang, A-Mei; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Weng, Jing-Ru; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2012-11-15

    Two new triterpenoids, garcinielliptones Q (1) and S (3), and a new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone R (2), were isolated from the seed of Garcinia subelliptica. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FC (4) from this plant exhibited a significant increase of antiproliferative effect, while 4 combined with cisplatin significantly caused decrease of cell inhibition induced by cisplatin in NTUB1. Exposure of NTUB1 cells to 4 cotreated with cisplatin for significantly decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than that of the total amount generated by 4 and cisplatin. These results suggested that 4 could protect the cisplatin toxicity through reduction of ROS in NTUB1. Phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones, A (5) and F (7), and garsubelline A (6), from this plant, revealed ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and 5 displayed an inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase. These finding showed that 5-7 may be used as antioxidants. PMID:22868169

  4. Phloroglucinols with prooxidant activity from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chang; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Won, Shen-Jen; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-02-01

    A new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone HF ( 1), possessing an unprecedented skeleton, and the tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC ( 2/ 2a) were isolated from the heartwood and pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica, respectively. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. The ability of compounds 1 and 2/ 2a to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA. In the presence of Cu(II), compounds 1 and 2/ 2a caused significant breakage of pBR322 DNA. The involvement of H2O2 and O2 (*-), and H2O2, O2 (*-), and OH (*) in 1- and 2/ 2a-mediated scission, respectively, was established by inhibition or no protection of DNA breakage by various oxygen radical scavengers. Thus, in the presence Cu(II), 1 and 2/ 2a may show a prooxidant effect on DNA and induce cell death. PMID:18166016

  5. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  6. A bioactive cycloartane triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Sadiq Noor

    2016-06-01

    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects. PMID:26158779

  7. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  8. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13→17)-abeo-3β-acetoxy-9α,13β-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant. PMID:24813683

  9. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. PMID:26688377

  10. Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C; Zhang, Y-J; Yang, C-R

    2006-03-01

    Dulcisxanthones C-F and dulcinone together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated. PMID:16325214

  11. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  12. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  13. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references. PMID:24079308

  14. Phenolic compounds from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, Suwanna; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2008-01-01

    Dulcisxanthone G, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The activities on antibacterial and antioxidation of the isolated compounds were examined. PMID:19023789

  15. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  16. Characteristics of environmental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Costa, Patricia Fagundes; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Amaral, Cristiane Candida; Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2010-01-01

    The ecological niche or exact habitat of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not known, and few isolates have been obtained from the environment. In this study, ten isolates were analyzed with respect to antigenic composition, serology, pathogenicity, and molecular aspects. Gp43 is considered to be the molecular basis for the serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis; however, in this study only six of the environmental isolates secreted this molecule (four in great amounts and two in small amounts). Other molecules were also produced. When exoantigens from these isolates were tested using immunodiffusion, only four preparations were positive by ID tests. However, when these exoantigens were tested by ELISA, all of them except one were able to detect anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. In Western blot assays, these exoantigens showed different reactivities. Isolates that secreted gp43 presented positive reactions for this molecule, and isolates that did not secrete gp43 gave positive reactions for other minor molecules. RAPD analysis revealed that there is great genetic variation between these environmental isolates. These isolates were non-pathogenic: no mortality was observed among the inoculated mice during an 18-month follow-up period. PMID:19653119

  17. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use.

    PubMed

    Corey, Rebecca; Werner, K Tuesday; Singer, Andrew; Moss, Adyr; Smith, Maxwell; Noelting, Jessica; Rakela, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Millions of Americans regularly use herbal supplements, but many are unaware of the potential hidden dangers. Numerous supplements have been associated with hepatotoxicity and, indeed dietary/herbal supplements represent an increasingly common source of acute liver injury. We report a case of acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia, a supplement widely promoted for weight loss. When patients present with acute hepatitis or liver failure from an unknown etiology, a careful history of supplement use should be performed. PMID:26626648

  18. Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yating; Li, Dahong; Jia, Cuicui; Xue, Chunmei; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming

    2016-04-01

    Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively. PMID:26645396

  19. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation. PMID:25299822

  20. Cytotoxic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from the twigs of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Kan, Winnie L T; Zhou, Yan; Song, Jing-Zheng; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Cho, Chi-Hin; Rudd, John A; Lin, Ge; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-02-26

    An unusual polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivative unsubstituted at C-2 and C-6, garcicowin A (1), together with three other new (garcicowins B-D, 2-4) and nine known analogues, was isolated and characterized from the twigs of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and against normal colon cells (CCD-18Co), and the results demonstrated their selective toxicity toward the cancer cells. PMID:20058933

  1. Intensity-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HongPing; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Wang, JinJun

    2016-05-01

    A novel technique to shrink the elongated particles and suppress the ghost particles in particle reconstruction of tomographic particle image velocimetry is presented. This method, named as intensity-enhanced multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (IntE-MART), utilizes an inverse diffusion function and an intensity suppressing factor to improve the quality of particle reconstruction and consequently the precision of velocimetry. A numerical assessment about vortex ring motion with and without image noise is performed to evaluate the new algorithm in terms of reconstruction, particle elongation and velocimetry. The simulation is performed at seven different seeding densities. The comparison of spatial filter MART and IntE-MART on the probability density function of particle peak intensity suggests that one of the local minima of the distribution can be used to separate the ghosts and actual particles. Thus, ghost removal based on IntE-MART is also introduced. To verify the application of IntE-MART, a real plate turbulent boundary layer experiment is performed. The result indicates that ghost reduction can increase the accuracy of RMS of velocity field.

  2. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia. PMID:24133059

  3. [Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, M G; Guarneri, A A; Pires, H H; Diotaiuti, L; Lazzari, C R

    2000-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we observed a similar dampening pattern, but mean RH was lower in both domiciliary refuges and wild ones inside stony sites as compared to reference levels in the surrounding environment. The results are discussed with regard to this species' microclimatic preferences in the laboratory and its potential as determinants of its geographical distribution. PMID:11119321

  4. A new xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Manqin; Qiu, Samuel X; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Chen, Yulong; Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2013-12-01

    A new prenylxanthone, garcimangostanol (1), was isolated from the EtOAc-soluble partition of the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., along with three known compounds, namely 8-deoxygartanin (2), 1-isomangostin (3), and garcinone C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of its 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited either significant o r moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, Hep-G2 and CNEhuman cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 23.6+/- 1.5 microM by MTT colorimetric assay. PMID:24555285

  5. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL. PMID:25110196

  6. Polyphenolic Constituents of the Pericarp of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Morio; Ninomiya, Kana; Tagashira, Yukari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-01

    Three new polyphenols, together with 14 known compounds, were isolated from a hot water extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp, a plant that has been used medicinally in Southeast Asia. The three new polyphenols were characterized as a 4-aryl-2-flavanylbenzopyran derivative (tentatively named GM-1), 1, 3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxybenzophenone (GM-2), 2, and 2,3-dihydrochromone derivative (GM-3), 3 on the basis of NMR and MS data. The relative stereostructure of GM-1 was assigned to have 2,3-cis-3,4-trans- and 2″,3″-cis configurations on the basis of the coupling constants of heterocyclic ring protons in the (1)H NMR spectrum along with nuclear Overhauser effect correlations. The HPLC analysis indicated that major polyphenolic components in the hot water extract of mangosteen pericarp were epicatechin and procyanidin B2 (epicatechin dimer). PMID:26023815

  7. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2α-hydroxy-3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  8. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zeng; Huang, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Gong-Kan; Lan, Wen-Jian; Li, Hou-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and γ-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines. PMID:24509722

  9. Anti-inflammatory phloroglucinols and terpenoids from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Wu, Ru-Rong; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2004-11-01

    Three new phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones K (1), L (2), and M (3), and two new terpenoids, garcinielliptones N (4) and O (5), have been isolated from the seeds of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1-5 including their relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and supported by computer-generated molecular modeling. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase, and on beta-glucuronidase and histamine, respectively, from peritoneal mast cells stimulated with p-methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (compound 48/80) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent effects on NO production in culture media of RAW 264.7 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Compound 2 also showed a potent effect on NO production in culture media of N9 cells in response to LPS/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). PMID:15568764

  10. Recent research on bioactive xanthones from natural medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi. PMID:26152816

  11. New depsidones and xanthone from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Siripong, Pongpun; Khumkratok, Suttira; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-06-01

    Two new depsidones, schomburgdepsidones A and B (1 and 2), and one new xanthone, schomburgxanthone A (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all 11 compounds was evaluated against the KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and Hep G2 human cancer cell lines. Compound 7 performed a good cytotoxicity against the KB, Hela S-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.17-6.07μM. Compound 3 exhibited a good cytotoxicity against the KB cell line only, with an IC50 value of 8.14μM. PMID:27102610

  12. Ultrastructure of Dimorphic Transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Luis M.

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M ⇌ Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M → Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y → M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M → Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y → M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon. Images PMID:5359610

  13. Characterization of the cellular antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form.

    PubMed Central

    Casotto, M

    1990-01-01

    Antigenic components of the yeast extract of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Linder 2511 cultured for 3, 8, 20, 30, and 60 days were examined by the Western blot (immunoblot) technique. The 3-day extract was chosen for characterization of the antigenic components because its stability did not vary with time and it contained all antigens identified by patient sera. Antibodies to cross-reacting antigens of P. brasiliensis extracts were detected in sera from patients with histoplasmosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. The 58-, 57-, 21-, and 16-kilodalton (kDa) antigens were specific for P. brasiliensis, while the 48- and 45-kDa antigens were specific for paracoccidioidomycosis. The Western blot technique is a useful tool for the diagnosis of disease and revealed heterogeneity in the responses of patient sera. The combination of the 58-, 57-, and 45-kDa proteins confirmed a diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (87% of the cases). Images PMID:2380351

  14. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds. PMID:24963617

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Mycobacteria spp., they have the potential for use as reagents in the purification of Nocardia antigens. Images PMID:2405017

  16. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis. PMID:16724848

  17. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  18. ANIMAL MODEL OF NIPPOSTRONGYLUS BRASILIENSIS AND HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal models of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection are powerful tools for the investigation of the basic biology of immune responses and protective immunity. In particular they model the induction and maintenance of Th2 type immune responses and exhibiting all the ...

  19. Temporal dynamics of reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  20. 5-Lipoxygenase Activity Increases Susceptibility to Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Fabrine Sales Massafera; Rocha, Fernanda Agostini; Moreira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Rossi, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Leukotrienes and lipoxins are lipid mediators produced after 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation that exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of 5-LO enzymatic activity in PCM using an experimental model of P. brasiliensis infection. B6.129 wild-type (B6.129) and 5-LO-deficient (5-LO−/−) mice were intravenously inoculated with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18), and the survival rate of the infected mice was investigated on different days after yeast infection. 5-LO−/− mice exhibited an increased survival rate associated with a decreased number of CFU. The resistance of 5-LO−/− during PCM was associated with augmented nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation of compact granulomas. In addition, the absence of 5-LO was associated with a diminished number of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, higher levels of gamma interferon and interleukin-12, and increased T-bet (a T-box transcription factor that directs Th1 lineage commitment) mRNA levels in the lungs. Taken together, our results show for the first time that 5-LO enzymatic activity increases susceptibility to P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention during PCM. PMID:23381993

  1. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; de Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of domestic rabbits by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Initially two rabbits were experimentally infected with P. brasiliensis and the humoral immune response was evaluated by ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The two animals showed IgG response against gp43 although no signs of disease were observed. The seroepidemiological study was carried out in 170 rabbits (free range n = 81 and caged n = 89) living in an endemic area for human paracoccidioidomycosis and a positivity of 27% was observed in the ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The free-range rabbits showed a significantly higher positivity (34.6-51.7%) than the caged animals (11.1%). Sentinel rabbits exposed to natural infection with P. brasiliensis were followed up for 6 months and a seroconversion rate of 83.3% was observed. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in rabbits and suggests that this species can be useful sentinels for P. brasiliensis presence in the environment. PMID:24125519

  3. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  4. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ah; Su, Bao-Ning; Keller, William J; Mehta, Rajendra G; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2006-03-22

    As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone [7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2], together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G (3), 8-deoxygartanin (4), garcimangosone B (5), garcinone D (6), garcinone E (7), gartanin (8), 1-isomangostin (9), alpha-mangostin (10), gamma-mangostin (11), mangostinone (12), smeathxanthone A (13), and tovophyllin A (14). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Except for compound 2, which was isolated as a minor component, the antioxidant activities of all isolates were determined using authentic and morpholinosydnonimine-derived peroxynitrite methods, and compounds 1, 8, 10, 11, and 13 were the most active. Alpha-mangostin (10) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture assay with an IC50 of 1.0 microg/mL (2.44 microM). PMID:16536578

  5. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:25818171

  6. Novel and anti-inflammatory constituents of Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Lin, Chun-Nan; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2003-05-01

    Four novel phloroglucinol derivatives, garcinielliptones A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), a novel triterpenoid, garcinielliptone E (5), and three known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data. Known compounds garsubellin A (6) and garcinielliptin oxide (7) showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase, and beta-glucuronidase and histamine, respectively, from peritoneal mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80 in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 15.6+/-2.5, and 18.2+/-3.6 and 20.0+/-2.7 microM, respectively. Compound 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe(fMLP)/cytochalasin B (CB) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 15.7+/-3.0 and 23.9+/-3.2 microM, respectively. Compound 7 also showed potent inhibitory effect on superoxide formation from neutrophils stimulated with fMLP/CB also in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 17.9+/-1.5 microM. PMID:12740842

  7. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml). PMID:26999039

  8. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  9. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Jing; Chang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1-7) of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production. PMID:25690030

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  12. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Gioconda; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-09-01

    To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  13. Extracellular Paracoccidioides brasiliensis phospholipase B involvement in alveolar macrophage interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phospholipase B (PLB) has been reported to be one of the virulence factors for human pathogenic fungi and has also been described as necessary for the early events in infection. Based on these data, we investigated the role of PLB in virulence and modulation of the alveolar pulmonary immune response during infection using an in-vitro model of host-pathogen interaction, i.e. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells infecting alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. Results The effect of PLB was analyzed using the specific inhibitor alexidine dihydrochloride (0.25 μM), and pulmonary surfactant (100 μg mL-1), during 6 hours of co-cultivation of P. brasiliensis and MH-S cells. Alexidine dihydrochloride inhibited PLB activity by 66% and significantly decreased the adhesion and internalization of yeast cells by MH-S cells. Genes involved in phagocytosis (trl2, cd14) and the inflammatory response (nfkb, tnf-α, il-1β) were down-regulated in the presence of this PLB inhibitor. In contrast, PLB activity and internalization of yeast cells significantly increased in the presence of pulmonary surfactant; under this condition, genes such as clec2 and the pro-inflammatory inhibitor (nkrf) were up-regulated. Also, the pulmonary surfactant did not alter cytokine production, while alexidine dihydrochloride decreased the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and increased the levels of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, gene expression analysis of plb1, sod3 and icl1 suggests that P. brasiliensis gene re-programming is effective in facilitating adaptation to this inhospitable environment, which mimics the lung-environment interaction. Conclusion P. brasiliensis PLB activity is involved in the process of adhesion and internalization of yeast cells at the MH-S cell surface and may enhance virulence and subsequent down-regulation of macrophage activation. PMID:20843362

  14. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR

    PubMed Central

    ARANTES, Thales Domingos; BAGAGLI, Eduardo; NIÑO-VEGA, Gustavo; SAN-BLAS, Gioconda; THEODORO, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  15. c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase‑mediated anti‑inflammatory effects of Garcinia subelliptica in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-03-01

    Garcinia plants have been traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as skin infections and pain, in many regions including South‑East Asia. Garcinia subelliptica, a plant of the Garcinia species widely distributed from Japan to Thailand, has been reported to contain components similar to other Garcinia plants that exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to explore the anti‑inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Garcinia subelliptica (EGS) in macrophages, as there are no previous systemic studies that have investigated the effects of Garcinia subelliptica on inflammation. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of EGS (≤200 µg/ml) were observed to reduce nitric oxide production by modulating iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The expression of cyclooxygenase‑2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was notably reduced by EGS. EGS treatment inhibited the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑6 and IL‑1β, however, not TNF‑α. Reduced production of inflammatory mediators by EGS was followed by reduced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) however, not of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‑κB. These results indicate that EGS selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activation of JNK, suggesting that EGS is a candidate for modulating severe inflammation. PMID:26781201

  16. FIT-MART: Quantum Magnetism with a Gentle Learning Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Larry; Garland, Scott C.; Rainey, Cameron; Freeman, Ray A.

    We present a new open-source software package, FIT-MART, that allows non-experts to quickly get started sim- ulating quantum magnetism. FIT-MART can be downloaded as a platform-idependent executable Java (JAR) file. It allows the user to define (Heisenberg) Hamiltonians by electronically drawing pictures that represent quantum spins and operators. Sliders are automatically generated to control the values of the parameters in the model, and when the values change, several plots are updated in real time to display both the resulting energy spectra and the equilibruim magnetic properties. Several experimental data sets for real magnetic molecules are included in FIT-MART to allow easy comparison between simulated and experimental data, and FIT-MART users can also import their own data for analysis and compare the goodness of fit for different models.

  17. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecotopes, natural infection and trophic resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Costa, J; de Almeida, J R; Britto, C; Duarte, R; Marchon-Silva, V; Pacheco, R da S

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness. PMID:9698835

  19. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  20. A new megastigmane sulphoglycoside and polyphenolic constituents from pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thu Huong; Le Huyen, Tram; Tran, Thi Minh; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Pham, Thanh Binh; Nguyen Tien, Dat

    2016-07-01

    A megastigmane sulphoglycoside together with three phenolic compounds were isolated from the water-soluble fraction of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana. The structure of the new compound was determined as 4-O-sulpho-β-d-glucopyranosyl abscisate (1) by spectroscopic data. Proanthocyanidin A2 (2) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH scavenging activities with IC50 values of 3.46 and 11.6 μM, respectively. PMID:26727880

  1. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. PMID:25632472

  2. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  3. Inhibition of human lipoprotein oxidation by morelloflavone and camboginol from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Kongkachuay, Suyanee; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2007-06-01

    A biflavonoids, morelloflavone (1) and a prenyltated xanthone, camboginol (2), isolated from the fruits of Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz., exhibited strong antioxidation effects in both Fe2+ -mediated and non-metal induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidations. However, a well-known antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), was found less potent than both compounds based on the same test systems. PMID:17613824

  4. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  5. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators. PMID:25478784

  6. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 micrograms of both sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne per ml. A significant decreases in susceptibility was demonstrated for one isolate obtained from a patient relapsing during sulfonamide therapy. Images PMID:7416744

  7. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. PMID:25399518

  8. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

    The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

  10. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract. PMID:25475477

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  12. New records of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-feeding insects. Hemiptera and Coleoptera on Senecio brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Klitzke; Trigo

    2000-04-01

    New records are reported for a Hemipteran (Largus rufipennis) and a Coleopteran (Chauliognathus fallax) feeding on Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) and sequestering pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Both insects are warningly colored and rejected by predators. PMID:10725590

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Mark A; Douglas, Kory C; Rexroad Iii, Caird E; Jobity, Ann Marie C; Gold, John R

    2009-05-01

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (eight tetranucleotide and two dinucleotide) and three imperfect repeats (two tetranucleotide and one dinucleotide). An additional five microsatellites, isolated originally from two congeneric species (S. cavalla and S. niphonius), were characterized in S. brasiliensis. Serra Spanish mackerel support artisanal fisheries along the Caribbean and Atlantic coasts of Central and South America, from Belize to Brazil. PMID:21564761

  14. In Vitro Activities of the New Antitubercular Agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  15. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Brandão-Dias, Pedro Ferreira Pinto; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Alves, Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of the fish Salminus brasiliensis, popularly known as dourado. It is a circular, 17,721 bp long DNA molecule, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding Control Region of 2128 bp, a relatively large molecule when compared to other closely related fishes. All protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand, except for Nd6, and all have ATG as the start codon, except for Cox1 gene which has a GTG start codon. Seven protein-coding genes have incomplete stop codons (Nd2, Cox2, Atp6, Nd4, and Cytb have T- -, and Cox3 and Nd3 have TA-). TAG is the stop codon for Nd6 and AGG is the stop codon for Cox1. PMID:25208163

  18. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  19. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  20. Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; da Silva, Kesia Caroline; Cechinel, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Giménez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-β-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23579790

  1. Xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hong; Li, Chen-Xi; Jia, Cui-Cui; Sun, Ya-Ting; Xue, Chun-Mei; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Three new xanthones, paucinervins H-J (1-3), as well as eleven known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR ESIMS. In vitro antiproliferative activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was tested, among which, compounds 2, 5, 6 and 7 exhibited strong growth inhibitory effects with GI50 values ranging from 1.30 to 9.08 μM, respectively. Preliminary SARs were also discussed. PMID:26659874

  2. [A new flavone from stems of Garcinia bracteata and its anti-TMV activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-mei; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Jie; Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Gao, Xue-mei; Hu, Qiu-fen; Jiang, Zhi-yong

    2015-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Garcinia bracteata collected from Xishuangbanna resulted in the isolation of a new flavone. By analysis of the HRESIMS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, the structure of the new compound was determined as 7-methoxy-4',6-dihydroxy-8-isobutyryl-flavone(1). Compound 1 was also tested for its anti-tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) activity. Results suggested the 1 possessed remarkable anti-TMV activity, with an inhibition rate of 28.2%. PMID:27071257

  3. Chemistry of α-mangostin. Studies on the semisynthesis of minor xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo F; Biagiotti, Marco; Pappalardo, Valeria M; Rabuffetti, Marco; Speranza, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    α-Mangostin is the major prenylated xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and it has been used also in recent times as starting material for the semisynthetic preparation of various biologically active derivatives. Its structure is characterised by the presence of few functional groups amenable to chemical manipulations, but present in the molecule in multiple instances (three phenolic hydroxyl groups, two prenyl chains and two unsubstituted aromatic carbons). This study represents a first approach to the systematic investigation of the reactivity of α-mangostin and describes the semisynthesis of some minor xanthones isolated from G. mangostana. PMID:25482370

  4. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 μM). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2. PMID:25867714

  5. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shélida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Báo, Sônia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2009-01-01

    Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 μM strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 μM, while the MLC is around 30 μM. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 μM), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 μM of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 μM exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is

  6. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species. PMID:27266714

  7. Development of U-Mart System with Plural Brands and Plural Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Yoshihito; Mori, Naoki; Ono, Isao; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kita, Hajime; Matsumoto, Keinosuke

    In this paper, we first discuss the notion that artificial market systems should meet the requirements of fidelity, transparency, reproducibility, and traceability. Next, we introduce history of development of the artificial market system named U-Mart system that meet the requirements well, which have been developed by the U-Mart project. We have already developed the U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 3.0” to solve problems of old U-Mart systems. In version 3.0 system, trading process is modularized and universal market system can be easily introduced.
    However, U-Mart system version 3.0 only simulates the single brand futures market. The simulation of the plural brands and plural markets has been required by lot of users. In this paper, we proposed a novel U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 4.0” to solve this problem of U-Mart system version 3.0. We improve the server system, machine agents and GUI in order to simulate plural brands and plural markets in U-Mart system version 4.0. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by statistical analysis of results of spot market simulation with random agents.

  8. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  9. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  10. Antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rungjindamai, Nattawut; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for antimicrobial activity in endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and branches of five Garcinia plants, G. atroviridis, G. dulcis, G. mangostana, G. nigrolineata and G. scortechinii, found in southern Thailand. Fermentation broths from 377 isolated fungi were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained for crude ethyl acetate extracts. Seventy isolates (18.6%) displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism, such as Staphylococcus aureus, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results revealed that 6-10%, 1-2% and 18% of the crude ethyl acetate extracts inhibited both strains of S. aureus (MIC 32-512 microg mL(-1)), Ca. albicans and Cr. neoformans (MIC 64-200 microg mL(-1)), and Microsporum gypseum (MIC 2-64 microg mL(-1)), respectively. Isolates D15 and M76 displayed the strongest antibacterial activity against both strains of S. aureus. Isolates M76 and N24 displayed strong antifungal activity against M. gypseum. Fungal molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that isolates D15 (DQ480353), M76 (DQ480360) and N24 (DQ480361) represented Phomopsis sp., Botryosphaeria sp. and an unidentified fungal endophyte, respectively. These results indicate that some endophytic fungi from Garcinia plants are a potential source of antimicrobial agents. PMID:17052267

  11. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

  12. Comparative study on the efficacy of Garcinia kola in reducing some heavy metal accumulation in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, C R; Owu, D U; Ufearo, C S; Iwuala, M O E

    2011-05-17

    Garcinia kola is regarded as an antidote and anti-hepatotoxic agent. We examined its protection ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. The ground seed was mixed with rat feed (5%, w/w) and fed to rats while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Garcinia kola was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Garcinia kola could not reverse the weight reduction in the heavy metal exposed groups although it offers more protection and aid greater elimination of heavy metals from the liver. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection by Garcinia kola to Cd (72.4%) and Pb (56.2%) accumulation when compared to Hg (40%) at week 2 which was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2. At week 6, the percentage protection to both Hg (64.2%) and Cd (62.2%) were comparable to each other while protection to Pb (49.9%) accumulation was significantly (P<0.01) reduced. The percentage protection was time-dependent in some groups but treatment during and after the exposure provided a greater protection. Garcinia kola has the highest hepatoprotective effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection against Pb toxicity in rats and its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. PMID:21458555

  13. Garcinia benzophenones inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells and synergize with sulindac sulfide and turmeric.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Mighty, Jason; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; Figueroa, Mario; Jalees, Filza; Acuna, Ulyana Munoz; Le Gendre, Onica; Foster, David A; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracts and purified components from Garcinia species inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Garcinia benzophenones activate the expression of genes in the endoplasmic reticulum and cellular energy stress (mTOR) pathways. This study examines the growth inhibitory and synergistic effects of Garcinia benzophenones, alone or combined with chemopreventive agents, on human colon cancer cells. To find optimal combination treatments, HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with benzophenones alone, or combined with chemopreventive agents, and cell growth measured using the MTT assay. To reveal effects on signaling pathways, we assessed effects of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the ER IP3 receptor antagonist heparin, as well as effects on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1 (mTOR pathway), using Western blot analysis. New and known benzophenones from Garcinia intermedia inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells; an alcohol extract of Garcinia xanthochymus, as well as purified guttiferones (guttiferone E and xanthochymol), preferentially inhibited the growth of colon cancer versus nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells. Guttiferone E exhibited synergy with the NSAID sulindac sulfide and xanthochymol, with the spice turmeric. Guttiferone A did not alter phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1, indicating that the mTORC1 pathway is not involved in its action. The effects of xanthochymol were enhanced by U0126, at low doses, and were blocked by heparin, indicating that the MEK pathway is involved, while the ER IP3 receptor is critical for its action. These studies indicate the potential of benzophenones, alone or combined with sulindac sulfide or turmeric, to prevent and treat colon cancer. PMID:23848206

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  16. The BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Peter; Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Yang, Yiya; Baldock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe the BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE. EMAGE is a spatiotemporal database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. BioMart provides a generic web query interface and programmable access using web services. The BioMart interface extends access to EMAGE via a powerful method of structuring complex queries and one with which users may already be familiar with from other BioMart implementations. The interface is structured into several data sets providing the user with comprehensive query access to the EMAGE data. The federated nature of BioMart allows scope for integration and cross querying of EMAGE with other similar BioMarts. PMID:21930504

  17. Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Puccia, R; Schenkman, S; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

    1986-01-01

    Yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis grown in liquid medium produced exocellular components. Immunodiffusion reactions and immunoprecipitations of 131I-radiolabeled antigenic components with sera from patients having paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) were used to monitor the isolation of specific constituents. Components having the main antigenic activity (fCon A) were isolated by exclusion from a Bio-Gel P30 column, followed by successive binding of eluted material to a Sepharose-concanavalin A column, and elution. The product contained, from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a minor 43,000-molecular-weight (MW) component (gp43), a polydisperse high-MW glycoconjugate, and a diffusely migrating 55,000-MW glycoprotein (gp55). Other components, including a 72,000-MW glycoprotein, were irregularly expressed. The high-MW glycoconjugate complex contained, on the basis of methylation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance data, a branched structure of mainly mannopyranosyl units. These were nonreducing ends, 6-O-, 2-O-, and 2,6-di-O-substituted, and the specific rotation of +16 degrees indicated that the glycosidic configurations of the units were alpha and beta in a ratio of ca. 1:1 (concanavalin A binding indicated that nonreducing ends or 2-O-substituted units or both of alpha-D-mannopyranose were present). A small proportion of nonreducing end units of D-galactopyranose were also present in this polysaccharide. gp55 is a glycoprotein containing a complex carbohydrate moiety with fucose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, either as terminal nonreducing units or substituted in positions indicated by methylation data. Both PCM and normal human sera precipitated the high-MW glycoconjugate from 131I-labeled fCon A preparations, whereas gp55 was unreactive with human sera. gp43 was a specific antigenic component of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates which could be isolated in a pure form by gel filtration column chromatography (Sephadex G150

  18. Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jane; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Lawrence, Gena G; Gumiel, Marcia; Oliveira, Genova; Cabello, Pedro; Lima, Marli Maria; Dotson, Ellen; Provance, David William; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Mateo, Lucia; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Dujardin, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma occurs in Pernambuco state, Brazil, which is situated between the distribution areas of Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (north) and Triatoma juazeirensis (south). T. b. macromelasoma displays greater variations in its chromatic phenotype than either T. b. brasiliensis or T. juazeirensis, and patterns reminiscent of one or the other. Experimental crosses from each of these members of the T. brasiliensis species complex generated fertile offspring suggesting that viable hybrids could be present in nature, despite their significant genetic distances. Considering the geographical position of occurrence of the T. b. macromelasoma (in Pernambuco) it was proposed to be an area capable of supporting natural hybridization between T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis. Since phenotypic variability is expected, this study investigated the existence of intermediate chromatic phenotypes for T. b. macromelasoma in various locations in areas between the T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis occurrences. Thirteen different color patterns were for the first time characterized and nine of those displayed intermediate phenotypes. Molecular analysis performed using ribosomal DNA intergenic region, grouped all within the T. brasiliensis complex. The intermediate chromatic phenotypes, molecular analysis and experimental crosses all support the distinction of a zone of hybridization that gave rise to the T. b. macromelasoma through homoploidal evolution. PMID:26520796

  19. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  20. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens in human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we report the standardization of an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis circulating antigens that could be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. For this purpose we studied the reactivities of P. brasiliensis and other mycotic antigens with rabbit polyclonal anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies (immunoglobulin G) in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an IRMA for detecting P. brasiliensis antigens. The results were compared with those obtained by the double immunodiffusion test, the standard technique for the serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. By using the immunoglobulin G fraction of rabbit antisera (900 ng per well), it was possible to detect up to 3.6 ng (0.12 micrograms/ml) of cellular antigen and 360 ng (12 micrograms/ml) of metabolic antigen in contrast to the double immunodiffusion test that could detect only 12 micrograms (1.2 mg/ml) of both antigens. IRMA was shown to be feasible and very sensitive and may therefore help, together with clinical data, in establishing early diagnosis and assessing disease activity. It could also allow the study of relationships between P. brasiliensis circulating antigens and host defense mechanisms during the disease. PMID:1907608

  1. Lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection acquired from a cat scratch: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M K

    1992-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a bacterium that is most commonly found in the soil. Traumatic inoculation of N. brasiliensis into the skin is the most typical mode of acquisition of infection due to this organism. To the best of my knowledge, I report the first case of lymphocutaneous N. brasiliensis disease from a penetrating cat scratch of the skin, thereby establishing cats as vehicles for the transmission of this infection. Treatment with penicillin produced a rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms of infection. The efficacy of penicillin against the N. brasiliensis isolate recovered from this patient was highly unusual. In general, penicillin has limited therapeutic value since these organisms elaborate beta-lactamase. Sulfonamides remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of these infections. These soil-borne organisms are most likely carried on the claws of cats and may establish infection after percutaneous inoculation. A high index of suspicion for N. brasiliensis soft-tissue infection is required since a delayed or missed diagnosis may be associated with progressive local disease and/or widespread disseminated infection. PMID:1420688

  2. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  3. New iridoid glucosides from the aerial parts of Verbena brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Oishi, Kanna; Abe, Hiroaki; Masuoka, Chikako; Okawa, Masafumi; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, verbenabraside A (1) and verbenabraside B (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Verbena brasiliensis VELL., along with six known iridoid glucosides, gelsemiol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (3), verbraside (4), 9-hydroxysemperoside (5), griselinoside (6), aralidioside (7), and 6alpha-hydroxyforsythide dimethyl ester (8), three known phenylethanoid glycosides, 2-phenylethyl O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), acteoside (10), and leucosceptoside A (11), two known lignan glucosides, dihydroxymethyl-bis(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) tetrahydrofuran-9 (or 9')-O-beta-glucopyranoside (12) and (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), a known methyl salicylate glucoside, methyl 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylbenzoate (14), and two known sterols, beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15) and beta-sitosterol (16). Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited stronger scavenging effect on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl than that of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17015981

  4. Biological control of Rigidoporus lignosus in Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbebor, Nicholas Obehi; Adekunle, Adefunke Temitayo; Eghafona, Odeh Nosakhare; Ogboghodo, Abraham Ikponmwosa

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo control of fungal antagonists on Rigidoporus lignosus (klotzsch) Imaz in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg. in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. In vitro assessments of biological agents were carried out in dixenic cultures in Petri plates. In vivo tests were carried out in the nursery using Hypocrea virens and Hypocrea jecorina. Significant differences were observed with the dual inoculations of fungal antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day, and the antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus. Hypocrea jecorina was most effective in the control of R. lignosus with percentage inhibition of 86.83 %. Hypocrea virens, H. jecorina, Trichoderma spirale, Trichoderma sp., Trichoderma sp. Pers, and Hypocrea lixii were effective on R. lignosus. Fungal antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus exhibited higher inhibitory efficacies than antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day. In the in vivo evaluation of fungi antagonists on R. lignosus, seedlings in H. jecorina treatment at 60 d and H. virens treatment at 150 d after inoculations respectively had the highest plant heaths (highest length of stem and length of tap rot, lowest plant death, and least foliar symptom) compared to the control. Mortality rate was higher at 60 d after inoculation and decline from the third months onward. Significant differences were observed between the control and R. lignosus treatment in all the parameters evaluated. PMID:25601145

  5. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gabriel Capella; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Arantes, Thales Domingos; Silva, Luciane Regina Franciscone; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens. PMID:23903981

  6. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research. PMID:27317253

  7. Reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of Protopithecus brasiliensis. I. Body size.

    PubMed

    Halenar, Lauren B

    2011-12-01

    An accurate body size estimate is essential for reconstructing and interpreting many aspects of the paleobiology of an extinct taxon. With this in mind, the purpose of this study is two-fold: first, to create statistically robust predictive regression equations for body mass, total body length, and head and body length from postcranial elements using a platyrrhine reference sample, data that do not exist elsewhere in the literature; and, second, to apply those regression equations to the "giant" subfossil platyrrhine Protopithecus brasiliensis, a little-studied taxon represented by a nearly complete skeleton. Building on results of previous work with other primate groups, different skeletal elements, subgroups of the reference sample, and regression models lead to different body size estimates with different standard errors and prediction errors. However, relatively tight clusters of estimates around 20 kg, total length of 1,675 mm, and head and body length of 710 mm are obtained, placing the fossil in the size range of a large male baboon. While not quite as large as the original 25 kg body mass estimate for the fossil, this new estimate is still approximately 150% larger than the largest living New World monkey. Confirmation of its place in a large-bodied size class of platyrrhines has a profound effect on reconstructing the locomotor repertoire of Protopithecus and the evolutionary trajectory of the alouattin lineage. PMID:22042663

  8. Hydrophobic allergens from the bottom fraction membrane of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mengumpun, Kesajee; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Hamilton, Robert G; Sangsupawanich, Pasuree; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun

    2008-01-01

    Several proteins of rubber latex have been recognized as allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity in humans. In this study, a bottom fraction membrane (BFM) protein preparation from Hevea brasiliensis trees grown in southern Thailand was used to detect specific IgE in four groups of serum samples. The first group included 170 samples of latex glove factory workers (LGWs); group 2 consisted of the sera of 35 health care workers (HCWs) who were repeatedly exposed to powdered latex gloves; groups 3 and 4 were 31 positive and 22 negative sera, respectively, obtained from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA, tested for IgE to latex allergen. It was found that 56/170 (33%), 5/35 (14%), 11/31 (35.5%) and 1/22 (4.5%) samples of the LGWs, HCWs, CAP+ and CAP- groups had significant IgE to the BFM proteins, respectively. However, of all subjects only one subject of group 1 had experienced allergic morbidity consisting of eczema, conjunctivitis and asthma. The IgE of this subject bound to a 55 kDa component in the rubber latex BFM preparation. Thus, this protein may be regarded as a novel, although minor, latex allergen. Further investigation is needed to characterize the component and to pinpoint its allergenic role. PMID:19054931

  9. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. PMID:26404561

  10. Preparation of species-specific murine monoclonal antibodies against the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A J; Bartholomew, M A; Harada, T; Fenelon, L; Hay, R J

    1990-01-01

    A panel of four murine monoclonal antibodies showing species specificity for the yeast phase of the pathogenic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was produced by using a modification of the standard monoclonal antibody technology. This involved the use of the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune response of test animals to fungi showing cross-reactivity, i.e., to Histoplasma capsulatum. One monoclonal antibody, P4, which had a high titer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was shown to recognize a linear antigenic epitope of P. brasiliensis at a molecular size of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The potential use of these monoclonal antibodies, which are the first species-specific probes to P. brasiliensis that have been produced, in the field of serodiagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:2394802

  11. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dayvison FS; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel ME; do Valle, Antonio CF; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua d

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease. PMID:25668479

  12. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Tainá M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogério A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

  13. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male. PMID:26787143

  14. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  15. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, D M; Marmontel, M; Rosas, F W; Santos, F R

    2007-12-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations. PMID:18278348

  16. TLR9 Activation Dampens the Early Inflammatory Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Impacting Host Survival

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Alves, Ana G.; Lobo-Silva, Diogo; Sturme, Mark; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Saraiva, Ana Laura; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Romani, Luigina; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune response relies on the activation of pattern recognition receptors, among which are TLRs. Both TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the recognition of P. brasiliensis and regulation of the immune response. However, the role of TLR9 during the infection by this fungus remains unclear. Methodology/Principal findings We used in vitro and in vivo models of infection by P. brasiliensis, comparing wild type and TLR9 deficient (−/−) mice, to assess the contribution of TLR9 on cytokine induction, phagocytosis and outcome of infection. We show that TLR9 recognizes either the yeast form or DNA from P. brasiliensis by stimulating the expression/production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow derived macrophages, also increasing their phagocytic ability. We further show that TLR9 plays a protective role early after intravenous infection with P. brasiliensis, as infected TLR9−/− mice died at higher rate during the first 48 hours post infection than wild type mice. Moreover, TLR9−/− mice presented tissue damage and increased expression of several cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. The increased pattern of cytokine expression was also observed during intraperitoneal infection of TLR9−/− mice, with enhanced recruitment of neutrophils. The phenotype of TLR9−/− hosts observed during the early stages of P. brasiliensis infection was reverted upon a transient, 48 hours post-infection, neutrophil depletion. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that TLR9 activation plays an early protective role against P. brasiliensis, by avoiding a deregulated type of inflammatory response associated to neutrophils that may lead to tissue damage. Thus

  17. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and characterization of antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, C A; Jesuino, R S; Felipe, M S; Cunha, D A; Brito, W A; Soares, C M

    2001-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a fungal pathogen of humans. To identify antigens from P. brasiliensis we fractionated a crude preparation of proteins from the fungus and detected the IgG reactive proteins by immunoblot assays of yeast cellular extracts with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). We identified and characterized six new antigens by amino acid sequencing and homology search analyses with other proteins deposited in a database. The newly characterized antigens were highly homologous to catalase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase from several sources. The characterized antigens presented preferential synthesis in yeast cells, the host fungus phase. PMID:11418327

  18. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  19. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  20. Therapeutic effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2(-)/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  1. Comparison of the skin penetration of Garcinia mangostana extract in particulate and non-particulate form.

    PubMed

    Tachaprutinun, Amornset; Meinke, Martina C; Richter, Heike; Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to solve the water insolubility limitation of the medically and cosmetically interesting substance Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML) extract by encapsulation, and to evaluate and investigate the penetration efficacy of free and encapsulated GML in two different vehicles (water and cream) in porcine ear skin. The follicular penetration depth was determined in 50 hair follicles for each of the four formulations by means of fluorescence microscopy. Tape stripping was used to compare the distribution properties of GML with all formulations on the stratum corneum. The results showed that encapsulated and free GML in the cream base penetrated deeper into hair follicles than if applied in an aqueous base. In addition, encapsulated GML could be distributed more homogeneously on the stratum corneum than the free GML. In conclusion, it was found that encapsulated GML in a cream base had the most effective penetration level in porcine ear skin. PMID:24321393

  2. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

  3. Prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia with antienteroviral activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tao, Ling; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Yi-Fu; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Da-Jian; Lu, Ai-Ping; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-04-25

    An acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia showed antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 12 new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins J-U (1-12), and five known compounds. The structures of 1-12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of a Mosher ester procedure carried out in NMR tubes and ECD calculations. Compared to ribavirin (IC50 253.1 μM), compounds 1, 4, and 13 exhibited significant anti-EV71 activity in vitro, with IC50 values of 31.1, 16.1, and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the selectivity indices of these compounds were 1.5, 2.4, and 3.0 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, respectively. PMID:24679044

  4. Antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory activities of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Hani Z

    2016-07-01

    A prenylated xanthone, α-mangostin was separated from the alcoholic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp. Its structure was established by different spectroscopic analysis. The total methanolic extract (TME) and different fractions of G. mangostana pericarp as well as α-mangostin were assessed for their antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory effects (QSI). The TME, CHCl3 fraction, and α-mangostin exhibited strong activity against all tested strains. While, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity against some of the tested organisms. In addition TME, CHCl3, EtOAc, and α-mangostin showed promising QSI, while n-BuOH and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for TME, CHCl3 fractions, and α-mangostin was also assessed. PMID:27592485

  5. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Saikia, S; Das, J; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L; Veer, V

    2012-05-01

    Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol extract of stem and dichloromethane extract of leaf. The G. lancifolia fruit juice exhibited high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of fruit pulp was also very effective against Gram-positive bacteria when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. The radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was highest in fruit juice followed by methanol extract of leaf and stem. All extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in the antioxidant activity. PMID:23439879

  6. Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.

    PubMed

    Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

    2014-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. PMID:24690454

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and polycyclic acylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liang, Shuang; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2012-08-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones A (1) and B (2), three new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, nujiangefolins A-C (3-5), and 10 known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 3 and 4 are unusual polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols in which the enol hydroxy group forms a six-membered ring with a benzene ring carbon. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against 11 cancer cell lines and immortalized MIHA normal liver cells, and the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. Isojacareubin (6) was found to be the most potent cytotoxic compound of those tested. PMID:22871217

  8. Bioassay-guided isolation of xanthones and polycyclic prenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Chao; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Gang; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Chang, Donald C; Luo, Kathy Qian; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia has resulted in the isolation of three new xanthones, oblongixanthones A-C (1-3), three new polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins E-G (4-6), and 12 known compounds. Oblongifolins I (5) and J (6) are the first natural products that have similar structural features to those of two known oxidation products of garcinol. The structures of the new compounds 1-6 were characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were assayed for their apoptosis-inducing effects against HeLa-C3 cells. Oblongifolin C (16) was found to be the most potent apoptotic inducer of the compounds evaluated. PMID:19113969

  9. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  10. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  11. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  12. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  13. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  14. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11, 2012). Parts III though VI require Relief-Mart to: Keep... Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  15. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice. PMID:23569771

  16. Production of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigens for immunodiffusion tests.

    PubMed Central

    De Camargo, Z; Unterkircher, C; Campoy, S P; Travassos, L R

    1988-01-01

    Growth curves of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis B-339 based on total and viable cell counts were determined. Crude culture filtrate antigens were obtained after 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days of incubation. Different patterns of proteins were obtained by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B-immunoglobulin G complex made with immunoglobulin G from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, with subsequent analyses by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning densitometry. Three major proteins were excreted during the time course of a 30-day culture: a doublet at 20 to 21 kilodaltons (kDa) and molecules of 43 and 52 kDa. The 43-kDa antigen was present throughout the growth period, and its level reached a peak on days 15 to 20 and then decreased considerably toward day 30. The antigenic preparations collected on days 7, 10, 15, and 20 gave better reactions in immunodiffusion tests than those collected on days 25 and 30. The 7-day exoantigen gave a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 100% on immunodiffusion. The main line of precipitation had a very high intensity, showing a total identity with that of a previously purified glycoprotein of 43 kDa. A 7-day crude exoantigen displayed a high level of sensitivity and specificity, being reproducible from batch to batch and retaining its activity for years when kept lyophilized. A protocol is recommended for the production of a stable diagnostic antigen to be used in immunodiffusion tests for paracoccidioidomycosis. Images PMID:3141460

  17. A Morphological and Cytochemical Study of the Interaction between Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda R. G.; Filgueira, Absalom L.; de Souza, Wanderley

    2004-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the most prevalent systemic mycosis of Latin America and 80% of the reported cases are from Brazil. Because of the great number of neutrophils found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the development of the infection. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of thin sections showed that the neutrophils ingest yeast cells through a typical phagocytic process with the formation of pseudopodes. The pseudopodes even disrupt the connection established between the mother and the bud cells. Neutrophils also associate to each other, forming a kind of extracellular vacuole where large yeast cells are encapsulated. Cytochemical studies showed that once P. brasiliensis attaches to the neutrophil surface, it triggers a respiratory burst with release of oxygen-derived products. Attachment also triggers neutrophils' degranulation, with release of endogenous peroxidase localized in cytoplasmic granules. Together, these processes lead to killing of both ingested and extracellular P. brasiliensis.

  18. Initial development of the endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand (Anacardiaceae): with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, João M S; Mariath, Jorge E A

    2015-09-01

    Investigation into the initial developmental stages of a given structure is fundamental for precise characterization as well as for comparative analysis in relation to other taxa when homologies are established. For the Anacardiaceae family, investigations of the initial development of the pericarp or its basic histological sites, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, are relevant since these regions are of taxonomic and phylogenetic importance. The initial stages of endocarp development in Lithraea brasiliensis were studied using light microscopy. In L. brasiliensis, the fruits are of the drupe type. The endocarp originates exclusively in the epidermis of the locular cavity and is composed of only three strata. The crystalliferous layer, typical in fruits of the Anacardiaceae family, originates in the carpelar mesophyll and runs adjacent to the outermost layer of the endocarp. The endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis is of the Anacardium type. The results of the present study are important for the identification of the Lithraea species that occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In L. molleoides, the crystalliferous layer was shown to originate from the locular epidermis and this developmental aspect enables it to be differentiated from L. brasiliensis and demonstrates that there is variability of endocarp development in Lithraea. PMID:26221992

  19. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera. PMID:25359906

  20. Thermal preferences and limits of Triatoma brasiliensis in its natural environment - Field observations while host searching

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Silvia; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Diotaiuti, Lileia

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensis selected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensis body surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the temperature of rock crevices where they were hidden (r: 0.96, p < 0.05). The species was active at full sunlight being a clear example of how the light-dark rhythm may be altered, even under predation risk. Our results strongly suggest a thermal borderline for T. brasiliensis foraging activity near 40ºC. The simultaneous determination of insect body and rock temperatures here presented are the only obtained in natural habitats for this or other triatomines. PMID:26517659

  1. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; Silva, Julhiany de Fátima ds; Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar de; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  2. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  3. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  4. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  5. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    PubMed

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27328827

  6. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A A C; Petroni, T F; Fedatto, P F; Bianchini, R R; Venancio, E J; Itano, E N; Ono, M A

    2009-04-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  7. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  8. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Terçarioli, Gisela Ramos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Reis, Gabriela Martins; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bosco, Sandra De Moraes Gimenes; Macoris, Severino Assis da Graça; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al) in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al. PMID:17953742

  9. Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Takeara, R; Albuquerque, S; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C

    2003-01-01

    In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas' disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniques and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promising compound for use against T. cruzi in blood banks. PMID:13678232

  10. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  11. Study of nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis (Heteroptera, Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L L V; Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Silistino-Souza, E R; Silva Júnior, F C; Souza-Firmino, T S; Banho, C A; Itoyama, M M

    2015-01-01

    Few cytogenetic studies have been undertaken using aquatic heteropterans and the nucleolar behavior of these insects has been described in only four species, Limnogonus aduncus, Brachymetra albinerva, Halobatopsis platensis, and Cylindrostethus palmaris. The nucleolus is a cellular structure related to biosynthetic activity and it exhibits a peculiar behavior in the heteropterans of the Triatominae subfamily; it persists during all stages of meiosis. Thus, this study aims to analyze spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis, with an emphasis on nucleolar behavior. Twenty M. brasiliensis adult males were used and collected from the Municipal reservoir in the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The species were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1), then dissected, and the testicles were extracted, torn apart, and impregnated with silver ions. During prophase, the nuclei of M. brasiliensis were composed of the nucleolus and nucleolar corpuscles, which varied in number from one to four, emphasizing that this insect has great synthetic activity during meiosis. The analysis of cells in metaphase I showed that M. brasiliensis presents a nucleolar organizing region in at least one autosome. Furthermore, the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was not observed. All spermatids presented nucleolar markings that varied in number and position according to the stage of elongation. Moreover, it was also possible to highlight the presence of a vesicle in spermatids. Thus, this paper describes the nucleolar behavior of M. brasiliensis and highlights important characteristics during spermatogenesis, thus, increasing the knowledge about the biology of these aquatic heteropterans. PMID:26345830

  12. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L; Campos, Claudia B L; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25°C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37°C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions. PMID:26241825

  13. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  14. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  15. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

  16. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)₂D₃), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  17. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  18. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Enolase Is a Surface Protein That Binds Plasminogen and Mediates Interaction of Yeast Forms with Host Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Mundodi, Vasanth; Abi-Chacra, Erika A.; Winters, Michael S.; Alderete, John F.; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is a disseminated, systemic disorder that involves the lungs and other organs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host components, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, is essential to further colonization, invasion, and growth. Previously, enolase (EC 4.2.1.11) was characterized as a fibronectin binding protein in P. brasiliensis. Interaction of surface-bound enolase with plasminogen has been incriminated in tissue invasion for pathogenesis in several pathogens. In this paper, enolase was expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein (recombinant P. brasiliensis enolase [rPbEno]). The P. brasiliensis native enolase (PbEno) was detected at the fungus surface and cytoplasm by immunofluorescence with an anti-rPbEno antibody. Immobilized purified rPbEno bound plasminogen in a specific, concentration-dependent fashion. Both native enolase and rPbEno activated conversion of plasminogen to plasmin through tissue plasminogen activator. The association between PbEno and plasminogen was lysine dependent. In competition experiments, purified rPbEno, in its soluble form, inhibited plasminogen binding to fixed P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this interaction required surface-localized PbEno. Plasminogen-coated P. brasiliensis yeast cells were capable of degrading purified fibronectin, providing in vitro evidence for the generation of active plasmin on the fungus surface. Exposure of epithelial cells and phagocytes to enolase was associated with an increased expression of surface sites of adhesion. In fact, the association of P. brasiliensis with epithelial cells and phagocytes was increased in the presence of rPbEno. The expression of PbEno was upregulated in yeast cells derived from mouse-infected tissues. These data indicate that surface-associated PbEno may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. brasiliensis. PMID

  19. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  20. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection. PMID:26360774

  1. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

  2. Isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in an area where the fungus was recently isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Vergara, M L; Martinez, R; Camargo, Z P; Malta, M H; Maffei, C M; Chadu, J B

    2000-06-01

    Natural infection of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Northern Brazil was reported in 1986, raising great interest in the understanding of the role of this mammal in the epidemiological cycle of the fungus. Recently, P. brasiliensis was isolated from the soil of Ibiá, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Armadillos captured in this area were evaluated for the presence of P. brasiliensis in the viscera and infection was detected in 4/16 animals (25%). Fungal yeast phase cells were observed in three of the four infected armadillos by direct microscopic examination and by the indirect immunofluorescence test carried out on homogenized tissues. P. brasiliensis was isolated from three armadillos whose homogenized viscera had been injected into Swiss mice. The new strains (Ibiá-T1, Ibiá-T2 and Ibiá-T3) were identified as P. brasiliensis on the basis of macro- and micromorphology, thermodimorphism, production and serologic activity of exoantigens, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detection of the gp43 gene. The lethality and lesions caused to the mice from which the strains were recovered confirmed the virulence of the isolates. We conclude that P. brasiliensis infects armadillos in locations with different geoclimatic characteristics and vegetation cover. The direct observation of yeast cells in tissues and the multiple visceral involvement, including the lungs, suggests the occurrence of paracoccidioidomycosis disease in these mammals and supports their role as wild hosts in the epidemiological cycle of the fungus. PMID:10892986

  3. Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Matteo; Joost Batenburg, Kees; Scarano, Fulvio

    2010-03-01

    A novel technique to increase the accuracy of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) reconstruction from tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) recordings at higher seeding density than currently possible is presented. The motion tracking enhancement (MTE) method is based on the combined utilization of images from two or more exposures to enhance the reconstruction of individual intensity fields. The working principle is first introduced qualitatively, and the mathematical background is given that explains how the MART reconstruction can be improved on the basis of an improved first guess object obtained from the combination of non-simultaneous views reduced to the same time instant deforming the 3D objects by an estimate of the particle motion field. The performances of MTE are quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulation of the imaging, reconstruction and image correlation processes. The cases of two or more exposures obtained from time-resolved experiments are considered. The iterative application of MTE appears to significantly improve the reconstruction quality, first by decreasing the intensity of the ghost images and second, by increasing the intensity and the reconstruction precision for the actual particles. Based on computer simulations, the maximum imaged seeding density that can be dealt with is tripled with respect to the MART analysis applied to a single exposure. The analysis also illustrates that the maximum effect of the MTE method is comparable to that of doubling the number of cameras in the tomographic system. Experiments performed on a transitional jet at Re = 5000 apply the MTE method to double-frame recordings. The velocity measurement precision is increased for a system with fewer views (two or three cameras compared with four cameras). The ghost particles' intensity is also visibly reduced although to a lesser extent with respect to the computer simulations. The velocity and vorticity field obtained from a three

  4. Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamide formation in natural stimulants: Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Mende, P; Pfundstein, B; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1995-08-01

    Three varieties of kola nut, Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola, of Nigerian origin, were analysed for their content of primary and secondary amines, and assessed for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation. Primary and secondary amines were determined as benzene sulfonamides by gas chromatography/thermal energy analysis (GC/TEA). Dimethylamine, methylamine, ethylamine and isopentylamine were detected in all kola nut varieties, while pyrrolidine, piperidine and isobutylamine were detected in one or more varieties. Estimated average total daily intake of aliphatic amines by a typical kola nut chewer varied from 260 to 1040 micrograms/day for secondary amines and from 2430 to 9710 micrograms/day for primary amines. Methylating activity of the nitrosated kola nuts, expressed as N-nitroso-N-methylurea equivalents, was also determined by GC/TEA. Methylating activity was significantly higher in kola nuts (170-490 micrograms/kg) than has ever been reported for a fresh plant product. These data suggest that the possible role of kola nut chewing in human cancer aetiology should be explored in countries where kola nuts are widely consumed as stimulants. PMID:7672735

  5. Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Won; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana fruits has led to the isolation and identification of five compounds, including two xanthones, 1,2-dihydro-1,8,10-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-a]xanthen-11-one (1) and 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin (2), along with three known compounds, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), mangostanin (4), and alpha-mangostin (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds in the present study together with eleven other compounds previously isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, were tested in an in vitro quinone reductase-induction assay using murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and an in vitro hydroxyl radical antioxidant assay. Of these, compounds 1-4 induced quinone reductase (concentration to double enzyme induction, 0.68-2.2microg/mL) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells and gamma-mangostin (6) exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 0.20microg/mL). PMID:17991497

  6. UPLC-ESI-TOF MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of the Antioxidative Food Supplement Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Balemba, Onesmo B; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Comparative antioxidative analyses of aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaf, root, and stem of Garcinia buchananii revealed high activity of all three organs. To investigate the metabolite composition of the different parts of G. buchananii, an untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-TOF MS with simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) was performed. Unsupervised statistics (PCA) highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of the three organs. OPLS-DA revealed (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1, (2R,3S)-morelloflavone, and (2R,3S)-volkensiflavone as the most decisive marker compounds discriminating leaf from root and stem extract. Leaves represent the best source to isolate GB-1, morelloflavone, and volkensiflavone. Root extract is the best organ to isolate xanthones and stem bark extract the best source to isolate (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone; the identified polyisoprenylated benzophenones are characteristic compounds for the leaf organ. Morelloflavone, volkensiflavone, and garcicowin C were isolated for the first time from G. buchananii, identified via MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy, and showed in H2O2 scavenging, H/L-TEAC, and H/L-ORAC assays moderate to strong in vitro antioxidative activities. PMID:26226176

  7. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica Bedd.

    PubMed

    Aravind, A P Anu; Asha, K R T; Rameshkumar, K B

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica, a hitherto uninvestigated endemic species to the Western Ghats of south India, resulted in isolation and characterisation of the polyisoprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-nemorosone (1) and garcinol (2) along with biflavonoids GB-1a (3), GB-1 (4), GB-2 (5), morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside or fukugiside (7). The compounds were identified using various spectroscopic techniques, mainly through NMR and MS. The methanol extract and the biflavonoids 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed potential in vitro antioxidant activities. The IC50 value of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of compound 7 was 8.34 ± 2.12 μg/mL, comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (3.2 ± 0.50 μg/mL). In the superoxide radical scavenging assay, compound 7 gave IC50 value of 6.95 ± 1.33 μg/mL close to standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 5.8 ± 0.25 μg/mL. Validated HPTLC estimation revealed G. travancorica as a rich source of morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside (7.12% dry wt. leaves). PMID:25982126

  8. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  9. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    PubMed

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2015-11-01

    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity. PMID:26409457

  10. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton's lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  11. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Desmond N; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J; Lipke, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  12. Anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T M; Vo, Bac H; Tran, Nhung T; Van, Quyen D

    2015-11-01

    This study was carried out to further examine the anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin (αMG) isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. grown in Vietnam, against a strongly biofilm producing Streptococcus mutans, a major causative agent of dental caries. The obtained data indicated that topical applications (twice-daily, 60 s exposure each) of 150 μM αMG during biofilm formation on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite disks (sHA) by S. mutans UA159 resulted in 30.7% reduction in biofilm accumulation after 68 h of growth. The treatment did not affect the viability of S. mutans cells in the biofilms. The surface activities of two key enzymes responsible for biofilm formation, i.e. the glycosyltransferases GtfB and GtfC, were reduced by 20 and 35%, respectively (vs. vehicle control, P < 0.05). Interestingly, αMG specifically targeted S. mutans in mixed biofilms, resulting in the decrease of the S. mutans population and total biofilm biomass. αMG was also found to accumulate within the biofilm of S. mutans up to 4.5 μg/biofilm, equal to a concentration of >10 μM/biofilm. In conclusion, this study confirmed anti-biofilm activity of αMG against S. mutans. A brief exposure to αMG may suppress biofilm formation by targeting key enzymes imvolved in biofilm formation. PMID:26618571

  13. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterisation of the anti-Listeria components of Garcinia kola seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Basson, K A; Mayekiso, B; Buwa, L; Okoh, I A

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption chromatography was used to separate the bioactive constituents of the crude n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds. The silica gel 60 column fractions were eluted using the solvent combination of benzene: ethanol : ammonium hydroxide (BEA) in the ratio combination of 36 : 4 : 0.4 v/v. The fractions were tested for anti-Listeria activities by determining their MIC50, MIC90 or MIC against 4 Listeria isolates. The fractions were labelled BEA1 to BEA5 and 3 out of the 5 fractions eluted were active against the test Listeria species with MIC's ranging from MIC 0.57 mg/mL to MIC50 0.625 mg/mL. The most active fractions, BEA2 and BEA3, were subjected to gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their composition. Fraction BEA2 constituted of 18 compounds mostly sterols and the BEA3 fraction contained 27 compounds with the most abundant compounds being fatty acids derivatives. The BEA2 fraction's interactions with antibiotics proved to be 100% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin whilst it exhibited 50% additivity and 50% synergism with penicillin G. However, all the interactions of the BEA2 fraction with each of the conventional antibiotics used were synergistic against the human listeriosis causative bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:25757343

  14. Antiproliferative activities of Garcinia bracteata extract and its active ingredient, isobractatin, against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhong, Qing-Qing; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    In our cell based screening of antitumor ingredients from plants, the EtOH extract of Garcinia bracteata displayed antiproliferative effect against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Phytochemical investigation of this active extract produced nine ingredients, and their structures were established by analysis of MS and NMR spectra. Antiproliferative evaluation of isolated ingredients on A549, MCF-7 and PC3 cells indicated that a xanthone named isobractatin (1) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against the above three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.90 to 4.15 μM. Treatment of PC3 cells with 1 led to an enhancement of the cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase cycle-related proteins analysis showed that the expressions of cyclins D1 and E were reduced by 1, whereas the protein level of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor P21 was induced. Additionally, 1 enhanced PC3 cell apoptosis by activations of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. Our combined data illustrated that isobractatin (1) was the antiproliferative ingredient of G. bracteata against three human cancer cell lines, which exerted its antiproliferatrive effect via cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. PMID:23812779

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola.

    PubMed

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Olaniyi T; Adeleke, Emmanuel G; Akinboro, Kehinde H; Odeyemi, Bayonle I; Ayoola, Bolanle I; Hiss, Donavon C

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), superoxide anion (O2 (-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+)), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT/γGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH(•), O2 (-), DPPH, and ABTS(•+) and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine. PMID:27355075

  16. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

  17. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) Presents Genotoxic Effects in Different Cells of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. PMID:24250785

  18. Morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis as a novel biflavonoid inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Tuansulong, Ku-Aida; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Pinkaew, Decha; Fujise, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid from Garcinia dulcis previously shown to have hypocholesterolemic activity, was examined for its effect on HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. By using the catalytic domain of house mouse HMG-CoA reductase, morelloflavone was found to inhibit the enzyme activity by competing with HMG-CoA whereas it was non-competitive towards NADPH. The inhibition constants (K(i)) with respect to HMG-CoA and NADPH were 80.87 ± 0.06 µm and 103 ± 0.07 µm, respectively. Both flavonoid subunits of this compound, naringenin and luteolin, equally competed with HMG-CoA with K(i) of 83.58 ± 4.37 µm and 83.59 ± 0.94 µm, respectively, and were also non-competitive with NADPH (K(i) of 182 ± 0.67 µm and 188 ± 0.14 µm, respectively). Due to these findings, we suggest that each subunit of morelloflavone would occupy the active site of the enzyme, thereby blocking access of its substrate. The present study thus demonstrates the ability of morelloflavone from G. dulcis to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. As a result, this biflavonoid might serve as a new candidate for the future development of hypocholesterolemic agents. PMID:20734327

  19. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. PMID:26773895

  20. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    PubMed Central

    Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity. PMID:23593575

  1. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seeds on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Igbinoba, Sharon I; Onyeji, Cyprian O; Akanmu, Moses A; Soyinka, Julius O; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V V; Cook, James M; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into 2 groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600 mg quinine sulfate before and after ingesting 12.5 g of G. kola once daily for 7 days (group A) or 12.5 g twice daily for 6 days and once on the seventh day (group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, respectively, and slight reduction in mean AUC0- ∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0-∞ by 13% and 9%, respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0-∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80%-125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  2. Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Li, Qian; Jing, Ming-Hua; Alba, Espargaró; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Sabaté, Raimon; Han, Yi-Fan; Pi, Rong-Biao; Lan, Wen-Jian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Jing-Kao

    2016-07-01

    Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these compounds, α-Mangostin, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin showed better antioxidant properties to scavenge Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than Trolox, and potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death partly by up-regulating HO-1 protein level and then scavenging reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin could be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. These findings suggest that the natural xanthones have multifunctional activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could be promising compounds for the therapy of AD. PMID:27038926

  3. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  4. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

  5. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles - GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles - successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. PMID:25125977

  6. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Desmond N.; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  7. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods. PMID:25520256

  8. Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

    2014-10-01

    Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), α-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12 μM, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. PMID:25128900

  9. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola

    PubMed Central

    Badmus, Jelili A.; Adedosu, Olaniyi T.; Adeleke, Emmanuel G.; Akinboro, Kehinde H.; Odeyemi, Bayonle I.; Ayoola, Bolanle I.; Hiss, Donavon C.

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH•), superoxide anion (O2−), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT/γGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH•, O2−, DPPH, and ABTS•+ and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine.

  11. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  12. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seed on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Igbinoba, Sharon I.; Onyeji, Cyprian O.; Akanmu, Moses A.; Soyinka, Julius O.; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V.V; Cook, James M.; Nathaniel, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into two groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600mg quinine sulphate before and after ingesting 12.5g of G. kola once daily for seven days (Group A) or 12.5g twice daily for six days and once on the seventh day (Group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite, (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated HPLC method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, and slight reduction in mean AUC0–∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0–∞ by 13% and 9% respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0–∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80–125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  13. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton’s lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  14. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike. PMID:21930506

  15. Cytotoxic Properties and Complete Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Assignment of Isolated Xanthones from the Root of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuni, Fatma Sri; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Lajis, Nordin HJ; Hamidi, Dachriyanus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate compounds from the roots of Garcinia cowa and to evaluated their cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145), and lung (H-460) cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ground air-dried root was sequentially macerated with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol. The DCM soluble extract was fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography, column chromatography, and radial chromatography over silica gel with hexane, EtOAc and methanol as eluent in progressively increasing polarity manner; to yield three compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data and their comparison with those of the literature. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was carried out against human cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The extract was added at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 that was based on the percentage of the cell death following the 24 h incubation with the extract. Results: Phytochemical study on the roots of G. cowa yielded rubraxanthone (3), cowanine (4) and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (5). Compound 4 with an IC50 value of 4.1 ± 1.0 μM, 5.4 ± 2.3 μM and 11.3 ± 10.0 μM against MCF-7, H-460, and DU-145, respectively while compound 3 was found to be in active. Conclusion: The results indicate that G. cowa roots could be important sources of natural cytotoxic compounds. SUMMARY Isolation of cytotoxic compounds from Garcinia cowaCowanine is the active constituent from the roots of Garcinia cowaComplete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of isolated compoundsMS fragmentation of rubraxanthone. PMID:27041859

  16. Disseminated Sporothrix brasiliensis Infection with Endocardial and Ocular Involvement in an HIV-Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Vergara, Mario León; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Silva, Patricia Ferreira; Abdalla, Michel Reis; Sgarbieri, Ricardo Nilsson; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; dos Santos, Keila Cristina; Barata, Cristina Hueb; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated sporotrichosis occurs in individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as in cases of neoplasia, transplantation, diabetes, and especially, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This report presents a 32-year-old Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient who developed a protracted condition of disseminated sporotrichosis with endocarditis, bilateral endophthalmitis, and lymphatic involvement. He needed cardiac surgery to replace the mitral valve. Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates were recovered from cultures of subcutaneous nodules and mitral valve fragments. Species identification was based on classical and molecular methods. The patient received amphotericin B for 52 days and subsequently, oral itraconazole. He remains asymptomatic, and he is on maintenance therapy with itraconazole. Despite his positive clinical outcome, he developed bilateral blindness. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of endocarditis and endophthalmitis caused by S. brasiliensis. PMID:22403321

  17. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S.; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. Methods and Results: We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. Conclusions: The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis. PMID:26697275

  18. THE POWER OF THE SMALL: THE EXAMPLE OF Paracoccidioides brasiliensis CONIDIA

    PubMed Central

    RESTREPO, Angela; CANO, Luz Elena; GONZALEZ, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has centered in the yeast cell probably because of the lack of distinctive features in the mycelium. In 1942 and for the first time, lateral conidia were noticed in the fungus' hyphae. Later on, Brazilian, Venezuelan and Argentinean researchers described "aleurias" when the fungus was grown in natural substrates. In 1970 authors became interested in the conidia and were able to obtain them in large numbers and treat them as individual units. Their shape and size were defined and the presence of all the elements of a competent eukaryotic cell were demonstrated. Conidia exhibited thermal dimorphism and, additionally, when given intranasally to BALB/c male mice, they converted into yeasts in the lungs and produce progressive pulmonary lesions with further dissemination to other organs. Studies on the phagocyte-conidia interaction were revealing and showed that these versatile structures allow a better understanding of the host- P. brasiliensis interactions. PMID:26465363

  19. Mutants of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9 affected in dimorphism.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, F; San-Blas, G

    1992-01-01

    Morphological mutants were isolated after nitrosoguanidine treatment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9. Two of these mutants, Pb257 and Pb258, developed a typical mycelia at 23 degrees C, however, the yeast cells which developed at 37 degrees C were indistinguishable from those of the parental strain. A third mutant, strain Pb267, was thermosensitive, grew as yeast-like cells at 23 degrees C, but was unable to survive at 37 degrees C. Morphological observations as well as serological and segregation tests confirmed that the mutant strains originated from P. brasiliensis. Cell wall chemical analyses of the mutant strains grown at 23 degrees C indicated the presence of alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble polysaccharides absent in the parental wild-type strain Pb9 grown under the same conditions. The phenotypes shown by the mutant strains may be related to deficiencies in the proper synthesis of cell wall components of the mycelial phase of this fungus. PMID:1573521

  20. Hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis: molecular characterization and mechanism of enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hasslacher, M; Kratky, C; Griengl, H; Schwab, H; Kohlwein, S D

    1997-03-01

    (S)-Hydroxynitrile lyase (Hnl) from the tropical rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is a 29 kDa single chain protein that catalyses the breakdown or formation of a C--C bond by reversible addition of hydrocyanic acid to aldehydes or ketones. The primary sequence of Hnl has no significant homology to known proteins. Detailed homology investigations employing PROFILESEARCH and secondary structure prediction algorithms suggest that Hnl is a member of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold protein family and contains a catalytic triad as functional residues for catalysis. The significance of predicted catalytic residues was tested and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and expression of mutant and wild-type proteins in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on these data we suggest a mechanistic model for the (S)-cyanohydrin synthesis catalyzed by hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. PMID:9094745

  1. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  2. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-03-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its computational cost. For large datasets comprising time-resolved sequences, MTE-MART becomes unaffordable and has been barely applied even for the analysis of densely seeded tomographic PIV datasets. A novel implementation is proposed for tomographic PIV image sequences, which strongly reduces the computational burden of MTE-MART, possibly below that of regular MART. The method is a sequential algorithm that produces a time-marching estimation of the object intensity field based on an enhanced guess, which is built upon the object reconstructed at the previous time instant. As the method becomes effective after a number of snapshots (typically 5-10), the sequential MTE-MART (SMTE) is most suited for time-resolved sequences. The computational cost reduction due to SMTE simply stems from the fewer MART iterations required for each time instant. Moreover, the method yields superior reconstruction quality and higher velocity field measurement precision when compared with both MART and MTE-MART. The working principle is assessed in terms of computational effort, reconstruction quality and velocity field accuracy with both synthetic time-resolved tomographic images of a turbulent boundary layer and two experimental databases documented in the literature. The first is the time-resolved data of flow past an airfoil trailing edge used in the study of Novara and Scarano (Exp Fluids 52:1027-1041, 2012); the second is a swirling jet in a water flow. In both cases, the effective elimination of ghost particles is demonstrated in number and intensity within a short temporal transient of 5-10 frames, depending on the seeding density. The increased value of the velocity space

  3. Cylindroxanthones A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Ersam, Taslim; Fatmawati, Sri; Siripong, Pongpun; Aree, Thammarat; Tip-pyang, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Three new xanthones, cylindroxanthones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The molecular structure of 1 was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These three xanthones were evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 value of 2.36 μM. PMID:26611370

  4. Dataset of SSR markers for ISSR-Suppression-PCR to detect genetic variation in Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we present 15 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with the motifs (AC)n, (GA)n, and (AC)n(AG)n using a ISSR-Suppression-PCR technique in order to discriminate Garcinia mangostana from diverse geographical origins in Peninsular Malaysia. A few loci showed differences between 3 and 6 bp in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that may be useful for differentiate of genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the ISSR-Suppression-PCR is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of selected G. mangostana in Malaysia. PMID:27617279

  5. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  6. Isolation and antigenicity of a 45-kilodalton Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodominant antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Galvão-Castro, B; Daniel-Ribeiro, C

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed human antibody responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cellular antigens by the immunoblot technique to identify specific cellular components and to investigate the existence of antigen profile differences among serological responses of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients. Among the 64 PCM serum samples analyzed, a relatively homogeneous immunoglobulin G response to P. brasiliensis antigens was observed. The polypeptide with a mass of 45 kDa was the most clinically important, since antibody to this antigen was detectable in 90.6% of PCM patients studied and the six individuals who did not produce antibody were either at the end of treatment or in the posttherapy period and had shown clinical recovery. These facts suggested that the presence of this antibody may be an indicator of active disease. The 45-kDa antigen was also the most specific antigen of the PCM humoral immune response, since it reacted with only 2 of 79 (2.5%) heterologous serum samples tested: 1 histoplasmosis case and 1 tuberculosis case. This polypeptide was isolated from gels by electroelution and, when tested by an immunoradiometric assay and immunoblotting, maintained its reactivity with PCM sera and also with anti-P. brasiliensis polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits at the same sensitivity levels as those obtained in immunoblotting with a crude antigen. Since in our assays the 45-kDa polypeptide was the major P. brasiliensis antigen and seemed to be specific for PCM, its use in alternative diagnostic methods is promising, especially in patients suspected of having the juvenile clinical form of PCM often associated with negative double-immunodiffusion results. Images PMID:1612736

  7. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  8. Immunological Basis for the Gender Differences in Murine Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Casabona-Fortunato, Anália Sulamita; Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved in the gender distinct incidence of paracoccidioidomycosis (pcm), an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, which is at least 10 times more frequent in men than in women. Then, we compared the immune response of male and female mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection, as well as the influence in the gender differences exerted by paracoccin, a P. brasiliensis component with carbohydrate recognition property. High production of Th1 cytokines and T-bet expression have been detected in the paracoccin stimulated cultures of spleen cells from infected female mice. In contrast, in similar experimental conditions, cells from infected males produced higher levels of the Th2 cytokines and expressed GATA-3. Macrophages from male and female mice when stimulated with paracoccin displayed similar phagocytic capability, while fungicidal activity was two times more efficiently performed by macrophages from female mice, a fact that was associated with 50% higher levels of nitric oxide production. In order to evaluate the role of sexual hormones in the observed gender distinction, we have utilized mice that have been submitted to gonadectomy followed by inverse hormonal reconstitution. Spleen cells derived from castrated males reconstituted with estradiol have produced higher levels of IFN-γ (1291±15 pg/mL) and lower levels of IL-10 (494±38 pg/mL), than normal male in response to paracoccin stimulus. In contrast, spleen cells from castrated female mice that had been treated with testosterone produced more IL-10 (1284±36 pg/mL) and less IFN-γ (587±14 pg/mL) than cells from normal female. In conclusion, our results reveal that the sexual hormones had a profound effect on the biology of immune cells, and estradiol favours protective responses to P. brasiliensis infection. In addition, fungal components, such as paracoccin, may provide additional support to the gender dimorphic immunity that marks P

  9. Morphological studies on the infraciliature of a planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shengfang; Song, Weibo; Xu, Dapeng; Chiang, Kuoping

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  10. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  11. Insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of the xylanolytic yeast Pseudozyma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kaupert Neto, Antonio Adalberto; Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2016-03-01

    In second-generation (2G) bioethanol production, plant cell-wall polysaccharides are broken down to release fermentable sugars. The enzymes of this process are classified as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and contribute substantially to the cost of biofuel production. A novel basidiomycete yeast species, Pseudozyma brasiliensis, was recently discovered. It produces an endo-β-1,4-xylanase with a higher specific activity than other xylanases. This enzyme is essential for the hydrolysis of biomass-derived xylan and has an important role in 2G bioethanol production. In spite of the P. brasiliensis biotechnological potential, there is no information about how it breaks down polysaccharides. For the first time, we characterized the secretome of P. brasiliensis grown on different carbon sources (xylose, xylan, cellobiose and glucose) and also under starvation conditions. The growth and consumption of each carbohydrate and the activity of the CAZymes of culture supernatants were analyzed. The CAZymes found in its secretomes, validated by enzymatic assays, have the potential to hydrolyze xylan, mannan, cellobiose and other polysaccharides. The data show that this yeast is a potential source of hydrolases, which can be used for biomass saccharification. PMID:26712719

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms. PMID:26756186

  13. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  14. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  15. Participation of dectin-1 receptor on NETs release against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Role on extracellular killing.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; Dias-Melicio, Luciane Alarcão; Fernandes, Reginaldo Keller; de Almeida Balderramas, Helanderson; Rodrigues, Daniela Ramos; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; de Campos Soares, Ângela Maria Victoriano

    2016-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus from the Paracoccidioides genus, which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a chronic, subacute or acute mycosis, with visceral and cutaneous involvement. This disease that is acquired through inhalation primarily attacks the lungs but, can spread to other organs. Phagocytic cells as neutrophils play an important role during innate immune response against this fungus, but studies on antifungal activities of these cells are scarce. In addition to their ability to eliminate pathogens by phagocytosis and antimicrobial secretions, neutrophils can trap and kill microorganisms by release of extracellular structures composed by DNA and antimicrobial proteins, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here, we provide evidence that P. brasiliensis virulent strain (P. brasiliensis 18) induces NETs release. These structures were well evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, and specific NETs compounds such as histone, elastase and DNA were shown by confocal microscopy. In addition, we have shown that dectin-1 receptor is the main PRR to which fungus binds to induce NETS release. Fungi were ensnared by NETs, denoting the role of these structures in confining the fungus, avoiding dissemination. NETs were also shown to be involved in fungus killing, since fungicidal activity detected before and mainly after neutrophils activation with TNF-α, IFN-γ and GM-CSF was significantly inhibited by cocultures treatment with DNAse. PMID:26416210

  16. Lack of Galectin-3 Drives Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis toward a Th2-Biased Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Fermino, Marise Lopes; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Hsu, Daniel K.; Liu, Fu-Tong; Chammas, Roger; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2009-01-01

    There is recent evidence that galectin-3 participates in immunity to infections, mostly by tuning cytokine production. We studied the balance of Th1/Th2 responses to P. brasiliensis experimental infection in the absence of galectin-3. The intermediate resistance to the fungal infection presented by C57BL/6 mice, associated with the development of a mixed type of immunity, was replaced with susceptibility to infection and a Th2-polarized immune response, in galectin-3-deficient (gal3−/−) mice. Such a response was associated with defective inflammatory and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, high IL-4 and GATA-3 expression and low nitric oxide production in the organs of infected animals. Gal3−/− macrophages exhibited higher TLR2 transcript levels and IL-10 production compared to wild-type macrophages after stimulation with P. brasiliensis antigens. We hypothesize that, during an in vivo P. brasiliensis infection, galectin-3 exerts its tuning role on immunity by interfering with the generation of regulatory macrophages, thus hindering the consequent Th2-polarized type of response. PMID:19229338

  17. Response of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb01 to stressor agents and cell wall osmoregulators.

    PubMed

    Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Castro, Nadya da Silva; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2011-01-01

    In its attempt to survive, the fungal cell can change the cell wall composition and/or structure in response to environmental stress. The molecules involved in these compensatory mechanisms are a possible target for the development of effective antifungal agents. In the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb01, the main polymers that compose the cell wall are chitin and glucans. These polymers form a primary barrier that is responsible for the structural integrity and formation of the cell wall. In this study the behaviour of P. brasiliensis was evaluated under incubation with cell wall stressor agents such as Calcofluor White (CFW), Congo Red (CR), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), NaCl, KCl, and Sorbitol. Use of concentrations at which the fungus is visually sensitive to those agents helped to explain some of the adaptive mechanisms used by P. brasiliensis in response to cell wall stress. Our results show that 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1), glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (PbGFA1) and β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase (PbGEL3)as well as 1,3-β-D-glucan and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues in the cell wall are involved in compensatory mechanisms against cell wall damage. PMID:21215956

  18. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. PMID:27329621

  19. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  2. Optimization of the volume reconstruction for classical Tomo-PIV algorithms (MART, BIMART and SMART): synthetic and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, L.; Tremblais, B.; David, L.

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), simultaneous MART and block iterative MART reconstruction techniques was carried out on synthetic and experimental data. Different criteria were defined to improve the preprocessing of the initial images. Knowledge of how each reconstruction parameter influences the quality of particle volume reconstruction and computing time is the key in Tomo-PIV. These criteria were applied to a real case, a jet in cross flow, and were validated.

  3. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for

  4. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  5. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  6. In vivo evaluation of interaction between aqueous seed extract of Garcinia kola Heckel and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Esimone, Charles O; Nwafor, Sunday V; Okoli, Charles O; Chah, Kennedy F; Uzuegbu, David B; Chibundu, Chinedu; Eche, Mike A; Adikwu, Micheal U

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Garcinia kola seed extract (100 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetic and antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (40 mg/kg) was studied. The results (mean +/- SEM) indicated that concurrent administration of both agents significantly (P < 0.05) decreased average serum concentration, peak serum concentration, and elimination rate of ciprofloxacin HCl, whereas the half-life and clearance rate were increased. The decrease in clearance rate was not significant. There was no difference in time to peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl in both groups (n = 5), which occurred at 1 hour. However, the peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl was 46.90 +/- 9.50 microg/mL in the group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone as against 35.80 +/- 9.30 microg/mL noted in the group that received both agents (difference of 22.24%). At 2.5 hours and longer, the values were higher in the group that received both agents, but these were not statistically significant. The reciprocal serum inhibitory titer (SIT) was 33.33 and 50.00% higher in group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone at 1 and 2.5 hours, respectively; the highest value for both groups being at 1 hour. In contrast, at 4 hours, the value of reciprocal SIT was 66.67% higher in the group that received both agents and at 24 hours, the value was zero for both groups. The observed pharmacokinetic and antibacterial interactions at various time interval indicate biphasic interaction. The interaction was antagonistic at 1 and 2.5 hours, but exhibited potentiation at 4 hours. The precise mechanism underlying the observed biphasic interaction is not fully understood. PMID:12115015

  7. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  8. Type 3 muscarinic receptors contribute to intestinal mucosal homeostasis and clearance of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis through induction of TH2 cytokines.

    PubMed

    McLean, Leon P; Smith, Allen; Cheung, Lumei; Urban, Joseph F; Sun, Rex; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Desai, Neemesh; Zhao, Aiping; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased appreciation for the role of nicotinic receptors in the modulation of and response to inflammation, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to mucosal homeostasis, clearance of enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function remains relatively undefined. Uninfected and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected wild-type and type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-deficient (Chrm3(-/-)) mice were studied to determine the contribution of M3R to mucosal homeostasis as well as host defense against the TH2-eliciting enteric nematode N. brasiliensis Intestinal permeability and expression of TH1/TH17 cytokines were increased in uninfected Chrm3(-/-) small intestine. Notably, in Chrm3(-/-) mice infected with N. brasiliensis, small intestinal upregulation of TH2 cytokines was attenuated and nematode clearance was delayed. In Chrm3(-/-) mice, TH2-dependent changes in small intestinal function including smooth muscle hypercontractility, increased epithelial permeability, decreased epithelial secretion and absorption, and goblet cell expansion were absent despite N. brasiliensis infection. These findings identify an important role for M3R in host defense and clearance of N. brasiliensis, and support the expanding role of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. PMID:27173511

  9. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis. PMID:18033615

  10. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Mandell, H.; McKay, D.; George, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Amils, R.; Stevens, T.; Miller, D.

    2003-03-01

    MARTE is a Mars analog drilling experiment to search for subsurface life on Mars while also characterizing a sulfide-based subsurface biosphere. MARTE is among the first set of field experiments supported by the ASTEP program.

  11. Antibodies Against Glycolipids Enhance Antifungal Activity of Macrophages and Reduce Fungal Burden After Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Renata A; Thomaz, Luciana; Muñoz, Julian E; da Silva, Cássia J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Pinto, Márcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus. PMID:26870028

  12. Antibodies Against Glycolipids Enhance Antifungal Activity of Macrophages and Reduce Fungal Burden After Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Renata A.; Thomaz, Luciana; Muñoz, Julian E.; da Silva, Cássia J.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Pinto, Márcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Taborda, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus. PMID:26870028

  13. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens. PMID:20004606

  14. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka. PMID:25110108

  15. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  16. Detection of Melanin-Like Pigments in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis In Vitro and during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Beatriz L.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Díez, Soraya; Youngchim, Sirida; Aisen, Philip; Cano, Luz E.; Restrepo, Angela; Casadevall, Arturo; Hamilton, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Melanins are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including some microbial infections. In this study, we analyzed whether the conidia and the yeasts of the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Growth of P. brasiliensis mycelia on water agar alone produced pigmented conidia, and growth of yeasts in minimal medium with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) produced pigmented cells. Digestion of the pigmented conidia and yeasts with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant, and hot concentrated acid yielded dark particles that were the same size and shape as their propagules. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated reactivity of a melanin-binding monoclonal antibody (MAb) with the pigmented conidia, yeasts, and particles. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy identified the yeast-derived particles produced in vitro when P. brasiliensis was grown in l-DOPA medium as a melanin-like compound. Nonreducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cytoplasmic yeast extract revealed a protein that catalyzed melanin synthesis from l-DOPA. The melanin binding MAb reacted with yeast cells in tissue from mice infected with P. brasiliensis. Finally digestion of infected tissue liberated particles reactive to the melanin binding MAb that had the typical morphology of P. brasiliensis yeasts. These data strongly suggest that P. brasiliensis propagules, both conidia and yeast cells, can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and in vivo. Based on what is known about the function of melanin in the virulence of other fungi, this pigment may play a role in the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:11500453

  17. The Homeostasis of Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis, Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus Gattii: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mirelle Garcia; Schrank, Augusto; Bailão, Elisa Flávia L.C.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Staats, Charley Christian; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pereira, Maristela; Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancopé; Silva, Lívia Kmetzsch Rosa e; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of essential ions in infected tissues. We report here an analysis of genes potentially involved in iron, copper, and zinc uptake and homeostasis in the fungal pathogens Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus species, little is known regarding the regulation of these elements in P. brasiliensis. We also present amino acid sequences analyses of deduced proteins in order to examine possible conserved domains. The genomic data reveals, for the first time, genes associated to iron, copper, and zinc assimilation and homeostasis in P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, analyses of the three fungal species identified homologs to genes associated with high-affinity uptake systems, vacuolar and mitochondrial iron storage, copper uptake and reduction, and zinc assimilation. However, homologs to genes involved in siderophore production were only found in P. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in silico analysis of the genomes of P. brasiliensis Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18 revealed significant differences in the presence and/or number of genes involved in metal homeostasis, such as in genes related to iron reduction and oxidation. The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, C. neoformans var. grubii, and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways. PMID:21833306

  18. Microsatellite marker development for the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis): characterization and cross-amplification in wild Hevea species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is native to the Amazon region and it is the major source of natural rubber in the world. Rubber tree breeding is time-consuming and expensive. However, molecular markers such as microsatellites can reduce the time required for these programs. This study reports new genomic microsatellite markers developed and characterized in H. brasiliensis and the evaluation of their transferability to other Hevea species. Findings We constructed di- and trinucleotide-enriched libraries. From these two libraries, 153 primer pairs were designed and initially evaluated using 9 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. A total of 119 primer pairs had a good amplification product, 90 of which were polymorphic. We chose 46 of the polymorphic markers and characterized them in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1387 to 0.8629 and 0.0909 to 0.9167, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.097 to 0.8339, and the mean number of alleles was 6.4 (2–17). These 46 microsatellites were also tested in 6 other Hevea species. The percentage of transferability ranged from 82% to 87%. Locus duplication was found in H. brasiliensis and also in 5 of other species in which transferability was tested. Conclusions This study reports new microsatellite markers for H. brasiliensis that can be used for genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification and marker- assisted selection. The high percentage of transferability may be useful in the evaluations of genetic variability and to monitor introgression of genetic variability from different Hevea species into breeding programs. PMID:22731927

  19. Scaling an expert system data mart: more facilities in real-time.

    PubMed

    McNamee, L A; Launsby, B D; Frisse, M E; Lehmann, R; Ebker, K

    1998-01-01

    Clinical Data Repositories are being rapidly adopted by large healthcare organizations as a method of centralizing and unifying clinical data currently stored in diverse and isolated information systems. Once stored in a clinical data repository, healthcare organizations seek to use this centralized data to store, analyze, interpret, and influence clinical care, quality and outcomes. A recent trend in the repository field has been the adoption of data marts--specialized subsets of enterprise-wide data taken from a larger repository designed specifically to answer highly focused questions. A data mart exploits the data stored in the repository, but can use unique structures or summary statistics generated specifically for an area of study. Thus, data marts benefit from the existence of a repository, are less general than a repository, but provide more effective and efficient support for an enterprise-wide data analysis task. In previous work, we described the use of batch processing for populating data marts directly from legacy systems. In this paper, we describe an architecture that uses both primary data sources and an evolving enterprise-wide clinical data repository to create real-time data sources for a clinical data mart to support highly specialized clinical expert systems. PMID:9929269

  20. S-MART, A Software Toolbox to Aid RNA-seq Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zytnicki, Matthias; Quesneville, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is now routinely performed in many experiments. But the analysis of the millions of sequences generated, is often beyond the expertise of the wet labs who have no personnel specializing in bioinformatics. Whereas several tools are now available to map high-throughput sequencing data on a genome, few of these can extract biological knowledge from the mapped reads. We have developed a toolbox called S-MART, which handles mapped RNA-Seq data. S-MART is an intuitive and lightweight tool which performs many of the tasks usually required for the analysis of mapped RNA-Seq reads. S-MART does not require any computer science background and thus can be used by all of the biologist community through a graphical interface. S-MART can run on any personal computer, yielding results within an hour even for Gb of data for most queries. S-MART may perform the entire analysis of the mapped reads, without any need for other ad hoc scripts. With this tool, biologists can easily perform most of the analyses on their computer for their RNA-Seq data, from the mapped data to the discovery of important loci. PMID:21998740

  1. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  2. Diet and helminths of Enyalius brasiliensis (Lacertilia, Iguania, Leiosauridae) in an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorigo, T A; Maia-Carneiro, T; Almeida-Gomes, M; Siqueira, C C; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2014-02-01

    Our study aimed to add information about the diet and endoparasites of Enyalius brasiliensis from an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Regarding diet, E. brasiliensis consumed arthropods, with caterpillars and beetles being the most important preys. Regarding helminth parasites, overall prevalence was low (9.5%), with 238 nematodes of the genus Physaloptera found in the stomach of one specimen and one nematode of the genus Rhabdias inside the lung of another. Our results corroborate the observations of previous studies that indicate that lizards of the genus Enyalius tend to feed mainly on relatively large-bodied arthropods and to harbour depauperate endoparasite fauna. PMID:25055102

  3. A conserved dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase controls the dimorphic switching in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Alison F A; Navarro, Marina V; Castilho, Daniele G; Calado, Juliana C P; Conceição, Palloma M; Batista, Wagner L

    2016-08-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, thermally dimorphic fungi, are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Paracoccidioides infection occurs when conidia or mycelium fragments are inhaled by the host, which causes the Paracoccidioides cells to transition to the yeast form. The development of disease requires conidia inside the host alveoli to differentiate into yeast cells in a temperature-dependent manner. We describe the presence of a two-component signal transduction system in P. brasiliensis, which we investigated by expression analysis of a hypothetical protein gene (PADG_07579) that showed high similarity with the dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase (DRK1) gene of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum This gene was sensitive to environmental redox changes, which was demonstrated by a dose-dependent decrease in transcript levels after peroxide stimulation and a subtler decrease in transcript levels after NO stimulation. Furthermore, the higher PbDRK1 levels after treatment with increasing NaCl concentrations suggest that this histidine kinase can play a role as osmosensing. In the mycelium-yeast (M→Y) transition, PbDRK1 mRNA expression increased 14-fold after 24 h incubation at 37°C, consistent with similar observations in other virulent fungi. These results demonstrate that the PbDRK1 gene is differentially expressed during the dimorphic M→Y transition. Finally, when P. brasiliensis mycelium cells were exposed to a histidine kinase inhibitor and incubated at 37°C, there was a delay in the dimorphic M→Y transition, suggesting that histidine kinases could be targets of interest for PCM therapy. PMID:27268997

  4. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:26287380

  5. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    PubMed

    Hurtado Páez, Uriel Alonso; García Romero, Ibonne Aydee; Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:26287380

  6. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in freshwater Neotropical fish Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; da Silva, Cleber Pinto; Doria, Halina Binde; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2015-06-01

    From the concentration in water and sediments, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), and arsenic (As) were determined in the gills, liver, and muscles of Geophagus brasiliensis in the Alagados Reservoir, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. Metals were quantified through AAS, and a study was carried out on the existing relations between metal and body weight, size, and genre of this species. The level of metal in the water of the reservoir was lower than the maximum set forth in the legislation, except for that of Cd and Fe. In sediments, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni presented concentrations above the threshold effect level (TEL). Pb and Cr were above the limits for the G. brasiliensis. The tendency of metals present in the muscles of G. brasiliensis was Al > Cu > Zn > Fe > Co > Mn > Cr > Ag > Ni > Pb > Cd > As. In the gills, it was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Co > Ag > Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd, and the liver presented Al > Cu > Zn > Co > Fe > Mn > Pb > Ag > Ni > Cr > As > Cd. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in the tissues follow the global tendency liver > gills > muscle. The statistical analysis did not point to significant differences in the metal concentration and body weight, size, and gender of the species in the three tissues under analysis. PMID:25520205

  7. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  8. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 μg/ml M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 μg/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude

  9. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  10. Morphological Transition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia to Yeast Cells: In Vivo Inhibition in Females

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.; Restrepo, Angela

    1998-01-01

    Clinical paracoccidioidomycosis is 13 times more common in men than in women. Estrogen inhibits the transition of mycelia or conidia (the saprophytic form of Paracoccidoides brasiliensis) to yeasts (the parasitic form) in vitro. Here, we show that, in male mice that were infected intranasally (mimicking natural infection) the transition of conidia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids to intermediate forms and yeasts occurred over 24 to 96 h; CFU and yeasts (shown by histopathology) increased subsequently. In females, transition did not occur and infection cleared. These events in vivo are consistent with epidemiological and in vitro observations, suggesting that female hormones block transition and are responsible for resistance. PMID:9784579

  11. Notes on the reproductive biology of the Brazilian electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Elasmobranchii: Narcinidae).

    PubMed

    Rolim, F A; Rotundo, M M; Vaske-Júnior, T

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information on the reproductive biology of Narcine brasiliensis based on 105 individuals (72 females and 33 males) sampled in São Paulo State, Brazil. The total length at maturity for females was 318·9 mm and for males was 279·8 mm; pregnant females were observed only during summer and autumn. The peak of the gonado-somatic index for females and condition factor for males in the spring suggest a preparation for pregnancy and a mating period during this season. The capture of immature individuals indicates a need for management of the species in this region. PMID:26377171

  12. Data in support of quantitative proteomics to identify potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Alexandre Keiji; Castilho, Daniele Gonçalves; Chaves, Alison Felipe Alencar; Xander, Patricia; Zelanis, André; Batista, Wagner Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides genus are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Few virulence factors have been identified in these fungi. This paper describes support data from the quantitative proteomics of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis attenuated and virulent isolates [1]. The protein compositions of two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles were quantitatively assessed by stable isotopic dimethyl labeling and proteomic analysis. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with identifier PXD000804. PMID:26501084

  13. γ-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps as a dual agonist that activates Both PPARα and PPARδ.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Gamo, Kanae; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kawada, Teruo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Tosa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ agonistic activity of a Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to develop a treatment for the metabolic syndrome, and demonstrated γ-mangostin to be an active compound on the basis of a luciferase reporter gene assay. γ-Mangostin induced the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) gene which is related to energy expenditure and fat metabolism in L6 cells. We showed that γ-mangostin is a dual agonist that activates both PPARδ and PPARα. γ-Mangostin also induced the expression of acyl-CoA synthase and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A genes in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the potential of γ-mangostin as a preventive agent of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24317060

  14. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Cao, Peng; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15-17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways. PMID:26102071

  15. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  16. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  17. Damnacanthal from the Congolese medicinal plant Garcinia huillensis has a potent preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Screening of eight Congolese medicinal plants showed that the CHCl(3) and MeOH extracts of Aframomum melegueta (PC(50)  = 47.8 µg/mL and 13.8 µg/mL, respectively) and CHCl(3) extracts of Garcinia huillensis (PC(50)  = 17.8 µg/mL) and Securidaca longepedunculata (PC(50)  = 23.4 µg/mL) had preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions. The active constituents of the CHCl(3) extract of G. huillensis were examined and 12 known anthraquinones were identified. Among them, damnacanthal (1) caused preferential necrotic cell death of PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells under nutrient-deprived and serum-sensitive conditions (PC(50)  = 4.46 µm and 3.77 µm, respectively). PMID:22447631

  18. Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Ameliorates Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like Disease in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Hu; Zhang, Mu; Zhong, Youxiu; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wu, Hezhen; Yang, Yanfang; Wei, Qun

    2015-09-30

    Isogarcinol is a new immunosuppressant that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. In the present study, we elucidate its beneficial effect in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in mice -- a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in human. The oral administration of 60 mg/kg isogarcinol significantly reduced proteinuria, corrected the abnormal serum biochemical indicator, and decreased the amount of serum antibodies and lowered the renal histopathology score. In addition, isogarcinol alleviated the abnormal activation of CD4 T cells and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes and cytokines in the kidneys and peritoneal macrophages. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with downregulation of CD4 T cells and inflammatory effects. Therefore, we believe that isogarcinol may be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for future treatment of SLE. PMID:26330173

  19. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-01

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-κB expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24738849

  20. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator. PMID:24563084

  1. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3 → 8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3 → 8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4″-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3″-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25 °C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25 °C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90 °C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3 → 8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24700704

  2. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

  3. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:22825801

  4. Geographic Discrimination of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strains by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Ana María; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Felipe; San-Blas, Gioconda

    1998-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 33 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela produced reproducible amplification products which were sufficiently polymorphic to allow differentiation of the strains. Types generated with five primers (OPG 03, OPG 05, OPG 14, OPG 16, and OPG 18) resulted in a high discriminatory index (0.956). The discriminatory index was slightly reduced (0.940) when only two primers (OPG 3 and OPG 14) were used. A dendrogram based on these results showed a high degree of similarity among the strains, and genetic differences were expressed in clusters related to geographical regions but not to pathological features of the disease. With a few exceptions, strains were sorted into five groups by geographical origin as follows: group I, Venezuelan strains; group II, Brazilian strains; group III, Peruvian strains; group IV, Colombian strains; and group V, Argentinian strains. The group containing the most disparate strains was group V (discriminatory index, 0.633); the discriminatory index for the other four groups was 0.824. The use of primer OPG 18 by itself was sufficient to discriminate species specificity, and the use of primer OPG 14 by itself was sufficient to discriminate among the geographical locations of the strains in the sample. This method may be helpful for epidemiological studies of P. brasiliensis. PMID:9620409

  5. Monoclonal antibody capture enzyme immunoassay for detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Z P; Gesztesi, J L; Saraiva, E C; Taborda, C P; Vicentini, A P; Lopes, J D

    1994-01-01

    Four murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 17C, 21A, 21F, and 32B) raised against the 43-kDa glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested in a capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of specific human anti-gp43 immunoglobulin G in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). All MAbs reacted similarly in the assay. These MAbs, which detected anti-gp43 at levels of as low as 500 pg/ml, were demonstrated to specifically recognize at least two different epitopes in gp43 binding assays. Specific antibodies in the sera of patients with active PCM were detected at dilutions of as high as 1:819,200, and the reactivities of patient sera, as measured by optical densities, were found to be significantly higher than those of control sera. The comparison between classical ELISA and our capture enzyme immunoassay showed that both sensitivity and specificity were greatly improved by the latter. These MAbs represent the first specific reagents to P. brasiliensis described for use in serological tests for PCM. Images PMID:7814469

  6. Detrimental Effect of Fungal 60-kDa Heat Shock Protein on Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de; Landgraf, Taise Natali; Peron, Gabriela; Costa, Marcelo Vieira; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A M; Bonato, Vânia L D; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson

    2016-01-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Mice were subcutaneously injected with nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 emulsified in complete's Freund Adjuvant (CFA) at three weeks after intravenous injection of P. brasiliensis yeasts. Infected control mice were injected with CFA or isotonic saline solution alone. Thirty days after the nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 administration, mice showed remarkably increased fungal load, tissue inflammation, and granulomas in the lungs, liver, and spleen compared with control mice. Further, rPbHsp60 treatment (i) decreased the known protective effect of CFA against PCM and (ii) increased the concentrations of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the lungs. Together, our results indicated that PbHsp60 induced a harmful immune response, exacerbated inflammation, and promoted fungal dissemination. Therefore, we propose that PbHsp60 contributes to the fungal pathogenesis. PMID:27598463

  7. Identification and characterization of MAGO and Y14 genes in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zi-Ping; Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Mago nashi (MAGO) and Y14 proteins are highly conserved among eukaryotes. In this study, we identified two MAGO (designated as HbMAGO1 andHbMAGO2) and two Y14 (designated as HbY14aand HbY14b) genes in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) genome annotation. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments predicted that HbMAGO and HbY14 proteins are structurally similar to homologous proteins from other species. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that HbMAGO and HbY14 genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues (bark, flower, latex, leaf and root) examined. HbMAGOs and HbY14s were predominately located in the nucleus and were found to interact in yeast two-hybrid analysis (YTH) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. HbMAGOs and HbY14s showed the highest transcription in latex and were regulated by ethylene and jasmonate. Interaction between HbMAGO2 and gp91phox (a large subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) was identified using YTH and BiFC assays. These findings suggested that HbMAGO may be involved in the aggregation of rubber particles in H. brasiliensis. PMID:27007901

  8. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  9. Molecular cloning, expression profiles and characterization of a glutathione reductase in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi; Zhao, Manman; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yuekun; Li, Dejun

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.8.1.7) is an important oxidoreductase that can protect organisms against various oxidative stresses. In this study, a new GR gene, named as HbGR2, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The HbGR2 cDNA contained a 1674-bp open reading frame encoding 557 amino acids and the deduced HbGR2 protein showed high identities to the chloroplastic GRs from other plant species. HbGR2 was localized in the chloroplasts of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. The cis-acting regulatory elements related to stress or hormone responses were predicted in the promoter region of HbGR2. The results from real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that HbGR2 was expressed throughout different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being related to tapping panel dryness (TPD), HbGR2 was regulated by several treatments including ethephon (ET), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), drought, low temperature, high salt, wounding and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells overexpressing HbGR2 markedly increased their tolerance and survival at high concentrations of H2O2, suggesting that HbGR2 might play an important role in oxidative stress response in Hevea brasiliensis. PMID:26232647

  10. Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-Arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors. PMID:24971876

  11. [Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in a subtropical region with important environmental changes].

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Gorodner, J O

    1999-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycoses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus that infects man through respiratory ducts. It has been accepted that its ecological niche is located in the soil and plants of subtropical forests of Latin America. The Province of Corrientes is located at the northeastern border of Argentina, in a subtropical area where important environmental modifications have been introduced in the last decade as consequence of damming the Paranà river at Yacyretà, one of the biggest hydroelectric dams in the world. Since there are no data on human infection provoqued by this fungal agent in Corrientes, the purpose of this study was to obtain information at present time about infection indexes and to assess if environmental changes introduced in the area could impact on the epidemiology of the disease. Skin tests with paracoccidioidin and histoplasmin were performed on 455 persons of both sexes, from 1 to 73 years of age, who live permanently in the area and voluntarily accepted to be included in the study. Both antigens were employed at the same time in order to evaluate crossed type reactions. Of the 455 persons, 52 (39 males-13 females) were reactive to paracoccidioidin (11.4%), with an increasing prevalence with age. According to previous data, these results would indicate an increase in the index of human infection by P. brasiliensis, and this may be related to the important changes in climatic and environmental conditions introduced in the area in the last years. PMID:10472444

  12. Assessment of water quality and genotoxic impact by toxic metals in Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Araujo, Galber Rodrigues; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Morelli, Sandra; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2016-06-01

    This study used the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis as a bioindicator to survey the health of the aquatic environment on four sites (P1, P2, P3 and P4) of the Mumbuca stream located at Monte Carmelo/MG, Brazil. The selection of different sites was made with reference to the gradient of urban activity and via physicochemical and biological evaluation of water quality and genotoxicity. The water quality index was classified as 'good' for P1 and P4, regular in P2 and 'poor' for P3. The micronuclei (MN) frequency obtained from blood analysis was in agreement with the water quality, such that the higher values of MN were detected in sites evaluated as poor. Water degradation conditions worsen according to the flow of the stream over the sites P1, P2 and P3, but for site P4, located after the Monte Carmelo Sewage Treatment Plant, improvements in the micronuclei frequency are detected. Our results showed high levels of potentially toxic metals (chromium, lead, aluminum and nickel) in specific stream sites (P2 and P3). We suggest that the micronuclei induction in G. brasiliensis could be due to the presence of these compounds. PMID:26991381

  13. Lipidomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from the Pathogenic Phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ganiko, Luciane; Lopes, Felipe G.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Almeida, Igor C.; Puccia, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Background Fungal extracellular vesicles are able to cross the cell wall and transport molecules that help in nutrient acquisition, cell defense, and modulation of the host defense machinery. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a detailed lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles released by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis at the yeast pathogenic phase. We compared data of two representative isolates, Pb3 and Pb18, which have distinct virulence profiles and phylogenetic background. Vesicle lipids were fractionated into different classes and analyzed by either electrospray ionization- or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found two species of monohexosylceramide and 33 phospholipid species, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Among the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in extracellular vesicles, C181 predominated in Pb3, whereas C18:2 prevailed in Pb18. The prevalent sterol in Pb3 and Pb18 vesicles was brassicasterol, followed by ergosterol and lanosterol. Inter-isolate differences in sterol composition were observed, and also between extracellular vesicles and whole cells. Conclusions/Significance The extensive lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from two P. brasiliensis isolates will help to understand the composition of these fungal components/organelles and will hopefully be useful to study their biogenesis and role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22745761

  14. [Coupling effects of water and chemical fertilizers on Hevea brasiliensis latex yield].

    PubMed

    Hua, Yuan-Gang; Chen, Qiu-Bo; Lin, Zhao-Mu; Luo, Wei

    2008-06-01

    Water and nutrient are the two main factors limiting Hevea brasiliensis growth and its latex yield. With 17 year-old Clone SCATC 7-33-97 H. brasiliensis as test material, the coupling effects of water and chemical N, P and K fertilizers on latex yield were studied by general orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression with four factors and five levels under field condition, and a regressive mathematical model was set up based on the latex yield by quadratic regression analysis. The results showed that all test coupling levels of water and chemical fertilizers had significant effects on the latex yield. The yield-increasing effect of test factors was in the order of N application rate > irrigation amount > P application rate > K application rate, while the coupling effect of water and chemical fertilizers was in the sequence of water and N > N and P > water and P > water and K. There was a negative coupling effect of K application rate and soil moisture content. For latex yield, the optimum application rates of chemical fertilizers were 476.39 kg x hm(-2) of urea, 187.70 kg x hm(-2) of superphosphate and 225.77 kg x hm(-2) of potassium chloride, and the optimum irrigation amount was to have 82.78% soil relative water content. PMID:18808010

  15. Cell Wall Composition of the Yeast and Mycelial Forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori; Carbonell, Luis M.; Moreno, Ramon E.; Rodriguez, Joaquin

    1969-01-01

    Isolation and chemical analyses of the cell walls of the yeast (Y form) and mycelial forms (M form) of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces dermatitidis revealed that their chemical composition is similar and depends on the form. Lipids, chitin, glucans, and proteins are the main constituents of the cell walls of both forms of these fungi. There is no significant difference in the amount of lipids (5 to 10%) and glucans (36 to 47%) contained by the two forms. In both fungi, the Y form has a larger amount of chitin (37 to 48%) than the M form (7 to 18%), whereas the M form has a larger amount of proteins (24 to 41%) than the Y form (7 to 14%). Several properties of the glucan of P. brasiliensis were studied. Almost all of the glucan in the Y form was soluble in 1 n NaOH, was weakly positive in the periodic acid-Schiff reaction, was not hydrolyzed by snail digestive juice, and had α-glycosidic linkage. Glucans of the M form were divided into alkali-soluble (60 to 65%) and alkali-insoluble (35 to 40%) types. The alkali-soluble glucan was similar to that of the Y form; the alkali-insoluble glucan was positive in the periodic acid-Schiff reaction and was hydrolyzed by snail digestive juice. PMID:5776517

  16. Identification and characterization of MAGO and Y14 genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zi-Ping; Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mago nashi (MAGO) and Y14 proteins are highly conserved among eukaryotes. In this study, we identified two MAGO (designated as HbMAGO1 andHbMAGO2) and two Y14 (designated as HbY14aand HbY14b) genes in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) genome annotation. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments predicted that HbMAGO and HbY14 proteins are structurally similar to homologous proteins from other species. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that HbMAGO and HbY14 genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues (bark, flower, latex, leaf and root) examined. HbMAGOs and HbY14s were predominately located in the nucleus and were found to interact in yeast two-hybrid analysis (YTH) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. HbMAGOs and HbY14s showed the highest transcription in latex and were regulated by ethylene and jasmonate. Interaction between HbMAGO2 and gp91phox (a large subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) was identified using YTH and BiFC assays. These findings suggested that HbMAGO may be involved in the aggregation of rubber particles in H. brasiliensis. PMID:27007901

  17. DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF Paracoccidioides brasiliensis IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF ARTHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazim, Samia Khalil; dos Santos, José Henrique Fermino Ferreira; Puccia, Rosana; Brancalhão, Rosimeire Costa; Chasco, Lucinéia de Fátima; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) and corresponds to prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the dose response effect of the fungal yeast phase for the standardization of an experimental model of septic arthritis. The experiments were performed with groups of 14 rats that received doses of 103, 104 or 105 P. brasiliensis (Pb18) cells. The fungi were injected in 50 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) directly into the knee joints of the animals. The following parameters were analyzed in this work: the formation of swelling in knees infused with yeast cells and the radiological and anatomopathological alterations, besides antibody titer by ELISA. After 15 days of infection, signs of inflammation were evident. At 45 days, some features of damage and necrosis were observed in the articular cartilage. The systemic dissemination of the fungus was observed in 11% of the inoculated animals, and it was concluded that the experimental model is able to mimic articular PCM in humans and that the dose of 105 yeast cells can be used as standard in this model. PMID:24879005

  18. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis. PMID:27097082

  19. Screening of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using precursor ion discovery (PID) scan and ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Li, Song-Lin; Han, Quan-Bin; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-10-01

    A strategy was newly developed to rapidly screen polycyclic polyprenylated acyl-phloroglucinols (PPAPs) from the plant matrices of nine Garcinia species using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with comprehensive mass spectrometric approaches including precursor ion discovery (PID) and tandem mass (MS/MS) scans. The PPAPs share the same diagnostic product ion at m/z 177.02 in positive MS/MS scan, which may be increased as the base peak by ramping the cone voltage from 45 to 100 V. With this ramping cone voltage PID scan, it is feasible to selectively screen the PPAPs from 29 samples of nine Garcinia species. This approach has proven to be a powerful, highly selective, and sensitive tool for rapid screening and detection of nontargeted components in natural products before the purification and structural elucidation process. PMID:19643632

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  1. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

  2. [Biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae) and its predation potential on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)].

    PubMed

    Matioli, André L; de Oliveira, Carlos A L

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the biology of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira at the following temperatures, namely 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, fed with Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Typha pollen, in laboratory conditions. Life tables were calculated to evaluate the biological parameters. The optimal development of A. brasiliensis took place at 29 degrees C. The values of T (time of generation - days), R0 and r m at 30 degrees C were, 13.95, 16.25 and 0.20, respectively. The prey consumption of A. brasiliensis was studied at the densities of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 leprosis mite females per cage (3 cm in diameter) on citrus fruits at 29 degrees C. The maximum prey, namely 7.6 B. phoenicis females per day, were consumed at a density of 20 leprosis mites. At densities of above 40 leprosis mites per cage, A. brasiliensis oviposits 4.7 eggs per day, in comparison to 2.5 eggs per day at 20 mites per cage. PMID:17934624

  3. Vector capacity of members of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex: The need to extend Chagas disease surveillance to Triatoma melanica.

    PubMed

    Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Dornak, L Lynnette; Orsolon, Guilherme; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Lilioso, Mauricio; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a lab-based comparative study on vector capacity features of two species of triatomines: Triatoma brasiliensis and T. melanica. Both are members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The former is the most important Chagas disease vector in the northeastern region of Brazil. To date, no transmission via T. melanica has been recorded. Immature insects exhibited distinct intermoult periods without a direct relationship to a given species. Females of T. brasiliensis consumed an average of 1.9 times more meals (mean = 12.92 vs 6.63) and survived for a shorter period (mean =330.8 days) than T. melanica (mean = 365.2 days), probably due to the cost of reproduction (all significant at P<0.05). These data support the idea that T. brasiliensis is more adapted to lab conditions and is more able to infest domiciles than T. melanica. We also found significant distinctions in other features between these species, such as the elapsed time without eating before molting, which was higher for the second, third, and fifth nymph stages of T. melanica. Regarding features analyzed related to vector capacity, insects of all life stages of both species were considered competent to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi because they needed many feedings (mean =1.5-3.82) to moult and because a high proportion (>39%) of insects defecated rapidly (<30 s) after feeding. Overall, results highlight the need to extend vector surveillance to T. melanica. PMID:27232124

  4. Polyketide Synthase Gene Diversity within the Microbiome of the Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, Endemic to the Southern Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia P. J.; Andrade, Bruno G. N.; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes associated with marine sponges are considered important producers of bioactive, structurally unique polyketides. The synthesis of such secondary metabolites involves type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that reach a maximum complexity degree in bacteria. The Haplosclerida sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis hosts a complex microbiota and is the source of arenosclerins, alkaloids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present investigation, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the ketosynthase (KS) amplicon to investigate the diversity of PKS genes present in the metagenome of A. brasiliensis. Almost 4,000 ketosynthase reads were recovered, with about 90% annotated automatically as bacterial. A total of 235 bacterial KS contigs was rigorously assembled from this sequence pool and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A great diversity of six type I PKS groups has been consistently detected in our phylogenetic reconstructions, including a novel and A. brasiliensis-exclusive group. Our study is the first to reveal the diversity of type I PKS genes in A. brasiliensis as well as the potential of its microbiome to serve as a source of new polyketides. PMID:23275501

  5. Thermal preferences and limits of Triatoma brasiliensis in its natural environment--field observations while host searching.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Silvia; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Diotaiuti, Lileia

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensis selected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensis body surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the temperature of rock crevices where they were hidden (r: 0.96, p < 0.05). The species was active at full sunlight being a clear example of how the light-dark rhythm may be altered, even under predation risk. Our results strongly suggest a thermal borderline for T. brasiliensis foraging activity near 40ºC. The simultaneous determination of insect body and rock temperatures here presented are the only obtained in natural habitats for this or other triatomines. PMID:26517659

  6. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

  7. Comparative study on the technological properties of latex and natural rubber from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work reports a systematic comparative study of the properties of natural lattices and rubbers extracted from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis [(Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.] (clone RRIM 600) trees from 11 collections in Brazil throughout 2004. Natural rubber latex particl...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Lee, Stephanie; Choi, Franky Fung Kei; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-09-23

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a group of natural products isolated from different Garcinia species with a wide range of important biological activities. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to photodiode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) method was developed to characterize 16 PPAPs in 10 Garcinia species. In source dissociation techniques based on cone voltage fragmentation were used to fragment the deprotonated molecules and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using ramping collision energy were used to further break down the resulting product ions. The resulting characteristic fragment ions were generated by cleavage of C1-C5 bond and C7-C8 bond through concerted pericyclic reaction, which is especially valuable for differentiating three types of PPAPs isomers. As such, two new PPAPs isomers present in minor amount in the extracts of Garcinia oblongifolia were tentatively characterized by comparing their tandem mass spectra to the known ones. In addition, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was validated for the quantitative determination of PPAPs. The method exhibited limits of detection from 2.7 to 21.4 ng mL(-1) and intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 3.7% and the recovery was in the range of 89-107% with RSD less than 9.0%. This UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method has successfully been applied to quantify 16 PPAPs in 32 samples of 10 Garcinia species, which were found to be a rich source of PPAPs. PMID:20869510

  9. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-08-22

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25165976

  10. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; de Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-01-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  11. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  12. The vitamin D analog, MART-10, represses metastasis potential via downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-11-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells through downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin expression in BxPC-3 and PANC cells. MART-10 further blocked cadherin switch (from E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in BxPC-3 cells. The F-actin synthesis in the cytoplasm of BxPC-3 cells was also repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 as determined by immunofluorescence stain. Both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 decreased MMP-2 and -9 secretion in BxPC-3 cells as determined by western blot and zymography. Collectively, MART-10 should be deemed as a promising regimen against PDA. PMID:25149065

  13. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  14. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  15. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  16. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  17. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  18. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  19. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species. PMID:12942756

  20. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-01-01

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals. PMID:24085456

  1. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  2. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  3. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  4. Morphological differentiation and function of the coelomocytes in the parasitic stages of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Paul P

    2006-10-01

    Female and male worms of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis exhibited sexual dimorphism based on the number of coelomocytes present. A surprising multiplicity of diverse morphological types of coelomocytes developed in both female and male worms during the parasitic cycle. Cytoplasmic processes began to appear on the surface membrane of coelomocytes in the late third-stage larvae (L3s) in the lungs, and they increased greatly in type, size, and morphology during the fourth and fifth stages. These structures were characterized primarily as complex filopodia, pseudopodia, and cytoplasmic pearls, which resulted in the formation of highly pleomorphic cells. Pearls, starting as small protuberances, progressively increased in size and number with larval growth and development. In the adult worms, a novel process of autocannibalism was initiated in many of the very large coelomocytes. The pearls grew enormously in size at the expense of the cytoplasm, forming a peripheral garland in 1 plane surrounding a residual, small, flat, cytoplasmic core containing the nucleus. The underlying "strategy" was to increase the surface-to-volume ratio of these huge cells to overcome the restriction imposed by eutely; the coelomocytes do not undergo cell division. This morphological innovation makes possible a more efficient uptake of nutrients and exocytosis of waste matter. Vesicles (presumably lysosomes) in the coelomocytes of the infective L3 store an extraordinarily high concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl). At present, the only physiological function that can be assigned to coelomocytes of N. brasiliensis is the uptake, concentration, and storage of Cbl in the free-living stages, with the subsequent release of the molecule from the vesicles in the early phase of parasitism. Thus, stored Cbl in the infective L3 is made available for biochemical processes during the critical period of larval growth and differentiation initiated in the lung. A model of a hypothetical coelomocyte is

  5. Further drimane sesquiterpenes from Drimys brasiliensis stem barks with cytotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Fratoni, Eduarda; Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Franchi, Gilberto C; Nowill, Alexandre E; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Monache, Franco Delle; Malheiros, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer. Its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in vitro models using extracts and isolated compounds. This study investigates the cytotoxic effects of stem bark extracts of D. brasiliensis as well as isolated compounds that may be responsible for the activitys and evaluates them in leukemia cells. The stem bark extract were subjected to column chromatography, and the structures of compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods by using NMR and infrared spectroscopy and GC/MS. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in chronic myeloid (K562) and acute B lymphoblastic (Nalm6) leukemia cells using tetrazolium assay (MTT). Two new compounds were isolated 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11α-enol-albicanol (1a) and the isomer 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11β-enol-albicanol (1b) and 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-isodrimeninol (2). The known compounds polygonal acid (3a) and the isomer isopolygonal acid (3b), fuegin (4a) and the isomer epifuegin (4b), the mixture drimanial (5) and 1β-O-(p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl)-6α-hydroxypolygodial (6) were also isolated. The drimanes (1-4) and drimanial (5), 1β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial (7), 1β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial (8), and polygodial (9) isolated previously were assessed in tumor cells. The IC50 values were between 3.56 and 128.91 μM. 1-β-(p-cumaroiloxi)-polygodial showed the best result with IC50 8.18 and 3.56 μM by K562 and Nalm6, respectively. The chloroform extract of the stem bark of D. brasiliensis is a great source of drimane sesquiterpenes. Our experimental data suggest that drimanes are responsible for cytotoxicity activity demonstrated by this species, especially those with the aldehyde group linked to carbons C-11 and C-12. PMID:27095358

  6. Isolation and preliminary characterization of auxotrophic and morphological mutants of the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    San Blas, F; Centeno, S

    1977-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, which is known to be a very effective mutagen in many systems, was used to induce mutants in the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9, an imperfect fungus. Forty-three auxotrophic and 27 prototrophic morphological mutants were isolated after treatment with 50 mug of nitrosoguanidine per ml in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 5.0. Auxotrophic mutants required primarily either amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines. Some auxotrophs were also morphological mutants. The main morphological difference from the parental strain was the texture or the color of the yeast-like colonies. Only one prototrophic morphological mutant differed in the size and form of the yeastlike cells when compared with the parental strain. Suxotrophic mutants were used in pairwise combination to attempt heterokaryon formation without success. Images PMID:830638

  7. Structure and ultrastructure of leaf and calyx glands in Galphimia brasiliensis (Malpighiaceae).

    PubMed

    Castro, M A; Vega, A S; Múlgura, M E

    2001-11-01

    The present study describes the anatomical structure of calyx and leaf glands in Galphimia brasiliensis and analyzes the mechanism of secretion. The glands are marginal and suprabasal, cup-shaped, sessile, and scarcely visible with the naked eye. Light microscopy reveals the following features: a thin, smooth cuticle; unistratified secretory cells; subglandular parenchyma; and vascular bundle supply composed of phloem and xylem with abundant druses of calcium oxalate. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of secretory cells with conspicuous nuclei, dense cytoplasm, lipid droplets, numerous vesicles, mitochondria, Golgi, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and elongated plastids with osmiophilic contents. The secretion reaches the apoplastic space and accumulates beneath the cuticle. Finally, the viscous, translucent exudate is eliminated by mechanical rupture of the cuticle. Histochemical analysis confirms that lipids are the main constituent. Small amounts of polysaccharides were also identified. PMID:21669626

  8. Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

    1990-09-01

    Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

  9. Climate and natural production of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Xishuangbanna, southern part of Yunnan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ailiang

    1988-12-01

    According to the author's and his collaborators' investigations, the climate influences the growth of rubber trees ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Xishuangbanna, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China, in at least four aspects: (1) The yield of latex per tapping and the final yield of dry rubber per tree per year or per unit area per year; (2) the growth rate, as expressed by increment of girth in cm; (3) the survival during the over-wintering period; (4) the initiation or suppression of certain diseases; In this paper the author would like to describe the influence of climatic elements on yield of latex and on survival during the over-wintering period. As for the other two aspects, only general comments are given.

  10. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  11. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

  12. Induction of micronuclei by alkaloids extracted from Senecio brasiliensis and stored for 23 years.

    PubMed

    Santos-Mello, R; Deimlimg, L I; Lauer Júnior, C M; Almeida, A

    2002-04-26

    In the present study, we report the results of an investigation on pyrrolizidine alkaloids extracted from Senecio brasiliensis (Sprengel) Less., which were stored for more than 23 years under variable conditions of temperature and humidity and exposed to light. Both the crude alkaloid (integerrimine+retrorsine+impurities) and pure integerrimine conserved the ability to induce acute toxicity in mice, leading to the death of the animals in less than 24h. The alkaloids also conserved the potential to induce significant increases in micronucleus frequencies in polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow compared to the negative control. The administration of alkaloids to lymphocyte cultures blocked with cytochalasin-B showed no significant increase in micronucleus frequency in binucleated cells, probably due to the lack of a metabolic activation mechanism. However, an antimitotic effect was observed. PMID:11943607

  13. The Search for Subsurface Life on Mars: Results from the MARTE Analog Drill Experiment in Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2006-03-01

    The Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) experiment has developed an automated drilling system on a simulated Mars lander platform including drilling, sample handling, core analysis and down-hole instruments relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface.

  14. Pre-Results of the Real-Time ODIN Validation on MARTe Using Plasma Linearized Model in FTU Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Yahya; Boncagni, Luca

    2012-06-01

    MARTe is a modular framework for real-time control aspects. At present time there are several MARTe systems under development at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (Boncagni et al. in First steps in the FTU migration towards a modular and distributed real time control architecture based on MARTe and RTNet, 2010) such as the LH power percentage system, the gas puffing control system, the real-time ODIN plasma equilibrium reconstruction system and the position/current feedback control system (in a design phase) (Boncagni et al. in J Fusion Eng Design). The real-time reconstruction of magnetic flux in FTU tokamak is an important issue to estimate some quantities that can be use to control the plasma. This paper addresses the validation of real-time implementation of that task on MARTe.

  15. Selenoprotein Expression in Macrophages Is Critical for Optimal Clearance of Parasitic Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Shakira M; Shay, Ashley E; James, Jamaal L; Carlson, Bradley A; Urban, Joseph F; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident in helminthic parasite infections, providing protection from inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium induces a phenotypic switch in macrophage activation from a classically activated (pro-inflammatory; M1/CAM) toward an alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory; M2/AAM) phenotype, where cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent cyclopentenone prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) plays a key role. Here, we hypothesize that dietary selenium modulates macrophage polarization toward an AAM phenotype to assist in the increasing clearance of adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite. Mice on a selenium-adequate (0.08 ppm) diet significantly augmented intestinal AAM presence while decreasing adult worms and fecal egg production when compared with infection of mice on selenium-deficient (<0.01 ppm) diet. Further increase in dietary selenium to supraphysiological levels (0.4 ppm) had very little or no impact on worm expulsion. Normal adult worm clearance and enhanced AAM marker expression were observed in the selenium-supplemented Trsp(fl/fl)Cre(WT) mice that express selenoproteins driven by tRNA(Sec) (Trsp), whereas N. brasiliensis-infected Trsp(fl/fl)Cre(LysM) selenium-supplemented mice showed a decreased clearance, with lowered intestinal expression of several AAM markers. Inhibition of the COX pathway with indomethacin resulted in delayed worm expulsion in selenium-adequate mice. This was rescued with 15d-PGJ2, which partially recapitulated the effect of selenium supplementation on fecal egg output in addition to increasing markers of AAMs in the small intestine. Antagonism of PPARγ blocked the effect of selenium. These results suggest that optimal expression of selenoproteins and selenium-dependent production of COX-derived endogenous prostanoids, such as Δ(12)-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2, may regulate AAM activation to enhance anti-helminthic parasite responses. PMID:26644468

  16. Sucrose importation into laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis, in relation to ethylene stimulation of latex production

    PubMed Central

    Dusotoit-Coucaud, Anaïs; Brunel, Nicole; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Lacointe, André; Julien, Jean-Louis; Chrestin, Hervé; Sakr, Soulaïman

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The major economic product of Hevea brasiliensis is a rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex), which flows out of laticifers (latex cells) when the bark is tapped. The latex yield is stimulated by ethylene. Sucrose, the unique precursor of rubber synthesis, must cross the plasma membrane through specific sucrose transporters before being metabolized in the laticifers. The relative importance of sucrose transporters in determining latex yield is unknown. Here, the effects of ethylene (by application of Ethrel®) on sucrose transporter gene expression in the inner bark tissues and latex cells of H. brasiliensis are described. Methods Experiments, including cloning sucrose transporters, real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, were carried out on virgin (untapped) trees, treated or untreated with the latex yield stimulant Ethrel. Key Results Seven putative full-length cDNAs of sucrose transporters were cloned from a latex-specific cDNA library. These transporters belong to all SUT (sucrose transporter) groups and differ by their basal gene expression in latex and inner soft bark, with a predominance of HbSUT1A and HbSUT1B. Of these sucrose transporters, only HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A were distinctly increased by ethylene. Moreover, this increase was shown to be specific to laticifers and to ethylene application. Conclusion The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees. PMID:19567416

  17. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  18. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  19. Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants. PMID:25019490

  20. Nitric Oxide Participation in the Fungicidal Mechanism of Gamma Interferon-Activated Murine Macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Angel; de Gregori, Waldemar; Velez, Diana; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz E.

    2000-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis restricted to Latin America and produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is probably acquired by inhalation of conidia produced by the mycelial form. The macrophage (Mφ) represents the major cell defense against this pathogen; when activated with gamma interferon (IFN-γ), murine Mφs kill the fungus by an oxygen-independent mechanism. Our goal was to determine the role of nitric oxide in the fungicidal effect of Mφs on P. brasiliensis conidia. The results revealed that IFN-γ-activated murine Mφs inhibited the conidium-to-yeast transformation process in a dose-dependent manner; maximal inhibition was observed in Mφs activated with 50 U/ml and incubated for 96 h at 37°C. When Mφs were activated with 150 to 200 U of cytokine per ml, the number of CFU was 70% lower than in nonactivated controls, indicating that there was a fungicidal effect. The inhibitory effect was reversed by the addition of anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibodies. Activation by IFN-γ also enhanced Mφ nitric oxide production, as revealed by increasing NO2 values (8 ± 3 μM in nonactivated Mφs versus 43 ± 13 μM in activated Mφs). The neutralization of IFN-γ also reversed nitric oxide production at basal levels (8 ± 5 μM). Additionally, we found that there was a significant inverse correlation (r = −0.8975) between NO2− concentration and transformation of P. brasiliensis conidia. Additionally, treatment with any of the three different nitric oxide inhibitors used (arginase, NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, and aminoguanidine), reverted the inhibition of the transformation process with 40 to 70% of intracellular yeast and significantly reduced nitric oxide production. These results show that IFN-γ-activated murine Mφs kill P. brasiliensis conidia through the l-arginine–nitric oxide pathway. PMID:10768942

  1. De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world’s natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition. Results Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs. Conclusions This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield. PMID:24670056

  2. Distributional potential of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex at present and under scenarios of future climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatoma brasiliensis complex is a monophyletic group, comprising three species, one of which includes two subspecific taxa, distributed across 12 Brazilian states, in the caatinga and cerrado biomes. Members of the complex are diverse in terms of epidemiological importance, morphology, biology, ecology, and genetics. Triatoma b. brasiliensis is the most disease-relevant member of the complex in terms of epidemiology, extensive distribution, broad feeding preferences, broad ecological distribution, and high rates of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; consequently, it is considered the principal vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil. Methods We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distributions of all members of the complex, and evaluated the potential for suitable adjacent areas to be colonized; we also present first evaluations of potential for climate change-mediated distributional shifts. Models were developed using the GARP and Maxent algorithms. Results Models for three members of the complex (T. b. brasiliensis, N = 332; T. b. macromelasoma, N = 35; and T. juazeirensis, N = 78) had significant distributional predictivity; however, models for T. sherlocki and T. melanica, both with very small sample sizes (N = 7), did not yield predictions that performed better than random. Model projections onto future-climate scenarios indicated little broad-scale potential for change in the potential distribution of the complex through 2050. Conclusions This study suggests that T. b. brasiliensis is the member of the complex with the greatest distributional potential to colonize new areas: overall; however, the distribution of the complex appears relatively stable. These analyses offer key information to guide proactive monitoring and remediation activities to reduce risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24886587

  3. Miltefosine is active against Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates with in vitro low susceptibility to amphotericin B or itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Gagini, Thalita; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a common mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In recent years, sporotrichosis incidence rates have increased in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more frequently isolated from patients. The standard antifungals itraconazole and amphotericin B are recommended as first-line therapy for cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and disseminated sporotrichosis, respectively, although decreased sensitivity to these drugs in vitro was reported for clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis. Here, we evaluated the activity of the phospholipid analogue miltefosine - already in clinical use against leishmaniasis - towards the pathogenic yeast form of S. brasiliensis isolates with low sensitivity to itraconazole or amphotericin B in vitro. Miltefosine had fungicidal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-2 µg ml(-1). Miltefosine exposure led to loss of plasma membrane integrity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a decrease in cytoplasmic electron density, alterations in the thickness of cell wall layers and accumulation of an electron-dense material in the cell wall. Flow cytometry analysis using an anti-melanin antibody revealed an increase in cell wall melanin in yeasts treated with miltefosine, when compared with control cells. The cytotoxicity of miltefosine was comparable to those of amphotericin B, but miltefosine showed a higher selectivity index towards the fungus. Our results suggest that miltefosine could be an effective alternative for the treatment of S. brasiliensis sporotrichosis, when standard treatment fails. Nevertheless, in vivo studies are required to confirm the antifungal potential of miltefosine for the treatment of sporotrichosis. PMID:25681323

  4. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  5. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and α-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (α-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent α-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC₅₀ 2.7 μg/mL) and T. brucei (IC₅₀ 0.5 μg/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC₅₀ 9.4 μg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC₅₀ > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent α-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity. PMID:24002136

  6. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L).

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Phonmun, T; Liang, J B; Huang, X D; Tan, H Y; Jahromi, M F

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  7. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  8. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses. PMID:24359406

  9. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  10. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor κB kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones. PMID:21562610

  11. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2-4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1-4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol. PMID:26907243

  12. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. Conclusion This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds. PMID:20939907

  13. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

  14. Involvement of an Alternative Oxidase in Oxidative Stress and Mycelium-to-Yeast Differentiation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vicente P.; Dinamarco, Taisa M.; Soriani, Frederico M.; Tudella, Valéria G.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Curti, Carlos; Uyemura, Sérgio A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic human pathogenic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), which is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Differentiation from the mycelial to the yeast form (M-to-Y) is an essential step for the establishment of PCM. We evaluated the involvement of mitochondria and intracellular oxidative stress in M-to-Y differentiation. M-to-Y transition was delayed by the inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV or alternative oxidase (AOX) and was blocked by the association of AOX with complex III or IV inhibitors. The expression of P. brasiliensis aox (Pbaox) was developmentally regulated through M-to-Y differentiation, wherein the highest levels were achieved in the first 24 h and during the yeast exponential growth phase; Pbaox was upregulated by oxidative stress. Pbaox was cloned, and its heterologous expression conferred cyanide-resistant respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli and reduced oxidative stress in S. cerevisiae cells. These results reinforce the role of PbAOX in intracellular redox balancing and demonstrate its involvement, as well as that of other components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, in the early stages of the M-to-Y differentiation of P. brasiliensis. PMID:21183691

  15. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) in its development and adult size.

    PubMed

    Lima, T N; Silva, D C R

    2016-07-25

    Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen), anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size. PMID:27463831

  16. Analysis of an Optimized MLOS Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm and Comparison to the MART Reconstruction Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2011-11-01

    An optimally designed MLOS tomographic reconstruction algorithm for use in 3D PIV and PTV applications is analyzed. Using a set of optimized reconstruction parameters, the reconstructions produced by the MLOS algorithm are shown to be comparable to reconstructions produced by the MART algorithm for a range of camera geometries, camera numbers, and particle seeding densities. The resultant velocity field error calculated using PIV and PTV algorithms is further minimized by applying both pre and post processing to the reconstructed data sets.

  17. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group. PMID:27257614

  18. A new benzoylphloroglucinol derivative with an adamantyl skeleton and other constituents from Garcinia multiflora: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2012-01-01

    A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone D (1), with an unusual adamantyl-caged skeleton was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora, together with four known compounds. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and mass-spectrometric analyses. Garcimultiflorone D (1) exhibited inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 7.21±1.07 and 6.01±0.37 μg/ml against fMLP/CB-induced superoxide anion generation and elastase release, respectively. PMID:22253107

  19. A new dammarane saponin and other triterpenoids from Siolmatra brasiliensis and evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of its extract.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Corrêa; Borges, Izabeau Pontes; da Silva, Virgínia Claudia; de Sousa, Paulo Teixeira; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

    2016-09-01

    Context Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill (Cucurbitaceae) is a climbing plant widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus symptoms. Objective This work evaluates the antidiabetic activity of an extract of S. brasiliensis in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and promotes the phytochemical investigation to isolate the major compounds of the same extract. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into normal (N) and diabetic rats (DC) treated with water; diabetic rats treated with 3U insulin (DI) or with 250 (DSb250) or 500 mg/kg (DSb500) of hydroalcoholic extract of the stalks of S. brasiliensis, via oral gavage, for 21 days. Physiological and biochemical parameters classically altered in diabetes were monitored. The triterpenoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction under silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex-LH20 methods and their structures were determined by NMR, HR-ESI-MS and DC analysis. Results When compared with DC, DSb250 rats showed a reduction in the hyperglycemia (DC: 26.46 ± 0.69 versus DSb250: 19.67 ± 1.06 mmol/L) and glycosuria (DC: 43.02 ± 3.19 versus DSb250: 28.46 ± 2.14 mmol/24 h) and increase in hepatic glycogen (DC: 14.44 ± 1.26 versus DSb250: 22.08 ± 4.26 mg/g). Three known cucurbitacins were isolated from a hydroalcoholic extract of S. brasiliensis, i.e., cayaponosides A1, B4, D, and a new dammarane saponin 3-O-β-d-gentiobiosyl-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20-hydroxydammar-24-ene. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectral data analysis of the natural products and their acetyl derivatives. Discussion and conclusion The known cucurbitacins and/or the new identified saponin may be related with the antidiabetic activity of S. brasiliensis. PMID:26810155

  20. Fat content in migratory central Arizona Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Fat content of migratory Tadarida brasiliensis was determined during the spring, summer and fall of 1972 in the Verde Valley of Arizona. Fat indices were highest in March arrivals, generally declined throughout the summer, and were lowest in September. In both 1972 and 1973 bats had arrived at the study area by mid-March. In 1971 bats were last noted at the area in mid-October while in 1972 they had disappeared by late September. On the basis on physiological calculations it is estimated that bats collected in March 1972 possessed sufficient fat reserves to carry them a mean distance of 716 km north of the study area while September bats had only enough reserves to fly 386 km southward, about 160 km short of the nearest known Sonora wintering locality. It is suggested that in spring the bats may have a more rigidly timed migration and so put on excess fat to counter an uncertain environment to the north. The fall migration may be triggered by more unpredictable events, such as the passage of cold fronts, and less fat reserves may be required for movements into more favorable southern locales.

  1. Synchronous flowering of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) induced by high solar radiation intensity.

    PubMed

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2007-01-01

    How tropical trees flower synchronously near the equator in the absence of significant day length variation or other meteorological cues has long been a puzzle. The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is used as a model to investigate this phenomenon. The annual cycle of solar radiation intensity is shown to correspond closely with the flowering of the rubber tree planted near the equator and in the subtropics. Unlike in temperate regions, where incoming solar radiation (insolation) is dependent on both day length and radiation intensity, insolation at the equator is due entirely to the latter. Insolation at the upper atmosphere peaks twice a year during the spring and autumn equinoxes, but the actual solar radiation that reaches the ground is attenuated to varying extents in different localities. The rubber tree shows one or two flowering seasons a year (with major and minor seasons in the latter) in accordance with the solar radiation intensity received. High solar radiation intensity, and in particular bright sunshine (as distinct from prolonged diffuse radiation), induces synchronous anthesis and blooming in Hevea around the time of the equinoxes. The same mechanism may be operational in other tropical tree species. PMID:17587376

  2. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter. PMID:21925282

  3. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  4. Relationship between latex yield of Hevea brasiliensis and antecedent environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Shammi; Das, Gitali; Pothen, Jacob; Dey, Sushil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A study on the relationship between latex yield and antecedent environmental data was undertaken for five clones (RRII203, RRII118, RRIM600, RRII105 and GT1) of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber) in Agartala, northeast India, a region in which rubber is not traditionally cultivated. The explained variance for the regression equations based on parameters determined on the day of tapping and up to 3 days prior to it, varied from 72% to 37% during the NWT period and 94 83% during the WT period. Soil moisture storage, 1 and 3 days prior to tapping, was found to be the primary parameter affecting yield for the NWT and WT periods, respectively. It was observed that the clone RRII105, with a comparatively lower yield to that of RRIM600, was more susceptible to daily WD conditions during the non-winter season. RRIM600 and RRII105 being high-yielding clones were also found to be fairly dependent on the AT of the day prior to tapping. The mean lag period correlation of this parameter with yield was also found to be higher during the WT period than during the NWT period. As a whole, the mean lag period based on prior measurements of environmental variables showed optimum correlation with yield at 15 20 days prior to the day of tapping. The study also confirms that varied responses of yield with environmental factors in this non-traditional region of rubber cultivation depend on clonal character.

  5. Variation in GUS activity in vegetatively propagated Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Lardet, Ludovic; Leclercq, Julie; Bénistan, Elise; Dessailly, Florence; Oliver, Gérald; Martin, Florence; Montoro, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants are regenerated from transgenic callus lines by somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is not yet available for commercial propagation of Hevea clones, which requires conventional grafting of buds on rootstock seedlings (budding). The stability of transgene expression in budded plants is therefore necessary for further development of genetic engineering in rubber trees. Transgene expression was assessed by fluorimetric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in fully developed leaves of in vitro plants from transgenic lines and their sub-lines obtained by budding. A large variation in GUS activity was found in self-rooted in vitro plants of five transgenic lines, and the absence of activity in one line suggested transgene silencing. Beyond confirming transmissibility of the reporter gene by budding and long-term expression, a quantification of GUS activity revealed that greater variability existed in budded plants compared to self-rooted mother in vitro plants for three transgenic lines. Although somatic embryogenesis provided more stable GUS activity, budding remained an efficient way of propagating transgenic plants but transgene expression in budded plants should be verified for functional analysis and further development. PMID:21643815

  6. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by β-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

  7. Aid to a declining matriarch in the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Davenport, Lisa C

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are increasingly revealing the commonalities between the intellectual, emotional and moral capacities of animals and humans. Providing assistance to elderly and ailing family members is a human trait rarely documented for wild animals, other than anecdotal accounts. Here I report observations of multiple forms of assistance to the declining matriarch of a habituated group of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, Peru. The otter group had been observed annually for several years and all members were known individually. In 2007, the breeding female of the group failed to reproduce and appeared to be in physical decline. She begged from other family members 43 times over 41 contact hours and received food 11 times. Comparisons with 2004-2006 demonstrate that the family's behavior in 2007 constitutes a role-reversal, in which the majority of assistance and prey transfers accrued from young-to-old rather than from old-to-young. As in human societies, both non-adaptive and adaptive hypotheses could explain the family members' aid to their declining matriarch. I suggest that giant otter families may benefit from the knowledge and experience of an elderly matriarch and "grandparent helper," consistent with the "Grandmother Hypothesis" of adaptive menopause in women. PMID:20613978

  8. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  9. Diversity of the cassiicolin gene in Corynespora cassiicola and relation with the pathogenicity in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Déon, Marine; Fumanal, Boris; Gimenez, Stéphanie; Bieysse, Daniel; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Shuib, Siti Shuhada; Breton, Frédéric; Elumalai, Sunderasan; Vida, João B; Seguin, Marc; Leroy, Thierry; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is an important plant pathogenic Ascomycete causing the damaging Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). A small secreted glycoprotein named cassiicolin was previously described as an important effector of C. cassiicola. In this study, the diversity of the cassiicolin-encoding gene was analysed in C. cassiicola isolates sampled from various hosts and geographical origins. A cassiicolin gene was detected in 47 % of the isolates, encoding up to six distinct protein isoforms. In three isolates, two gene variants encoding cassiicolin isoforms Cas2 and Cas6 were found in the same isolate. A phylogenetic tree based on four combined loci and elucidating the diversity of the whole collection was strongly structured by the toxin class, as defined by the cassiicolin isoform. The isolates carrying the Cas1 gene (toxin class Cas1), all grouped in the same highly supported clade, were found the most aggressive on two rubber tree cultivars. Some isolates in which no Cas gene was detected could nevertheless generate moderate symptoms, suggesting the existence of other yet uncharacterized effectors. This study provides a useful base for future studies of C. cassiicola population biology and epidemiological surveys in various host plants. PMID:24433675

  10. Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

  11. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  12. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  13. Aid to a Declining Matriarch in the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are increasingly revealing the commonalities between the intellectual, emotional and moral capacities of animals and humans. Providing assistance to elderly and ailing family members is a human trait rarely documented for wild animals, other than anecdotal accounts. Here I report observations of multiple forms of assistance to the declining matriarch of a habituated group of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, Peru. The otter group had been observed annually for several years and all members were known individually. In 2007, the breeding female of the group failed to reproduce and appeared to be in physical decline. She begged from other family members 43 times over 41 contact hours and received food 11 times. Comparisons with 2004–2006 demonstrate that the family's behavior in 2007 constitutes a role-reversal, in which the majority of assistance and prey transfers accrued from young-to-old rather than from old-to-young. As in human societies, both non-adaptive and adaptive hypotheses could explain the family members' aid to their declining matriarch. I suggest that giant otter families may benefit from the knowledge and experience of an elderly matriarch and “grandparent helper,” consistent with the “Grandmother Hypothesis” of adaptive menopause in women. PMID:20613978

  14. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; Bond, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood. PMID:26986200

  15. Changes in the Chemical Composition and Decay Resistance of Thermally-Modified Hevea brasiliensis Wood

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the equilibrium moisture content, chemical composition and biological resistance to decay fungi of juvenile and mature Hevea brasiliensis wood (rubber wood) was evaluated. Samples were taken from a 53-year-old rubber wood plantation located in Tabapuã, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were thermally-modified at 180°C, 200°C and 220°C. Results indicate that the thermal modification caused: (1) a significant increase in the extractive content and proportional increase in the lignin content at 220°C; (2) a significant decrease in the equilibrium moisture content, holocelluloses, arabinose, galactose and xylose content, but no change in glucose content; and (3) a significant increase in wood decay resistance against both Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.) Murrill decay fungi. The greatest decay resistance was achieved from treatment at 220°C which resulted in a change in wood decay resistance class from moderately resistant to resistant. Finally, this study also demonstrated that the influence of thermal treatment in mature wood was lower than in juvenile wood. PMID:26986200

  16. Biochemical characterization of three phase partitioned naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Vinothkumar, V; Ragupathy, J; Reddy, D Amala

    2015-09-01

    Naringinase is a complex enzyme composed of α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase, which has a vast potential application in the field of industrial biotechnology. The novel aspect in the present study is employing a three-phase partitioning (TPP) technique for the purification of naringinase by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344. At optimum conditions of 28±2 °C and 30% (w/v) ammonium sulfate along with a 1:1 ratio of t-butanol to crude extract, the purification is enhanced by 4.2-fold .Temperature and pH profile of TPP purified naringinase was found to be active with an optimal activity of 719.6 units at an elevated temperature of 60 °C. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) using naringin as substrate were 3.21 mM and 321 U/ml. The purified enzyme was not inhibited by any metal ions except Hg(2+) but completely inhibited by adding chelating agents such as EDTA and SDS at a concentration of 10 mM. These results can be inevitable to establish the TPP method to be an inexpensive, economical and attractive technology for better recovery and to find its application in the industrial sector. PMID:26143121

  17. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  18. Recombinagenic activity of integerrimine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio brasiliensis, in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Campesato, V R; Graf, U; Reguly, M L; de Andrade, H H

    1997-01-01

    Integerrimine (ITR), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio brasiliensis, was tested for genotoxicity using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. The compound was administered by chronic feeding (48 hours) of 3-day-old larvae. Two different crosses involving the markers flare (flr) and multiple wing hairs (mwh) were used, that is, the standard (ST) cross and the high bioactivation (HB) cross, which has a high cytochrome P450-dependent bioactivation capacity. In both crosses, the wings of two types of progeny were analyzed, that is, inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes carrying multiple inversions. ITR was found to be equally potent in inducing spots in a dose-related manner in the marker heterozygotes of both crosses. This indicates that the bioactivation capacity present in larvae of the ST cross is sufficient to reveal the genotoxic activity of ITR. In the balancer heterozygotes of both crosses, where all recombinational events are eliminated due to the inversions, the frequencies of induced spots were considerably reduced which documents the recombinagenic activity of ITR. Linear regression analysis of the dose response relationships for both genotypes shows that 85% to 90% of the wing spots are due to mitotic recombination. PMID:9020312

  19. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Patos Lagoon, extreme south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; da Silva, Diego Silva; Wendt, Emília Welter; Monteiro, Cassandra de Moraes; Berne, Maria Elizabeth Aires

    2015-01-01

    This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis) from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2%) and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9%) and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9%) were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. PMID:26648010

  20. Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Karumamkandathil, Rekha; Uthup, Thomas K; Sankaran, Sobha; Unnikrishnan, Divya; Saha, Thakurdas; Nair, Sushamakumari S

    2015-05-01

    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of stock-scion interaction process in rubber. PMID:25359186

  1. Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2014-08-01

    Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. PMID:24795231

  2. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation. PMID:17566886

  3. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina). PMID:25681145

  4. Paracoccidioides lutzii Plp43 Is an Active Glucanase with Partial Antigenic Identity with P. brasiliensis gp43

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Natanael P.; Vallejo, Milene C.; Conceição, Palloma M.; Camargo, Zoilo P.; Hahn, Rosane; Puccia, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). P. brasiliensis main diagnostic antigen is glycoprotein gp43, and its peptide sequence is 81% identical with a P. lutzii ortholog here called Plp43. P. lutzii (“Pb01-like”) apparently predominates in Midwestern/Northern Brazil, where high percentages of false-negative reactions using P. brasiliensis antigens have recently been reported. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant Plp43 to study its antigenic identity with gp43. Methodology We expressed rPlp43 as a secreted major component in Pichia pastoris and studied its reactivity in immunoblot with PCM patients' sera from Southwestern and Midwestern Brazil. Principal Findings We showed that rPlp43 is not glycosylated and bears glucanase activity. The protein did not react with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies in immunoblot, suggesting absence of the corresponding gp43 epitopes. Nevertheless, common epitope(s) might exist, considering that gp43-positive PCM sera recognized rPlp43 in immunoblot, while gp43-negative sera (33 out of 51) from patients resident in Midwestern Brazil were also rPlp43-negative. Two genotyped P. lutzii were from patients with gp43-negative sera, suggesting that non-reactive sera are from patients infected with this species. Conclusion Our data suggest that gp43 and Plp43 bear one or only a few common epitopes and that gp43 cannot be used in diagnosis of PCM patients infected with P. lutzii probably because Plp43 is poorly expressed during infection. PMID:25166744

  5. Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetidae), Derived Polysaccharides Exert Immunomodulatory Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fang, Leilei; Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Huan; Wei, Weilu; Li, Yingrui

    2016-01-01

    The royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis is a widely consumed mushroom around the world. In this study, the immunoregulatory potential of A. brasiliensis polysaccharides was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the polysaccharides remarkably increased the spleen and thymus indexes in mice, and this effect was influenced significantly by age (the adult and the juvenile). The spleen index increased by 27.28% in adult mice treated with the polysaccharides, whereas the increase in juvenile mice was just 12.59% at the dose of 150 mg·kg-1·d-1. Moreover, the effect of the polysaccharides on the thymus and spleen indexes in adult mice was obvious both in males and females. The carbon clearance ability (phagocytic index) was improved with increasing doses, (32.81% at 120 mg·kg-1·d-1, and 38.34% at 150 mg·kg-1·d-1) in mice treated with the polysaccharides. In vitro, the polysaccharides increased the RAW264.7 cell proliferation with 34.78% at 25 µg/mL and 26.78% at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, the polysaccharides also promoted mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in the cells, indicating that the polysaccharides induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by stimulating TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF pathways. In conclusion, these results suggest that A. brasiliensis polysaccharides induce a very promising immunostimulation effect in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it should be explored as a novel natural functional food additive. PMID:27279534

  6. Spatial analysis of egg distribution and geographic changes in the spawning habitat of the Brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, E S; Gherardi, D F M; Paes, E T; Souza, R B; Katsuragawa, M

    2010-12-01

    This paper establishes the spawning habitat of the Brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis and investigates the spatial variability of egg density and its relation with oceanographic conditions in the shelf of the south-east Brazil Bight (SBB). The spawning habitats of S. brasiliensis have been defined in terms of spatial models of egg density, temperature-salinity plots, quotient (Q) analysis and remote sensing data. Quotient curves (Q(C)) were constructed using the geographic distribution of egg density, temperature and salinity from samples collected during nine survey cruises between 1976 and 1993. The interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability was determined using principal component analysis on the SST anomalies (SSTA) estimated from remote sensing data over the period between 1985 and 2007. The spatial pattern of egg occurrences in the SBB indicated that the largest concentration occurred between Paranaguá and São Sebastião. Spawning habitat expanded and contracted during the years, fluctuating around Paranaguá. In January 1978 and January 1993, eggs were found nearly everywhere along the inner shelf of the SBB, while in January 1988 and 1991 spawning had contracted to their southernmost position. The SSTA maps for the spawning periods showed that in the case of habitat expansion (1993 only) anomalies over the SBB were zero or slightly negative, whereas for the contraction period anomalies were all positive. Sardinella brasiliensis is capable of exploring suitable spawning sites provided by the entrainment of the colder and less-saline South Atlantic Central Water onto the shelf by means of both coastal wind-driven (to the north-east of the SBB) and meander-induced (to the south-west of the SBB) upwelling. PMID:21155781

  7. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  8. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP markers development for rubber biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25048025

  9. Isolation and structure elucidaton of polyphenols from Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis with antiinflammatory property

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Okoye, Festus Basden Chied; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenols isolated from the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated on the basis of their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumuor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Semi-preparative HPLC separation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (n-BuOH) fractions of the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis led to the isolation of four polyphenols: 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-epicatechin (TMECG) (1); (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (ECG3″Me) (2); rutin (3) and peltatoside (4). Compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant while 1 was isolated for the first time in nature. These compounds (1-4) were readily identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and cytokine (TNF-α) levels in the culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, the study showed that the quercetin diglycosides showed stronger inhibition of proinflammatory mediators than the epicatechin derivates. These data provide evidence that polyphenolic compounds isolated from the mistletoe parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α. PMID:26417309

  10. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP Markers Development for Rubber Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25048025

  11. Immunization with recombinant Pb27 protein reduces the levels of pulmonary fibrosis caused by the inflammatory response against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Elis Araujo; Martins, Estefânia Mara do Nascimento; Boelone, Jankerle Neves; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis in which the host response to the infectious agent typically consists of a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process. This condition causes lesions that impair lung function and lead to chronic pulmonary insufficiency resulting from fibrosis development, which is a sequel and disabling feature of the disease. The rPb27 protein has been studied for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against PCM. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown a protective effect of rPb27 against PCM. However, these studies have not determined whether rPb27 immunization prevents lung fibrosis. We therefore conducted this study to investigate fibrosis resulting from infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the lungs of animals immunized with rPb27. Animals were immunized with rPb27 and subsequently infected with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis. Fungal load was evaluated by counting colony-forming units, and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to evaluate fibrosis at 30 and 90 days post-infection. The levels of CCR7, active caspase 3, collagen and cytokines were analyzed. At the two time intervals mentioned, the rPb27 group showed lower levels of fibrosis on histology and reduced levels of collagen and the chemokine receptor CCR7 in the lungs. CCR7 was detected at higher levels in the control groups that developed very high levels of pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, the immunized groups showed high levels of active caspase 3, IFN-γ, TGF-β and IL-10 in the early phase of P. brasiliensis infection. Immunization with Pb27, in addition to its protective effect, was shown to prevent pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25487973

  12. The 1793 eruption of San Martín Tuxtla volcano, Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola, J. M.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M. L.; Schaaf, P.; Rodríguez, S. R.

    2010-11-01

    San Martín Tuxtla (N18.562°; W95.199°, 1659 masl) is a basaltic volcano located in southern Veracruz, a Mexican State bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It rises in a volcanic field strewn with monogenetic volcanic cones, maars and three other large volcanoes mostly dormant since the late Pliocene: Santa Marta, San Martín Pajapan and Cerro El Vigía. The latest eruptive event of San Martín occurred in 1793 and was described by Don José Mariano Moziño, a naturalist under the commission of the Viceroy of the then New Spain. In this work we present results of the study of this eruption based on historical accounts and field observations. We identified an ash deposit around the volcano related to the 1793 eruption, mapped its distribution and determined its granulometric, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. These studies suggest that the volcano began its activity with explosive phreatomagmatic explosions, which were followed by Strombolian activity; this period lasting from March to October 1793. The activity continued with an effusive phase that lasted probably 2 years. The eruption covered an area of about 480 km 2 with at least 1 cm of ash; the fines reaching distances greater than 300 km from the crater. A total mass of about 2.5 × 10 14 g was ejected and the volcanic columns probably reached altitudes of the order of 10 km during the most explosive phases. The lava emitted formed a coulee that descended the northern flank of the volcano and has an approximate volume of 2.0 × 10 7 m 3.

  13. Recombinant Paracoccin Reproduces the Biological Properties of the Native Protein and Induces Protective Th1 Immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Ana Claudia Paiva; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Dos Reis Almeida, Fausto Bruno; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Hanna, Ebert Seixas

    2014-01-01

    Background Paracoccin is a dual-function protein of the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that has lectin properties and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Proteomic analysis of a paracoccin preparation from P. brasiliensis revealed that the sequence matched that of the hypothetical protein encoded by PADG-3347 of isolate Pb-18, with a polypeptide sequence similar to the family 18 endochitinases. These endochitinases are multi-functional proteins, with distinct lectin and enzymatic domains. Methodology/principal findings The multi-exon assembly and the largest exon of the predicted ORF (PADG-3347), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the features of the recombinant proteins were compared to those of the native paracoccin. The multi-exon protein was also used for protection assays in a mouse model of paracoccidioidomycosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results showed that the recombinant protein reproduced the biological properties described for the native protein—including binding to laminin in a manner that is dependent on carbohydrate recognition—showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages to produce high levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide. Considering the immunomodulatory potential of glycan-binding proteins, we also investigated whether prophylactic administration of recombinant paracoccin affected the course of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. In comparison to animals injected with vehicle (controls), mice treated with recombinant paracoccin displayed lower pulmonary fungal burdens and reduced pulmonary granulomas. These protective effects were associated with augmented pulmonary levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ. We also observed that injection of paracoccin three days before challenge was the most efficient administration protocol, as the induced Th1 immunity was balanced by high levels of pulmonary IL-10, which may prevent the tissue damage caused by exacerbated inflammation. The

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae. PMID:25264839

  15. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping; Siddiqi, M. Rehan; Islam, Ejaz ul; Azim, M. Rashid; Hayat, Yousaf

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells. The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants. PMID:16187412

  16. Homologous Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) present different auto-assembling.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    HbREF and HbSRPP are two Hevea brasiliensis proteins present on rubber particles, and probably involved in the coagulation of latex. Their function is unclear, but we previously discovered that REF had amyloid properties, which could be of particular interest during the coagulation process. First, we confirmed that REF and SRPP, homologous and principal proteins in hevea latex, are not glycoproteins. In this work, we investigated various aspects of protein interactions: aggregation, auto-assembling, yeast and erythrocyte agglutination, co-interactions by various biochemical (PAGE, spectroscopy, microscopy), biophysical (DLS, ellipsometry) and structural (TEM, ATR-FTIR, PM-IRRAS) approaches. We demonstrated that both proteins are auto-assembling into different aggregative states: REF polymerizes as an amyloid rich in β-sheets and forms quickly large aggregates (>μm), whereas SRPP auto-assembles in solution into stable nanomultimers of a more globular nature. Both proteins are however able to interact together, and SRPP may inhibit the amyloidogenesis of REF. REF is also able to interact with the membranes of yeasts and erythrocytes, leading to their agglutination. In addition, we also showed that both REF and SRPP did not have antimicrobial activity, whereas their activity on membranes has been clearly evidenced. We may suspect that these aggregative properties, even though they are clearly different, may occur during coagulation, when the membrane is destabilized. The interaction of proteins with membranes could help in the colloidal stability of latex, whereas the protein-protein interactions would contribute to the coagulation process, by bringing rubber particles together or eventually disrupting the particle monomembranes. PMID:24239687

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Mlo gene in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Qin, Bi; Zheng, Fucong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mlo gene encodes a plant-specific seven-transmembrane domain protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. In this study, a novel Mlo gene from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), designated HbMlo1, was cloned by RT-PCR in rubber tree. The ORF of HbMlo1 was 1551bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. HbMlo1 was a typical Mlo protein with seven-transmembrane domain. Sequence comparison between HbMlo1 and other Mlo proteins demonstrated that HbMlo1 shared the highest similarity with the Cucumis melo CmMlo1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtMlo1 with 75.1% and 71.3% sequence identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMlo1, CmMlo1, AtMlo1, AtMlo13, and AtMlo15 formed into the phylogenetic clade II with 100% bootstrap support value. HbMlo1 transcript exhibited tissue specificity, and it was preferentially expressed in leaf. Furthermore, the amount of HbMlo1 transcript was significantly induced by various phytohormones (including ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellic acid), H2O2, and wounding treatments. Under drought stress, HbMlo1 exhibited a complex pattern of regulation. However, HbMlo1 expression did not significantly change during powdery mildew infection. These results suggested that HbMlo1 might play a role in phytohormone signaling and abiotic stress response processes in rubber tree. PMID:25506769

  18. Ethylene Response Factors Are Controlled by Multiple Harvesting Stresses in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Duan, Cuifang; Kuswanhadi; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Rio, Maryannick; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Herlinawati, Eva; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Leclercq, Julie; Bonnot, François; Tang, Chaorong; Hu, Songnian; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea. PMID:25906196

  19. Molecular evolution and functional characterisation of haplotypes of an important rubber biosynthesis gene in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Uthup, T K; Rajamani, A; Ravindran, M; Saha, T

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A synthase (HMGS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the cytoplasmic isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway leading to natural rubber production in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Analysis of the structural variants of this gene is imperative to understand their functional significance in rubber biosynthesis so that they can be properly utilised for ongoing crop improvement programmes in Hevea. We report here allele richness and diversity of the HMGS gene in selected popular rubber clones. Haplotypes consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the coding and non-coding regions with a high degree of heterozygosity were identified. Segregation and linkage disequilibrium analysis confirmed that recombination is the major contributor to the generation of allelic diversity, rather than point mutations. The evolutionarily conserved nature of some SNPs was identified by comparative DNA sequence analysis of HMGS orthologues from diverse taxa, demonstrating the molecular evolution of rubber biosynthesis genes in general. In silico three-dimensional structural studies highlighting the structural positioning of non-synonymous SNPs from different HMGS haplotypes revealed that the ligand-binding site on the enzyme remains impervious to the reported sequence variations. In contrast, gene expression results indicated the possibility of association between specific haplotypes and HMGS expression in Hevea clones, which may have a downstream impact up to the level of rubber production. Moreover, haplotype diversity of the HMGS gene and its putative association with gene expression can be the basis for further genetic association studies in rubber. Furthermore, the data also show the role of SNPs in the evolution of candidate genes coding for functional traits in plants. PMID:26787454

  20. Development, characterization, and cross-species/genera transferability of SSR markers for rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Bao-Hua; Feng, Su-Ping; Wang, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Guo; Wu, Yao-Ting

    2011-03-01

    Genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are particularly valuable in studies of genetic diversity, evolution, genetic linkage map construction, quantitative trait loci tagging, and marker-assisted selection because of their multi-allelic nature, reproducibility, co-dominant inheritance, high abundance, and extensive genome coverage. The traditional methods of SSR marker development, such as genomic-SSR hybrid screening and microsatellite enrichment, have the disadvantages of high cost and complex operation. The selectively amplified microsatellite method is less costly and highly efficient as well as being simple and convenient. In this study, 252 sequences with SSRs were cloned from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) genome from which 258 SSR loci were obtained. The average repeat number was six. There were only 10 (3.9%) mononucleotide, trinucleotide, and pentanucleotide repeats, whereas the remaining 248 (96.1%) were dinucleotide repeats, including 128 (49.6%) GT/CA repeats, 118 (45.7%) GA/CT repeats, and 2 (0.8%) AT/TA repeats. A total of 126 primer pairs (see ESM) were successfully designed of which 36 primer pairs generated polymorphic products from 12 accessions of the cultivated species, 4 related species, and 3 species of the family Euphorbiaceae. In addition, investigations based on four genomic SSRs (GAR4, ACR22, CTR25, and GTR28) by cloning and sequencing provided evidence for cross-species/genera applicability, and homologous sequences were obtained from the rubber tree and Euphorbiaceae. Further analysis about the variation of the flanking regions of the four markers was carried out. PMID:20960206

  1. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the metacaspase gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Deng, Zhi; Chen, Jiangshu; Wang, Sen; Hao, Lili; Li, Dejun

    2016-08-01

    Metacaspases, a family of cysteine proteases, have been suggested to play important roles in programmed cell death (PCD) during plant development and stress responses. To date, no systematic characterization of this gene family has been reported in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the present study, nine metacaspase genes, designated as HbMC1 to HbMC9, were identified from whole-genome sequence of rubber tree. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses suggested that these genes were divided into two types: type I (HbMC1-HBMC7) and type II (HbMC8 and HbMC9). Gene structure analysis demonstrated that type I and type II HbMCs separately contained four and two introns, indicating the conserved exon-intron organization of HbMCs. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HbMCs showed distinct expression patterns in different tissues, suggesting the functional diversity of HbMCs in various tissues during development. Most of the HbMCs were regulated by drought, cold, and salt stress, implying their possible functions in regulating abiotic stress-induced cell death. Of the nine HbMCs, HbMC1, HbMC2, HbMC5, and HbMC8 displayed a significantly higher relative transcript accumulation in barks of tapping panel dryness (TPD) trees compared with healthy trees. In addition, the four genes were up-regulated by ethephon (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indicating their potential involvement in TPD resulting from ET- or JA-induced PCD. In summary, this work provides valuable information for further functional characterization of HbMC genes in rubber tree. PMID:27085600

  2. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  3. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  4. Catalytic mechanism of hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis: a theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Feng-Chao; Pan, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2010-07-29

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the hybrid functional B3LYP have been performed to investigate the catalytic mechanism of hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis (Hb-HNL). This enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of acetone cyanohydrin to hydrocyanic acid plus acetone. Two models (A and B) of the active site consisting of 105 and 155 atoms, respectively, were constructed on the basis of the crystal structure. Good consistency between the two models provides a verification of the proposed mechanism. Our calculations show that the catalytic reaction proceeds via three elementary steps: (1) deprotonation of the OH-Ser80 by His235 and concomitant abstraction of a proton from the substrate hydroxyl by Ser80; (2) the C-C bond cleavage of the acetone cyanohydrin; and (3) protonation of the cleaved cyanide by His235. The cleavage of the C-C bond is the rate-limiting step with the overall free energy barrier of 13.5 kcal/mol for relatively smaller model A (14.9 kcal/mol for a larger model B) in the protein environment, which is in good agreement with experimental rate. The present results give support to the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism, in which the catalytic triad acts as a general acid/base. Moreover, the calculated results for model C, with the positive charge of Lys236 removed from model A, show that Lys236 with the positive charge plays a vital role in lowering the reaction barrier of the rate-determining and helps in stabilizing the negatively charged CN(-) by forming a hydrogen bond with the substrate, consistent with the experimental analysis. PMID:20593768

  5. Kolaviron, Biflavonoid Complex from the Seed of Garcinia kola Attenuated Angiotensin II- and Lypopolysaccharide-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Yakubu, Momoh Audu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid extract from Garcinia kola seeds has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio-protective, nephro-protective and other arrays of chemopreventive capabilities but the mechanism of action is still not completely understood. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative potential of KV in cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs). Effects of KV (25-100 μg/mL) on VSMC proliferation alone or following treatments with mitogen and proinflammatory agents Angiotensin II (Ag II, 10-6 M) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/mL) and effects on NO production were determined. Cellular proliferations were determined by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) level was determined by Griess assay. KV dose-and time dependently attenuated VSMC growth. Results: Treatment of VSMCs with Ag II and LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of the cell which was significantly attenuated by the treatment with KV. Treatment of VSMC with LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) level in the media which was attenuated by KV. These results demonstrated anti-proliferative anti-inflammatory properties of KV as it clearly inhibited cellular proliferation induced by mitogens as well as LPS-induced inflammatory processes. Conclusion: Therefore, KV may mitigate cardiovascular conditions that involve cell proliferation, free radical generation and inflammatory processes such as hypertension, diabetes and stroke. However, the molecular mechanism of action of KV needs to be investigated. SUMMARY Angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron mitigates angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron ameliorates nitric oxide productionKolaviron offers antioxidant activity. Abbreviations Used: VSMCs: Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Ag II: Angiotensin II, KV: Kolaviron, LPS: lypopolysaccharide, NO: Nitric Oxide, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, MTT

  6. A new NMR approach for structure determination of thermally unstable biflavanones and application to phytochemicals from Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Salger, Mathias; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. In order to facilitate an unrestricted rotation, NMR spectra are usually recorded at elevated temperatures, commonly over 80 °C, which effects in a single set of resonance signals. However, under these conditions, one of the target compounds of this investigation, (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (1), undergoes degradation. Therefore, we demonstrated in the present study that the 1,1-ADEQUATE could be successfully used as a powerful alternative approach to confirm the C-C connectivities in 1, avoiding detrimental conditions. However, a moderate increase in temperature up to 50 °C was sufficient to deliver sharp signals in the proton NMR experiment of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-isomanniflavanone (2) and (2″R,3″R)-preussianone (3). In addition, two new compounds could be isolated, namely (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-2 7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone-7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. The aforementioned compounds exhibited high anti-oxidative capacity in the H2O2 scavenging, hydrophilic Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC) assays. PMID:26195084

  7. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  8. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  9. Development of the Sea Star Echinaster (Othilia) brasiliensis, with Inference on the Evolution of Development and Skeletal Plates in Asteroidea.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Elinia Medeiros; Ventura, Carlos Renato Rezende

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development and juvenile morphology of the sea star Echinaster (Othilia) brasiliensis in order to explore evolutionary developmental modes and skeletal homologies. This species produces large, buoyant eggs (0.6 ± 0.03 mm diameter), and has a typical lecithotrophic brachiolaria larva. The planktonic brachiolaria larva is formed 2-4 days after fertilization, when cilia cover the surface. Early juveniles are completely formed by 18 days of age. Initial growth is supported by maternal nutrients while the stomach continues to develop until 60 days after fertilization, when juveniles reach about 0.5 mm of radius length. The madreporite was observed 88 days after fertilization. In the youngest juvenile skeleton of E. (O.) brasiliensis, the madreporite and odontophore are homologous to those of other recent, non-paxillosid asteroids, and follow the Late Madreporic Mode. The emergence of plates related to the ambulacral system follows the Ocular Plate Rule. The development and juvenile skeletal morphology of this species are similar to those of the few other studied species in the genus Echinaster. This study corroborates the notion that the mode of development--including a short-lived lecithotrophic brachiolaria larva--in all Echinaster species shares a similar pattern that may be conserved throughout the evolutionary history of the group. PMID:26896175

  10. Identification of laticifer-specific genes and their promoter regions from a natural rubber producing plant Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Takayama, Daisuke; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Asawatreratanakul, Kasem; Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Nakayama, Toru

    2014-08-01

    Latex, the milky cytoplasm of highly differentiated cells called laticifers, from Hevea brasiliensis is a key source of commercial natural rubber production. One way to enhance natural rubber production would be to express genes involved in natural rubber biosynthesis by a laticifer-specific overexpression system. As a first step to identify promoters which could regulate the laticifer-specific expression, we identified random clones from a cDNA library of H. brasiliensis latex, resulting in 4325 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) assembled into 1308 unigenes (692 contigs and 617 singletons). Quantitative analyses of the transcription levels of high redundancy clones in the ESTs revealed genes highly and predominantly expressed in laticifers, such as Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), Small Rubber Particle Protein and putative protease inhibitor proteins. HRT1 and HRT2, cis-prenyltransferases involved in rubber biosynthesis, was also expressed predominantly in laticifers, although these transcript levels were 80-fold lower than that of REF. The 5'-upstream regions of these laticifer-specific genes were cloned and analyzed in silico, revealing seven common motifs consisting of eight bases. Furthermore, transcription factors specifically expressed in laticifers were also identified. The common motifs in the laticifer-specific genes and the laticifer-specific transcription factors are potentially involved in the regulation of gene expression in laticifers. PMID:25017153

  11. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  12. Thioridazine inhibits gene expression control of the cell wall signaling pathway (CWI) in the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Jabes, Daniela Leite; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Menegidio, Fabiano Bezerra; Reno, Débora Liliane Souza; Santos, Daiene Souza; Barbosa, David Aciole; Vilas Boas, Renata Ozelami; de Oliveira Rodrigues Cunha, Rodrigo Luiz; Rodrigues, Tiago; Costa de Oliveira, Regina; Nunes, Luiz R

    2016-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus associated with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most common systemic mycosis in Latin America. PCM treatment involves a long-term chemotherapeutic approach and relapses occur at an alarming frequency. Moreover, the emergence of strains with increased drug-resistance phenotypes puts constant pressure on the necessity to develop new alternatives to treat systemic mycoses. In this work, we show that the phenothiazine (PTZ) derivative thioridazine (TR) inhibits in vitro growth of P. brasiliensis yeasts at micromolar concentrations. We employed microarray hybridization to examine how TR affects gene expression in this fungus, identifying ~1800 genes that were modulated in response to this drug. Dataset evaluation showed that TR inhibits the expression of genes that control the onset of the cell wall integrity (CWI) response, hampering production of all major structural polysaccharides of the fungal cell wall (chitin, α-glucan and β-glucan). Although TR and other PTZs have been shown to display antimicrobial activity by various mechanisms, inhibition of CWI signaling has not yet been reported for these drugs. Thus, TR may provide a novel approach to treat fungal infections by targeting cell wall biogenesis. PMID:26956010

  13. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. PMID:25963301

  14. Dentary Morphological Variation in Clevosaurus brasiliensis (Rhynchocephalia, Clevosauridae) from the Upper Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Romo de Vivar Martínez, Paula Rosario; Bento Soares, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Clevosaurus was a cosmopolitan rhynchocephalian genus, known from the Late Triassic to the Early Jurassic. In South America this genus is represented by C. brasiliensis, an important component of the Linha São Luiz taphocoenosis, on the top of the Norian Santa Maria 2 Sequence of Southern Brazil. The best preserved and most abundant bone elements of C. brasiliensis are dentaries, in which variations of shape and size are observed. The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate the variation, using geometric morphometrics methods. Geometric morphometric analysis of 10 specimens highlights variations in relative size of the dentary. Most of the variation observed for PC1 (83.3%) is likely related to ontogeny, and PC2 (10.0%) is likely related to taphonomic signatures. The development patterns observed, such as the growth of the dentary, consists of differential growth in length between the posterior portion of the dentary, that grows at a higher rate, regarding the anterior portion of the element. This allometric growth is similar to what is observed in other rhynchocephalians and is accompanied by the allometric skull growth, similar to the trend exhibited by clevosaurs. The taphocoenosis is bimodal (juveniles and adults) with a bias towards adult preservation. Some diagenetic influence is reflected in deformed skulls and this is observed in the tangent-plot. Finally, a strong correlation was detected between the taphonomic signatures and the PC2, regarding specially disarticulation and degree of fragmentation. PMID:25793754

  15. Haematological and immunological effects of repeated dose exposure of rats to integerrimine N-oxide from Senecio brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Fabiana; Latorre, Andreia O; Pípole, Fernando; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Górniak, Silvana L; Hueza, Isis M

    2011-09-01

    This study is the first in the literature to focus attention on the possible immunotoxic effect of integerrimine N-oxide content in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, a poisonous hepatotoxic plant that contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). PAs have been reported as a pasture and food contaminant and as herbal medicine used worldwide and are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. After the plant extraction, BR extracted from Senecio brasiliensis was found to contain approximately 70% integerrimine N-oxide by elemental and spectral analyses ((1)H and (13)C NMR), which was administered to adult male Wistar Hannover rats at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg for 28 days. Body weight gain, food consumption, lymphoid organs, neutrophil analysis, humoural immune response, cellular immune response and lymphocyte analysis were evaluated. Our study showed that integerrimine N-oxide could promote an impairment in the body weight gain, interference with blood cell counts and a reducing T cell proliferative activity in rats; however, no differences in the neutrophil activities, lymphocytes phenotyping and humoural and cellular immune responses were observed. It is concluded that doses of integerrimine N-oxide here employed did not produce marked immunotoxic effects. PMID:21722699

  16. Thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Fellows, Spenser R; Frank, Alexander J; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. More than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. We measured rectal (T(r)) and surface (T(s)) temperatures of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat transfer for different body regions (head, body, wings, and tail membrane). Bats' T(r) decreased from 36.8°C during emergence flights to 34.4°C during returns, and T(s) scaled positively with ambient temperature (T(a)). Total radiative heat loss from bats was significantly greater for a radiative sink to the night sky than for a sink with temperature equal to T(a). We found that free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, on average, do not dissipate heat from their wings by convection but instead dissipate radiative heat (L) to the cloudless night sky during flight ([Formula: see text] W). However, within the range of T(a) measured in this study, T. brasiliensis experienced net heat loss between evening emergence and return flights. Regional hypothermia reduces heat loss from wings that are exposed to potentially high convective fluxes. Additional research is needed to establish the role of wings in evaporative cooling during flight in bats. PMID:21034204

  17. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: Identification of Intelectin-1 and -2 as Stat6-dependent genes expressed in lung and intestine during infection

    PubMed Central

    Voehringer, David; Stanley, Sarah A.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Completo, Gladys C.; Lowary, Todd L.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Elimination of the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis from infected mice is mediated by IL-4 or IL-13 and dependent on the IL-4Rα chain and the transcription factor Stat6 in non-hematopoietic cells. However, it is not clear which Stat6-dependent effector molecules mediate worm expulsion. We identified intelectin-1 and -2 as Stat6-dependent genes that are induced during infection. Intelectins can bind galactofuranose, a sugar present only in microorganisms and might therefore serve as microbial pattern element. To analyze whether constitutive expression of intelectin-1 or -2 leads to accelerated pathogen clearance, transgenic mice were generated which express high levels of these genes selectively in the lung. Infection with N. brasiliensis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis did not result in accelerated pathogen clearance in transgenic as compared to wild-type mice. Further, no significant modulation of the immune response in lung or lymph nodes was observed. Thus, under these conditions, intelectins did not enhance pathogen clearance. PMID:17420014

  18. The stress responsive and morphologically regulated hsp90 gene from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is essential to cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, André M; Andrade, Rosângela V; Dantas, Alessandra S; Andrade, Patrícia A; Arraes, Fabrício BM; Fernandes, Larissa; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2008-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The response to heat shock is involved in pathogenesis, as this pathogen switches from mycelium to yeast forms in a temperature dependent fashion that is essential to establish infection. HSP90 is a molecular chaperone that helps in the folding and stabilization of selected polypeptides. HSP90 family members have been shown to present important roles in fungi, especially in the pathogenic species, as an immunodominant antigen and also as a potential antifungal therapeutic target. Results In this work, we decided to further study the Pbhsp90 gene, its expression and role in cell viability because it plays important roles in fungal physiology and pathogenesis. Thus, we have sequenced a Pbhsp90 cDNA and shown that this gene is present on the genome as a single copy. We have also confirmed its preferential expression in the yeast phase and its overexpression during dimorphic transition and oxidative stress. Treatment of the yeast with the specific HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and radicicol inhibited growth at 2 and 10 μM, respectively. Conclusion The data confirm that the Pbhsp90 gene encodes a morphologically regulated and stress-responsive protein whose function is essential to cell viability of this pathogen. This work also enforces the potential of HSP90 as a target for antifungal therapies, since the use of HSP90 inhibitors is lethal to the P. brasiliensis yeast cells in a dose-responsive manner. PMID:18808717

  19. Cysteine protease of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis preferentially evokes an IgE/IgG1 antibody response in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, I; Yamada, M; Uchikawa, R; Matsuda, S; Arizono, N

    1995-01-01

    Some cysteine proteases such as papain and those of mites and schistosomes have potent allergenic properties. To clarify the allergenicity of nematode cysteine proteases, the enzyme was purified from the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis using cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protease, of 16 kD and pI 8.5, showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 5.5 and substrate preference for Z-Phe-Arg-MCA. The specific inhibitors of cysteine protease leupeptin, iodoacetic acid, and E-64, completely suppressed the activity, indicating that the purified enzyme belongs to the cysteine protease family. Cysteine protease activity was found not only in somatic extract, but also in the excretory-secretory (ES) product of the nematode. When anti-cysteine protease immunoglobulin isotypes were examined in sera from rats infected with N. brasiliensis, a high level of IgG1 and a lower level of IgE antibody were detected. Depletion of IgG antibodies from the sera using protein G affinity columns resulted in a marked increase in reactivity of anti-cysteine protease IgE with the antigen, possibly due to the removal of competing IgG antibodies. In contrast to IgE and IgG1, production of anti-cysteine protease IgG2a was negligible. These results indicate that the nematode cysteine protease preferentially evokes an IgE/IgG1 antibody response. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7554403

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of a novel 22- to 25-kilodalton glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in biopsy material and partial characterization by using species-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A; Allen, M; Hay, R

    1994-01-01

    Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and Western blot [immunoblot]) were produced by using a modification of standard hybridization protocols, with cyclophosphamide included as an immunomodulator to abolish responses to highly cross-reactive immunodominant epitopes. MAbs PS14 and PS15 are two different clones which exhibit similar characteristics by ELISA and Western blot. They are directed against a 22- to 25-kDa antigen which is present in P. brasiliensis and which could not be identified in other dimorphic fungi by ELISA or Western blot. Partial purification of the antigen was accomplished by isoelectric focusing, and deglycosylation studies suggested that the 22- to 25-kDa antigen is a glycoprotein with a pI of between 4.5 and 5 and that O-linked sugars may be part of the recognized epitope. The MAbs stained the cytoplasm of P. brasiliensis yeast and hyphal cells in cryostat sections of fresh cultures of the fungus. In addition, the MAbs stained the wall of paracoccidioidomycotic granulomas, as well as the cytoplasm of the fungus, as determined by the use of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining techniques in paraffin-embedded sections of human biopsy material, and they failed to stain granulomas resulting from other clinical conditions. These findings suggest that these MAbs have potential use in the immunohistochemical identification of P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:8077405

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo dimorphism of Sporothrix schenckii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates after preservation in mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renata Ferretti de; Santos Brito, Marcelly Maria dos; Schäffer, Guido Manoel Vidal; Lima, Osana Cunha de; Borba, Cintia De Moraes

    2004-06-01

    Morphological differentiation has commanded attention for its putative impact on the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo the dimorphism from mycelial to yeast-phase of Sporothrix schenckii, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates, two strains for each species, preserved in mineral oil. S. schenckii strains showed typical micromorphology at 25 degrees C but one strain was unable to complete the dimorphic process in vitro. After in vivo passage through mice the strains had the ability to turn into yeast-like cells and to form colonies on brain-heart infusion medium at 36 degrees C. B. dermatitidis strains grew as dirty white to brownish membranous colonies at 25 degrees C and their micromorphology showed thin filaments with single hyaline conidia. At 36 degrees C the colonies did not differ from those grown at 25 degrees C, but produced a transitional micromorphology. P. brasiliensis strains grew as cream-colored cerebriform colonies at 25 degrees C showing a transitional morphology. B. dermatitidis and P. brasiliensis strains did not turn into yeast-like cells in vivo. The present results demonstrate that B. dermatitidis and P. brasiliensis strains were unable to complete the dimorphic process even after in vivo passage, in contrast to the S. schenckii strain. PMID:15284890

  2. Redescription of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering, 1905), new combination, (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) a natural enemy of the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new combination of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering, 1905) is proposed, and the species is redescribed from historical specimens taken in the Neotropical Region as well as more recent specimens reared from Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, 1931 in South Korea. Drosophila suzukii, otherwise known as th...

  3. Influence of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 14-3-3 and gp43 proteins on the induction of apoptosis in A549 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Vicentim, Juliana; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Andreotti, Patrícia Ferrari; da Silva, Juliana Leal Monteiro; Soares, Christiane Pienna; Benard, Gil; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    The fungal strain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis remains viable inside of epithelial cells and can induce apoptosis in this population. However, until now, the molecules that participate in this process remained unknown. Thus, this study evaluated the contribution of two P. brasiliensis molecules, the 14-3-3 and glycoprotein of 43 kDa proteins, which had been previously described as extracellular matrix adhesins and apoptosis inductors in human pneumocytes. Accordingly, epithelial cells were treated with these molecules for different periods of time and the expression of the apoptosis regulating-proteins Bak, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and caspases were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results demonstrated that treatment with these molecules induces apoptosis signalling in pulmonary epithelial cells, showing the same pattern of programmed cell-death as that observed during infection with P. brasiliensis. Thus, we could conclude that P. brasiliensis uses these molecules as virulence factors that participate not only in the fungal adhesion process to host cells, but also in other important cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis. PMID:26038961

  4. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  5. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  6. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei) were found to contain (1→6),(1→4)-linked α-glucan, (1→6)-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly β-glucan. Semi

  7. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  8. Searching for Life in the Martian Subsurface: Results from the MARTE Astrobiological Drilling Experiment and Implications for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.

    2007-07-01

    Drilling for subsurface life should be a goal of future Mars missions. The approach is illustrated by MARTE: A search for subsurface life in Rio Tinto, Spain explored a biosphere using reduced iron and sulfur minerals and demonstrated automated drilling, sample handling, and life detection.

  9. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR. PMID:27054471

  10. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-Dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  11. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  12. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect. PMID:24427943

  13. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Vaccine Formulations Based on the gp43-Derived P10 Sequence and the Salmonella enterica FliC Flagellin▿

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Catarina J. M.; Rittner, Glauce M. G.; Muñoz Henao, Julian E.; Teixeira, Aline F.; Massis, Liliana M.; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Anti-PCM vaccine formulations based on the secreted fungal cell wall protein (gp43) or the derived P10 sequence containing a CD4+ T-cell-specific epitope have shown promising results. In the present study, we evaluated new anti-PCM vaccine formulations based on the intranasal administration of P. brasiliensis gp43 or the P10 peptide in combination with the Salmonella enterica FliC flagellin, an innate immunity agonist binding specifically to the Toll-like receptor 5, in a murine model. BALB/c mice immunized with gp43 developed high-specific-serum immunoglobulin G1 responses and enhanced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 levels. On the other hand, mice immunized with recombinant purified flagellins genetically fused with P10 at the central hypervariable domain, either flanked or not by two lysine residues, or the synthetic P10 peptide admixed with purified FliC elicited a prevailing Th1-type immune response based on lung cell-secreted type 1 cytokines. Mice immunized with gp43 and FliC and intratracheally challenged with P. brasiliensis yeast cells had increased fungal proliferation and lung tissue damage. In contrast, mice immunized with the chimeric flagellins and particularly those immunized with P10 admixed with FliC reduced P. brasiliensis growth and lung damage. Altogether, these results indicate that S. enterica FliC flagellin modulates the immune response to P. brasiliensis P10 antigen and represents a promising alternative for the generation of anti-PCM vaccines. PMID:19204092

  14. Influence of N-Glycosylation on the Morphogenesis and Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and on the Biological Activities of Yeast Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dos Reis Almeida, Fausto Bruno; Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; Alegre, Ana Claudia Paiva; Silva, Roberto do Nascimento; Hanna, Ebert Seixas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogen that causes paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The cell wall of P. brasiliensis is a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, that perform several functions. N-linked glycans are involved in glycoprotein folding, intracellular transport, secretion, and protection from proteolytic degradation. Here, we report the effects of tunicamycin (TM)-mediated inhibition of N-linked glycosylation on P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The underglycosylated yeasts were smaller than their fully glycosylated counterparts and exhibited a drastic reduction of cell budding, reflecting impairment of growth and morphogenesis by TM treatment. The intracellular distribution in TM-treated yeasts of the P. brasiliensis glycoprotein paracoccin was investigated using highly specific antibodies. Paracoccin was observed to accumulate at intracellular locations, far from the yeast wall. Paracoccin derived from TM-treated yeasts retained the ability to bind to laminin despite their underglycosylation. As paracoccin has N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity and induces the production of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages, we compared these properties between glycosylated and underglycosylated yeast proteins. Paracoccin demonstrated lower NAGase activity when underglycosylated, although no difference was detected between the pH and temperature optimums of the two forms. Murine macrophages stimulated with underglycosylated yeast proteins produced significantly lower levels of TNF-α and NO. Taken together, the impaired growth and morphogenesis of tunicamycin-treated yeasts and the decreased biological activities of underglycosylated fungal components suggest that N-glycans play important roles in P. brasiliensis yeast biology. PMID:22216217

  15. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    PubMed

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. PMID:27032516

  16. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3.β.). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  17. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  18. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Buwa, L; Mayekiso, B; Basson, A K; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3. β .) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3. β .). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3. β .) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  19. How Do Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations Cope with Seasonal Drought in Northern Thailand and Central Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantaitons are rapidly expanding throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing the exchange characteristics. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) - potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in the season when actual tree water use deficit (P - ET) was negative (DJF and MAM), the deficit was compensated with soil water from the previous season at a depth of 0-2 m at the Thailand site, and from a depth of 0-3 m at CRRI. Two ecophysiological parameters, the reference value of gs (gsref) and the sensitivity of gs to atmospheric demand (m), as well as their proportionality (m/gsref), were derived from the logarithmic response curve of gs to vapor pressure deficit (D) for each season and each site. In both sites, gsref and m appeared to be less in DJF and MAM than each in the other three month periods (seasons). On average in a whole year, m/gsref was less than 0.6 at SS and almost 0.6 at the CRRI site, suggesting that there was less sufficient stomatal regulation at SS, where there might be little risk of water stress-induced hydraulic failure because of much

  20. Use of the 27-Kilodalton Recombinant Protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Serodiagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, B. L.; Díez, S.; Urán, M. E.; Rivas, J. M.; Romero, M.; Caicedo, V.; Restrepo, A.; McEwen, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most important endemic mycoses in Latin America; it is usually diagnosed by observation and/or isolation of the etiologic agent, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, as well as by a variety of immunological methods. Although the latter are effective, two circumstances, cross-reactions with other mycotic agents and antigen preparation that is marked by extreme variability among lots, hinder proper standardization of the procedures. To circumvent this lack of reproducibility, molecular biology tools were used to produce a recombinant 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen from this fungus; a sizable quantity of this antigen was obtained through fermentation of Escherichia coli DH5α, which is capable of expressing the fungal protein. The latter was purified by the Prep-Cell System (Bio-Rad); the recovery rate of the pure protein was approximately 6%. A battery of 160 human serum samples, consisting of 64 specimens taken at the time of diagnosis from patients with PCM representing the various clinical forms plus 15 serum specimens each from patients with histoplasmosis and aspergillosis, 10 each from patients with cryptococcosis and tuberculosis, 6 from patients with coccidioidomycosis, and 40 from healthy subjects, were all tested by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the purified 27-kDa recombinant protein. The latter was used at a concentration of 1.0 μg/well; there were three serum dilutions (1:1,000, 1:2,000, and 1:4,000). The experiment was repeated at least twice. The average sensitivity for both experiments was 73.4%; in comparison with the healthy subjects, the specificity for PCM patients was 87.5% while for patients with other mycoses, it was 58.7%. Important cross-reactions with sera from patients with aspergillosis and histoplasmosis were detected. The positive predictive value of the test was 90.4%. These results indicate that it is possible to employ recombinant antigenic proteins for the immunologic

  1. Genetic structuring among silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) populations from different Brazilian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Kersanach, Ralf; Proietti, Maíra; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando; Lacerda, Ana Luzia F.; Prata, Pedro Sanmartin; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Boni, Talge Aiex; Prioli, Alberto José; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-09-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments, key for the survival of innumerous ecologically or economically important fish species. Among these species are Neotropical silversides (Atherinella brasiliensis), which are resident and abundant in Brazilian estuaries and used as a complementary source of income and food for local communities. To better understand silverside populations in Brazil, we evaluated the genetic diversity, structure and demography of fish sampled at six estuaries from the northeastern to the southern coast, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) markers. High haplotype diversities (h ranging from 0.75 to 0.99) were found in all populations except Carapebus, located in Southeast Brazil (h = 0.54). A total of 69 mtDNA haplotypes were found, with Itaparica (Northeast Brazil) and Carapebus presenting only exclusive haplotypes, while some were shared among populations in the South. Strong regional structure was observed, with very high differentiation between Itaparica and Carapebus, as well as among these two populations and the ones from the Southern region (Paranaguá, Conceição, Camacho and Patos). Among southern areas, low/moderate structure was detected. Most populations showed unimodal mismatch distributions indicating recent demographic expansion, while Carapebus presented a multimodal distribution characteristic of a stable or bottlenecked population. Times since possible population expansion were highest in Itaparica (32,500 ya) and Carapebus (29,540 ya), while in the Southern region longest time was observed at Conceição (25,540 ya) and shortest at Patos (9720 ya). In a general manner, haplotype diversities were directly related to times since population expansions; again, Carapebus was the exception, displaying long time since expansion but low diversity, possibly due to a recent bottleneck caused by the isolation and human impacts this lagoon is subject to. Isolation by Distance was significant for Itaparica

  2. RNA sequencing read depth requirement for optimal transcriptome coverage in Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the concerns of assembling de novo transcriptomes is determining the amount of read sequences required to ensure a comprehensive coverage of genes expressed in a particular sample. In this report, we describe the use of Illumina paired-end RNA-Seq (PE RNA-Seq) reads from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) bark to devise a transcript mapping approach for the estimation of the read amount needed for deep transcriptome coverage. Findings We optimized the assembly of a Hevea bark transcriptome based on 16 Gb Illumina PE RNA-Seq reads using the Oases assembler across a range of k-mer sizes. We then assessed assembly quality based on transcript N50 length and transcript mapping statistics in relation to (a) known Hevea cDNAs with complete open reading frames, (b) a set of core eukaryotic genes and (c) Hevea genome scaffolds. This was followed by a systematic transcript mapping process where sub-assemblies from a series of incremental amounts of bark transcripts were aligned to transcripts from the entire bark transcriptome assembly. The exercise served to relate read amounts to the degree of transcript mapping level, the latter being an indicator of the coverage of gene transcripts expressed in the sample. As read amounts or datasize increased toward 16 Gb, the number of transcripts mapped to the entire bark assembly approached saturation. A colour matrix was subsequently generated to illustrate sequencing depth requirement in relation to the degree of coverage of total sample transcripts. Conclusions We devised a procedure, the “transcript mapping saturation test”, to estimate the amount of RNA-Seq reads needed for deep coverage of transcriptomes. For Hevea de novo assembly, we propose generating between 5–8 Gb reads, whereby around 90% transcript coverage could be achieved with optimized k-mers and transcript N50 length. The principle behind this methodology may also be applied to other non-model plants, or with reads from other second generation

  3. The cochlea of Tadarida brasiliensis: specialized functional organization in a generalized bat.

    PubMed

    Vater, M; Siefer, W

    1995-11-01

    Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana employs a broad-band sonar system at frequencies between 80 and 20 kHz and is characterized by non-specialized hearing capabilities. The cochlear frequency map was determined with extracellular horseradish peroxidase tracing in relation to quantitative morphological data obtained with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These data reveal distinct species characteristic specializations clearly separate from the patterns observed in other bats with either broad-band or narrow-band sonar systems. The basilar membrane (BM) is coiled to 2.5 turns and about 12 mm long. Its thickness and width only change within the extreme basal and apical ends. The frequency range from about 30 to 80 kHz is represented in the lower basal turn with a typically mammalian mapping coefficient of about 3 mm/octave. This region exhibits morphological features correlated with non-specialized processing of high frequencies. (1) The BM is radially segmented by thickenings of pars tecta and pars pectinata. (2) The 3 rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) have similar morphology. Between 35 and 86% distance from base, frequencies between 30 and 12 kHz are represented with a slightly expanded mapping coefficient of about 6 mm/octave. In analogy to previous work, this cochlea region is termed acoustic fovea. It includes the frequency range of maximum sensitivity and sharpest tuning (21-27 kHz) but also frequencies below the sonar signals. The fovea is characterized by several morphological specializations. (1) The BM features a continuous radial thickening mainly composed of hyaline substance. (2) There is an increased number of layers of tension fibroblasts in the spiral ligament. (3) There are morphological differences in the arrangements of stereocilia bundles among the 3 rows of OHCs. The transitions between non-specialized and specialized cochlear regions occur gradually within a distance of about 600 microns. The gradients in stereocilia length of both

  4. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis presents two different cDNAs encoding homologues of the fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase: protein isolation, cloning of the cDNAs and genes, structural, phylogenetic, and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Lílian Carla; de Faria, Fabrícia P; Felipe, M Sueli S; Pereira, Maristela; de Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2005-01-01

    A proteomic approach was used to identify a 39 kDa antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Amino acid sequences of the N-terminal and of endoproteinase Lys-C digested peptides revealed the protein to be a fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase (FBA) Class II of P. brasiliensis. Two cDNA homologues, Pbfba1 and Pbfba2, were cloned and characterized. Pbfba1 encoded a predicted polypeptide of 360 amino acids that was highly homologous in the primary structure to the same enzyme from fungi and bacteria. The other DNA, Pbfba2, encoded a polypeptide predicted to be 363 amino acids. The sequence of Pbfba2 differed significantly from Pbfba1. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis supports the concept of gene duplication for FBAs in P. brasiliensis, constituting a two-member family. Expression analysis demonstrated differential expression for both fbas genes in P. brasiliensis cells. PMID:15588996

  5. Δ24-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  6. Δ(24)-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana P; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M; de Camargo, Zoilo P; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ(24)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker(®) Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  7. Río Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodríguez, N.; Dávila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-03-01

    Reconstruction of the probable habitats hosting the detected microbial communities through the integration of the geobiological data obtained from the MARTE drilling campaigns, TEM sounding and field surface geological survey

  8. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  9. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Macías, Paulina; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Borja-de-la-Rosa, Amparo; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2016-01-01

    Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one) is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez) heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (¹H, (13)C), 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC), ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx) of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample) were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively. PMID:26861267

  10. Triterpene esters and biological activities from edible fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Caio P; Corrêa, Arthur L; Lobo, Jonathas F R; Caramel, Otávio P; de Almeida, Fernanda B; Castro, Elaine S; Souza, Kauê F C S; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M F; Santos, Marcelo G; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Falcão, Deborah Q; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as "guracica." Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  11. Genetic variability in the sable (Martes zibellina L.) with respect to genes encoding blood proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashtanov, S.N.; Kazakova, T.I.

    1995-02-01

    Electrophoresis of blood proteins was used to determine, for the first time, the level of genetic variability of certain loci in the sable (Martes zibellina L., Mustelidae). Variation of 23 blood proteins encoded by 25 genes was analyzed. Polymorphism was revealed in six genes. The level of heterozygosity was estimated at 0.069; the proportion of polymorphic loci was 24%. Data on the history of the sable population maintained at the farm, on geographical distribution of natural sable populations, and on the number of animals selected for reproduction in captivity is presented. The great number of animals studies and the extensive range of natural sable populations, on the basis of which the population maintained in captivity was obtained, suggest that the results of this work can be used for estimating the variability of the gene pool of sable as a species. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  13. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  14. Vascular contrast enhanced micro-CT imaging of "radiators" in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Kunz, Thomas H; Keller, Charles; Prajapati, Suresh I

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) exhibits a highly vascularized, hairless thermal window (or "radiator") on the proximal ventral surfaces of extended wings and body. We identified this character using thermal infrared imaging and investigated the vasculature using barium sulfate enhanced microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Micro-CT images revealed unique arrangements of arteries and veins in the region of the radiator positioned perpendicular to the axis of the body. Coupling micro-CT imaging with analysis of surface temperature profiles, we concluded that radiators aid in thermoregulation during flight in variable environments. This study represents the first application of contrast enhanced micro-CT to visualize vasculature of bats and thus exhibits a promising technique for further investigations of cardiovascular function and anatomy in bats. PMID:22282439

  15. [Embrionary-larval development of the tropical fish Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae) from eggs collected in the wild].

    PubMed

    Rosas, Jesús; Mata, Ernesto; Velásquez, Aidé; Cabrera, Tomas

    2008-09-01

    The embryo formation and larval development of Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Hemirhamphidae) is described from morula stage eggs collected on Sargassum sp. Thalii in the field (10 degrees 50'55.2" N y 64 degrees 09'467" W). The eggs were spherical, 1 923.54 +/- 72.35 microm diameter with several corionic filaments, and are striated. During the first 48 h the embryo developed cephalic vesicle, miomers, and a heart located on the external body surface, beating strongly and circulating colorless blood which became pigmented red later. Before hatching, the larva developed kidney, gut tract, liver and biliar vesicle, pectoral fins, four pairs of gill arches and the mouth. The larva hatched at 114 h, the body was torpedo-shaped, yellow-green, with several dendriform melanophores; the pelvic fin was observed 72 h post hatching. At 240 hours the metamorphoses was completed. When the larvae hatched they could ingest Artemia metanauplii. PMID:19419056

  16. Identification of oversulphated galactosaminoglycans in intestinal-mucosal mast cells of rats infected with the nematode worm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, M; Lindahl, U; Enerbäck, L; Rodén, L

    1988-01-01

    The oversulphated galactosaminoglycans synthesized by rat mucosal mast cells were isolated from the small intestine of animals infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which causes proliferation of these cells. The 35S-labelled polysaccharides were degraded by digestion with chondroitinase ABC, and the structures of the disaccharide products were determined by cleavage with mercuric acetate followed by electrophoretic characterization of the resultant sulphated monosaccharides. It was concluded that about half of the disulphated disaccharide units in the polysaccharide consisted of chondroitin sulphate E-type structures [GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-di-OSO3)], in which both sulphate groups were located on the N-acetylgalactosamine unit. The remainder consisted of isomeric structures with one sulphate group on the N-acetylgalactosamine residue and one on the hexuronic acid unit and presumably represented the dermatan sulphate-type sequence [IdoA(2-OSO3)-GalNAc(4-OSO3)]. PMID:3178741

  17. Biochemical Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis α-1,3-Glucanase Agn1p, and Its Functionality by Heterologous Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Duno, Héctor; San-Blas, Gioconda; Paulinkevicius, Maryan; Sánchez-Martín, Yolanda; Nino-Vega, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    α-1,3-Glucan is present as the outermost layer of the cell wall in the pathogenic yeastlike (Y) form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on experimental evidence, this polysaccharide has been proposed as a fungal virulence factor. To degrade α-1,3-glucan and allow remodeling of the cell wall, α-1,3-glucanase is required. Therefore, the study of this enzyme, its encoding gene, and regulatory mechanisms, might be of interest to understand the morphogenesis and virulence process in this fungus. A single gene, orthologous to other fungal α-1,3-glucanase genes, was identified in the Paracoccidioides genome, and labeled AGN1. Transcriptional levels of AGN1 and AGS1 (α-1,3-glucan synthase-encoding gene) increased sharply when the pathogenic Y phase was cultured in the presence of 5% horse serum, a reported booster for cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthesis in this fungus. To study the biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Agn1p, the enzyme was heterologously overexpressed, purified, and its activity profile determined by means of the degradation of carboxymethyl α-1,3-glucan (SCMG, chemically modified from P. brasiliensis α-1,3-glucan), used as a soluble substrate for the enzymatic reaction. Inhibition assays, thin layer chromatography and enzymatic reactions with alternative substrates (dextran, starch, chitin, laminarin and cellulose), showed that Agn1p displays an endolytic cut pattern and high specificity for SCMG. Complementation of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe agn1Δ strain with the P. brasiliensis AGN1 gene restored the wild type phenotype, indicating functionality of the gene, suggesting a possible role of Agn1p in the remodeling of P. brasiliensis Y phase cell wall. Based on amino acid sequence, P. brasiliensis Agn1p, groups within the family 71 of fungal glycoside hydrolases (GH-71), showing similar biochemical characteristics to other members of this family. Also based on amino acid sequence alignments, we propose a subdivision of fungal GH-71 into at

  18. The transcriptome analysis of early morphogenesis in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelium reveals novel and induced genes potentially associated to the dimorphic process

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Karinne P; Bailão, Alexandre M; Borges, Clayton L; Faria, Fabricia P; Felipe, Maria SS; Silva, Mirelle G; Martins, Wellington S; Fiúza, Rogério B; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia MA

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogen with a broad distribution in Latin America. The fungus is thermally dimorphic with two distinct forms corresponding to completely different lifestyles. Upon elevation of the temperature to that of the mammalian body, the fungus adopts a yeast-like form that is exclusively associated with its pathogenic lifestyle. We describe expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis to assess the expression profile of the mycelium to yeast transition. To identify P. brasiliensis differentially expressed sequences during conversion we performed a large-scale comparative analysis between P. brasiliensis ESTs identified in the transition transcriptome and databases. Results Our analysis was based on 1107 ESTs from a transition cDNA library of P. brasiliensis. A total of 639 consensus sequences were assembled. Genes of primary metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and fate, cellular transport, biogenesis of cellular components were represented in the transition cDNA library. A considerable number of genes (7.51%) had not been previously reported for P. brasiliensis in public databases. Gene expression analysis using in silico EST subtraction revealed that numerous genes were more expressed during the transition phase when compared to the mycelial ESTs [1]. Classes of differentially expressed sequences were selected for further analysis including: genes related to the synthesis/remodeling of the cell wall/membrane. Thirty four genes from this family were induced. Ten genes related to signal transduction were increased. Twelve genes encoding putative virulence factors manifested increased expression. The in silico approach was validated by northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion The developmental program of P. brasiliensis is characterized by significant differential positive modulation of the cell wall/membrane related transcripts, and signal transduction proteins, suggesting the related processes important

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  20. Purification, characterization, and antioxidant activities of selenium-containing proteins and polysaccharides in royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Ren, Yuena; Zhu, Yang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    The Agaricus brasiliensis proves to be the main source of many minerals, especially selenium (Se). In this study, Se-containing polysaccharides and proteins were isolated, purified, and characterized. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of Se-containing proteins and polysaccharides were also studied. Selenium in A. brasiliensis is present mostly in organic forms, accounting for 81.57% of the total Se. The organic forms of selenium mainly present in Se proteins account for 73.53%, while 12.23% is in Se polysaccharides. Two Se-containing proteins (AB-SePA-22) and (AB-SePG-22) with Se contents of 4.935 µg/g and 6.083 µg/g were obtained. AB-SePA-22 appeared as four bands with molecular masses of 16.7, 21.7, 26.3, and 33.6 kDa, respectively. The Se content of the three Se-containing polysaccharides, namely AB-SeP-1, AB-SeP-2, and AB-SeP-3, were 1.911, 0.613, and 0.671 µg/g, respectively. AB-SeP-1 (3.1×103 Da) was composed of glucose and galactose in a 7.494:1 molar ratio, whereas AB-SeP-2 (2.1×104 Da and 3.5×104 Da) and AB-SeP-3 (1.1×105 Da) were composed of glucose, galactose, and mannose with molar ratios of 27.01:1.55:1 and 9.805:1:1.22, respectively. Moreover, crude Se polysaccharide and total soluble Se protein had good antioxidant activities on scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical, and further research is needed. PMID:25271981

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  2. Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.

    PubMed

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

    2014-10-01

    Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. PMID:24891014

  3. High expression of immunotherapy candidate proteins gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1 in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, T. J.; Trancikova, D.; Ruiter, D. J.; van Muijen, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    In the treatment of cutaneous melanoma, provisional therapeutic strategies have been designed to combat tumour load using T cells that are sensitized with peptides derived from melanoma autoantigens, such as glycoprotein 100 (gp100), melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1 or MelanA), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1). We recently found that gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase are heterogeneously expressed in human cutaneous melanoma (De Vries et al (1997) Cancer Res 57: 3223-3229). Here, we extended our investigations on expression of these immunotherapy candidate proteins to uveal melanoma lesions. Cryostat sections from 11 spindle-type, 21 mixed and epithelioid tumours and four metastasis lesions were stained with antibodies specifically recognizing gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1. In addition, we used the DOPA reaction to detect tyrosinase enzyme activity as a confirmation of the tyrosinase immunohistochemical results. High expression of gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase was found in the uveal melanoma lesions: 80% of the lesions displayed 75-100% positive tumour cells. TRP-1 positivity was slightly less: approximately 65% of the lesions stained in the 75-100% positive tumour cell category. All uveal melanoma lesions were positive for the four markers studied, this being in contrast to cutaneous melanoma where 17% of the advanced primary lesions and metastases were negative. The presence of these antigens was a little lower in metastases. We conclude that uveal melanomas and their metastases express melanocyte-lineage immunotherapy candidate proteins very abundantly. Uveal melanomas differ in this respect from cutaneous melanoma, in which the expression of these immunotherapy antigens was much more heterogeneous. This makes uveal melanoma a suitable candidate tumour for immunotherapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9820172

  4. Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  5. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples. PMID:19105753

  6. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

  7. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Differentiation of the Dimorphic Fungal Species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii

    PubMed Central

    Del Negro, Gilda M. B.; Grenfell, Rafaella C.; Vidal, Monica S. M.; Thomaz, Danilo Y.; de Figueiredo, Dulce S. Y.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Juliano, Luiz; Benard, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, previously characterized by molecular techniques, were identified for the first time by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All isolates were correctly identified, with log score values of >2.0. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a new tool for differentiating species of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:25631803

  8. Brasiliquinones A, B and C, new benz[alpha]anthraquinone antibiotics from Nocardia brasiliensis. I. Producing strain, isolation and biological activities of the antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, A; Tanaka, Y; Karasaki, Y; Komaki, H; Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Tojo, T; Kadowaki, K; Tsuda, M; Kobayashi, J

    1997-01-01

    New benz[alpha]anthraquinone antibiotics (brasiliquinones A, B and C) with an ethyl group at C-3 were isolated. The producer was identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The antibiotics were active against Gram-positive bacteria including Mycobacterium sp., but not active against Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. They were also active against multiple drug-resistant P388/ADR tumor cells. PMID:9066761

  9. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  10. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  11. Therapeutic Administration of KM+ Lectin Protects Mice Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection via Interleukin-12 Production in a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Coltri, Kely C.; Oliveira, Leandro L.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Vendruscolo, Patrícia E.; Martinez, Roberto; Goldman, Maria Helena; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2008-01-01

    KM+ is a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces interleukin (IL)-12 production by macrophages and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major infection. In this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic activity of jackfruit KM+ (jfKM+) and its recombinant counterpart (rKM+) in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. To this end, jfKM+ or rKM+ was administered to BALB/c mice 10 days after infection with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Thirty days postinfection, lungs from the KM+-treated mice contained significantly fewer colony-forming units and little to no organized granulomas compared to the controls. In addition, lung homogenates from the KM+-treated mice presented higher levels of nitric oxide, IL-12, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were detected in the control group. With mice deficient in IL-12, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR adaptor molecule MyD88, we demonstrated that KM+ led to protection against P. brasiliensis infection through IL-12 production, which was dependent on TLR2. These results demonstrated a beneficial effect of KM+ on the severity of P. brasiliensis infection and may expand its potential use as a novel immunotherapeutic molecule. PMID:18599609

  12. Protection against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in mice treated with modulated dendritic cells relies on inhibition of interleukin-10 production by CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Thiago Alves; Di Gangi, Rosária; Martins, Paula; Longhini, Ana Leda Figueiredo; Zanucoli, Fábio; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues; Stach-Machado, Dagmar Ruth; Burger, Eva; Verinaud, Liana; Thomé, Rodolfo

    2015-11-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection prevalent in Latin American countries. Disease develops after inhalation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia followed by an improper immune activation by the host leucocytes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to direct the adaptive immune response by the time of activation of naive T cells. This study was conducted to test whether extracts of P. brasiliensis would induce maturation of DCs. We found that DCs treated with extracts acquired an inflammatory phenotype and upon adoptive transfer conferred protection to infection. Interestingly, interleukin-10 production by CD8(+) T cells was ablated following DC transfer. Further analyses showed that lymphocytes from infected mice were high producers of interleukin-10, with CD8(+) T cells being the main source. Blockage of cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by modulated DCs abolished the protective effect of adoptive transfer. Collectively, our data show that adoptive transfer of P. brasiliensis-modulated DCs is an interesting approach for the control of infection in paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:26302057

  13. The proteasome immunosubunits, PA28 and ER-aminopeptidase 1 protect melanoma cells from efficient MART-126-35 -specific T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Ebstein, Frédéric; Bürger, Elke; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Gorny, Xenia; Urban, Sabrina; Zhao, Fang; Dannenberg, Tanja; Sucker, Antje; Keller, Christin; Saveanu, Loredana; Krüger, Elke; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Henklein, Petra; Voigt, Antje; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Paschen, Annette; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Seifert, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    The immunodominant MART-1(26(27)-35) epitope, liberated from the differentiation antigen melanoma antigen recognized by T cells/melanoma antigen A (MART-1/Melan-A), has been frequently targeted in melanoma immunotherapy, but with limited clinical success. Previous studies suggested that this is in part due to an insufficient peptide supply and epitope presentation, since proteasomes containing the immunosubunits β5i/LMP7 (LMP, low molecular weight protein) or β1i/LMP2 and β5i/LMP7 interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that in addition the IFN-γ-inducible proteasome subunit β2i/MECL-1 (multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1), proteasome activator 28 (PA28), and ER-resident aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) impair MART-1(26-35) epitope generation. β2i/MECL-1 and PA28 negatively affect C- and N-terminal cleavage and therefore epitope liberation from the proteasome, whereas ERAP1 destroys the MART-1(26-35) epitope by overtrimming activity. Constitutive expression of PA28 and ERAP1 in melanoma cells indicate that both interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation even in the absence of IFN-γ. In summary, our results provide first evidence that activities of different antigen-processing components contribute to an inefficient MART-1(26-35) epitope presentation, suggesting the tumor cell's proteolytic machinery might have an important impact on the outcome of epitope-specific immunotherapies. PMID:26399368

  14. Reviewers required major changes, including rearranging the two articles, so the new title of the first paper is: HVAC and Refrigeration Experiments at Wal-Mart Experimental Supercenters in Texas and Colorado --- original title: ASHRAE Journal DRAFT article McKinney and Aurora Wal-Mart Stores, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J Michael; Deru, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: * Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements; * Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies; * Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly; * Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and * Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  15. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hong; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jin-wen; Murad, Ferid; Bian, Ka; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In further study, we showed that TIE reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key molecules responsible for the production of NO and PGE2 during inflammation progress. Additionally, TIE also suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. TIE-led suppression in iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines production were probably the consequence of TIE's capability to block ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, TIE blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as NF-κB regulation of miR155 expression. Our study suggests that TIE may represent as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26538826

  17. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  18. Diagnostic filtering to screen polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Dan; Li, Hao-Hao; Wang, Hui; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-03-17

    A novel multistage MS approach, insource collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with Time Aligned Parallel (TAP) fragmentation, was established to study the fragmentation behavior of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), which could provide a more reliable fragmentation relationship between precursor and daughter ions. The diagnostic ions for different subtypes of PPAPs and their fragmentation behaviors have been summarized. Moreover, a new and reliable multidimensional analytical workflow that combines ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)), and tandem MS with ion mobility (IM) has been optimized and established for the analysis of PPAPs in the plant Garcinia oblongifolia by diagnostic filtering. Diagnostic fragment ions were used to selectively screen PPAPs from extracts, whereas IM coupled to MS was used to maximize the peak capacity. Under the optimized UHPLC-IM-MS(E) and UHPLC-IM-MS/MS method, 140 PPAPs were detected from the crude extract of G. oblongifolia, and 10 of them were unambiguously identified by comparing them to the reference compounds. Among those PPAPs, 7 pairs of coeluting isobaric PPAPs that were indistinguishable by conventional UHPLC-HRMS alone, were further resolved using UHPLC-IM-MS. It is anticipated that the proposed method will be extended to the rapid screening and characterization of the other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially these coeluting isomers in complex samples. PMID:26920776

  19. Screening of mammalian DNA polymerase and topoisomerase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana L. and analysis of human cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takefumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Kozaki, Sachiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We purified and identified eight xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and investigated whether these compounds inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (Pols) and human DNA topoisomerases (Topos). β-Mangostin was the strongest inhibitor of both mammalian Pols and human Topos among the isolated xanthones, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.4-39.6 and 8.5-10 µM, respectively. Thermal transition analysis indicated that β-mangostin did not directly bind to double-stranded DNA, suggesting that this compound directly bound the enzyme protein rather than the DNA substrate. β-Mangostin showed the strongest suppression of human cervical cancer HeLa cell proliferation among the eight compounds tested, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 27.2 µM. This compound halted cell cycle in S phase at 12-h treatment and induced apoptosis. These results suggest that decreased proliferation by β-mangostin may be a result of the inhibition of cellular Pols rather than Topos, and β-mangostin might be an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26781450

  20. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, γ-mangostin (γ-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. γ-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by γ-Man. Moreover, γ-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest γ-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food. PMID:26189454

  1. Griffipavixanthone from Garcinia oblongifolia champ induces cell apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer H520 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Min; Huang, Hui-Juan; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Li, Xu-E

    2014-01-01

    Griffipavixanthone (GPX) is a dimeric xanthone which was isolated in a systematic investigation of Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. In this study, we investigate the effect of GPX on cell proliferation and apoptosis on human Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and determine the mechanisms of its action. GPX inhibited the growth of H520 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, with IC50 values of 3.03 ± 0.21 μM at 48 h. The morphologic characteristics of apoptosis and apoptotic bodies were observed by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, Annexin V/PI double staining assay revealed that cells in early stage of apoptosis were significantly increased upon GPX treatment dose-dependently. Rh123 staining assay indicated that GPX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. DCFH-DA staining revealed that intracellular ROS increased with GPX treatment. Moreover, GPX cleaved and activated caspase-3. In summary, this study showed that GPX inhibited H520 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Further mechanistic study indicated that GPX induced cell apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway accompanying with ROS production. Our results demonstrate the potential application of GPX as an anti-non-small cell lung cancer agent. PMID:24473206

  2. Fingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Tshibangu, P Tshisekedi; Kapepula, P Mutwale; Kapinga, M J Kabongo; Lupona, H Kabika; Ngombe, N Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Jansen, O; Wauters, J N; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Marini, R D; Frédérich, M

    2016-09-01

    African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC-MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14-0.45mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04-2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kola-based raw material and finished products, respectively. PMID:27343901

  3. Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of α-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-10-10

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified α-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that α-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with α-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated α-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. α-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, α-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced α-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. α-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that α-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen. PMID:25261723

  4. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla de M; do Nascimento, Evandro A; de Morais, Sérgio A L; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C S; Martins, Mário M; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Moraes, Thaís da S; Rodrigues, Paulla V; da Silva, Cláudio V; de Aquino, Francisco J T

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL(-1)). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL(-1) for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  5. Garcinielliptone FC, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from Platonia insignis Mart., promotes vasorelaxant effect on rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; da Costa-Júnior, Joaquim Soares; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; Ferraz, Alexandre Barros Falcão; Rossatto, Raíssa Rebés; David, Jorge Maurício; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Polyisoprenylated benzophenones represent a group of chemical compounds commonly identified in Clusiaceae species and are responsible for a large amount of biological activities. In this work, the vasorelaxant effect induced by garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae), a monotype species from Platonia genus, was investigated. GFC promoted an endothelium-independent vasorelaxation on phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-5) mol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, but not on KCl (80 mmol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, on rat superior mesenteric artery rings. In addition, a concentration-dependent decrease of PHE- or serotonin-induced cumulative concentration-response curves was observed for GFC, and a slight decrease of pD₂ value on CaCl₂-induced vasoconstriction. In a Ca(2+)-free medium, GFC interfered in calcium mobilisation from PHE (10(-5) mol L(-1))-sensitive intracellular stores. GFC-induced vasorelaxant effect is probably mediated by a dual effect on mobilisation of calcium intracellular stores and attenuation of transmembrane calcium influx. PMID:24579922

  6. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  7. Ontogenesis secretion and senescence of Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiacaeae) colleters.

    PubMed

    Miguel, E C; Da Cunha, M; Miguel, T B A R; Barros, C F

    2016-09-01

    Colleters are secretory structure present on many families including Rubiaceae. Particular characteristics have been described about colleters secretory cells, however senescence process are still under debate. Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiaceae) shoot apex were collected at Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ/Brazil. Stipules were separated and fragments were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 4.0% formaldehyde in 0.05 m sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.2, post fixed in 1.0% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dehydrated in acetone, critical-point-drying, sputtered coated and observed. For light microscopy fragments were fixed and dehydrated, infiltrated with historesin and stained with 1% toluidine blue. For transmission electron microscopy, the samples were infiltrated with Epoxi resin. Colleters are present on stipule adaxial surface. On the beginning of development, these structures are recognized as small projections. Later on, colleters differentiated and secrete by cuticle rupture. The colleters senescence occurs in a concomitant and indissoluble way of programmed cell death. Ultrastructural analyses during the process strongly suggest the senescence is based on a non-autolitic programmed cell death. T. bullata colleters, present at stipule abaxial surface are cylindrical secretory structures. Colleters secretory cells originated as stipule projections; differentiate; secrete and senesce by programmed cell death. The secretion and the cell dead occurs in a concomitantly and indissoluble way. PMID:27208391

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  9. Eduardo Martínez Alonso (1903-72): gallant surgeon who undertook special operations.

    PubMed

    Coni, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Eduardo Martínez Alonso was of Spanish and Uruguyan extraction and was born in Vigo in Galicia in 1903. Due to his father's occupation, he was educated in the UK and qualified from the University of Liverpool. He returned to Madrid to practise and during the Civil War he found himself in the Republican zone where his connections with the Royal Family brought him under suspicion. Threatened with execution, he escaped to serve as a surgeon in the Nationalist Army. Being bilingual, he was medical adviser to the British Embassy during World War II; because of his allegiance to this country and acting from humanitarian motives, he became a ringleader in a plot to smuggle fugitives from Nazi-occupied Europe across a pro-Axis Spain to safety. When the Gestapo was closing in on him, he was smuggled to the UK via Portugal. He underwent training as a potential undercover agent should Franco take Spain into the war but, when hostilities ceased, he returned to Madrid and became a leading thoracic surgeon. PMID:20207896

  10. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. New MHD feedback control schemes using the MARTe framework in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Chiara; Manduchi, Gabriele; Marrelli, Lionello; Piovesan, Paolo; Zanca, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Real-time feedback control of MHD instabilities is a topic of major interest in magnetic thermonuclear fusion, since it allows to optimize a device performance even beyond its stability bounds. The stability properties of different magnetic configurations are important test benches for real-time control systems. RFX-mod, a Reversed Field Pinch experiment that can also operate as a tokamak, is a well suited device to investigate this topic. It is equipped with a sophisticated magnetic feedback system that controls MHD instabilities and error fields by means of 192 active coils and a corresponding grid of sensors. In addition, the RFX-mod control system has recently gained new potentialities thanks to the introduction of the MARTe framework and of a new CPU architecture. These capabilities allow to study new feedback algorithms relevant to both RFP and tokamak operation and to contribute to the debate on the optimal feedback strategy. This work focuses on the design of new feedback schemes. For this purpose new magnetic sensors have been explored, together with new algorithms that refine the de-aliasing computation of the radial sideband harmonics. The comparison of different sensor and feedback strategy performance is described in both RFP and tokamak experiments.

  12. BioMart Central Portal: an open database network for the biological community.

    PubMed

    Guberman, Jonathan M; Ai, J; Arnaiz, O; Baran, Joachim; Blake, Andrew; Baldock, Richard; Chelala, Claude; Croft, David; Cros, Anthony; Cutts, Rosalind J; Di Génova, A; Forbes, Simon; Fujisawa, T; Gadaleta, E; Goodstein, D M; Gundem, Gunes; Haggarty, Bernard; Haider, Syed; Hall, Matthew; Harris, Todd; Haw, Robin; Hu, S; Hubbard, Simon; Hsu, Jack; Iyer, Vivek; Jones, Philip; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kinsella, R; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Liang, Yong; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, J; Lush, Michael; Mason, Jeremy; Moreews, Francois; Ndegwa, Nelson; Oakley, Darren; Perez-Llamas, Christian; Primig, Michael; Rivkin, Elena; Rosanoff, S; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Skarnes, B; Smedley, Damian; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Stevenson, Peter; Stone, Kevin; Teague, J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jianxin; Whitty, Brett; Wong, D T; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Yao, L; Youens-Clark, Ken; Yung, Christina; Zhang, Junjun; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart Central Portal is a first of its kind, community-driven effort to provide unified access to dozens of biological databases spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. Anybody can contribute an independently maintained resource to the Central Portal, allowing it to be exposed to and shared with the research community, and linking it with the other resources in the portal. Users can take advantage of the common interface to quickly utilize different sources without learning a new system for each. The system also simplifies cross-database searches that might otherwise require several complicated steps. Several integrated tools streamline common tasks, such as converting between ID formats and retrieving sequences. The combination of a wide variety of databases, an easy-to-use interface, robust programmatic access and the array of tools make Central Portal a one-stop shop for biological data querying. Here, we describe the structure of Central Portal and show example queries to demonstrate its capabilities. PMID:21930507

  13. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  14. Canine distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Gabriel, Mourad; Terio, Karen A; Dubovi, Edward J; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Sweitzer, Rick; Barret, Reginald; Thompson, Craig; Purcell, Kathryn; Munson, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross lesions were restricted to hyperkeratosis of periocular skin and ulceration of footpads. All animals had necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were abundant in the epithelia of urinary bladder and epididymis but were infrequent in the renal pelvis and the female genital epithelia. No histopathologic or immunohistochemical evidence for virus spread to the central nervous system was found. One fisher had encephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona and another had severe head trauma as a consequence of predation. The H gene nucleotide sequence of the virus isolates from the first three fishers was identical and was 99.6% identical to the isolate from the fourth fisher. Phylogenetically, the isolates clustered with other North American isolates separate from classical European wildlife lineage strains. These data suggest that the European wildlife lineage might consist of two separate subgroups that are genetically distinct and endemic in different geographic regions. The source of infection as well as pertinent transmission routes remained unclear. This is the first report of CDV in fishers and underscores the significance of CDV as a pathogen of management concern. PMID:23060505

  15. Ozone profiles retrieved from SCIMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scatter measurements using MART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, will measure the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements will be used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. It employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest can be up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since these impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIMACHY product at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  16. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  17. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  18. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. PMID:22017124

  19. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    2016-01-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain. PMID:27269894

  20. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla de M.; do Nascimento, Evandro A.; de Morais, Sérgio A. L.; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C. S.; Martins, Mário M.; Martins, Carlos Henrique G.; Moraes, Thaís da S.; Rodrigues, Paulla V.; da Silva, Cláudio V.; de Aquino, Francisco J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759